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Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
(Serbian Cyrillic: Република Српскa, pronounced [repǔblika srpska] ( listen); literally " Serb
Serb
Republic") is one of two constitutional and legal entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.[7] The entities are largely autonomous.[8] Its de jure capital city is Sarajevo,[2] but the de facto capital and administrative centre is Banja Luka.[9] The territory of what is Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
was first inhabited by several Illyrian and Celtic civilizations during the Neolithic age. After centuries of Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian rule, it became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1918 following World War I, which was renamed to Yugoslavia in 1929. Following World War II in Yugoslavia, it became part of the second Yugoslavia in 1945 as part of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The creation of the modern Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
in 1991 was declared from six Serb Autonomous Regions during the Yugoslav Wars
Yugoslav Wars
and became part of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1995. Since the end of the war, Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
maintains its unicameral parliamentary system and maintains a free economy similar to the rest of the country.

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Impact of war

3 Geography

3.1 Boundary 3.2 Municipalities 3.3 Mountains 3.4 Hydrology 3.5 Protected areas

4 Demography

4.1 Ethnic composition

5 Economy

5.1 Foreign investment 5.2 External trade 5.3 Taxation and salaries

6 Politics

6.1 External relations 6.2 Representative offices 6.3 Holidays

7 Culture

7.1 Education

8 Notes 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External links

Name[edit] In Serbo-Croatian, Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
means " Serb
Serb
Republic". The second word is a nominalized adjective derived by adding the suffix -ska to srb-, the root of the noun Srbin, meaning Serb. The -ps- sequence rather than -bs- is a result of voicing assimilation. Although the name Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
is sometimes glossed as Serb
Serb
Republic[10] or Bosnian Serb
Serb
Republic,[11] and the government of Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
uses the semi-Anglicized term Republic of Srpska in English translations
English translations
of official documents, the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina originally written in English, as well as western news sources such as the BBC,[12] The New York Times,[13] and The Guardian[14] generally refer to the entity as the Republika Srpska. In a July 2014 interview for Press, Dragoslav Bokan
Dragoslav Bokan
claimed that he, Goran Marić, and Sonja Karadžić (daughter of Radovan Karadžić) came up with the name Srpska as requested of them by Velibor Ostojić, then-Minister of Information of the entity.[15] History[edit] Main articles: Republika Srpska (1991–95) and History of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Serbian Autonomous Provinces from 1991-92, created in rebellion against the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Territories which were controlled by Army of Republika Srpska
Army of Republika Srpska
during the war compared with current borders.

In a session on 14–15 October 1991, the People's Assembly of Bosnia and Herzegovina, then part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, approved the "Memorandum on Sovereignty", as had already been done by Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia. The memorandum was adopted despite opposition from 83 Serb
Serb
deputies belonging to the Serb
Serb
Democratic Party (most of the Serb
Serb
parliamentary representatives) as well as the Serbian Renewal Movement
Serbian Renewal Movement
and the Union of Reform Forces, who regarded the move as illegal.[16][17] On 24 October 1991, the Serb
Serb
deputies formed the Assembly of the Serb People in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(Skupština srpskog naroda u Bosni i Hercegovini) to be the highest representative and legislative body of the Bosnian Serb
Serb
population,[18][19] ending the tripartite coalition. The Union of Reform Forces soon ceased to exist but its members remained in the assembly as the Independent Members of Parliament Caucus. The assembly undertook to address the achievement of equality between the Serbs and other peoples and the protection of the Serbs' interests, which they contended had been jeopardized by decisions of the Bosnian parliament.[18] On 9 January 1992, the assembly proclaimed the Republic of the Serb
Serb
People of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(Republika srpskog naroda Bosne i Hercegovine), declaring it part of Yugoslavia.[20] On 28 February 1992, the assembly adopted the Constitution of the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(the name adopted instead of the previous Republika srpskog naroda Bosne i Hercegovine), which would include districts, municipalities, and regions where Serbs were the majority and also those where they had allegedly become a minority because of persecution during World War II. The republic was part of Yugoslavia and could enter into union with political bodies representing other peoples of Bosnia and Herzegovina.[21] The Bosnian parliament, without its Serb
Serb
deputies, held a referendum on the independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
on 29 February and 1 March 1992, but most Serbs boycotted it since the assembly had previously (9–10 November 1991) held a plebiscite in the Serb regions, 96% having opted for membership of the Yugoslav federation formed by Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro.[22] The referendum had a 64% turnout and 92.7% or 99% (according to different sources) voted for independence.[23][24] On 6 March the Bosnian parliament promulgated the results of the referendum, proclaiming the republic's independence from Yugoslavia. The republic's independence was recognized by the European Community
European Community
on 6 April 1992 and by the United States on 7 April. On the same day the Serbs' assembly in session in Banja Luka
Banja Luka
declared a severance of governmental ties with Bosnia and Herzegovina.[25] The name Republika Srpska was adopted on 12 August 1992.[26]

Radovan Karadžić
Radovan Karadžić
(left), former president of Republika Srpska, and Ratko Mladić
Ratko Mladić
(right), former Chief of Staff of the Army of the Republika Srpska, both charged with war crimes, including genocide, by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia
International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia
in The Hague.

The political controversy escalated into the Bosnian War, which would last until the autumn of 1995.[27] The war was ended by the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, reached at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, on 21 November and formally signed in Paris on 14 December 1995. Annex 4 of the Agreement is the current Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina, recognising Republika Srpska as one of its two main political-territorial divisions and defining the governmental functions and powers of the two entities. The boundary lines between the entities were delineated in Annex 2 of the Agreement.[28] Between 1992 and 2008, the Constitution of Republika Srpska
Constitution of Republika Srpska
was amended 121 times. Article 1 states that Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
is a territorially unified, indivisible and inalienable constitutional and legal entity that shall independently perform its constitutional, legislative, executive, and judicial functions.[29] Impact of war[edit] Main article: Bosnian War The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
resulted in major changes in the country, some of which were quantified in a 1998 UNESCO
UNESCO
report. Some two million people, about half the country's population, were displaced. In 1996 there were some 435,346 ethnic Serb
Serb
refugees from the Federation in Republika Srpska, while another 197,925 had gone to Serbia. In 1991, 27% of the non-agricultural labor force was unemployed in Bosnia and this number increased due to the war.[30] By 2009, the unemployment rate in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
was estimated at 29%, according to the CIA's The World Factbook.[31] Republika Srpska's population of Serbs had increased by 547,741 due to the influx of ethnic Serb
Serb
refugees from the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and the former unrecognised state of the Republic of Serbian Krajina
Republic of Serbian Krajina
in the new Republic of Croatia.[32] In Eastern Bosnia, Bosnian Serbs besieged the town of Srebrenica, among others. Srebrenica
Srebrenica
was declared a UN "Safe Area" in 1993 and it served as an enclave for Muslim refugees for the final years of the Bosnian War. In the middle of July 1995, more than 8,000 Muslim Bosniaks, mainly men and boys, in and around the town of Srebrenica, were killed in what became known as the Srebrenica
Srebrenica
massacre. The number of Croats was reduced by 135,386 (the majority of the pre-war population), and the number of Bosniaks
Bosniaks
by some 434,144. Some 136,000 of approximately 496,000 Bosniak refugees forced to flee the territory of what is now Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
have since returned home.[33] As of 2008[update], 40% of Bosniaks
Bosniaks
and 8.5% of Croats had returned to Republika Srpska, while 14% of Serbs who left their homes in territories controlled by Bosniaks
Bosniaks
or Croats, also returned to their pre-war communities.[34] In the early 2000s, discrimination against non-Serbs was alleged by NGOs and the Helsinki Commission. The International Crisis Group reported in 2002 that in some parts of Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
a non-Serb returnee is ten times more likely to be the victim of violent crime than is a local Serb.[35] The Helsinki Commission, in a 2001 statement on "Tolerance and Non-Discrimination", pointed at violence against non-Serbs, stating that in the cities of Banja Luka[36] and Trebinje,[37] mobs attacked people who sought to lay foundations for new mosques. Non-Serbs have reported continuing difficulties in returning to their original homes and the assembly has a poor record of cooperation in apprehending individuals indicted for war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide.[38] Organizations such as the Society for Threatened Peoples, reporting to the United Nations Human Rights Council
United Nations Human Rights Council
in 2008, have made claims of discrimination against non- Serb
Serb
refugees in the Republika Srpska, particularly areas with high unemployment in the Drina
Drina
Valley such as Srebrenica, Bratunac, Višegrad, and Foča.[39] According to the Ministry for Human Rights and Refugees of Bosnia and Herzegovina, European Union
European Union
Police Mission, UNHCR, and other international organizations, security in both Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
is at present satisfactory, although some minor threats, real or perceived, can still influence the decision of individuals as to whether they will return to their pre-war addresses or not.[34] Geography[edit]

Panoramic view of Banja Luka.

Mehmed Paša Sokolović Bridge, UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site, over the Drina

Trebišnjica, one of the longest sinking rivers in the world

Boundary[edit] The Inter-Entity Boundary Line
Inter-Entity Boundary Line
(IEBL) between Bosnia and Herzegovina's two entities essentially follows the front lines at the end of the Bosnian War
Bosnian War
with adjustments (most importantly in the western part of the country and around Sarajevo) defined by the Dayton Agreement. The total length of the IEBL is approximately 1,080 km. The IEBL is an administrative demarcation uncontrolled by military or police and there is free movement across it.[citation needed] Municipalities[edit] Main article: Municipalities of Republika Srpska Under the Law on Territorial Organization and Local Self-Government, adopted in 1994, Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
was divided into 80 municipalities. After the Dayton Peace Agreement the law was amended to reflect changes to borders: it now comprises 63 municipalities.[citation needed] The largest cities in Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
are (2013 census):[4]

Banja Luka, population 200,191 Bijeljina, population 114,663 Prijedor, population 97,588 Doboj, population 77,223 Istočno Sarajevo, population 64,966 Zvornik, population 63,686 Gradiška, population 56,727 Teslić, population 41,904 Prnjavor, population 38,399 Laktaši, population 36,848 Trebinje, population 31,433 Derventa, population 30,177 Modriča, population 27,799 Kozarska Dubica, population 23,074 Foča, population 12,334

Mountains[edit] The Dinaric Alps
Dinaric Alps
dominate the western border with Croatia. Mountains in Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
include Kozara, Romanija, Jahorina, Bjelašnica, Motajica and Treskavica. The highest point of the entity is peak Maglić at 2,386 m, near the border with Montenegro. Hydrology[edit] Most rivers belong to the Black Sea
Black Sea
drainage basin. The principal rivers are the Sava, a tributary of the Danube
Danube
that forms the northern boundary with Croatia; the Bosna, Vrbas, Sana and Una, which flow north and empty into the Sava; the Drina, which flows north, forms part of the eastern boundary with Serbia, and is also a tributary of the Sava. Trebišnjica
Trebišnjica
is one of the longest sinking rivers in the world. It belongs Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
drainage basin. Skakavac Waterfall on the Perućica
Perućica
is one of the highest waterfalls in the country, at about 75 metres (246 feet) in height. The most important lakes are Bileća
Bileća
Lake, Lake Bardača
Lake Bardača
and Balkana Lake.[citation needed] Protected areas[edit] In Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
are located two national parks, Sutjeska National Park and Kozara
Kozara
National Park, and one protected nature park, Bardača. Perućica
Perućica
is one of the last remaining primeval forests in Europe.[40] Demography[edit]

Natural demographic change in Republika Srpska, 1996-2015

Ethnic structure of Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
according to the 1991 census.

Ethnic structure of Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
according to the 2013 census.

See also: List of cities and municipalities in the Republika Srpska The first post-war census was the 2013 population census in Bosnia and Herzegovina, earlier figures are estimates.

Population composition[41]

Year Total Males Females Births Deaths

1996 1,391,593

12,263 10,931

1997 1,409,835

13,757 11,755

1998 1,428,798 679,795 749,003 13,527 12,469

1999[note 1] 1,448,579 689,186 759,351

2000[note 1] 1,469,182

14,191 13,370

2000 1,428,899 695,194 733,705

2001[note 1] 1,490,993

13,699 13,434

2001 1,447,477 704,197 743,280

2002 1,454,802 708,136 746,666 12,336 12,980

2003 1,452,351 706,925 745,426 10,537 12,988

2004 1,449,897 705,731 744,166 10,628 13,082

2005 1,446,417 704,037 742,380 10,322 13,802

2006 1,443,709 702,718 740,991 10,524 13,232

2007 1,439,673 700,754 738,919 10,110 14,146

2008 1,437,477 699,685 737,792 10,198 13,501

2009 1,435,179 698,567 736,612 10,603 13,775

2010 1,433,038 697,524 735,514 10,147 13,517

2011 1,429,668 695,884 733,784 9,561 13,658

2012 1,425,571

9,978 13,796

2013 1,326,991 603,027 625,396 9,510 13,978

Ethnic composition[edit]

Ethnic Composition, 1991

Year Serbs  % Muslims  % Croats  % Yugoslavs  % Others  % Total

1991[42] 869,854 55.4 440,746 28.1 144,238 9.2 75,013 4.8 39,481 2.5 1,569,332

Ethnic Composition, 2013

Year Serbs  % Bosniaks  % Croats  % Others  % Not declared & unknown  % Total

2013[43] 970,857 82.95 148,477 12.69 26,509 2.27 14,641 1.25 9,858 0.84 1,170,342

2013 1,001,299 81.5 171,839 14.0 29,645 2.4 15,324 1.25

1,228,423

There has been a controversy around who is counted in the population census. The first row reflects the total population present in Republika Srpska, while the second row includes additional people who live and work abroad. Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina The currency of Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
is the Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark (KM). It takes a minimum of 23 days to register a business there. Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product
(PPP) was estimated in 2010 at about US$7,895 per capita, but growth in the particular area was measured as being the highest in Bosnia, with 6,5%.[44]

GDP of Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
2006–2011 (mil. KM)[45]

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

3,373 3,666 4,208 4,560 5,116 5,763 6,546 7,352 8,490 8,236 8,318 8,682 8,584 8,760 8,831

Participation in total BiH economy

28.54% 28.92% 30.10% 30.98% 31.98% 33.47% 33.56% 33.44% 34.10% 33.98% 33.54% 33.78% 33.36% 33,32% 32.66%

Real GDP growth rates in Republic of Srpska and Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina 2006–2014

Employed persons in Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
2000–2015[46]

Foreign investment[edit] An agreement on strategic partnership has been concluded between the Iron Ore Mine Ljubija Prijedor
Prijedor
and the British company LNM (a major steel producer, now part of ArcelorMittal). Yuzhuralzoloto Gruppa Kompaniy OAO from Russia
Russia
signed a strategic partnership with the Lead and Zinc
Zinc
Mine Sase, in Srebrenica.[47] Recent foreign investments include privatisation of Telekom Srpske, sold to the Serbian Telekom Srbija for €646 million, and the sale of the petroleum and oil industry, based in Brod, Modriča
Modriča
and Banja Luka, to Zarubezhneft of Russia, whose investment is expected to total US$970 million in coming years.[48] On 16 May 2007, the Czech power utility ČEZ signed a €1.4 billion contract with the Elektroprivreda Republike Srpske, to renovate the Gacko
Gacko
I power plant and build a second, Gacko
Gacko
II.[49] As of September 2012, the President of Republika Srpska, Milorad Dodik, has signed an agreement with the Russian company Gazprom
Gazprom
to build a part of the South Stream pipeline network and two gas power plants in the entity.[50] External trade[edit]

External trade of Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
(mil. euros) (not including trade with the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and the Brčko
Brčko
District)[51][52]

Year 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Exports 306 289 312 431 578 788 855 983 855 1,114 1,309 1,214 1,331 1,376 1,337 1,467

Imports 868 1,107 1,165 1,382 1,510 1,411 1,712 2,120 1,824 2,072 2,340 2,294 2,330 2,529 2,334 2,263

Total trade 1,174 1,396 1,477 1,813 2,088 2,199 2,566 3,103 2,680 3,186 3,650 3,509 3,662 3,905 3,570 3,730

Coverage (%) 35 26 27 31 38 56 50 46 47 54 56 53 57 54 60 65

Taxation and salaries[edit]

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Average net wages (KM) in Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
1996–2015

Since 2001, Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
initiated significant reforms in the sector of the tax system, which lowered the tax burden to 28.6%, one of the lowest in the region. The 10% rate of capital gains tax and income tax are among the lowest in Europe
Europe
and could theoretically stimulate foreign investment, and there are no limits on the amount of earnings. Increasing the number of taxpayers and budgeted incomes, and creating a stable fiscal system, were necessary[according to whom?] for further reforms in the fields of taxation and duties; this area is a priority goal of the RS authorities. VAT has been introduced in 2006. These tax advantages have led to some companies moving their business to RS from the other entity.[44] Politics[edit] Main articles: Politics of Republika Srpska
Politics of Republika Srpska
and Constitution of Republika Srpska

Milorad Dodik, the president of the Republika Srpska

According to its constitution, Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
has its own president, people's assembly (the 83-member unicameral People's Assembly of Republika Srpska), executive government (with a prime minister and several ministries), its own police force, supreme court and lower courts, customs service (under the state-level customs service), and a postal service. It also has its symbols, including coat of arms, flag (a variant of the Serbian flag without the coat of arms displayed) and entity anthem. The Constitutional Law on Coat of Arms and Anthem of the Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
was ruled not in concordance with the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
as it states that those symbols "represent statehood of the Republika Srpska" and are used "in accordance with moral norms of the Serb
Serb
people". According to the Constitutional Court's decision, the Law was to be corrected by September 2006. Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
later changed its emblem. Although the constitution names Sarajevo
Sarajevo
as the capital of Republika Srpska, the northwestern city of Banja Luka
Banja Luka
is the headquarters of most of the institutions of government, including the parliament, and is therefore the de facto capital. After the war, Republika Srpska retained its army, but in August 2005, the parliament consented to transfer control of Army of Republika Srpska
Army of Republika Srpska
to a state-level ministry and abolish the entity's defense ministry and army by 1 January 2006. These reforms were required by NATO
NATO
as a precondition of Bosnia and Herzegovina's admission to the Partnership for Peace
Partnership for Peace
programme. Bosnia and Herzegovina joined the programme in December 2006.[53] External relations[edit]

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In September 2006, Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
officials signed a "special ties agreement" with Serbia
Serbia
aimed at promoting economic and institutional cooperation between Serbia
Serbia
and Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
(RS). The accord was signed by Serbia's President Boris Tadić
Boris Tadić
and Prime Minister Vojislav Koštunica, former RS President Dragan Čavić, and RS Prime Minister Milorad Dodik. Representative offices[edit]

Representative offices of the Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
worldwide.

In February 2009, Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
opened a representative office in Brussels. While European Union
European Union
representatives were not present at the ceremony, top Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
officials attended the event, saying it would advance their economic, political and cultural relations with the EU. This notion has been strongly condemned by Bosniak leaders, saying that this is further proof of Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
distancing itself from Bosnia and Herzegovina. The president of Republika Srpska, Rajko Kuzmanović, told reporters that this move did not jeopardise Republika Srpska's place within Bosnia and Herzegovina. He added that Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
merely used its constitutional right "to open up a representation office in the center of developments of European relevance". Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
maintains official offices in Belgrade, Moscow, Stuttgart, Jerusalem, Thessaloniki, Washington D.C., Brussels, and Vienna.[54][55][56] Holidays[edit] According to the Law on Holidays of Republika Srpska, public holidays are divided into three categories: entity's holidays, religious holidays, and holidays which are marked but do not include time off work. The entity holidays include New Year's Day (1 January), Entity Day (9 January), International Workers' Day
International Workers' Day
(1 May), Victory over Fascism Day (9 May) and Day of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(21 November).[57] Religious holidays include Christmas and Easter according to both the Julian and the Gregorian calendars for, respectively, Serbian Orthodox Christians and Roman Catholics, as well as Kurban Bajram and Bajram for Muslims. Holidays which are marked but do not include time off work include School Day (the Feast of Saint Sava, 27 January), Day of the Army of the Republika Srpska
Army of the Republika Srpska
(12 May), Interior Ministry Day (4 April), and Day of the First Serbian Uprising
First Serbian Uprising
(14 February).[57] The most important of the entity holidays is Dan Republike, which commemorates the establishment of Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
on 9 January 1992. It coincides with Saint Stephen's Day
Saint Stephen's Day
according to the Julian calendar. The Orthodox Serbs also refer to the holiday as the Slava
Slava
of Republika Srpska, as they regard Saint Stephen
Saint Stephen
as the patron saint of Republika Srpska. The holiday has therefore a religious dimension, being celebrated with special services in Serbian Orthodox churches.[58] Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
does not recognize the Independence Day of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(1 March).[59] Culture[edit] Education[edit]

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Faculty of Economics, University of Banja Luka

The oldest and largest public university in Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
is University of Banja Luka
Banja Luka
established in 1975. The second of two public universities in Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
is University of East Sarajevo. After the end of the Yugoslav wars
Yugoslav wars
several private institutions of higher education were established, including: American University in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slobomir University and University Sinergija. The Academy of Sciences and Arts of the Republika Srpska
Academy of Sciences and Arts of the Republika Srpska
is the highest representative institution in the Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
of science and art founded in 1996. National and University Library of the Republika Srpska is a national library, located in Banja Luka. The Museum of Contemporary Art (MSURS) houses a collection of Yugoslav and international art and is located in Banja Luka.

Notes[edit]

Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
portal

^ a b c Includes Brčko
Brčko
District

References[edit]

^ (in Serbian) v1-857c-516c55d5841d&page_id=7 Srpska – Portal javne uprave Republike Srpske: Simboli Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
website (retrieved 17 May 2012). ^ a b "Constitution of the Republika Srpska-Official Web Site of the Office of the High Representative".  ^ Sarajevo, juni 2016. CENZUS OF POPULATION, HOUSEHOLDS AND DWELLINGS IN REPUBLIKA SRPSKA, 2013 FINAL RESULTS. BHAS. Retrieved 30 June 2016.  ^ a b "Preliminary Results of the 2013 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in Bosnia and Herzegovina" (PDF). Agency for Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina. 5 November 2013.  ^ "Decision on Constitutional Amendments in Republika Srpska". Office of the High Representative. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2010.  ^ (in Serbian) Constitution of Republika Srpska
Constitution of Republika Srpska
Archived 9 January 2013 at WebCite ^ "Bosnia-Hercegovina profile". BBC. Retrieved 14 April 2013.  ^ Adam Fagan (5 November 2012). Europe's Balkan Dilemma: Paths to Civil Society or State-Building?. I.B.Tauris. pp. 80–. ISBN 978-0-85771-247-9.  ^ "Bosnian Serbs voice grievances". BBC News. 10 December 2004. Retrieved 5 January 2017.  ^ Related Articles. " Serb
Serb
Republic (region, Bosnia and Herzegovina) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 29 August 2010.  ^ "Bosnian Serb
Serb
republic leader dies". BBC News. 30 September 2007. Retrieved 22 May 2010.  ^ Moss, Paul (27 June 2009). "Bosnia echoes to alarming rhetoric". BBC News. Retrieved 22 May 2010.  ^ Lyon, James (4 December 2009). "Halting the downward spiral". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 May 2010.  ^ Beaumont, Peter (3 May 2009). "Bosnia lurches into a new crisis". The Guardian. London, UK. Retrieved 22 May 2010.  ^ Pressrs.ba (20 July 2014). "Srpska is more sovereign than Serbia" (in Serbian). Retrieved 8 April 2015.  ^ Silber, Laura (16 October 1991). "Bosnia Declares Sovereignty". The Washington Post: A29. ISSN 0190-8286.  ^ Kecmanović, Nenad. "Dayton Is Not Lisbon". NIN. ex-yupress.comex-yupress.comex-yupress.com. Retrieved 8 April 2015.  ^ a b "The Decision on Establishment of the Assembly of the Serb People in Bosnia and Herzegovina". Official Gazette of the Serb
Serb
People in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(in Serbian). 1 (1): 1. 15 January 1992.  ^ Women, violence, and war: wartime ... Google Books. 2000. ISBN 978-963-9116-60-3. Retrieved 29 August 2010.  ^ "The Declaration of Proclamation of the Republic of the Serb
Serb
People of Bosnia and Herzegovina". Official Gazette of the Serb
Serb
People in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(in Serbian). 1 (2): 13–14. 27 January 1992.  ^ "The Constitution of the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina". Official Gazette of the Serb
Serb
People in Bosnia and Herzegovina (in Serbian). 1 (3): 17–26. 16 March 1992.  ^ Kreća, Milenko (11 July 1996). "The Legality of the Proclamation of Bosnia and Herzegovina's Independence in Light of the Internal Law of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia" and "The Legality of the Proclamation of Independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
in the Light of International Law" in "Dissenting Opinion of Judge Kreća" (PDF). Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, Preliminary Objections, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1996 (The Hague: The Registry of the International Court of Justice): pp. 711–47. ISSN 0074-4441 ^ Bideleux, Robert; Jeffries, Ian. The Balkans: A Post-Communist History (2007, New York: Routledge), p. 343 ^ Saving strangers: humanitarian. Google Books. 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-829621-8. Retrieved 29 August 2010.  ^ "The Decision on Proclamation of the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina". Večernje novosti
Večernje novosti
(in Serbian). Belgrade: Novosti a.d. Tanjug. 8 April 1992. ISSN 0350-4999.  ^ "The Amendments VII and VIII to the Constitution of the Republika Srpska". Official Gazette of the Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
(in Serbian). 1 (15): 569. 29 September 1992.  ^ "Prosecutor v. Radovan Karadžić
Radovan Karadžić
– Second Amended Indictment" (PDF). UN International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2009.  ^ "The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina". OHR.int. Retrieved 28 May 2015.  ^ "Constitution of Republika Srpska". The Constitutional Court of Republika Srpska. Archived from the original on 6 April 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2015.  ^ UNESCO
UNESCO
(1998). "Review of the education system in the Republika Srpska". Retrieved 10 January 2009.  ^ The World Factbook, cia.gov; accessed 8 April 2015. ^ Press Online Republika Srpska: Od pola miliona, u FBiH ostalo 50.000 Srba, pressrs.ba; accessed 8 April 2015. ^ "Written statement submitted by the Society for Threatened Peoples to the Commission of Human Rights; Sixtieth session Item 11 (d) of the provisional agenda". United Nations. 26 February 2004. p. 2. Retrieved 13 July 2015.  ^ a b Revidirana strategija Bosne i Hercegovine za provedbu Aneksa VII Dejtonskog mirovnog sporazuma. Ministry for Human Rights and Refugees of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(mhrr.gov.ba), October 2008; accessed 13 July 2015. ^ "The Continuing Challenge of Refugee Return in Bosnia & Herzegovina". Crisis Group. 13 December 2002. Archived from the original on 19 April 2009.  ^ "UN Condemns Serb
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'Sickness'". BBC. 8 May 2001. Retrieved 4 January 2010.  ^ "Serbs Block Bosnia Mosque
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Bibliography[edit]

Bataković, Dušan T. (1996). The Serbs of Bosnia & Herzegovina: History and Politics. Dialogue Association. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Republika Srpska.

Government of Republika Srpska
Government of Republika Srpska
(in Serbian) President of Republika Srpska
President of Republika Srpska
(in Serbian) People's Assembly of Republika Srpska
People's Assembly of Republika Srpska
(in Serbian) RS Institute of Statistics (in Serbian) The Constitution of Republika Srpska
Constitution of Republika Srpska
official document Republika Srpska
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(in Serbian)

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Republika Srpska articles

History

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(1991–95)

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Political divisions of Bosnia and Herzegovina

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Entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina

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 Una-Sana  Central Bosnia

 Posavina  Herzegovina-Neretva

 Tuzla  West Herzegovina

 Zenica-Doboj  Sarajevo

 Bosnian Podrinje  Canton 10

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Districts of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Brčko
Brčko
distrikt

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Municipalities and cities in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Cities

Bihać Mostar Sarajevo
Sarajevo
(capital) Široki Brijeg Tuzla Zenica

Municipalities

Banovići Bosanska Krupa Bosanski Petrovac Bosansko Grahovo Breza Brčko Bugojno Busovača Bužim Čapljina Cazin Čelić Čitluk Drvar Doboj
Doboj
East Doboj
Doboj
South Dobretići Domaljevac-Šamac Donji Vakuf Foča-Ustikolina Fojnica Glamoč Goražde Gornji Vakuf-Uskoplje Gračanica Gradačac Grude Hadžići Ilidža Ilijaš Jablanica Jajce Kakanj Kalesija Kiseljak Kladanj Ključ Konjic Kreševo Kupres Livno Ljubuški Lukavac Maglaj Neum Novi Travnik Odžak Olovo Orašje Pale-Prača Posušje Prozor-Rama Ravno Sanski Most Sapna Sarajevo

Centar Novi Grad Novo Sarajevo Stari Grad

Srebrenik Stolac Teočak Tešanj Tomislavgrad Travnik Trnovo Usora Vareš Velika Kladuša Visoko Vitez Vogošća Zavidovići Žepče Živinice

Republika Srpska

Cities

Banja Luka Bijeljina Doboj Istočno Sarajevo Prijedor Trebinje

Municipalities

Berkovići Bileća Brod Bratunac Brčko Čajniče Čelinac Derventa Donji Žabar Foča Gacko Gradiška Han Pijesak Istočni Drvar Istočni Mostar Istočno Sarajevo

Istočna Ilidža Istočno Novo Sarajevo Istočni Stari Grad Pale Sokolac Trnovo

Jezero Kalinovik Kneževo Kostajnica Kozarska Dubica Kotor Varoš Krupa na Uni Kupres Laktaši Ljubinje Lopare Milići Modriča Mrkonjić Grad Nevesinje Novi Grad Novo Goražde Osmaci Oštra Luka Pelagićevo Petrovac Petrovo Prnjavor Ribnik Rogatica Rudo Stanari Šamac Šekovići Šipovo Srbac Srebrenica Teslić Ugljevik Višegrad Vlasenica Vukosavlje Zvornik

v t e

Bosnian War

Part of the Yugoslav Wars

Belligerents

Bosnian side

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1st Corps 2nd Corps 3rd Corps 4th Corps 5th Corps 6th Corps 7th Corps

Paramilitary

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Croat side

Croatian Defence Council

1OZ 2OZ 3OZ 4OZ

Paramilitary

Croatian Defence Forces Knights

Serb
Serb
side

Army of Republika Srpska

1st Krajina Corps 2nd Krajina Corps 3rd Corps East Bosnia Corps Herzegovina Corps Sarajevo- Romanija
Romanija
Corps Drina
Drina
Corps

Paramilitary

Wolves of Vučjak White Eagles Serb
Serb
Volunteer Guard Scorpions Yellow Wasps

Prelude

Karađorđevo meeting Zulfikarpašić–Karadžić agreement RAM Plan Serb
Serb
Autonomous Regions

Bosanska Krajina Herzegovina North-East Bosnia Romanija

Establishment of Republika Srpska Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
independence referendum Sarajevo
Sarajevo
wedding shooting Declaration of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina Battle of Bosanski Brod Sijekovac killings Bijeljina
Bijeljina
massacre 1992 anti-war protests in Sarajevo

1992

Battle of Kupres Siege of Sarajevo Foča
Foča
massacres Siege of Srebrenica Zvornik
Zvornik
massacre Doboj Snagovo massacre Prijedor
Prijedor
ethnic cleansing Sarajevo
Sarajevo
column incident Siege of Goražde Graz agreement Glogova massacre Lašva Valley ethnic cleansing Tuzla
Tuzla
column incident Zaklopača massacre Vilina Vlas Siege of Doboj Bijeli Potok massacre Pionirska Street fire Operation Jackal Višegrad
Višegrad
massacres

Bosanska Jagodina Paklenik Barimo Sjeverin

Čemerno massacre Siege of Bihać Ahatovići massacre Croat–Bosniak War Operation Vrbas '92 Operation Corridor 92  Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia Agreement on Friendship and Cooperation between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia Korićani Cliffs massacre

1993

Kravica attack Duša killings Skelani massacre Štrpci Siege of Mostar Srebrenica
Srebrenica
shelling Ahmići massacre Trusina killings Sovići and Doljani massacres Vranica case Dobrinja mortar attack Battle of Žepče

Operation Irma Operation Neretva '93 Grabovica massacre Mokronoge massacre Stupni Do massacre Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia Operation Deny Flight Križančevo Selo killings

1994

Operation Tvigi 94 First Markale massacre Banja Luka
Banja Luka
incident Washington Agreement  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Operation Bøllebank Attack on Spin magazine journalists Operation Tiger Battle of Kupres Operation Amanda Operation Spider Operation Winter '94

1995

Operation Leap 1 Battle of Orašje Operation Leap 2 Split Agreement Operation Summer '95 Pale air strikes Tuzla
Tuzla
shelling Battle of Vrbanja Bridge Srebrenica
Srebrenica
massacre

Kravica

Battle for Vozuća Operation Miracle Operation Storm Second Markale massacre NATO
NATO
bombing campaign Operation Mistral 2 Operation Sana Operation Una Operation Southern Move Exodus of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Serbs Dayton Agreement  Bosnia and Herzegovina

Internment camps

Silos Manjača Liplje Luka Omarska Keraterm Trnopolje Sušica Čelebići Batković Dretelj Uzamnica Heliodrom Gabela Vojno

Aspects

Ethnic cleansing and massacres

Bosnian genocide

Internment camps Rape Peace plans NATO
NATO
intervention Foreign support Foreign fighters

Timeline of the Bosnian War
Bosnian War
(Timeline of the Croat–Bosniak War)

Category Commons

Coordinates: 44°45′00″N 17°19′00″E / 44.75°N 17.316667°E / 44.75; 17.316667

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 312851178 GN