Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process
by which new individual organism
s – "offspring" – are produced from their "parent" or parents. Reproduction is a fundamental feature of all known life
; each individual organism exists as the result of reproduction. There are two forms of reproduction: asexual
In asexual reproduction, an organism can reproduce without the involvement of another organism. Asexual reproduction is not limited to single-celled organisms
. The cloning
of an organism is a form of asexual reproduction. By asexual reproduction, an organism creates a genetically similar or identical copy of itself. The evolution of sexual reproduction
is a major puzzle for biologists. The two-fold cost of sexual reproduction is that only 50% of organisms reproduce and organisms only pass on 50% of their gene
[John Maynard Smith ''The Evolution of Sex'' 1978.]
Sexual reproduction typically requires the sexual interaction of two specialized organisms, called gamete
s, which contain half the number of chromosome
s of normal cells and are created by meiosis
, with typically a male fertilizing
a female of the same species
to create a fertilized zygote
. This produces offspring
organisms whose genetic characteristics are derived from those of the two parental organisms.
Asexual reproduction is a process by which organisms create genetically similar or identical copies of themselves without the contribution of genetic material from another organism. Bacteria
divide asexually via binary fission
es take control of host cells to produce more viruses; Hydras
s of the order
''Hydroidea'') and yeast
s are able to reproduce by budding
. These organisms often do not possess different sexes, and they are capable of "splitting" themselves into two or more copies of themselves. Most plant
s have the ability to reproduce asexually and the ant species Mycocepurus smithii
is thought to reproduce entirely by asexual means.
Some species that are capable of reproducing asexually, like hydra
(See Mating of yeast
s) and jellyfish
, may also reproduce sexually. For instance, most plants are capable of vegetative reproduction
—reproduction without seeds or spores—but can also reproduce sexually. Likewise, bacteria may exchange genetic information by conjugation
Other ways of asexual reproduction include parthenogenesis
and spore formation
that involves only mitosis
. Parthenogenesis is the growth and development of embryo
by a male
. Parthenogenesis occurs naturally in some species, including lower plant
s (where it is called apomixis
s (e.g. water flea
s, some bee
s and parasitic wasp
s), and vertebrate
s (e.g. some
, and, very rarely, bird
s and shark
s). It is sometimes also used to describe reproduction modes in hermaphroditic species which can self-fertilize.
Sexual reproduction is a biological process
that creates a new organism
by combining the genetic
material of two organisms in a process that starts with meiosis
, a specialized type of cell division
. Each of two parent organisms contributes half of the offspring's genetic makeup by creating haploid gametes
. Most organisms form two different types of gametes. In these ''anisogamous'' species, the two sexes are referred to as male
or microspores) and female
or megaspores). In ''isogamous species'', the gametes are similar or identical in form (isogamete
s), but may have separable properties and then may be given other different names (see isogamy
). For example, in the green alga, ''Chlamydomonas reinhardtii'', there are so-called "plus" and "minus" gametes. A few types of organisms, such as many fungi
and the ciliate
''Paramecium aurelia'', have more than two "sexes", called syngen
s (including humans) and plants
reproduce sexually. Sexually reproducing organisms have different sets of genes for every trait (called alleles
). Offspring inherit one allele for each trait from each parent. Thus, offspring have a combination of the parents' genes. It is believed that "the masking of deleterious alleles favors the evolution of a dominant diploid phase in organisms that alternate between haploid and diploid phases" where recombination occurs freely.
s reproduce sexually, but the larger and commonly-seen organisms are haploid
and produce gametes
. The gametes fuse to form a zygote
which develops into a sporangium
, which in turn produces haploid spores. The diploid
stage is relatively small and short-lived compared to the haploid stage, i.e. ''haploid dominance''. The advantage of diploidy, heterosis, only exists in the diploid life generation. Bryophytes retain sexual reproduction despite the fact that the haploid stage does not benefit from heterosis. This may be an indication that the sexual reproduction has advantages other than heterosis, such as genetic recombination
between members of the species, allowing the expression of a wider range of traits and thus making the population
more able to survive environmental variation.
is the fertilization
of the combination of gametes from two parents, generally the ovum
from one individual with the spermatozoa
of another. (In isogamous species, the two gametes will not be defined as either sperm or ovum.)
, also known as autogamy, occurs in hermaphroditic
organisms where the two gamete
s fused in fertilization come from the same individual, e.g., many vascular plants
, some foraminifera
ns, some ciliate
s. The term "autogamy" is sometimes substituted for autogamous pollination (not necessarily leading to successful fertilization) and describes self-pollination
within the same flower, distinguished from geitonogamous pollination
, transfer of pollen to a different flower on the same flowering plant
, or within a single monoecious Gymnosperm
Mitosis and meiosis
are types of cell division
. Mitosis occurs in somatic cells
, while meiosis occurs in gametes
The resultant number of cells in mitosis is twice the number of original cells. The number of chromosomes
in the offspring cells is the same as that of the parent cell.
The resultant number of cells is four times the number of original cells. This results in cells with half the number of chromosomes
present in the parent cell. A diploid
cell duplicates itself, then undergoes two divisions (tetraploid
to diploid to haploid), in the process forming four haploid
cells. This process occurs in two phases, meiosis I and meiosis II.
In recent decades, developmental biologists have been researching and developing techniques to facilitate same-sex reproduction. The obvious approaches, subject to a growing amount of activity, are female sperm
and male egg
s, with female sperm closer to being a reality for humans, given that Japanese scientists have already created female sperm for chickens. "However, the ratio of produced W chromosome-bearing (W-bearing) spermatozoa fell substantially below expectations. It is therefore concluded that most of the W-bearing PGC could not differentiate into spermatozoa because of restricted spermatogenesis."
In 2004, by altering the function of a few genes involved with imprinting, other Japanese scientists combined two mouse eggs to produce daughter mice and in 2018 Chinese scientists created 29 female mice from two female mice mothers but were unable to produce viable offspring from two father mice.
There are a wide range of reproductive strategies employed by different species. Some animals, such as the human
and northern gannet
, do not reach sexual maturity
for many years after birth
and even then produce few offspring. Others reproduce quickly; but, under normal circumstances, most offspring do not survive to adult
hood. For example, a rabbit
(mature after 8 months) can produce 10–30 offspring per year, and a fruit fly
(mature after 10–14 days) can produce up to 900 offspring per year. These two main strategies are known as K-selection
(few offspring) and r-selection
(many offspring). Which strategy is favoured by evolution
depends on a variety of circumstances. Animals with few offspring can devote more resources to the nurturing and protection of each individual offspring, thus reducing the need for many offspring. On the other hand, animals with many offspring may devote fewer resources to each individual offspring; for these types of animals it is common for many offspring to die soon after birth, but enough individuals typically survive to maintain the population. Some organisms such as honey bees and fruit flies retain sperm in a process called sperm storage
thereby increasing the duration of their fertility.
* Polycyclic animals reproduce intermittently throughout their lives.
* Semelparous organisms reproduce only once in their lifetime, such as annual plant
s (including all grain crops), and certain species of salmon, spider, bamboo and century plant. Often, they die shortly after reproduction. This is often associated with r-strategists
* Iteroparous organisms produce offspring in successive (e.g. annual or seasonal) cycles, such as perennial plant
s. Iteroparous animals survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes). This is more associated with K-strategists
Asexual vs. sexual reproduction
Organisms that reproduce through asexual reproduction tend to grow in number exponentially. However, because they rely on mutation for variations in their DNA, all members of the species have similar vulnerabilities. Organisms that reproduce sexually yield a smaller number of offspring, but the large amount of variation in their genes makes them less susceptible to disease.
Many organisms can reproduce sexually as well as asexually. Aphid
s, slime mold
s, sea anemone
s, some species of starfish
), and many plants are examples. When environmental factors are favorable, asexual reproduction is employed to exploit suitable conditions for survival such as an abundant food supply, adequate shelter, favorable climate, disease, optimum pH or a proper mix of other lifestyle requirements. Populations of these organisms increase exponentially via asexual reproductive strategies to take full advantage of the rich supply resources.
When food sources have been depleted, the climate becomes hostile, or individual survival is jeopardized by some other adverse change in living conditions, these organisms switch to sexual forms of reproduction. Sexual reproduction ensures a mixing of the gene pool of the species. The variations found in offspring of sexual reproduction allow some individuals to be better suited for survival and provide a mechanism for selective adaptation to occur. The meiosis stage of the sexual cycle also allows especially effective repair of DNA damages (see Meiosis
). In addition, sexual reproduction usually results in the formation of a life stage that is able to endure the conditions that threaten the offspring of an asexual parent. Thus, seeds, spores, eggs, pupae, cysts or other "over-wintering" stages of sexual reproduction ensure the survival during unfavorable times and the organism can "wait out" adverse situations until a swing back to suitability occurs.
The existence of life without reproduction is the subject of some speculation. The biological study of how the origin of life
produced reproducing organisms from non-reproducing elements is called abiogenesis
. Whether or not there were several independent abiogenetic events, biologists believe that the last universal ancestor
to all present life on Earth lived about 3.5 billion years ago
Scientists have speculated about the possibility of creating life non-reproductively in the laboratory. Several scientists have succeeded in producing simple viruses from entirely non-living materials. However, viruses are often regarded as not alive. Being nothing more than a bit of RNA or DNA in a protein capsule, they have no metabolism
and can only replicate
with the assistance of a hijacked cell
's metabolic machinery.
The production of a truly living organism (e.g. a simple bacterium) with no ancestors would be a much more complex task, but may well be possible to some degree according to current biological knowledge. A synthetic genome
has been transferred into an existing bacterium where it replaced the native DNA, resulting in the artificial production of a new ''M. mycoides
There is some debate within the scientific community over whether this cell can be considered completely synthetic
on the grounds that the chemically synthesized genome was an almost 1:1 copy of a naturally occurring genome and, the recipient cell was a naturally occurring bacterium. The Craig Venter Institute maintains the term "synthetic bacterial cell" but they also clarify "...we do not consider this to be "creating life from scratch" but rather we are creating new life out of already existing life using synthetic DNA". Venter plans to patent his experimental cells, stating that "they are pretty clearly human inventions".
Its creators suggests that building 'synthetic life' would allow researchers to learn about life by building it, rather than by tearing it apart. They also propose to stretch the boundaries between life and machines until the two overlap to yield "truly programmable organisms". Researchers involved stated that the creation of "true synthetic biochemical life" is relatively close in reach with current technology and cheap compared to the effort needed to place man on the Moon.
Sexual reproduction has many drawbacks, since it requires far more energy than asexual reproduction and diverts the organisms from other pursuits, and there is some argument about why so many species use it. George C. Williams
tickets as an analogy
in one explanation for the widespread use of sexual reproduction.
[Williams G. C. 1975. Sex and Evolution. Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press.]
He argued that asexual reproduction, which produces little or no genetic variety in offspring, was like buying many tickets that all have the same number, limiting the chance of "winning" – that is, producing surviving offspring. Sexual reproduction, he argued, was like purchasing fewer tickets but with a greater variety of numbers and therefore a greater chance of success. The point of this analogy is that since asexual reproduction does not produce genetic variations, there is little ability to quickly adapt to a changing environment. The lottery principle is less accepted these days because of evidence that asexual reproduction is more prevalent in unstable environments, the opposite of what it predicts.
* Breeding season
* Mating system
* Modes of reproduction
* Plant reproduction
* Reproductive system
* Tobler, M. & Schlupp, I. (2005) Parasites in sexual and asexual mollies (Poecilia, Poeciliidae, Teleostei): a case for the Red Queen? Biol. Lett. 1 (2): 166–168.
* Zimmer, Carl
. ''Parasite Rex: Inside the Bizarre World of Nature's Most Dangerous Creatures
'', New York: Touchstone, 2001.
* Judson, Olivia (2003). ''Dr.Tatiana's Sex Advice to All Creation: Definitive Guide to the Evolutionary Biology of Sex.
* Richard E. Michod and Bruce E. Levin, editors (1987). ''The Evolution of Sex: An Examination of Current Ideas''. Sinauer Associates Inc., Publishers, Sunderland, MA
* Michod, R.E. (1994). ''Eros and Evolution: A natural philosophy of sex''. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Reading, MA
Asexual ReproductionJournal of Biology of ReproductionJournal of Andrology
"Replication and Reproduction." ''Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy''