René-Jean-Marie-Joseph Guénon (French: [ʁəne ʒan maʁi
ʒozɛf ɡenɔ̃]; 15 November 1886 – 7 January 1951), also known as
ʿAbd al-Wāḥid Yaḥyá, was a French author and intellectual who
remains an influential figure in the domain of metaphysics, having
written on topics ranging from sacred science and traditional
studies, to symbolism and initiation.
He wrote and published in French, and his works have been translated
into more than twenty languages. He is considered to be an important
writer in the Traditionalist School.
1.1 Life in Egypt
3 Some key terms and ideas
4 Metaphysical core
4.1 Introduction to the Study of the Hindu doctrines
4.2 Man and his Becoming according to the Vêdantâ
4.3 The Symbolism of the Cross
4.4 The Multiple States of Being
5 Other writings in metaphysics, hermeticism and cosmological sciences
5.1 Lesser and greater mysteries
6.1 Symbolism and analogy
7 Contemporary "neo-spiritualism"
9.1 In English
9.1.1 Collected works
9.2 In French
12 Further reading
13 External links
René Guénon was born in Blois, a city in central France
approximately 160 km (100 mi) from Paris. Guénon, like most
Frenchmen of the time, was born into a
Roman Catholic family. Little
is known of his family, although it appears that his father was an
architect. By 1904, Guénon was living as a student in Paris, where
his studies focused on mathematics and philosophy. He was known as a
brilliant student, notably in mathematics, in spite of his poor
As a young student in Paris, Guénon observed and became involved with
some students who were, at that time, under the supervision of Gérard
Encausse, alias Papus. Guénon soon discovered that the Martinist
order, supervised by Papus, was irregular. He joined the Gnostic
Church founded by Fabre des Essarts-Synesius. Under the name "Tau
Palingenius" Guénon became the founder and main contributor of a
periodical review, La Gnose ("Gnosis"), writing articles for it until
1922. From his incursions into the French occultist and pseudo-masonic
orders, he despaired of the possibility of ever gathering these
diverse and often ill-assorted doctrines into a "stable edifice".
In his book
The Reign of Quantity and the Signs of the Times he also
pointed out what he saw as the intellectual vacuity of the French
occultist movement, which, he wrote, was utterly insignificant, and
more importantly, had been compromised by the infiltration of certain
individuals of questionable motives and integrity.[non-primary
source needed] Following his desire to join a regular masonic
obedience, he became a member of the Thebah Lodge of the Grande Loge
de France following the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite
Around this time (according to indications reproduced by his
biographer Paul Chacornac), it is possible that René Guénon
became acquainted with Hinduism, specifically via the initiatic
lineage of Shankarâchârya, and with Taoism, due to his friendship
with Georges-Albert Puyou de Pouvourville, alias Matgioi. It is likely
that Guénon learned to use opium from de Pouvourville, and Guénon
later described the use of opium as an aid to meditation. He met
Léon Champrenaud, alias Abdul-Haqq, and John-Gustav Ageli, alias
Abdul-Hadi who had been initiated by Abder-Rhaman el Kébir in Cairo.
According to Paul Chacornac, Guénon chose a conversion to Islam
rather than to
Hinduism because the Hindu ritual life is not
compatible with the Western way of life, whereas following Islamic
rituals is compatible with modern Western life. He believed that Islam
is the only traditional religious world that is practically accessible
to Westerners. In 1910, Guénon was initiated into the
Shadhili order by Ivan Aguéli, taking the name
"ʿAbd al-Wāḥid Yaḥyā".
In 1917, Guénon began a one-year stay at Sétif, Algeria, teaching
philosophy to college students. After World War I, he left teaching to
dedicate his energies to writing; his first book, Introduction to the
Study of the Hindu Doctrines, was published in 1921. The book was
first proposed as a thesis, but the thesis was rejected by Indologist
Sylvain Lévi. From 1925 Guénon became a contributor to a review
edited by P. Chacornac, Le Voile d'Isis ("The Veil of Isis"); after
1935 and under Guénon's influence, this periodical became known as
Les Etudes Traditionnelles ("Traditional Studies").
Although the exposition of Hindu doctrines to European audiences had
already been attempted in piecemeal fashion at that time by many
orientalists, Guénon's Introduction to the Study of the Hindu
Doctrines advanced its subject in a uniquely insightful manner, by
referring to the concepts of metaphysics and Tradition in their most
general sense, which Guénon precisely defined, along with the
necessary distinctions and definitions of seemingly unambiguous terms
such as religion, tradition, exoterism, esoterism and theology.
Guénon explained that his purpose was not to describe all aspects of
Hinduism, but to give the necessary intellectual foundation for a
proper understanding of its spirit.[non-primary source needed] The
book also stands as a harsh condemnation of works presented by certain
other European writers about
Hinduism and Tradition in general;
according to Guénon, such writers had lacked any profound
understanding of their subject matter and of its implications. The
book also contains a critical analysis of the political intrusions of
British Empire into the subject of
Hinduism (and India itself)
through Madame Blavatsky's Theosophy.
In September 1920, Père Peillaube asked Guénon to write a book
against the Theosophical Society. In 1921, Guénon debuted a
series of articles in the French Revue de Philosophie, which, along
with some supplements, led to the book Theosophy:
History of a
Pseudo-Religion. His critique of
Theosophy was received positively by
conservative Catholics. However his later book Orient et Occident
distanced him from his Catholic supporters. His friend and
Jacques Maritain argued that Guénon's views were
"radically irreconcilable with the [Catholic] faith and called them a
"Hinduist restoration of ancient Gnosis, mother of heresies".
Maritain later unsuccessfully tried to have Guénon's works put on the
Catholic Index of Prohibited Books. During the decade 1920–1930,
Guénon began to acquire a broader public reputation, and his work was
noted by various intellectual and artistic figures both within and
outside of Paris. At this time also were published some of his books
explaining the "intellectual divide" between the East and West, and
the peculiar nature, according to him, of modern civilization: Crisis
of the Modern World, and East and West. In 1927 was published the
second major doctrinal book of his works: Man and His Becoming
according to the Vedânta, and in 1929, Spiritual Authority and
Temporal Power. The last book listed offers a general explanation of
what Guénon saw as the fundamental differences between "sacerdotal"
(priestly or sacred) and "royal" (governmental) powers, along with the
negative consequences arising from the usurpation of the prerogatives
of the latter with regard to the former. From these considerations,
René Guénon traces to its source the origin of the modern deviation,
which, according to him, is to be found in the destruction of the
Templar order in 1314.
Life in Egypt
In 1930, Guénon left Paris for Cairo. During his lengthy sojourn in
René Guénon carried on an austere and simple life, entirely
dedicated to his writings and spiritual development. In 1949, he
obtained Egyptian citizenship. Sedgwick wrote about Guénon's life in
Egypt that even though he continued his interest in
Hinduism and other
religions, Guénon's own practice was purely Islamic. He is "not known
ever to have recommended anyone to become a Hindu, whereas he
introduced many to Islam".
Urged on by some of his friends and collaborators, Guénon agreed to
establish a new
Masonic Lodge in France founded upon his "Traditional"
ideals, purified of what he saw as the inauthentic accretions which so
bedeviled other lodges he had encountered during his early years in
Paris. This lodge was called La Grande Triade ("The Great Triad"), a
name inspired by the title of one of Guénon's books. The first
founders of the lodge, however, separated a few years after its
inception. Nevertheless, this lodge, belonging to the Grande Loge
de France, remains active today.
René Guénon died on Sunday, January 7, 1951; his final word was
In 1921, Guénon published an Introduction to the Study of the Hindu
Doctrines. His goal, as he writes it, is an attempt at presenting to
westerners eastern metaphysics and spirituality as they are understood
and thought by easterners themselves, while pointing at what René
Guénon describes as all the erroneous interpretations and
misunderstandings of western orientalism and "neospiritualism" (for
the latter, notably the proponents of Madame Blavatsky's Theosophy).
Right from that time, he presents a rigorous understanding, not only
of Hindu doctrines, but also of eastern metaphysics in general.
His work comprises:
An exposition of fundamental metaphysical principles: Introduction to
the Study of the Hindu Doctrines which contains the general definition
of the term "tradition" as Guénon defines it, Man and His Becoming
according to the Vedânta, The Symbolism of the Cross, The Multiple
States of Being, The Metaphysical Principles of the Infinitesimal
Calculus, Oriental Metaphysics.
Studies in symbolism (comprising many articles he wrote for the
journal Le Voile d'Isis which became later known under the name Etudes
Traditionnelles). These studies in symbolism were later compiled by
Michel Valsan in the posthumous book Symbols of
Sacred Science. The
studies The Great Triad, Traditional Forms & Cosmic Cycles,
Insights into Islamic
Taoism and The King of the World
(alternately translated as Lord of the World) are also mostly about
Fundamental studies related to Initiation, a subject completely
re-exposited by Guénon from the traditional perspective: Perspectives
Initiation and Spiritual Realisation, The
Criticism of the modern world and of "neospiritualism": East and West,
The Crisis of the Modern World, Spiritual Authority and Temporal
History of a Pseudo-Religion, The Spiritist Fallacy
and The Reign of Quantity & the Signs of the Times, the latter
book being often considered as his masterpiece as an explanation of
the modern world from the traditional perspective.
Various studies in esoterism: Saint Bernard, Insights into Christian
Esoterism, Studies in
Freemasonry and Compagnonnage, Studies in
Some key terms and ideas
Main article: Metaphysical terms in the works of René Guénon
Guénon's writings make use of words and terms, of fundamental
signification, which receive a precise definition throughout his
books. These terms and words, although receiving a usual meaning and
being used in many branches of human sciences, have, according to
René Guénon, lost substantially their original signification (e.g.
words such as "metaphysics", "initiation", "mysticism", "personality",
"form", "matter").[non-primary source needed] He insisted notably
on the danger represented by the perversion of the signification of
words seen by him as essential for the study of metaphysics; please
refer to the main article for the definition given by
René Guénon to
some of the words used extensively in his works.
The exposition of metaphysical doctrines, which forms the cornerstone
of Guénon's work, consists of the following books:
Introduction to the Study of the Hindu doctrines,
Man and His Becoming according to the Vedânta,
The Multiple States of Being,
Symbolism of the Cross,
Introduction to the Study of the Hindu doctrines
Introduction to the Study of the Hindu doctrines, published in 1921,
on topics which were later included in the lecture he gave at the
Sorbonne on December 17, 1925 ("Oriental Metaphysics"), consists of
The first part ("preliminary questions") exposes the hurdles that
prevented classical orientalism from a deep understanding of eastern
doctrines (without forgetting that
René Guénon had of course in view
the orientalism of his time): the "classical prejudice" which
"consists essentially in a predisposition to attribute the origin of
all civilization to the Greeks and Romans", the ignorance of certain
types of relationships between the ancient peoples, linguistic
difficulties, and the confusions arising about certain questions
related to chronology, these confusions being made possible through
the ignorance of the importance of oral transmission which can
precede, to a considerable and indeterminate extent, the written
formulation. A fundamental example of that latter mistake being found
in the orientalist's attempts at providing a precise birth date to the
Vedas sacred scriptures.
The "general characters of eastern thought" part focuses on the
principles of unity of the eastern civilizations, on the definition of
the notions of "tradition" and "metaphysics". Guénon also proposes a
rigorous definition of the term "religion", and states the proper
differences between "tradition", "religion", "metaphysics" and
"philosophical system". The relations between "metaphysics" and
"theology" are also explored, and the fundamental terms of "esoterism"
and "exoterism" are introduced. A chapter is devoted to the idea of
"metaphysical realization". The first two parts state, according to
René Guénon, the necessary doctrinal foundations for a correct
understanding of Hindu doctrines.
Man and his Becoming according to the Vêdantâ
Ganeshâ, "Lord of meditation and mantras", "Lord of Knowledge", "Lord
of Categories", will be displayed in the front page cover of the
Symbolism of the cross's original edition
The Introduction to the study of the Hindu doctrines had, among its
objectives, the purpose of giving the proper intellectual basis to
promote openness to the study of eastern intellectuality. The study of
Hindu doctrines is continued in his book Man and his Becoming
according to the Vedanta by taking the specific viewpoint of the human
being's constitution according to the Vêdantâ:
René Guénon states
that his goal is not to present a synthetic exposition of all vedic
doctrines "which would be quite an impossible task", but to consider
"a particular point of that doctrine", in that case the definition of
the human being, in order to contemplate afterwards other aspects of
The Symbolism of the Cross
Symbolism of the Cross is a book "dedicated to the venerated
memory of Esh-Sheikh Abder-Rahman Elish El-Kebir". Its goal, as
Guénon states it, "is to explain a symbol that is common to almost
all traditions, a fact that would seem to indicate its direct
attachment to the great primordial tradition". To alleviate the
hurdles bound to the interpretations of a symbol belonging to
different traditions, Guénon distinguishes synthesis from syncretism:
syncretism consists in assembling from the outside a number of more or
less incongruous elements which, when so regarded, can never be truly
Syncretism is something outward: the elements taken from any
of its quarters and put together in this way can never amount to
anything more than borrowings that are effectively incapable of being
integrated into a doctrine "worthy of that name". To apply these
criteria to the present context of the symbolism of the cross:
syncretism can be recognized wherever one finds elements borrowed from
different traditional forms and assembled together without any
awareness that there is only one single doctrine of which these forms
are so many different expressions or so many adaptations related to
particular conditions related to given circumstances of time and
The Multiple States of Being
Narayana is one of the names of
Vishnu in the Hindu tradition,
signifies literally "He who walks on the Waters", with an evident
parallel with the Gospel tradition. The "surface of the Waters", or
their plane of separation, is described as the plane of reflection of
the "Celestial Ray". It marks the state in which the passage from the
individual to the universal is operative, and the well-known symbol of
"walking on the Waters" represents emancipation from form, or
liberation from the individual condition (René Guénon, The multiples
states of the Being, chapter 12, "The two chaoses").
This book expands on the multiple states of Being, a doctrine already
tackled in The Symbolism of the Cross, leaving aside the geometrical
representation exposed in that book "to bring out the full range of
this altogether fundamental theory". First and foremost is
asserted the necessity of the "metaphysical Infinity", envisaged in
its relationship with "universal Possibility". "The Infinite,
according to the etymology of the term which designates it, is that
which has no limits", so it can only be applied to what has absolutely
no limit, and not to what is exempted from certain limitations while
being subjected to others like space, time, quantity, in other words
all countless other things that fall within the indefinite, fate and
nature. There is no distinction between the Infinite and universal
Possibility, simply the correlation between these terms indicates that
in the case of the Infinite, it is contemplated in its active aspect,
while the universal Possibility refers to its passive aspect: these
are the two aspects of
Brahma and its Shakti in the Hindu doctrines.
From this results that "the distinction between the possible and the
real [...] has no metaphysical validity, for every possible is real in
its way, according to the mode befitting its own nature". This
leads to the metaphysical consideration of the "Being" and
If we [...] define Being in the universal sense as the principle of
manifestation, and at the same time as comprising in itself the
totality of possibilities of all manifestation, we must say that Being
is not infinite because it does not coincide with total Possibility;
and all the more so because Being, as the principle of manifestation,
although it does indeed comprise all the possibilities of
manifestation, does so only insofar as they are actually manifested.
Outside of Being, therefore, are all the rest, that is all the
possibilities of non-manifestation, as well as the possibilities of
manifestation themselves insofar as they are in the unmanifested
state; and included among these is Being itself, which cannot belong
to manifestation since it is the principle thereof, and in consequence
is itself unmanifested. For want of any other term, we are obliged to
designate all that is thus outside and beyond Being as "Non-Being",
but for us this negative term is in no way synonym for
Hermes' caduceus: example of a symbol associated to the possession of
lesser mysteries, and showing an example of horizontal duality (the
two snakes' heads are placed in the horizontal dual position, hence
referring to apparent dualities such as life and death). In Studies in
Hinduism, Guénon mentions a relation between the symbol and the
Other writings in metaphysics, hermeticism and cosmological
Lesser and greater mysteries
Main article: Perspectives on initiation
While it is acknowledged that symbolism refers to something very
different from a mere 'code', an artificial or arbitrary meaning, and
that "it holds an essential and spontaneous echoing power", for
René Guénon, this 'echoing power' goes immensely farther than the
psychological realm: symbolism is "the metaphysical language at its
highest", capable of relating all degrees of universal
Manifestation, and all the components of the Being as well: symbolism
is the means by which man is capable of "assenting" orders of reality
that escape, by their very nature, any description by ordinary
language. This understanding of the profound nature of symbolism,
writes René Guénon, has never been lost by an intellectual (i.e.
spiritual) elite in the East. It is inherent in the transmission
of initiation which, he says, gives the real key to man to penetrate
the deeper meaning of the symbols; in this perspective, meditation on
symbols (visual or heard, dhikr, repetition of the Divine Names) is an
integral part both of initiation and of spiritual realization.
Symbolism and analogy
René Guénon art is above all knowledge and understanding, rather
than merely a matter of sensitivity. Similarly, the symbolism has
a conceptual vastness "not exclusive to a mathematical rigor":
symbolism is before all a science, and it is based, in its most
general signification on "connections that exist between different
levels of reality ". And, in particular, the analogy itself,
understood following a formula used in
Hermeticism as the "relation of
what is down with what is above" is likely to be symbolized: there are
symbols of the analogy (but every symbol is not necessarily the
expression of an analogy, because there are correspondences that are
not analogical). The analogical relation essentially involves the
consideration of an "inverse direction of its two terms", and symbols
of the analogy, which are generally built on the consideration of the
primitive six-spoke wheel, also called the chrism in the Christian
iconography, indicate clearly the consideration of these "inverse
directions"; in the symbol of the Solomon's seal, the two triangles in
opposition represent two opposing ternaries, "one of which is like a
reflection or mirror image the other" and "this is where this
symbol is an exact representation of analogy". This consideration
of a "reverse meaning" allows
René Guénon to propose an explanation
of some artistic depictions, such as that reported by Ananda
Coomaraswamy in his study "The inverted tree": some images of the
"World Tree", a symbol of universal Manifestation, represent the tree
with its roots up and its branches down: the corresponding positions
correspond to two complementary points of view that can be
contemplated: point of view of the manifestation and of the Principle.
This consideration of "reverse meaning" is one of the elements of a
"science of symbolism" in which Guénon refers to, and used by him in
Guénon was critical of modern interpretations regarding symbolism
which often rested on naturalistic interpretations of the symbol in
question which Guénon regarded as a case of the symbol of the thing
being mistaken for the thing itself. He was also critical of the
psychological interpretations found in the likes of Carl Jung.
Guénon denounced the Theosophical Society, many pseudo-
in the French or Anglo-Saxon
Occult scene and the Spiritist movement.
They formed the topic of two of his major books written in the 1920s,
History of a Pseudo-Religion and The Spiritist Fallacy. He
denounced the syncretic tendencies of many of these groups, along with
the common Eurocentric misconceptions that accompanied their attempts
to interpret Eastern doctrines.
René Guénon especially develops some
aspects of what he refers to as the manifestation of "antitraditional"
currents in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. His first book on
that subject is devoted to a detailed historical examination of Madame
Blavatsky's theosophy: Theosophy:
History of a Pseudo-Religion.
Guénon examines the role and intervention that played in that
movement organizations that are described in more detail in The Reign
of Quantity and the Signs of the Times, as under what he called the
"pseudo-initiation"; in particular what he calls "pseudo-Rosicrucian"
organizations holding no affiliation with the real authentic
Rosicrucians: Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia founded in 1867 by
Robert Wentworth Little, the "Order of the esoteric Rose-Cross" of Dr.
Franz Hartmann etc. He denounces the syncretic nature of theosophy,
its connection with the theory of evolution in "The Secret Doctrine"
(Madame Blavastky's main work); he also examines the role and
relationship that the Theosophical
Society had with multitude of
"pseudo-initiatic" organizations among others, the O.T.O. founded in
1895 by Carl Kellner and propagated in 1905 by Theodor Reuss, the
Golden Dawn, to which belong large number of key figures of
Anglo-Saxon's "neo-spiritualism" of the early twentieth century etc.
Some authors have argued that Guénon's analysis of
flawed and that it is debatable whether Thesosophy is really hostile
to Islam and Christianity.
These are precisely some members of the "inner circle" of the H.B. of
L., to which belonged Emma Hardinge Britten, who would have produced
the phenomena giving rise to spiritist movement that is to say,
another "antitraditional" current born in 1848. To support this
assertion, he relies on statements from
Emma Hardinge Britten
Emma Hardinge Britten herself,
which will be confirmed much later, in 1985, by the publication from
French publishing house Editions Archè of the documents the H.B. of
L. This organization would have received in part the legacy of other
secret societies, including the "Eulis Brotherhood", to which belonged
Paschal Beverly Randolph, a character designated by
René Guénon as
"very enigmatic" who died in 1875. He denounces "the confusion of
the psychic and the spiritual" and especially the psychoanalytic
interpretation of symbols, including the Jungian branch of it, which
he condemned with the greatest firmness, seeing in it the beginnings
of a reversed – or at least distorted – interpretation
of symbols. This aspect is reflected in some studies,
Especially in a book published in 1999 by Richard Noll who
incidentally speaks of the role played by the Theosophical
Carl Gustav Jung.
A commentator of René Guénon, Charles-André Gilis, has published a
book in 2009 which proposes some insights and developments of the idea
of 'counter-tradition' introduced by Guénon, based on Mohyddin Ibn
Arabi's writings ("The profanation of Israël in the light of Sacred
This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with
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R. Guénon is commonly linked to the Traditionalist School also
called "perennialism", although Guénon never used the term of
Traditionalist School or perennialism in his works. Beside Guénon,
the principal thinkers in this tradition are
Ananda Coomaraswamy and
Frithjof Schuon. Other important thinkers in this tradition include
Titus Burckhardt, Martin Lings, Jean-Louis Michon, Marco Pallis,
Huston Smith, Hossein Nasr, Jean Borella,
Julius Evola and William
Chittick. The central belief of this school is the existence of a
perennial wisdom, or perennial philosophy, which says that there are
primordial and universal truths which form the source for, and are
shared by all the major world religions.
The impact of Guénon's work has been very broad, including many
artists, in particular in the surrealist movement. For instance,
writers and artists influenced by Guénon include Alain Danielou,
André Malraux, Albert Gleizes, André Breton, Antonin
Artaud, Marco Pallis, René Daumal, Raymond Queneau,
Georges Bataille and Paul Ackerman.
René Guénon had a
discrete impact in the field of comparative religion, particularly
on the young
Mircea Eliade and on contemporary scholars such as Huston
Smith, William Chittick, Harry Oldmeadow,
James Cutsinger and Hossein
Nasr. For instance,
Carl Schmitt wrote in 1942 that Guénon was an
important "teacher" for Mircea Eliade. However, Eliade also wrote
that he preferred the writings of the tradionalist Ananda Coomaraswamy
to both Guénon and Evola, whom he defined as "dilettantes" in an
essay written in 1937, and Eliade also thought that Sri Aurobindo
was more "perfected" than Guénon.
Just before and after world war I, Guénon was close to some circles
of the far right
Action francaise including Léon Daudet, Jacques
Bainville and, above all, the major Catholic philosopher Jacques
Maritain (Maritain as many Catholics left the Action française later
on). The main goal of Guénon during this period was to
convince Maritain and the
Catholic Church to revitalize Christianity
through a dialogue with oriental religions and he envisaged a
restoration of traditional "intellectualité" in the West on the basis
of Roman Catholicism and Freemasonry.[note 1] The project was
unsuccessful. Several authors see in Guénon a successor of the
monarchist, ultramontanist Joseph de Maistre, who was a Freemason like
Guénon. Guénon's second book was published by a publishing house
(Nouvelle Librairie nationale directed by
Jacques Maritain at that
time ) associated with the Action Francaise, and he also wished
for his first book to be published there (It was pusblished finally in
the publishing house of the syndicalist Marcel Rivière ).
Among Guénon's acquaintances was also George Valois, who was a
first an Anarcho-syndicalist, later member of the Action francaise,
founder of the fascist
Faisceau and finally member of the French
Resistance and died in a concentration camp, and
Pierre Winter (former
member of the
Even though Guénon repeated on many occasions that he was apolitical
and that he rejected in advance any political interpretation of his
work, he has been sometimes associated with far right and
anti-democratic politics and he also influenced several writers who
are on the far right of the political spectrum. The main reason is
the fact that he had a strong influence on
Julius Evola with whom he
kept up an epistolary correspondence. For instance, Evola wrote that
"Guénon's deductions assume a radical character: hierarchical,
aristocratic, anti-individualist, anti-social and
anti-collectivist." In the same line, Robert Horvath wrote
that Guénon refused not only the principle of equality, democratism
and liberalism, but also socialism. In addition, Carl Schmitt, the
"crown jurist of the Nazi Third Reich", told scholar of comparative
Mircea Eliade that he regarded
René Guénon as “the most
interesting man alive today”. Guénon has influenced Schmitt in
formulating his theory of the Absolute State and the forces that work
against it. However, several studies dismiss any intellectual
connection between Guénon and monarchist, far right politics. In
a study based on the correspondences exchanged between Guénon and
Evola and also some articles, P.-G. de Roux has pointed the harsh
criticism of Guénon against Evola. In the same manner, in his
book Guénon ou le renversement des clartés, French scholar Xavier
Accart disputes the connection made between the Traditionalist school
and the far right movements. He claims, for instance, that René
Guenon was highly critical of Evola's political involvements and was
worried about the possible confusion between his own ideas and
Evola's. Guénon also clearly denounced the ideology of the fascist
regimes in Europe before and during the Second World War. Guénon
consented to having extracts of his writings published in the fascist
newspaper Regime fascista, a newspaper curated by Evola but always
refused to publish Evola's books and articles. Some
authors consider that Evola should not be considered a member of the
Traditionalist school due to the large differences between his thought
and Guénon's one. A well known if controversial definition by
Bergier and Louis Pauwels defined
Hitler as Guénon plus the
'Panzerdivisonen'. But Louis Pauwels recognized himself on the
radio later that the connection between Guénon and
Hitler was totally
wrong. In addition, Guénon also influenced many leftist or even
apolitical writers and artists.
However, Guénon has remained on the reading lists of the New
Right. The work of Russian
New Right author Aleksander
Dugin is influenced by
René Guénon and Julius Evola. Dugin
repeatedly claimed Guénon as one of his teachers, and even suggested
naming Rostov State University after Guénon. Italian
neo-fascist and convicted terrorist
Vincenzo Vinciguerra quoted Guenon
and Evola in justification of his assassinations and bombings.
Italian far right and anti-semitic writer Claudio Mutti was also
influenced by Evola and Guénon. However, Alain de Benoist, the
founder of the
New Right declared in 2013 on the radio that the
influence of Guénon on his political school has been globally very
weak.[note 2] In addition, Guénon was an outspoken opponent of the
Aryan race or Indo-European race and of any form of
Biographers also recall that Guénon disclaimed in his writings any
connection to a "school" or "movement".
George Santayana compared him
to C. S. Lewis. The religious scholar
Huston Smith acknowledges a
debt to Guénon and the
Traditionalist School while remaining outside
the school as an academic.
Introduction to the Study of the Hindu Doctrines (Introduction
générale à l'étude des doctrines hindoues, 1921)
History of a Pseudo-Religion (Le Théosophisme –
Histoire d'une pseudo-religion, 1921)
The Spiritist Fallacy (L'erreur spirite, 1923)
East and West (Orient et Occident, 1924)
Man and His Becoming according to the Vedânta (L'homme et son devenir
selon le Vêdânta, 1925)
Esoterism of Dante (L'ésotérisme de Dante, 1925)
The King of the World (also published as Lord of the World, Le Roi du
The Crisis of the Modern World (La crise du monde moderne, 1927)
Spiritual Authority and Temporal Power (Authorité Spirituelle et
Pouvoir Temporel, 1929)
St. Bernard (Saint-Bernard, 1929)
Symbolism of the Cross (Le symbolisme de la croix, 1931)
The Multiple States of the Being (Les états multiples de l'Être,
Metaphysics (La metaphysique orientale, 1939)
The Reign of Quantity and the Signs of the Times (Le règne de la
quantité et les signes des temps, 1945)
Initiation (Aperçus sur l'initiation, 1946)
The Metaphysical Principles of the Infinitesimal Calculus (Les
principes du calcul infinitésimal, 1946)
The Great Triad (La Grande Triade, 1946)
Initiation and Spiritual Realization (
Initiation et réalisation
Insights into Christian
Esoterism (Aperçus sur l'ésotérisme
Sacred Science (Symboles de la Science Sacrée, 1962)
Freemasonry and Compagnonnage (Études sur la
Franc-Maçonnerie et le Compagnonnage, 1964)
Hinduism (Études sur l'Hindouisme, 1966)
Traditional Forms & Cosmic Cycles (Formes traditionelles et cycles
Insights into Islamic
Taoism (Aperçus sur
l'ésotérisme islamique et le Taoïsme, 1973)
Reviews (Comptes rendus, 1973)
Miscellanea (Mélanges, 1976)
New English translation, 23 volumes,
Sophia Perennis (publisher)
East and West (paper, 2001; cloth, 2004)
The Crisis of the Modern World (paper, 2001; cloth, 2004)
Esoterism of Dante (paper, 2003; cloth, 2005)
The Great Triad (paper, 2001; cloth, 2004)
Initiation and Spiritual Realization (paper, 2001; cloth, 2004)
Insights into Christian
Esoterism (paper, 2001; cloth, 2005)
Insights into Islamic
Taoism (paper, 2003; cloth, 2004)
Introduction to the Study of the Hindu Doctrines (paper, 2001; cloth,
The King of the World (paper, 2001; cloth, 2004)
Man and His Becoming According to the Vedanta (paper, 2001; cloth,
Metaphysical Principles of the Infinitesimal Calculus (paper, 2003;
Miscellanea (paper, 2003; cloth, 2004)
The Multiple States of the Being tr. Henry Fohr (paper, 2001; cloth,
Initiation (paper, 2001; cloth, 2004)
The Reign of Quantity and the Signs of the Times (paper, 2001; cloth,
The Spiritist Fallacy (paper, 2003; cloth, 2004)
Spiritual Authority and Temporal Power (paper, 2001; cloth, 2004)
Freemasonry and the Compagnonnage (paper, 2005; cloth,
Hinduism (paper, 2001; cloth, 2004)
Symbolism of the Cross (paper, 2001; cloth, 2004)
Sacred Science (paper, 2004; cloth, 2004)
History of a Pseudo-Religion (paper, 2003; cloth, 2004)
Traditional Forms and Cosmic Cycles (paper, 2003; cloth, 2004)
Introduction générale à l'étude des doctrines hindoues, Paris,
Marcel Rivière, 1921, many editions.
Le Théosophisme, histoire d'une pseudo-religion, Paris, Nouvelle
Librairie Nationale, 1921, many editions.
L'Erreur spirite, Paris, Marcel Rivière, 1923, many editions
including: Éditions Traditionnelles. ISBN 2-7138-0059-5.
Orient et Occident, Paris, Payot, 1924, many editions, including: Guy
Trédaniel/Éditions de la Maisnie, Paris. ISBN 2-85829-449-6.
L'Homme et son devenir selon le Vêdânta, Paris, Bossard, 1925, many
editions, including: Éditions Traditionnelles.
L'Ésotérisme de Dante, Paris, Ch. Bosse, 1925, many editions,
including: Éditions Traditionnelles, 1949.
Le Roi du Monde, Paris, Ch. Bosse, 1927, many editions, including:
Gallimard, Paris. ISBN 2-07-023008-2.
La Crise du monde moderne, Paris, Bossard, 1927, many editions,
including: Gallimard, Paris. ISBN 2-07-023005-8.
Autorité spirituelle et pouvoir temporel, Paris, Vrin, 1929, many
editions, including: (1952) Guy Trédaniel/Éditions de la Maisnie,
Paris. ISBN 2-85-707-142-6.
Saint Bernard, Publiroc, 1929, re-edited: Éditions Traditionnelles.
Le Symbolisme de la Croix, Véga, 1931, many editions, including: Guy
Trédaniel/Éditions de la Maisnie, Paris. ISBN 2-85-707-146-9.
Les États multiples de l'Être, Véga, 1932, many editions,
including: Guy Trédaniel/Éditions de la Maisnie, Paris.
La Métaphysique orientale, Editions traditionnelles, 1939, many
editions. This is the written version of a conference given at The
Sorbonne University in 1926.
Le Règne de la Quantité et les Signes des Temps, Gallimard, 1945,
Les Principes du Calcul infinitésimal, Gallimard, 1946, many
Aperçus sur l'Initiation, Éditions Traditionnelles, 1946, many
La Grande Triade, Gallimard, 1946, many editions.
Aperçus sur l'ésotérisme chrétien, Éditions Traditionnelles
(1954). ISBN (?).
Aperçus sur l'ésotérisme islamique et le taoïsme, Gallimard,
Paris,(1973). ISBN 2-07-028547-2.
Comptes rendus, Éditions traditionnelles (1986).
Études sur l'Hindouisme, Éditions Traditionnelles, Paris (1967).
Études sur la Franc-maçonnerie et le Compagnonnage, Tome 1 (1964)
Éditions Traditionnelles, Paris. ISBN 2-7138-0066-8.
Études sur la Franc-maçonnerie et le Compagnonnage, Tome 2 (1965)
Éditions Traditionnelles, Paris. ISBN 2-7138-0067-6.
Formes traditionnelles et cycles cosmiques, Gallimard, Paris (1970).
Initiation et Réalisation spirituelle, Éditions Traditionnelles,
1952. ISBN 978-2-7138-0058-0.
Mélanges, Gallimard, Paris (1976). ISBN 2-07-072062-4.
Symboles de la Science sacrée (1962), Gallimard, Paris.
Articles et Comptes-Rendus, Tome 1, Éditions Traditionnelles (2002).
Recueil, Rose-Cross Books, Toronto (2013).
Fragments doctrinaux, doctrinal fragments from Guénon's
correspondence (600 letters, 30 correspondents). Rose-Cross Books,
Toronto (2013). ISBN 978-0-9865872-2-1.
^ Cf. among others his Aperçus sur l'ésotérisme chrétien
(Éditions Traditionnelles, Paris, 1954) and Études sur la
Franc-maçonnerie et le Compagnonnage (2 vols, Éditions
Traditionnelles, Paris, 1964–65) which include many of his articles
for the Catholic journal Regnabit.
Radio Courtoisie (20 May 2013), during the programme Le Libre
Journal de la resistance française presented by Emmanuel Ratier and
^ Chacornac, Paul (1 May 2005). The Simple Life of Rene Guenon. Sophia
Perennis. p. 7. ISBN 1-59731-055-7. Retrieved 2 May
^ René Guénon's works dealing with various aspects of sacred science
are collected in the book which appeared in its first English
translation as Fundamental Symbols: The Universal Language of Sacred
Science, Quinta Essentia, 1995, ISBN 0-900588-77-2, then, in
another translation, as Symbols of
Sacred Science, translated by Henry
D. Fohr, Sophia Perennis, 2001, ISBN 0-900588-78-0. There were
two original French editions, both under the title Symboles
fondamentaux de la Science sacrée, Editions Gallimard, Paris. The
first contained a foreword followed by notes and comments by Michel
Valsan, the second did not contain these additions.
^ "Traditional studies" is a translation of the French Les Etudes
Traditionnelles— the title of the journal in which many of René
Guénon's articles were published
^ Paul Chacornac, The Simple Life of Rene Guenon, Sophia Perennis,
2005, p. 21.
^ Chacornac, chapter II.
^ The Reign of Quantity and the Signs of the Times, chapter "The
^ Jean-Claude Frere: Une Vie en Esprit, in Le Nouveau Planete, Rene
Guenon: l'Homme et son Message 15 April 1970 p 12.
^ P. Chacornac, The Simple Life of René Guénon, chapter III: Ex
^ Frans Vreede a close friend of Guénon also claimed the same, c.f.
René Guénon et l’actualité de la pensée traditionnelle in Actes
du colloque international de Cerisy-la-Salle : 13-20 juillet
1973, Ed. du Baucens, 1977, cité in P. Feuga 
^ a b c d e f Mark Sedgwick, Against the Modern World: Traditionalism
and the Secret Intellectual
History of the Twentieth Century
^ Paul Furlong, Social and Political Thought of Julius Evola, 2011,
^ P. Chacornac, La Vie simple de René Guénon, Editions
^ c.f. Charles-André Gilis, Introduction à l'enseignement et au
René Guénon (Introduction to the teaching and mystery of
René Guénon), chapter VII, Editions Traditionnelles, Paris,
ISBN 2-7138-0179-6, and also P. Chacornac, The Simple Life of
René Guénon, chapter III: Ex oriente lux. In a letter to T. Grangier
dated June 28, 1938, Guénon writes: "mon rattachement aux
organisations initiatiques islamiques remonte exactement à 1910" ("my
linking with islamic initiatic organizations dates back precisely to
^ P. Chacornac, The Simple Life of René Guénon, chapter VI, Calls of
^ Introduction to the Study of the Hindu Doctrines, part III, chapter
VII, Shivaïsm and Vishnuïsm: "our goal is not to expose the
doctrines themselves, but only to point the proper spirit necessary to
René Guénon Introduction to the Study of the Hindu Doctrines, part
IV, chapters III and IV.
^ Jean-Pierre Laurant – Le Sens Caché dans l'Oeuvre de René
^ X. Accart, L'Ermite de Duqqi, Archè, Milano, 2001, chapter: "René
Guénon diaphane au Caire".
^ J.-B. Aymard, La naissance de la loge "La Grande Triade" dans la
René Guénon à
Frithjof Schuon in Connaissance des
religions, special issue on René Guénon, n° 65–66, pp. 17–35.
The integral version of this text can be found here (in French).
^ Paul Chacornac, The simple life of René Guénon, 2005, p. 98.
^ "For all his intellectuals skills might be, it seems unlikely that
he succeeded just by himself or with the help of a few books in
getting the profound and enlightening understanding of the Vêdânta
he seems to have acquired by the age of 23" in P. Feuga, "René
Guénon et l'Hindouisme", Connaissance des Religions, n. 65–66,
^ Cf. for instance The Eastern
Metaphysics and Introduction to the
Study of the Hindu Doctrines w.r.t. the meaning of the word
"metaphysics", the first chapter of The Reign of Quantity and the
Signs of the Times on the meanings of the words "form" and "matter",
the chapter "Kundalini-Yoga" in his Studies on
Hinduism about the
translation of Sanskrit word samâdhi as "ecstasy", Man and his
Becoming according to Vedânta" on the word "personality",
History of a Pseudo-Religion" on the word "theosophy"
^ Luc Benoist, L'oeuvre de René Guénon, in La nouvelle revue
française, 1943 (in French).
^ The Multiple states of the Being, Preface, p. 1.
^ The Multiple states of the Being, chapter "Possibles and
compossibles", p. 17.
^ The Multiple states of the Being, chapter: "Being and Non-Being".
^ Gilbert Durand, Les structures anthropologiques de l'imaginaire.
Introduction à l'archétypologie générale, PUF, 1963 (Introduction
et conclusion, passim), p. 21 (in french).
^ Introduction to the study of the Hindu Doctrines, part II, chapter
VII: Symbolism and anthropomorphism.
^ Introduction to the Study of the Hindu Doctrines.
^ Perspectives on initiation, chapters XVI, XVII and XVIII.
^ Guénon's summary of a book by A. K. Coomaraswamy The Christian and
Oriental or True Philosophy of Art, lecture given at Boston College,
Newton, Mass., in March 1939. The summary appears on page 36 of the
book Comptes-rendus, Editions Traditionnelles, 1986
^ General Introduction to the Study of Hindu doctrines, p.116.
^ René Guénon, Symbols of analogy
^ a b René Guénon, Symbols of analogy.
^ The Reign of Quantity and the Signs of the Times. Sophia Perennis,
^ Smoley, Richard. “Against Blavatsky: Rene Guenon's Critique of
Theosophy.” Quest 98. 1 (Winter 2010): 28-34.
^ Rebuttal of Rene Guenon’s Critique of Modern
Theosophy by D.
Johnson, copy available online at
^ The Spiritist fallacy, "The origins of spiritism" (chapter 2).
^ The Spiritist fallacy, p. 19.
^ The Reign of Quantity and the Signs of the Times, chapter 35 p. 235.
^ Symbols of
Sacred Science, Tradition and the 'Unconscious', p. 38.
^ Such as P. Geay's PhD thesis: "
Hermes trahi" ("
Hermes betrayed", in
^ The Jung Cult: Origins of a Charismatic Movement (Princeton:
Princeton University Press), ISBN 0-684-83423-5.
^ On this subject, however, see the review by Anthony Stevens, On Jung
(1999) about Noll's book.
^ Ch.-A. Gilis, "The profanation of Israël in the light of Sacred
Law", translated by R. Beale with a foreword by Abd al-Jabbâr Khouri,
Le Turban Noir publishing house, Paris, 2009.
^ a b Mark Sedgwick, Against the Modern World: Traditionalism and the
History of the Twentieth Century
^ "RENE GUENON ET L'HINDOUISME". pierrefeuga.free.fr. Retrieved 17
^ Jean-Pierre Laurant: René Guénon.
^ Jean-Pierre Laurant, René Guénon, Les enjeux d'une lecture,
^ Eddy Batache, «
René Guénon et le surréalisme », dans
le « Cahier de l'Herne » consacré à René Guénon, p.
^ Antonin Artaud, « La Mise en scène et la
métaphysique », dans Le théâtre et son double, Gallimard,
« Folio Essais »,
^ Dictionnaires et encyclopédies » (1936), recueilli dans
Chaque fois que l'aube paraît. Essais et notes, t. I, Paris,
^ Michel Lécureur, Raymond Queneau, biographie, Les belles
Lettres/Archimbaud, Paris, 2002,
^ Prévost, Pierre :
Georges Bataille et René Guénon, Jean
Michel Place, Paris. (ISBN 2-85893-156-9).
^ Ackerman, monographie sous la direction d'André Parinaud et Simone
Ackerman, Éditions Mayer, 1987.
^ Oxford University Press, Description: "Against the Modern World.
Traditionalism and the Secret Intellectual
History of the Twentieth
^ a b c Grottanelli Cristiano. Mircea Eliade, Carl Schmitt, René
Guénon, 1942. In: Revue de l'histoire des religions, tome 219, n°3,
2002. pp. 325-356.
^ Mircea Eliade’s The Portugal Journal, trans. Mac Linscott Ricketts
(Albany, N.Y.: SUNY Press, 2010)
^ a b c Lindenberg Daniel.
René Guénon ou la réaction intégrale.
In: Mil neuf cent, n°9, 1991. Les pensées réactionnaires. pp.
^ Marie France James wrote that René Guénon, knew “Ferdinand
Gombault, doctor in scholastic philosophy, during more than 30 years,
until his departure for Cairo, these two intellectuals maintained
regular contact and both were partisans of the Action Francaise”
^ Paul Chacornac, Simple Life of René Guénon
^ Jean-Pierre Laurant, René Guénon, les enjeux d'une lecture, Paris,
Dervy, 2006, ISBN 2-84454-423-1)
^ Bruno Hapel,
René Guénon et le Roi du Monde, Paris, Guy
Trédaniel, 2001, p. 153, ISBN 2-84445-244-2.
^ Laurant. Jean-Pierre et Barbanegra, Paul (éd.) :
« Cahiers de l'Herne » 49 : René Guénon, Éditions
de l'Herne, Paris. ISBN 2-85-197-055-0, p. 121.
^ Accart, Xavier : Guénon ou le renversement des clartés :
Influence d'un métaphysicien sur la vie littéraire et intellectuelle
française (1920–1970), 2005, Edidit. ISBN 978-2-912770-03-5.
^ Nguyen, Johan (2012-11-02). La réception de l'acupuncture en
France: Une biographie revisitée de George Soulié de Morant
(1878–1955). L'Harmattan. p. 100. ISBN 978-2-336-00358-0.
^ Review by: Daniel Lindenberg Source: Esprit, No. 332 (2) (Février
2007), pp. 218-222. Reviewed Work(s): GUÉNON OU LE RENVERSEMENT DES
CLARTÉS. Influence d'un métaphysicien sur la vie littéraire et
intellectuelle française (1920–1970) by Xavier Accart
^ Julis Evola. Rene Guenon a Teacher for Modern Times
^ a b Julius Evola, Ricognizioni: uomini e problemi (Rome: Edizioni
^ Review of Mark Sedgewick, Against the Modern world, Review by
Róbert Horváth, Axis Polaris, No. 7 (Budapest: 2006) in Hungarian
and in TYR, Vol. 3 (Atlanta, Georgia: 2007) in English.
^ Mircea Eliade’s The Portugal Journal, trans. Mac Linscott Ricketts
(Albany, N.Y.: SUNY Press, 2010), see also Grottanelli Cristiano.
Mircea Eliade, Carl Schmitt, René Guénon, 1942. In: Revue de
l'histoire des religions, tome 219, n°3, 2002. pp. 325-356.
^ C.f. André Lefranc, «
Julius Evola contre René
Guénon » and P. Geay "
René Guénon récupéré par
l'Extrême-Droite " LRA 16, 2003.
^ Pierre-Guillaume de Roux in Cahiers de l'Unité, n°5, 2017.
^ a b Accart, Xavier : Guénon critique des régimes totalitaires
dans les années 1930, La Règle d'Abraham, september 2015, Ubik
^ Fascism: Post-war fascisms edited by Roger Griffin, Matthew Feldman
^ Orlando Fedeli’s essay “A Gnose “Tradicionalista” de René
Guénon e Olavo de Carvalho”
^ Patrick Geay :
René Guénon récupéré par l'extrême droite,
La Règle d'Abraham, september 2015, Ubik éditions.
^ Renaud Fabbri also argues that Evola should not be considered a
member of the Perennialist School. See the section
Julius Evola and
the Perennialist School in Fabbri's Introduction to the Perennialist
^ "GUÉNON OU LE RENVERSEMENT DES CLARTÉS. Influence d'un
métaphysicien sur la vie littéraire et intellectuelle française
(1920–1970)" by Xavier Accart, 2005, Arché.
^ Against the Modern World: Traditionalism and the Secret Intellectual
History of the Twentieth Century by Mark Sedgwick.
^ Roger Griffin, ed., Fascism, 1995, page 353
^ Enquêtes sur la droite extrême, (1992), le journaliste R. Monzat
^ Russian Fascism: Traditions, Tendencies, Movements by S. Shenfield
^ "L'œuvre de Douguine au sein de la droite radicale française".
www.diploweb.com. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
^ A. Shekhovtsov & Andreas Umland: Is Aleksandr Dugin a
Traditionalist? “Neo-Eurasianism” and Perennial Philosophy. In:
The Russian Review. 68, Oktober 2009
^ Goodrick-Clarke, N. (2003). Black sun: Aryan cults, esoteric Nazism,
and the politics of identity. New York: New York University Press.
^ Daniel Cory, Santayana: The Later Years: A Portrait with Letters
(New York: G. Braziller, 1963), p. 267.
Huston Smith Reader: Edited, with an Introduction, by Jeffery
Paine, p. 6.
Fink-Bernard, Jeannine. L'Apport spirituel de René Guénon, in
series, Le Cercle des philosophes. Paris: Éditions Dervy, 1996.
Études Traditionnelles n. 293–295 : Numéro spécial consacré
à René Guénon.
Pierre-Marie Sigaud (ed.) : Dossier H René Guénon, L'Âge
d'Homme, Lausanne. ISBN 2-8251-3044-3.
Jean-Pierre Laurant and Barbanegra, Paul (éd.) : Cahiers de
l'Herne" 49 : René Guénon, Éditions de l'Herne, Paris.
Il y a cinquante ans, René Guénon..., Éditions Traditionnelles,
Paris. ISBN 2-7138-0180-X. (Notes.)
Narthex n° trimestriel 21-22-23 de mars-août 1978 (et semble-t-il
dernier), Numéro spécial
René Guénon with two contributions by
Jean Hani and Bernard Dubant (journal printed at only 600 samples
which can now be found only at Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris).
René Guénon and the Future of the West: The Life and Writings of a
Accart, Xavier : Guénon ou le renversement des clartés :
Influence d'un métaphysicien sur la vie littéraire et intellectuelle
française (1920–1970), 2005, Edidit. ISBN 978-2-912770-03-5.
Chacornac, Paul : La Vie simple de René Guénon, Éditions
traditionnelles, Paris. ISBN 2-7138-0028-5.
Evola, Julius : René Guénon: A Teacher for Modern Times.
Gattegno, David : Guénon : qui suis-je ?, Éditions
Pardès, Puiseaux (France). ISBN 2-86714-238-5.
Gilis, Charles-André (Abd Ar-Razzâq Yahyâ) : Introduction à
l'enseignement et au mystère de René Guénon, Les Éditions de
l'Œuvre, Paris. ISBN 2-904011-03-X.
Gilis, Charles-André (Abd Ar-Razzâq Yahyâ) :
René Guénon et
l'avènement du troisième Sceau. Éditions Traditionnelles, Paris.
Hapel, Bruno :
René Guénon et l'Archéomètre, Guy Trédaniel,
Paris. ISBN 2-85707-842-0.
Hapel, Bruno :
René Guénon et l'esprit de l'Inde, Guy
Trédaniel, Paris. ISBN 2-85707-990-7.
Hapel, Bruno :
René Guénon et le Roi du Monde, Guy Trédaniel,
Paris. ISBN 2-84445-244-2.
Herlihy, John [ed.]: The Essential René Guénon: Metaphysics,
Tradition, and the Crisis of Modernity. World Wisdom, 2009.
James, Marie-France : Ésotérisme et christianisme autour de
René Guénon, Nouvelles Éditions Latines, Paris.
Laurant, Jean-Pierre : Le sens caché dans l'oeuvre de René
Guénon, L'âge d'Homme, 1975, Lausanne, Switzerland,
Laurant, Jean-Pierre : L'Esotérisme, Les Editions du Cerf, 1993,
Laurant, Jean-Pierre : René Guénon, les enjeux d'une lecture,
Dervy, 2006, ISBN 2-84454-423-1.
Malić, Branko : The Way the World Goes – Rene Guénon on The
Maxence, Jean-Luc : René Guénon, le Philosophe invisible,
Presses de la Renaissance, Paris. ISBN 2-85616-812-4. (Notes.)
Montaigu, Henry :
René Guénon ou la mise en demeure. La Place
Royale, Gaillac (France). ISBN 2-906043-00-1.
Nutrizio, Pietro (e altri) :
René Guénon e l'Occidente, Luni
Editrice, Milano/Trento, 1999.
Prévost, Pierre :
Georges Bataille et René Guénon, Jean Michel
Place, Paris. ISBN 2-85893-156-9.
Robin, Jean: René Guénon, témoin de la Tradition, 2nd édition, Guy
Trédaniel publisher. ISBN 2-85707-026-8.
Rooth, Graham : Prophet For A Dark Age: A Companion To The Works
Of René Guénon, Sussex Academic Press, Brighton, 2008.
Science sacrée : Numéro Spécial René Guénon : R. G. de
la Saulaye, Science sacrée, 2003, ISBN 2915059020
Sérant, Paul : René Guénon, Le Courrier du livre, Paris.
Tamas, Mircea A :
René Guénon et le Centre du Monde, Rose-Cross
Books, Toronto, 2007, ISBN 978-0-9731191-7-6
Tourniac, Jean : Présence de René Guénon, t. 1 : L'œuvre
et l'univers rituel, Soleil Natal, Étampes (France).
Tourniac, Jean : Présence de René Guénon, t. 2 : La
Maçonnerie templière et le message traditionnel, Soleil Natal,
Étampes (France). ISBN 2-905270-59-4.
Ursin, Jean: René Guénon, Approche d'un homme complexe,
Ivoire-Clair, Lumière sur..., Groslay (France).
Vâlsan, Michel : L'Islam et la fonction de René Guénon,
Chacornac frères, Paris, 1953 (no isbn) and also Editions de
Vivenza, Jean-Marc : Le Dictionnaire de René Guénon, Le Mercure
Dauphinois, 2002. ISBN 2-913826-17-2.
Vivenza, Jean-Marc : La Métaphysique de René Guénon, Le
Mercure Dauphinois, 2004. ISBN 2-913826-42-3.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: René Guénon
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