HOME
The Info List - Reading Railroad


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

The READING COMPANY (pronounced _Redding_ /ˈrɛdɪŋ/ ; logotyped as READING LINES) operated a railroad in southeast Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and neighboring states from 1924-1976.

Commonly called the READING RAILROAD, it was a successor to the PHILADELPHIA AND READING RAILWAY COMPANY founded in 1833. Until the decline in anthracite loadings in the Coal Region after World War II , it was one of the most prosperous corporations in the United States.

Competition with the modern trucking industry that used the Interstate highway system for short distance transportation of goods, also known as short hauls, compounded the company's problems, forcing it into bankruptcy in the 1970s. Its railroad operations were merged into Conrail in 1976, but the corporation lasted into 2000, disposing of valuable real estate holdings.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and Reading Rail Road: 1833–1896

* 1.1.1 1833-73: Expansion

* 1.1.1.1 1873: Chester Branch

* 1.1.2 1875-96: Competition

* 1.2 Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and Reading Railway: 1896–1923

* 1.2.1 Reading Shops * 1.2.2 Passenger Operations

* 1.3 Reading Company: 1924–1976

* 1.3.1 Commuter lines * 1.3.2 Bankruptcy protection * 1.3.3 Electrification

* 1.4 Post-railroad: 1976-present

* 2 Company officers * 3 Heritage Unit * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links

HISTORY

PHILADELPHIA AND READING RAIL ROAD: 1833–1896

Original Philadelphia
Philadelphia
& Reading logo

The Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and Reading Railroad
Railroad
(P&R) was one of the first railroads in the United States
United States
. Along with the Little Schuylkill , a horse-drawn railroad in the Schuylkill River Valley, it formed the earliest components of what became the Reading Company. Primarily, the P"> Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and Reading Railroad
Railroad
daily passenger train time table, 1854

The original P&R mainline extended south from the mining town of Pottsville to Reading and then onward to Philadelphia, following the gently graded banks of the Schuylkill River for nearly all of the 93-mile journey. The line contained double track upon its completion in 1843.

The P&R became profitable almost immediately. Energy-dense coal had been replacing increasingly scarce wood as fuel in businesses and homes since the 1810s, and P&R-delivered coal was one of the first alternatives to the near-monopoly held by Lehigh Coal
Coal
& Navigation Company since the 1820s. Soon the P&R bought or leased many of the railroads in the Schuylkill River Valley and extended westward and north along the Susquehanna into the southern end of the Northern Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Coal Region . In Philadelphia, the Reading also built Port Richmond , the self-proclaimed "Largest privately owned railroad tidewater terminal in the world", which burnished the P&R's bottom lines by allowing coal to be loaded onto ships and barges for export. In 1871, the Reading established a subsidiary called the Philadelphia and Reading Coal
Coal
and Iron Company , which set about buying anthracite coal mines in the Coal Region . This vertical expansion gave the P&R almost full control of coal from mining through to market, allowing it to compete successfully with like-organized competitors such as Lehigh Coal
Coal
& Navigation and the Delaware
Delaware
white-space:nowrap;"> In 1890, Reading president Archibald A. McLeod saw that more riches could be earned by expanding its rail network and becoming a trunk railroad. McLeod went about trying to control neighboring railroads in 1891. He was able to gain control of the Lehigh Valley Railroad
Railroad
, Central Railroad
Railroad
of New Jersey
New Jersey
, and the Boston and Maine Railroad
Railroad
. The Reading almost achieved its goal of becoming a trunk road, but the deal was scuttled by J.P.Morgan and other rail barons, who did not want more competition in the northeastern railroad business. The Reading was relegated to a regional railroad for the rest of its history.

1833-73: Expansion

The PHILADELPHIA AND READING RAIL ROAD was chartered April 4, 1833, to build a line between Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and Reading along the Schuylkill River. The portion from Reading to Norristown opened July 16, 1838, the full line December 9, 1839. Its Philadelphia
Philadelphia
terminus was at the state-owned Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and Columbia Railroad
Railroad
(P&C) on the west side of the Schuylkill River, from which it ran east on the P"> Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and Reading Rail Road route map (1873)

An extension northwest from Reading to Mount Carbon , also on the Schuylkill River, opened on January 13, 1842, allowing the railroad to compete with the Schuylkill Canal . At Mount Carbon, it connected with the earlier Mount Carbon Railroad
Railroad
, continuing through Pottsville to several mines, and would eventually be extended to Williamsport . On May 17 of 1842, a freight branch from West Falls to Port Richmond on the Delaware
Delaware
River north of downtown Philadelphia
Philadelphia
opened. Port Richmond later became a very large coal terminal.

On January 1, 1851, the Belmont Plane on the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and Columbia Railroad, just west of the Reading's connection, was abandoned in favor of a new bypass, and the portion of the line east of it was sold to the Reading, the only company that continued using the old route.

The Lebanon Valley Railroad
Railroad
was chartered in 1836 to build from Reading west to Harrisburg . Reading financed the construction of the Rutherford Yard to compete with the PRR's nearby Enola Yard . The Reading took it over and began construction in 1854, opening the line in 1856. This gave the Reading a route from Philadelphia
Philadelphia
to Harrisburg, for the first time competing directly with the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Railroad
Railroad
, which became its major rival. In 1859 the Reading leased the Chester Valley Railroad
Railroad
, providing a branch from Bridgeport west to Downingtown . It had formerly been operated by the Philadelphia, Germantown and Norristown Railroad
Railroad
.

A new Philadelphia
Philadelphia
terminal opened on December 24, 1859, at Broad and Callowhill Streets , north of the old one at Cherry Street. The Reading and Columbia Railroad
Railroad
was chartered in 1857 to build from Reading southwest to Columbia on the Susquehanna River . It opened in 1864, using the Lebanon Valley Railroad
Railroad
from Sinking Spring east to Reading. The Reading leased it in 1870.

The early Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and Reading Railroad
Railroad
named all of their locomotives with names such as _Winona_ or _Jefferson_, as did most American railroads following in the British precedent, but in December 1871 the P&R replaced all the names with numbers. The Port Kennedy Railroad
Railroad
, a short branch to quarries at Port Kennedy , was leased in 1870. Also that year, the Reading leased the Pickering Valley Railroad , a branch running west from Phoenixville to Byers , which opened in 1871.

1873: Chester Branch

In 1873, the P&R extended its reach southward by leasing 10.2 miles of track from the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad
Railroad
. Dubbed the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
& Chester Branch, the line extended from the Gray\'s Ferry Bridge across the Schuylkill River in West Philadelphia to Ridley Creek in Ridley Junction in Delaware
Delaware
County. The segment included 4.9 miles of double track and 16.7 miles of single track, including sidings and turnouts.

The segment was part of the original 1838 line of the PW&B, which in 1872 opened a new stretch of track further inland to serve more populated areas and reduce flooding. On July 1, 1873, the PW&B agreed to lease the freight rights to the P southbound trains reached it via the Junction Railroad
Railroad
, jointly controlled by PW&B, Reading, and PRR, and continued on to the connecting Chester and Delaware
Delaware
River Railroad .

1875-96: Competition

During 1875, four members of the Camden and Atlantic Railroad
Railroad
board of directors resigned to build a second railroad from Camden, New Jersey , to Atlantic City by way of Clementon . Led by Samual Richards, an officer of the C&A for 24 years, they established the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and Atlantic City Railway (P&AC) on March 24, 1876. A 3-foot-6-inch narrow gauge was selected because it would lower track laying and operating costs. Work began in April 1877, and the track work was completed in a remarkable 90 days. On July 7, 1877, the final spike was driven and the 54.67 miles (87.98 km) line was opened in time for summer tourism season. However, on July 12, 1878, the P on September 20, 1883, it was jointly acquired by the _Central Railroad of New Jersey
New Jersey
(CNJ)_ and the PHILADELPHIA AND READING RAILWAY for $1 million. The name was changed to _PHILADELPHIA AND ATLANTIC CITY RAILROAD_ on December 4, 1883. The first major task was to convert all track to standard gauge, which was completed on October 5, 1884. The Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and Reading Railway acquired full control on December 4, 1885. 1884 map of the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, Reading and Lehigh Valley Railroads , soon after the Reading jointly acquired the Philadelphia and Atlantic City Railway with the Central Railroad
Railroad
of New Jersey
New Jersey

The Reading leased the North Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Railroad
Railroad
on May 14, 1879. This gave it a line from Philadelphia
Philadelphia
north to Bethlehem , and also the valuable Delaware
Delaware
and Bound Brook Railroad, the descendant of the National Railway project, providing a route to New York City
New York City
in direct competition with the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Railroad
Railroad
's United New Jersey Railroad
Railroad
and Canal Company . At the New York end it used the Central Railroad
Railroad
of New Jersey
New Jersey
's Jersey City Terminal from which passengers could board ferries to Liberty Street Ferry Terminal , Whitehall Terminal , and West 23rd Street in lower Manhattan.

The Reading Terminal opened in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
in 1893. On May 29 the Reading leased the Central Railroad
Railroad
of New Jersey
New Jersey
. The Reading eventually bought a majority of the CNJ's stock in 1901.

Effective April 1, 1889, the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and Reading Railway consolidated the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and Atlantic City Railway , Williamstown & Delaware
Delaware
River Railroad
Railroad
, Glassboro Railroad
Railroad
, Camden, Gloucester and Mt. Ephraim Railway , and the Kaighn\'s Point Terminal Railroad
Railroad
in southern New Jersey
New Jersey
into The Atlantic City Railroad
Railroad
. The Port Reading Railroad
Railroad
was chartered in 1890 and opened in 1892, running east from a junction from the New York main line near Bound Brook to the new port of Port Reading on the Arthur Kill near Perth Amboy .

The Lehigh Valley Railroad
Railroad
was leased on December 1, 1891 under the presidency of Archibald A. McLeod, but that lease was canceled on August 8, 1893 when the Reading went into receivership , an event associated with the Panic of 1893 . The Reading also relinquished control of the Central New England Railroad
Railroad
and the Boston and Maine Railroad
Railroad
. Amid the turmoil of the Panic of 1893 , Joseph Smith Harris was elected president. Under his leadership, the Reading Company was formed and the P&R was absorbed into it on November 30. Also in 1893, the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and Reading Railroad
Railroad
built its most famous structure, Reading Terminal in Philadelphia. Reading Terminal served as the terminus for most of the Reading's Philadelphia
Philadelphia
bound trains, as well as the headquarters for the Company.

PHILADELPHIA AND READING RAILWAY: 1896–1923

After the Panic of 1893 , and the failure of Archibald A. McLeod 's efforts to turn the Reading into a major trunk line , the Reading was forced to reorganize under suspicions of monopoly . The Reading Company was created to serve as a holding company for the Reading's rail and coal subsidiaries: the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and Reading Railway, and the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and Reading Coal
Coal
and Iron Company , respectively. However, in 1906, with the support of the Roosevelt Administration, the Hepburn Act was passed. This required all railroads to disinvest themselves of all mining properties and operations, and so the Reading Company was forced to sell the P&R Coal
Coal
and Iron Company.

Even though moving and mining of coal was its primary business, the P&R eventually became more diversified through the development of many on-line industries, averaging almost five industries per mile of main line at one point, and the expanding role of the Reading as a bridge route.

This included its important role on the Alphabet Route , from Boston and New York to Chicago , with traffic from the Lehigh Valley and Jersey Central entering the Reading System in Allentown , traveling over the East Penn Branch to Reading , where trains then traveled west over the Lebanon Valley Branch to Harrisburg , and then onward over the Philadelphia, Harrisburg and Pittsburg branch, or PH"> Vauclain compound Atlantic engaged in "the fastest regular service in the world", circa 1907.

Even though the Reading was never again to regain its powerful position of the 1870s, it still was a very profitable and important railroad. From the turn of the 20th century to the outbreak of World War I , the Reading was among the most modern and efficient railroads. In keeping with the standards of much larger railroads, The Reading embarked on many improvement projects which typically were not attempted by smaller railroads. This included triple and quadruple tracking many of its major routes, improving signaling and track quality , as well as expanding system capacity and station facilities.

The Reading invested in the construction of new cut-offs, bypasses, and connections , much like the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Railroad\'s "Low-grade" lines and the Lackawanna Cut-off . The completion of the Reading belt line in 1902, a 7.2 mile long westerly bypass of downtown Reading, alleviated the heavy rail congestion in the busy city.

In Bridgeport, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, a new bridge was constructed over the Schuylkill River in 1903. The bridge connected the P&R main line on the west (south) bank of the river with the Manayunk/Norristown Line on the opposite side, allowing passenger service to Norristown , and a bypass of the old main line, known as the West Side Fright line .

The Ninth Avenue branch —the main thoroughfare into Reading Terminal—was also improved. Between 1907-1914 the old double track and street level route was replaced by an elevated quadruple track route that offered greater capacity and safety. In 1901, the Reading gained a controlling interest in the Central Railroad
Railroad
of New Jersey
New Jersey
, allowing the Reading to offer seamless, one-seat rides from Reading Terminal in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
to the CNJ's Jersey City Communipaw Terminal by way of Bound Brook onto the CNJ mainline. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
Railroad
was also looking for access to the New York market, and in 1903 the Bbackground:#27404E;text-align:center;padding:5px"> New York Short Line

Legend

_

New York Branch

to Bound Brook

Newtown Branch _

_

Cheltenham Junction

Lawndale

Frankford Branch_

_

Frankford Junction

Crescentville

Olney

Bethlehem Branch

to Third and Berks

Newtown Junction

Ninth Street Branch _

To the north, the New York Short Line was completed in 1906, and was a cut-off for New York Bound through freights and the B"> A 1914 picture of Reading Class M1sa showing the cab behind the wide Wootten Firebox, a first for the Reading

In 1900, the Reading Shops began construction along the Reading yards and North 6th street, facilitating the maintenance and construction of a greater locomotive and rolling stock fleet. The shops were completed four years later, with their imposing brick architecture, they were the largest railroad shops in America, and unlike most railroads, allowed the Reading to make its own engines. They still stand today in non RR use. Larger steam locomotives were introduced to haul the increasing traffic, including the massive N1 class (arthur e newbold-lessor) mallet, and Reading made one M1 class 2-8-2 freight hauler, Baldwin locomotive Works built the rest. Big freight haulers were the massive K-1 2-10-2 locomotives, some were built in Reading, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
from the mallets, others were built by Baldwin. The G1 class were passenger locomotives. These classes were an important break of tradition of the Readings motive power fleet. The M1s were the first Reading locomotives to include a trailing truck, and the first engine with the cab behind the Wootten firebox of note the "lessor" Arthur E. Newbold was reported to the ICC in 1919. This means some steam power was owned by a second party and leased to the P"> A Reading train departs Reading Terminal, September 1964

The Reading Company did not operate extensive long distance passenger train service, but it did field a number of named trains, most famous of which was the streamlined _Crusader _, which connected Philadelphia and Jersey City. Other trains in the fleet included the _Harrisburg Special_ (between Jersey City and Harrisburg), _King Coal
Coal
_ (between Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and Shamokin, Pennsylvania), _North Penn_ (between Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and Bethlehem), _Queen of the Valley_ (between Jersey City and Harrisburg), _Schuylkill_ (between Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and Pottsville), and _Wall Street_ (between Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and Jersey City). The Reading participated in the joint operation of _The Interstate Express _ with the Central Railroad
Railroad
Company of New Jersey
New Jersey
and the Delaware, Lackawanna "> A Reading electric at Reading Terminal, Philadelphia
Philadelphia
in September 1964

The Reading operated an extensive commuter network out of Reading Terminal in Philadelphia. In the late 1920s most of the suburban system was electrified (the first lines electrified were the Ninth Street Branch , New Hope Branch , the Bethlehem Branch as far as Lansdale , the Doylestown Branch , and the New York Branch to West Trenton ). Reading ordered 150 electric multiple units from Bethlehem Steel which were supplemented by twenty unpowered coach trailers converted from existing coaches and electrified services began on July 26, 1931.

READING COMPANY: 1924–1976

_ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (November 2008)_

Reading ALCO C424 5202 at Rutherford Yard in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
in 1970

After the first World War, and the return of the Reading from government control, the Reading decided to streamline their corporate structure. For twenty years the Reading Company, the holding company created for the P&R and the P&R Coal
Coal
and Iron Company, only controlled the P&R after the sale of the P&R Coal
Coal
and Iron Company. To simplify corporate structure the P&R ceased operation in 1924 and the Reading Company took over operating the Railroad. The period just after World War I may have been the Reading Company's best, with traffic on the Reading at its peacetime high. Annual volume was about 15 million tons of Anthracite, 25 million tons of Bituminous Coal
Coal
, with a further 30 million tons of industrial traffic. The Reading had taken great strides to wean itself of anthracite dependency but it still relied heavily on coal revenue, and Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
anthracite production had peaked in 1917 with 99.7 million tons produced.

Revenue Freight Ton-Miles (Millions)

READING CORNWALL B&S

1925 6,775 9 0.8

1933 3,943 3 (incl in RDG)

1944 9,303 13

1960 5,685 8

1970 4,329 (incl in RDG)

Revenue Passenger-Miles (Millions)

READING CORNWALL B&S

1925 418 0.6 0.6

1933 150 0.01 (incl in RDG)

1944 541 0

1960 173 0

1970 195 (incl in RDG)

The 1925 "Reading" totals above include all the subsidiaries (C&F, G&H, P">

Electrification

Electrified Reading commuter train led by Silverliner II 9002 in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
in 1964

The railroad also had an extensive commuter operation centered around Philadelphia, the hub of which was Reading Terminal. The following suburban lines were electrified before the onset of the Great Depression :

* Norristown Line * Chestnut Hill * Lansdale/Doylestown * Hatboro (extended to Warminster in 1974) * West Trenton

Reading electric commuter trains at Reading Terminal, September 1964

The notable exception was the Fox Chase/Newtown branch . With the aid of public funding from the city of Philadelphia, the line was electrified as far as Fox Chase (the last station within city limits) in September 1966. Electrification was to be completed through to Newtown in the 1970s, but government subsidies were not readily available, leaving the Fox Chase-Newtown section as the lone non-electrified suburban commuter route on the Reading system. Passenger service between Fox Chase and Newtown was terminated on January 14, 1983 under the auspices of SEPTA .

To further complicate matters, the Reading was forced to continue paying its debts to the Penn Central Railroad
Railroad
, however, Penn Central (also in bankruptcy at the time) was not required to pay its debts to the Reading Company.

POST-RAILROAD: 1976-PRESENT

On April 1, 1976, the Reading Company sold its current railroad interests to the newly formed Consolidated Railroad
Railroad
Corporation (Conrail), leaving it with 650 real estate assets, some coal properties, and 52 abandoned rights-of-way . As of 1999, most former Reading lines are now part of Norfolk Southern Railway (NS), as a result of the Conrail split between NS and CSX Transportation . It had sold 350 of the real estate tracts by the time it left bankruptcy in 1980.

In the late 1980s a Los Angeles -based lawyer named James Cotter gained control of the corporation through his holding company , the Craig Corporation, and liquidated the rest of its assets to finance his cinema chains in Puerto Rico , Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
. The company sold one of its last railroad-related assets, the Reading Terminal Headhouse, in 1991. In 1996, Cotter reorganized the company as Reading Entertainment. The Craig Corporation merged in 2001 with Citadel Holding Corporation, another Cotter company, and became Reading International, Inc. RDI still ownes 317 acres of former railroad property, mostly in upper Pennsylvania, along with the Reading Railroad
Railroad
publicity files of approximately 300-600 lin. feet (as of 2011).

COMPANY OFFICERS

The presidents of the Reading were:

Elihu Chauncey 1834–1842

William F. Emlen 1842–1843

John Cryder 1843–1844

John Tucker 1844–1856

Robert D. Cullen 1856–1860

Asa Whitney 1860–1861

Charles E. Smith 1861–1869

Franklin B. Gowen 1869–1884

Frank S. Bond 1881–1882 (elected when Gowen's leadership was contested)

George DeBenneville Keim 1884–1887

Austin Corbin 1887–1890

Archibald A. McLeod 1890–1893

Joseph Smith Harris 1893–1901

George Frederick Baer 1901–1914

Theodore Voorhees 1914–1916

Agnew Dice 1916–1932

Charles H. Ewing 1932–1935

Edward W. Scheer 1935–1944

Revelle W. Brown 1944–1952

Joseph A. Fisher 1952–1960

E. Paul Gangewere 1960–1964

Charles E. Bertrand 1964–1976

HERITAGE UNIT

As a part of Norfolk Southern's 30th anniversary in 2012, the company painted 20 new locomotives into predecessor schemes. NS #1067, an EMD SD70ACe locomotive, was painted into the Bee Line Service paint scheme of the Reading.

SEE ALSO

* Railways portal

* Great Railroad
Railroad
Strike of 1877 * Schuylkill Canal

REFERENCES

* ^ Drury, George H. (1994). _The Historical Guide to North American Railroads: Histories, Figures, and Features of more than 160 Railroads Abandoned or Merged since 1930_. Waukesha, Wisconsin : Kalmbach Publishing . pp. 275–277. ISBN 0-89024-072-8 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ Plant (1996) . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Pennypacker (2002) , p. 38. * ^ Reading Railroad * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Plant (1998) . * ^ Williamsport is located at 41°14′40″N 77°1′7″W / 41.24444°N 77.01861°W / 41.24444; -77.01861 (41.244428, −77.018738),"US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau . 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. and is bordered by the West Branch Susquehanna River to the south... As the crow flies , Williamsport in Lycoming County is about 130 miles (209 km) northwest of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and 165 miles (266 km) east-northeast of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
. * ^ _"2007 General Highway Map Lycoming County Pennsylvania"_ (PDF) (Map). 1:65,000. Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Department of Transportation, Bureau of Planning and Research, Geographic Information Division. Retrieved 2009-12-27. * ^ Bernhart (2006) , p. 3. * ^ _A_ _B_ Basalik, Kenneth J. & Philip Ruth (March 2, 2015). " Philadelphia
Philadelphia
">(PDF). _Historic Resource Survey Form_. PENNSYLVANIA HISTORICAL AND MUSEUM COMMISSION, Bureau for Historic Preservation. Retrieved April 27, 2016. * ^ "Report of the Operations of the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
& Reading Railroad
Railroad
Co. and the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
& Reading Coal
Coal
& Iron Co". Philadelphia
Philadelphia
& Reading Railroad
Railroad
Co. 1881. Retrieved April 27, 2016. * ^ Morlok, Edward K., University of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
(2005). "First Permanent Railroad
Railroad
in the U.S. and Its Connection to the University of Pennsylvania." _Transportation Data._ Accessed 2013-04-23. * ^ "The Railway World". United States
United States
Railroad
Railroad
and Mining Register Company. 1 January 1880 – via Google Books. * ^ _ Railroad
Railroad
Ferries of the Hudson: And Stories of a Deckhand_, by, Raymond J. Baxter, Arthur G. Adams, pg. 45-60 ,1999, Fordham University Press, 978-0823219544 * ^ Holton (1989) , p. 339. * ^ Archived September 23, 2008, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Reading Eagle Quote: “1902: Reading Belt Line, which runs through West Reading and bypasses the city, is dedicated, 1900: Construction of new rail shops in Reading begins” ret>6/17/09 * ^ " Philadelphia