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RALPH FREDERICK MANHEIM (April 4, 1907 – September 26, 1992) was an American translator of German and French literature
French literature
, as well as occasional works from Dutch , Polish and Hungarian . He was one of most acclaimed translators of the 20th century, and likened translation to acting, the role being "to impersonate his author".

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life * 2 Career * 3 Later life and death * 4 Awards and honors * 5 References

EARLY LIFE

Manheim lived for a year in Germany and Austria as an adolescent, graduated from Harvard at the age of nineteen, and spent time in Munich and Vienna (studying at the universities) before the rise to power of Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
. He also undertook post-graduate study at Yale and Columbia universities.

CAREER

His career as a translator began with Hitler\'s Mein Kampf
Mein Kampf
, commissioned by Houghton Mifflin
Houghton Mifflin
and published in 1943. Manheim endeavored to give an exact English equivalent of Hitler's highly individual, often awkward style, including his grammatical errors.

Manheim translated the works of Bertolt Brecht
Bertolt Brecht
(in collaboration with John Willett ), Louis-Ferdinand Céline
Louis-Ferdinand Céline
, Günter Grass
Günter Grass
, Peter Handke , philosopher Martin Heidegger
Martin Heidegger
, Hermann Hesse
Hermann Hesse
, Novalis
Novalis
, and many others. His translation of Henry Corbin
Henry Corbin
's work Alone with the Alone: Creative Imagination in the Sufism of Ibn \'Arabi could be considered a major contribution towards the understanding of Ibn Arabi
Ibn Arabi
's and Sufi
Sufi
philosophy in the English-speaking world.

In 1961, he rendered transcripts of the trial in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
of Adolf Eichmann into English, and Grimm's Tales For Young and Old - The Complete Stories, published in 1977. Modern readers are familiar with his 1986 translation of E.T.A. Hoffmann
E.T.A. Hoffmann
's "The Nutcracker
Nutcracker
and the Mouse King ". It was published with illustrations by Maurice Sendak
Maurice Sendak
, in conjunction with the release of the 1986 film Nutcracker: The Motion Picture . Lovers of children's books also admire his agile translation of Michael Ende
Michael Ende
's The Neverending Story .

LATER LIFE AND DEATH

He moved to Paris
Paris
in 1950 and lived there until 1985, when he moved with his fourth wife to Cambridge, England, where he died in 1992, at age 85, from complications associated with prostate cancer .

AWARDS AND HONORS

He received the PEN Translation Prize in 1964.

He received the 1970 National Book Award in the Translation category for the first U.S. edition of Céline's Castle to Castle
Castle to Castle
.

He was awarded a 1983 MacArthur Fellowship
MacArthur Fellowship
in Literary Studies. He won the PEN/Ralph Manheim Medal for Translation , a major lifetime achievement award in the field of translation, in 1988.

Manheim's 1961 translation of Günter Grass's Die Blechtrommel (The Tin Drum ) was elected to fourth place among outstanding translations of the previous half century by the Translators Association of the Society of Authors on the occasion of their 50th anniversary in 2008.

REFERENCES

* ^ FOLKART, BURT A. (1992-09-29). "Ralph Manheim; Master Translator
Translator
of Literature". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035 . Retrieved 2017-10-02. * ^ A B C D Bruce Lambert "Ralph Manheim, 85, Translator
Translator
Of Major Works to English, Dies", New York Times, 28 September 1992. Retrieved on 25 March 2009. * ^ A B C John Calder "Obituary: Ralph Manheim", The Independent, 28 September 1992

* ^ "National Book Awards – 1970". National Book Foundation . Retrieved 2012-03-11. There was a "Translation" award from 1967 to 1983.

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 9864901 * LCCN : n79060708 * ISNI : 0000 0001 0868 5807 * GND : 116731427 * SUDOC : 02859794X * BNF : cb120401476 (data) * NLA : 35325622 * NDL : 00470992 * IATH : w6571f10

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