Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another,
which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people
based on their race or ethnicity. Today, the use of the term "racism"
does not easily fall under a single definition.
The ideology underlying racist practices often includes the idea that
humans can be subdivided into distinct groups that are different due
to their social behavior and their innate capacities as well as the
idea that they can be ranked as inferior or superior. Historical
examples of institutional racism include the Holocaust, the apartheid
regime in South Africa, and slavery and segregation in the United
Racism was also an aspect of the social organization of many
colonial states and empires.
While the concepts of race and ethnicity are considered to be separate
in contemporary social science, the two terms have a long history of
equivalence in both popular usage and older social science literature.
"Ethnicity" is often used in a sense close to one traditionally
attributed to "race": the division of human groups based on qualities
assumed to be essential or innate to the group (e.g. shared ancestry
or shared behavior). Therefore, racism and racial discrimination are
often used to describe discrimination on an ethnic or cultural basis,
independent of whether these differences are described as racial.
According to a
United Nations convention on racial discrimination,
there is no distinction between the terms "racial" and "ethnic"
discrimination. The UN convention further concludes that superiority
based on racial differentiation is scientifically false, morally
condemnable, socially unjust and dangerous, and there is no
justification for racial discrimination, anywhere, in theory or in
Racist ideology can become manifest in many aspects of social life.
Racism can be present in social actions, practices, or political
systems (e.g., apartheid) that support the expression of prejudice or
aversion in discriminatory practices. Associated social actions may
include nativism, xenophobia, otherness, segregation, hierarchical
ranking, supremacism, and related social phenomena.
1 Etymology, definition and usage
1.2 Social and behavioral science
1.4 Popular usage
2.1 Aversive racism
2.2 Color blindness
2.7 Racial discrimination
2.8 Racial segregation
2.11 Subconscious biases
3 International law and racial discrimination
Ethnicity and ethnic conflicts
5.1 Ethnic nationalism
Ethnocentrism and proto-racism
6.2 Limpieza de sangre
6.3 19th century
6.4 20th century
7 Scientific racism
7.1 Scientific variants
Heredity and eugenics
Polygenism and racial typologies
7.1.3 Human zoos
8 Theories about the origins of racism
9 State-sponsored racism
10.1 International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
10.2 Teaching about racism
11 See also
12 References and notes
13 Further reading
14 External links
Etymology, definition and usage
Genetics and differences
Race and genetics
Human genetic variation
in the United States
Racial inequality in the United States
Racial wage gap in the United States
in the United States
Crime in the United Kingdom
Crime in the United States
Race and health
in the United States
History of the race
and intelligence controversy
An early use of the word "racism" by
Richard Henry Pratt
Richard Henry Pratt in 1902:
"Association of races and classes is necessary to destroy racism and
In the 19th century, many scientists subscribed to the belief that the
human population can be divided into races. The term racism is a noun
describing the state of being racist, i.e., subscribing to the belief
that the human population can or should be classified into races with
differential abilities and dispositions, which in turn may motivate a
political ideology in which rights and privileges are differentially
distributed based on racial categories. The origin of the root word
"race" is not clear. Linguists generally agree that it came to the
English language from Middle French, but there is no such agreement on
how it came into Latin-based languages, generally. A recent proposal
is that it derives from the
Arabic ra's, which means "head, beginning,
origin" or the Hebrew rosh, which has a similar meaning. Early race
theorists generally held the view that some races were inferior to
others and they consequently believed that the differential treatment
of races was fully justified. These early theories guided
pseudo-scientific research assumptions; the collective endeavors to
adequately define and form hypotheses about racial differences are
generally termed scientific racism, though this term is a misnomer due
to the lack of any actual science backing the claims.
Today, most biologists, anthropologists, and sociologists reject a
taxonomy of races in favor of more specific and/or empirically
verifiable criteria, such as geography, ethnicity or a history of
endogamy. To date, there is little evidence in human genome
research which indicates that race can be defined in such a way as to
be useful in determining a genetic classification of
An entry in the
Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary (2008) simply defines
racialism as "An earlier term than racism, but now largely superseded
by it," and cites it in a 1902 quote. The revised Oxford English
Dictionary cites the shortened term "racism" in a quote from the
following year, 1903. It was first defined by the Oxford
English Dictionary (2nd edition, 1989) as "[t]he theory that
distinctive human characteristics and abilities are determined by
race"; the same dictionary termed racism a synonym of racialism:
"belief in the superiority of a particular race". By the end of World
War II, racism had acquired the same supremacist connotations formerly
associated with racialism: racism now implied racial discrimination,
racial supremacism and a harmful intent. (The term "race hatred" had
also been used by sociologist
Frederick Hertz in the late 1920s.)
As its history indicates, the popular use of the word racism is
relatively recent. The word came into widespread usage in the Western
world in the 1930s, when it was used to describe the social and
political ideology of Nazism, which saw "race" as a naturally given
political unit. It is commonly agreed that racism existed before
the coinage of the word, but there is not a wide agreement on a single
definition of what racism is and what it is not. Today, some scholars
of racism prefer to use the concept in the plural racisms in order to
emphasize its many different forms that do not easily fall under a
single definition and they also argue that different forms of racism
have characterized different historical periods and geographical
areas. Garner (2009: p. 11) summarizes different existing
definitions of racism and identifies three common elements contained
in those definitions of racism. First, a historical, hierarchical
power relationship between groups; second, a set of ideas (an
ideology) about racial differences; and, third, discriminatory actions
Though many countries around the globe have passed laws related to
race and discrimination, the first significant international human
rights instrument developed by the
United Nations (UN) was the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). The UDHR was adopted
United Nations General Assembly in 1948. The UDHR recognizes
that if people are to be treated with dignity, they require economic
rights, social rights including education, and the rights to cultural
and political participation and civil liberty. It further states that
everyone is entitled to these rights "without distinction of any kind,
such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other
opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status."
The UN does not define "racism"; however, it does define "racial
discrimination": According to the 1965 UN International Convention on
the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination,
the term "racial discrimination" shall mean any distinction,
exclusion, restriction, or preference based on race, colour, descent,
or national or ethnic origin that has the purpose or effect of
nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an
equal footing, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the
political, economic, social, cultural or any other field of public
In their 1978
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO) Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice
(Article 1), the UN states, "All human beings belong to a single
species and are descended from a common stock. They are born equal in
dignity and rights and all form an integral part of humanity."
The UN definition of racial discrimination does not make any
distinction between discrimination based on ethnicity and race, in
part because the distinction between the two has been a matter of
debate among academics, including anthropologists. Similarly, in
British law the phrase racial group means "any group of people who are
defined by reference to their race, colour, nationality (including
citizenship) or ethnic or national origin".
In Norway, the word "race" has been removed from national laws
concerning discrimination because the use of the phrase is considered
problematic and unethical. The Norwegian Anti-Discrimination
Act bans discrimination based on ethnicity, national origin, descent
and skin color.
Social and behavioral science
Sociology of race and ethnic relations
Sociologists, in general, recognize "race" as a social construct. This
means that, although the concepts of race and racism are based on
observable biological characteristics, any conclusions drawn about
race on the basis of those observations are heavily influenced by
cultural ideologies. Racism, as an ideology, exists in a society at
both the individual and institutional level.
While much of the research and work on racism during the last
half-century or so has concentrated on "white racism" in the Western
world, historical accounts of race-based social practices can be found
across the globe. Thus, racism can be broadly defined to encompass
individual and group prejudices and acts of discrimination that result
in material and cultural advantages conferred on a majority or a
dominant social group. So-called "white racism" focuses on
societies in which white populations are the majority or the dominant
social group. In studies of these majority white societies, the
aggregate of material and cultural advantages is usually termed "white
Race and race relations are prominent areas of study in sociology and
economics. Much of the sociological literature focuses on white
racism. Some of the earliest sociological works on racism were penned
by sociologist W. E. B. Du Bois, the first
African American to earn a
doctoral degree from Harvard University. Du Bois wrote, "The problem
of the twentieth century is the problem of the color line."
Wellman (1993) defines racism as "culturally sanctioned beliefs,
which, regardless of intentions involved, defend the advantages whites
have because of the subordinated position of racial minorities".
In both sociology and economics, the outcomes of racist actions are
often measured by the inequality in income, wealth, net worth, and
access to other cultural resources, such as education, between racial
In sociology and social psychology, racial identity and the
acquisition of that identity, is often used as a variable in racism
studies. Racial ideologies and racial identity affect individuals'
perception of race and discrimination. Cazenave and Maddern (1999)
define racism as "a highly organized system of 'race'-based group
privilege that operates at every level of society and is held together
by a sophisticated ideology of color/'race' supremacy. Racial
centrality (the extent to which a culture recognizes individuals'
racial identity) appears to affect the degree of discrimination
African American young adults perceive whereas racial ideology may
buffer the detrimental emotional effects of that discrimination.
Sellers and Shelton (2003) found that a relationship between racial
discrimination and emotional distress was moderated by racial ideology
and social beliefs.
Some sociologists also argue that, particularly in the West where
racism is often negatively sanctioned in society, racism has changed
from being a blatant to a more covert expression of racial prejudice.
The "newer" (more hidden and less easily detectable) forms of
racism—which can be considered embedded in social processes and
structures—are more difficult to explore as well as challenge. It
has been suggested that, while in many countries overt or explicit
racism has become increasingly taboo, even among those who display
egalitarian explicit attitudes, an implicit or aversive racism is
still maintained subconsciously.
This process has been studied extensively in social psychology as
implicit associations and implicit attitudes, a component of implicit
cognition. Implicit attitudes are evaluations that occur without
conscious awareness towards an attitude object or the self. These
evaluations are generally either favorable or unfavorable. They come
about from various influences in the individual experience.
Implicit attitudes are not consciously identified (or they are
inaccurately identified) traces of past experience that mediate
favorable or unfavorable feeling, thought, or action towards social
objects. These thoughts, feelings or actions have an influence on
behavior of which the individual may not be aware.
Therefore, subconscious racism can influence our visual processing and
how our minds work when we are subliminally exposed to faces of
different colors. In thinking about crime, for example, social
psychologist Jennifer L. Eberhardt (2004) of
Stanford University holds
that, "blackness is so associated with crime you're ready to pick out
these crime objects." Such exposures influence our minds and they
can cause subconscious racism in our behavior towards other people or
even towards objects. Thus, racist thoughts and actions can arise from
stereotypes and fears of which we are not aware.
Language, linguistics and discourse are active areas of study in the
humanities, along with literature and the arts.
seeks to reveal the meaning of race and the actions of racists through
careful study of the ways in which these factors of human society are
described and discussed in various written and oral works. Van Dijk
(1992), for example, examines the different ways in which descriptions
of racism and racist actions are depicted by the perpetrators of such
actions as well as by their victims. He notes that when
descriptions of actions have negative implications for the majority,
and especially for white elites, they are often seen as controversial
and such controversial interpretations are typically marked with
quotation marks or they are greeted with expressions of distance or
doubt. The previously cited book,
The Souls of Black Folk
The Souls of Black Folk by W.E.B. Du
Bois, represents early
African-American literature that describes the
author's experiences with racism when he was traveling in the South as
an African American.
Much American fictional literature has focused on issues of racism and
the black "racial experience" in the US, including works written by
whites such as Uncle Tom's Cabin, To Kill a Mockingbird, and Imitation
of Life, or even the non-fiction work Black Like Me. These books, and
others like them, feed into what has been called the "white savior
narrative in film", in which the heroes and heroines are white even
though the story is about things that happen to black characters.
Textual analysis of such writings can contrast sharply with black
authors' descriptions of African Americans and their experiences in US
African American writers have sometimes been portrayed in
African-American studies as retreating from racial issues when they
write about "whiteness", while others identify this as an African
American literary tradition called "the literature of white
estrangement", part of a multipronged effort to challenge and
dismantle white supremacy in the US.
According to dictionaries, the word is commonly used to describe
racial prejudice and discrimination.
Racism can also be said to describe a condition in society in which a
dominant racial group benefits from the oppression of others, whether
that group wants such benefits or not. Foucauldian scholar Ladelle
McWhorter in her 2009 book
Racism and Sexual
Anglo-America: A Genealogy posits modern racism similarly, focusing on
the notion of a dominant group, usually whites, vying for racial
purity and progress, rather than an overt or obvious ideology focused
on the oppression of nonwhites.
In popular usage, as in some academic usage, little distinction is
made between "racism" and "ethnocentrism". Often, the two are listed
together as "racial and ethnic" in describing some action or outcome
that is associated with prejudice within a majority or dominant group
in society. Furthermore, the meaning of the term racism is often
conflated with the terms prejudice, bigotry, and discrimination.
Racism is a complex concept that can involve each of those, but it
cannot be equated with nor is it synonymous with these other terms.
The term is often used in relation to what is seen as prejudice within
a minority or subjugated group, as in the concept of reverse racism.
"Reverse racism" is a concept often used to describe acts of
discrimination or hostility against members of a dominant racial or
ethnic group while favoring members of minority groups. This
concept has been used especially in the
United States in debates over
color-conscious policies (such as affirmative action) intended to
remedy racial inequalities. Those[who?] who campaign for the
interests of ethnic minorities commonly reject the concept of reverse
racism. Scholars, also, commonly define racism not only in terms
of individual prejudice, but also in terms of a power structure that
protects the interests of the dominant culture and actively
discriminates against ethnic minorities. From this
perspective, while members of ethnic minorities may be prejudiced
against members of the dominant culture, they lack the political and
economic power to actively oppress them, and they are therefore not
The ideology underlying racism can become manifest in many aspects of
social life. Such aspects are described in this section, although the
list is not exhaustive.
Main article: Aversive racism
Aversive racism is a form of implicit racism in which a person's
unconscious negative evaluations of racial or ethnic minorities are
realized by a persistent avoidance of interaction with other racial
and ethnic groups. As opposed to traditional, overt racism, which is
characterized by overt hatred for and explicit discrimination against
racial/ethnic minorities, aversive racism is characterized by more
complex, ambivalent expressions and attitudes.
Aversive racism is
similar in implications to the concept of symbolic or modern racism
(described below), which is also a form of implicit, unconscious, or
covert attitude which results in unconscious forms of discrimination.
The term was coined by Joel Kovel to describe the subtle racial
behaviors of any ethnic or racial group who rationalize their aversion
to a particular group by appeal to rules or stereotypes. People
who behave in an aversively racial way may profess egalitarian
beliefs, and will often deny their racially motivated behavior;
nevertheless they change their behavior when dealing with a member of
another race or ethnic group than the one they belong to. The
motivation for the change is thought to be implicit or subconscious.
Experiments have provided empirical support for the existence of
Aversive racism has been shown to have potentially
serious implications for decision making in employment, in legal
decisions and in helping behavior.
Main article: Color blindness (race)
In relation to racism, Color blindness is the disregard of racial
characteristics in social interaction, for example in the rejection of
affirmative action, as way to address the results of past patterns of
discrimination. Critics of this attitude argue that by refusing to
attend to racial disparities, racial color blindness in fact
unconsciously perpetuates the patterns that produce racial
Eduardo Bonilla-Silva argues that color blind racism arises from an
"abstract liberalism, biologization of culture, naturalization of
racial matters, and minimization of racism". Color blind practices
are "subtle, institutional, and apparently nonracial" because race
is explicitly ignored in decision making. If race is disregarded in
predominately white populations, for example, whiteness becomes the
normative standard, whereas people of color are othered, and the
racism these individuals experience may be minimized or
erased. At an individual level, people with "color blind
prejudice" reject racist ideology, but also reject systemic policies
intended to fix institutional racism.
See also: Xenophobia
Cultural racism is a term used to describe and explain new racial
ideologies and practices that have emerged since World War II. It can
be defined as societal beliefs and customs that promote the assumption
that the products of a given culture, including the language and
traditions of that culture are superior to those of other cultures. It
shares a great deal with xenophobia, which is often characterised by
fear of, or aggression toward, members of an outgroup by members of an
Cultural racism exists when there is a widespread acceptance of
stereotypes concerning different ethnic or population groups.
Where racism can be characterised by the belief that one race is
inherently superior to another, cultural racism can be characterised
by the belief that one culture is inherently superior to another.
Racial wage gap in the United States
Racial wage gap in the United States and Racial
wealth gap in the United States
Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses, Germany, 1933
Historical economic or social disparity is alleged to be a form of
discrimination caused by past racism and historical reasons, affecting
the present generation through deficits in the formal education and
kinds of preparation in previous generations, and through primarily
unconscious racist attitudes and actions on members of the general
Bank of America
Bank of America agreed to pay $335 million to settle a
federal government claim that its mortgage division, Countrywide
Financial, discriminated against black and Hispanic homebuyers.
During the Spanish colonial period, Spaniards developed a complex
caste system based on race, which was used for social control and
which also determined a person's importance in society. While many
Latin American countries have long since rendered the system
officially illegal through legislation, usually at the time of their
independence, prejudice based on degrees of perceived racial distance
from European ancestry combined with one's socioeconomic status
remain, an echo of the colonial caste system.
Further information: Institutional racism, State racism, Racial
Racism by country
Institutional racism (also known as structural racism, state racism or
systemic racism) is racial discrimination by governments,
corporations, religions, or educational institutions or other large
organizations with the power to influence the lives of many
Stokely Carmichael is credited for coining the phrase
institutional racism in the late 1960s. He defined the term as "the
collective failure of an organization to provide an appropriate and
professional service to people because of their colour, culture or
Maulana Karenga argued that racism constituted the destruction of
culture, language, religion, and human possibility and that the
effects of racism were "the morally monstrous destruction of human
possibility involved redefining African humanity to the world,
poisoning past, present and future relations with others who only know
us through this stereotyping and thus damaging the truly human
relations among peoples".
Main article: Othering
Othering is the term used by some to describe a system of
discrimination whereby the characteristics of a group are used to
distinguish them as separate from the norm.
Othering plays a fundamental role in the history and continuation of
racism. To objectify a culture as something different, exotic or
underdeveloped is to generalize that it is not like 'normal' society.
Europe's colonial attitude towards the Orient exemplifies this as it
was thought that the East was the opposite of the West; feminine where
the West was masculine, weak where the West was strong and traditional
where the West was progressive. By making these generalizations
and othering the East,
Europe was simultaneously defining herself as
the norm, further entrenching the gap.
Much of the process of othering relies on imagined difference, or the
expectation of difference. Spatial difference can be enough to
conclude that "we" are "here" and the "others" are over "there".
Imagined differences serve to categorize people into groups and assign
them characteristics that suit the imaginer's expectations.
Main article: Racial discrimination
Racial discrimination refers to discrimination against someone on the
basis of their race.
Main article: Racial segregation
James A. White Sr.: The little problem I had renting a house, TED
Talks, 14:20, February 20, 2015
Racial segregation is the separation of humans into
socially-constructed racial groups in daily life. It may apply to
activities such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water
fountain, using a bath room, attending school, going to the movies, or
in the rental or purchase of a home. Segregation is generally
outlawed, but may exist through social norms, even when there is no
strong individual preference for it, as suggested by Thomas
Schelling's models of segregation and subsequent work.
Main article: Supremacism
Uncle Sam (a personification of the United States) balances
his new possessions which are depicted as savage children. The figures
are Puerto Rico, Hawaii, Cuba,
Philippines and "Lad robes" (the
European colonialism in the Americas,
Africa and Asia
were often justified by white supremacist attitudes. During the
early 20th century, the phrase "The White Man's Burden" was widely
used to justify an imperialist policy as a noble enterprise. A
justification for the policy of conquest and subjugation of Native
Americans emanated from the stereotyped perceptions of the indigenous
people as "merciless Indian savages" (as described in the United
States Declaration of Independence). In an 1890 article about
colonial expansion onto Native American land, author L. Frank Baum
wrote: "The Whites, by law of conquest, by justice of civilization,
are masters of the American continent, and the best safety of the
frontier settlements will be secured by the total annihilation of the
few remaining Indians." Attitudes of black supremacy, Arab
supremacy, and East Asian supremacy also exist.
Main article: Symbolic racism
A rally against school integration in 1959.
Some scholars argue that in the US earlier violent and aggressive
forms of racism have evolved into a more subtle form of prejudice in
the late 20th century. This new form of racism is sometimes referred
to as "modern racism" and it is characterized by outwardly acting
unprejudiced while inwardly maintaining prejudiced attitudes,
displaying subtle prejudiced behaviors such as actions informed by
attributing qualities to others based on racial stereotypes, and
evaluating the same behavior differently based on the race of the
person being evaluated. This view is based on studies of prejudice
and discriminatory behavior, where some people will act ambivalently
towards black people, with positive reactions in certain, more public
contexts, but more negative views and expressions in more private
contexts. This ambivalence may also be visible for example in hiring
decisions where job candidates that are otherwise positively evaluated
may be unconsciously disfavored by employers in the final decision
because of their race. Some scholars consider modern
racism to be characterized by an explicit rejection of stereotypes,
combined with resistance to changing structures of discrimination for
reasons that are ostensibly non-racial, an ideology that considers
opportunity at a purely individual basis denying the relevance of race
in determining individual opportunities and the exhibition of indirect
forms of micro-aggression toward and/or avoidance of people of other
Recent research has shown that individuals who consciously claim to
reject racism may still exhibit race-based subconscious biases in
their decision-making processes. While such "subconscious racial
biases" do not fully fit the definition of racism, their impact can be
similar, though typically less pronounced, not being explicit,
conscious or deliberate.
International law and racial discrimination
In 1919, a proposal to include a racial equality provision in the
Covenant of the League of Nations
Covenant of the League of Nations was supported by a majority, but not
adopted in the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. In 1943, Japan and its
allies declared work for the abolition of racial discrimination to be
their aim at the Greater East
Asia Conference. Article 1 of the
UN Charter includes "promoting and encouraging respect for human
rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to
race" as UN purpose.
UNESCO suggested in The Race Question—a statement signed by
21 scholars such as Ashley Montagu, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Gunnar
Myrdal, Julian Huxley, etc.—to "drop the term race altogether and
instead speak of ethnic groups". The statement condemned scientific
racism theories that had played a role in the Holocaust. It aimed both
at debunking scientific racist theories, by popularizing modern
knowledge concerning "the race question," and morally condemned racism
as contrary to the philosophy of the Enlightenment and its assumption
of equal rights for all. Along with Myrdal's An American Dilemma: The
Negro Problem and Modern Democracy (1944), The Race Question
influenced the 1954 U.S. Supreme Court desegregation decision in
"Brown v. Board of
Education of Topeka". Also in 1950, the
European Convention on Human Rights
European Convention on Human Rights was adopted, widely used on racial
United Nations use the definition of racial discrimination laid
out in the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Racial Discrimination, adopted in 1966:
... any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference based
on race, color, descent, or national or ethnic origin that has the
purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition,
enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, of human rights and
fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or
any other field of public life. (Part 1 of Article 1 of the U.N.
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial
In 2001, the
European Union explicitly banned racism, along with many
other forms of social discrimination, in the Charter of Fundamental
Rights of the European Union, the legal effect of which, if any, would
necessarily be limited to Institutions of the European Union: "Article
21 of the charter prohibits discrimination on any ground such as race,
color, ethnic or social origin, genetic features, language, religion
or belief, political or any other opinion, membership of a national
minority, property, disability, age or sexual orientation and also
discrimination on the grounds of nationality."
A racist political campaign poster from the 1866 Pennsylvania
A sign on a racially segregated beach during the era of
Racism existed during the 19th century as "scientific racism", which
attempted to provide a racial classification of humanity. In 1775
Johann Blumenbach divided the world's population into five groups
according to skin color (Caucasians, Mongols, etc.), positing the view
that the non-caucasians had arisen through a process of degeneration.
Another early view in scientific racism was the polygenist view, which
held that the different races had been separately created. Polygenist
Christoph Meiners for example, split mankind into two divisions which
he labeled the "beautiful White race" and the "ugly Black race". In
Meiners' book, The Outline of
History of Mankind, he claimed that a
main characteristic of race is either beauty or ugliness. He viewed
only the white race as beautiful. He considered ugly races to be
inferior, immoral and animal-like.
Anders Retzius demonstrated that neither Europeans nor others are one
"pure race", but of mixed origins. While discredited, derivations of
Blumenbach's taxonomy are still widely used for the classification of
the population in the United States. H. P. Steensby, while strongly
emphasizing that all humans today are of mixed origins, in 1907
claimed that the origins of human differences must be traced
extraordinarily far back in time, and conjectured that the "purest
race" today would be the Australian Aboriginals.
Scientific racism fell strongly out of favor in the early 20th
Century, but the origins of fundamental human and societal differences
are still researched within academia, in fields such as human genetics
including paleogenetics, social anthropology, comparative politics,
history of religions, history of ideas, prehistory, history, ethics,
and psychiatry. There is widespread rejection of any methodology based
on anything similar to Blumenbach's races. It is more unclear to which
extent and when ethnic and national stereotypes are accepted.
World War II
World War II and the Holocaust, racist ideologies were
discredited on ethical, political and scientific grounds, racism and
racial discrimination have remained widespread around the world. From
time to time when there is a revival of social and political tensions,
new works are published which repeat past and discredited racial views
such as J R Baker's 'Race'. Because of the social disapproval of
explicit expressions of racism, contemporary authors may achieve a
similar effect by insinuating subtle unstated stereotypes in their
work as in Gladwell's 'The Tipping Point', a tactic President
Obama called 'dog whistle racism'.
Du Bois observed that it is not so much "race" that we think about,
but culture: "... a common history, common laws and religion,
similar habits of thought and a conscious striving together for
certain ideals of life". Late 19th century nationalists were the
first to embrace contemporary discourses on "race", ethnicity, and
"survival of the fittest" to shape new nationalist doctrines.
Ultimately, race came to represent not only the most important traits
of the human body, but was also regarded as decisively shaping the
character and personality of the nation. According to this view,
culture is the physical manifestation created by ethnic groupings, as
such fully determined by racial characteristics.
Culture and race
became considered intertwined and dependent upon each other, sometimes
even to the extent of including nationality or language to the set of
definition. Pureness of race tended to be related to rather
superficial characteristics that were easily addressed and advertised,
such as blondness. Racial qualities tended to be related to
nationality and language rather than the actual geographic
distribution of racial characteristics. In the case of Nordicism, the
denomination "Germanic" was equivalent to superiority of race.
Bolstered by some nationalist and ethnocentric values and achievements
of choice, this concept of racial superiority evolved to distinguish
from other cultures that were considered inferior or impure. This
emphasis on culture corresponds to the modern mainstream definition of
Racism does not originate from the existence of 'races'. It
creates them through a process of social division into categories:
anybody can be racialised, independently of their somatic, cultural,
This definition explicitly ignores the biological concept of race,
still subject to scientific debate. In the words of
David C. Rowe
David C. Rowe "A
racial concept, although sometimes in the guise of another name, will
remain in use in biology and in other fields because scientists, as
well as lay persons, are fascinated by human diversity, some of which
is captured by race."
Racial prejudice became subject to international legislation. For
instance, the Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial
Discrimination, adopted by the
United Nations General Assembly on
November 20, 1963, address racial prejudice explicitly next to
discrimination for reasons of race, colour or ethnic origin (Article
Ethnicity and ethnic conflicts
Further information: Ethnicity
Debates over the origins of racism often suffer from a lack of clarity
over the term. Many use the term "racism" to refer to more general
phenomena, such as xenophobia and ethnocentrism, although scholars
attempt to clearly distinguish those phenomena from racism as an
ideology or from scientific racism, which has little to do with
ordinary xenophobia. Others conflate recent forms of racism with
earlier forms of ethnic and national conflict. In most cases,
ethno-national conflict seems to owe itself to conflict over land and
strategic resources. In some cases, ethnicity and nationalism were
harnessed in order to rally combatants in wars between great religious
empires (for example, the
Muslim Turks and the Catholic
A mass grave being dug for frozen bodies from the 1890 Wounded Knee
Massacre, in which the U.S. Army killed 150 Lakota people, marking the
end of the American Indian Wars.
Notions of race and racism have often played central roles in ethnic
conflicts. Throughout history, when an adversary is identified as
"other" based on notions of race or ethnicity (in particular when
"other" is construed to mean "inferior"), the means employed by the
self-presumed "superior" party to appropriate territory, human
chattel, or material wealth often have been more ruthless, more
brutal, and less constrained by moral or ethical considerations.
According to historian Daniel Richter,
Pontiac's Rebellion saw the
emergence on both sides of the conflict of "the novel idea that all
Native people were 'Indians,' that all Euro-Americans were 'Whites,'
and that all on one side must unite to destroy the other." Basil
Davidson states in his documentary, Africa: Different but Equal, that
racism, in fact, only just recently surfaced—as late as the 19th
century, due to the need for a justification for slavery in the
Historically, racism was a major driving force behind the
Transatlantic slave trade. It was also a major force behind racial
segregation, especially in the
United States in the nineteenth and
early twentieth centuries and
South Africa under apartheid; 19th and
20th century racism in the
Western world is particularly well
documented and constitutes a reference point in studies and discourses
Racism has played a role in genocides such as the
Armenian genocide, and The Holocaust, and colonial projects like the
European colonization of the Americas, Africa, and Asia. Indigenous
peoples have been –and are– often subject to racist attitudes.
Practices and ideologies of racism are condemned by the United Nations
in the Declaration of Human Rights.
Ethnic nationalism and Romantic nationalism
Eugène Delacroix's Scene of the massacre at Chios (1824); Greek
families awaiting death or slavery
After the Napoleonic Wars,
Europe was confronted with the new
"nationalities question," leading to reconfigurations of the European
map, on which the frontiers between the states had been delineated
during the 1648 Peace of Westphalia.
Nationalism had made its first
appearance with the invention of the levée en masse by the French
Revolutionaries, thus inventing mass conscription in order to be able
to defend the newly founded Republic against the
Ancien Régime order
represented by the European monarchies. This led to the French
Revolutionary Wars (1792–1802) and then to the conquests of
Napoleon, and to the subsequent European-wide debates on the concepts
and realities of nations, and in particular of nation-states. The
Westphalia Treaty had divided
Europe into various empires and kingdoms
(Ottoman Empire, Holy Roman Empire, Swedish Empire, Kingdom of France,
etc.), and for centuries wars were waged between princes
Kabinettskriege in German).
Modern nation-states appeared in the wake of the French Revolution,
with the formation of patriotic sentiments for the first time in Spain
Peninsula War (1808–1813, known in Spain as the
Independence War). Despite the restoration of the previous order with
the 1815 Congress of Vienna, the "nationalities question" became the
main problem of
Europe during the Industrial Era, leading in
particular to the 1848 Revolutions, the
Italian unification completed
during the 1871 Franco-Prussian War, which itself culminated in the
proclamation of the
German Empire in the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace
of Versailles, thus achieving the German unification.
Meanwhile, the Ottoman Empire, the "sick man of Europe", was
confronted with endless nationalist movements, which, along with the
dissolving of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, would lead to the
World War I
World War I of the various nation-states of the
Balkans, with "national minorities" in their borders. Ethnic
nationalism, which advocated the belief in a hereditary membership of
the nation, made its appearance in the historical context surrounding
the creation of the modern nation-states.
One of its main influences was the
Romantic nationalist movement at
the turn of the 19th century, represented by figures such as Johann
Herder (1744–1803), Johan Fichte (1762–1814) in the Addresses to
Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831), or also, in
Jules Michelet (1798–1874). It was opposed to liberal
nationalism, represented by authors such as Ernest Renan
(1823–1892), who conceived of the nation as a community, which,
instead of being based on the
Volk ethnic group and on a specific,
common language, was founded on the subjective will to live together
("the nation is a daily plebiscite", 1882) or also John Stuart Mill
Ethnic nationalism blended with scientific racist
discourses, as well as with "continental imperialist" (Hannah Arendt,
1951) discourses, for example in the pan-Germanism discourses,
which postulated the racial superiority of the German Volk
(people/folk). The Pan-German League (Alldeutscher Verband), created
in 1891, promoted German imperialism, "racial hygiene" and was opposed
to intermarriage with Jews. Another popular current, the Völkisch
movement, was also an important proponent of the German ethnic
nationalist discourse, and it combined
Pan-Germanism with modern
racial antisemitism. Members of the Völkisch movement, in particular
the Thule Society, would participate in the founding of the German
Workers' Party (DAP) in Munich in 1918, the predecessor of the
German Workers' Party
German Workers' Party (NSDAP; commonly known in
English as the Nazi party).
Pan-Germanism played a decisive role in
the interwar period of the 1920s–1930s.
These currents began to associate the idea of the nation with the
biological concept of a "master race" (often the "
Aryan race" or the
"Nordic race") issued from the scientific racist discourse. They
conflated nationalities with ethnic groups, called "races", in a
radical distinction from previous racial discourses that posited the
existence of a "race struggle" inside the nation and the state itself.
Furthermore, they believed that political boundaries should mirror
these alleged racial and ethnic groups, thus justifying ethnic
cleansing in order to achieve "racial purity" and also to achieve
ethnic homogeneity in the nation-state.
Such racist discourses, combined with nationalism, were not, however,
limited to pan-Germanism. In France, the transition from Republican,
liberal nationalism, to ethnic nationalism, which made nationalism a
characteristic of far-right movements in France, took place during the
Dreyfus Affair at the end of the 19th century. During several years, a
nationwide crisis affected French society, concerning the alleged
treason of Alfred Dreyfus, a French Jewish military officer. The
country polarized itself into two opposite camps, one represented by
Émile Zola, who wrote
J'accuse in defense of Alfred Dreyfus, and the
other represented by the nationalist poet, Maurice Barrès
(1862–1923), one of the founders of the ethnic nationalist discourse
in France. At the same time,
Charles Maurras (1868–1952),
founder of the monarchist
Action française movement, theorized the
"anti-France," composed of the "four confederate states of
Protestants, Jews, Freemasons and foreigners" (his actual word for the
latter being the pejorative métèques). Indeed, to him the first
three were all "internal foreigners", who threatened the ethnic unity
of the French people.
Ethnocentrism and proto-racism
The Book of Genesis's biblical curse on Canaan, which was often
misinterpreted as a curse on his father Ham, was used to justify
slavery in 19th century America.
Bernard Lewis has cited the Greek philosopher
Aristotle who, in his
discussion of slavery, stated that while
Greeks are free by nature,
'barbarians' (non-Greeks) are slaves by nature, in that it is in their
nature to be more willing to submit to a despotic government.
Aristotle does not specify any particular races, he argues that
people from nations outside Greece are more prone to the burden of
slavery than those from Greece. While
Aristotle makes remarks
about the most natural slaves being those with strong bodies and slave
souls (unfit for rule, unintelligent) which would seem to imply a
physical basis for discrimination, he also explicitly states that the
right kind of souls and bodies don't always go together, implying that
the greatest determinate for inferiority and natural slaves versus
natural masters is the soul, not the body. This proto-racism is
seen as an important precursor to modern racism by classicist Benjamin
Such proto-racism and ethnocentrism must be looked at within context,
because a modern understanding of racism based on hereditary
inferiority (modern racism based on: eugenics and scientific racism)
was not yet developed and it is unclear whether
Aristotle believed the
natural inferiority of Barbarians was caused by environment and
climate (like many of his contemporaries) or by birth.
Historian Dante A. Puzzo, in his discussion of Aristotle, racism, and
the ancient world writes that:
Racism rests on two basic assumptions: that a correlation exists
between physical characteristics and moral qualities; that mankind is
divisible into superior and inferior stocks. Racism, thus defined, is
a modern conception, for prior to the XVIth century there was
virtually nothing in the life and thought of the West that can be
described as racist. To prevent misunderstanding a clear distinction
must be made between racism and ethnocentrism ... The Ancient
Hebrews, in referring to all who were not
Hebrews as Gentiles, were
indulging in ethnocentrism, not in racism. ... So it was with the
Hellenes who denominated all non-Hellenes—whether the wild Scythians
Egyptians whom they acknowledged as their mentors in the arts
of civilization—Barbarians, the term denoting that which was strange
13th-century slave market in Yemen.
Yemen officially abolished slavery
Bernard Lewis has also cited historians and geographers of the Middle
East and North
Africa region, including Al-Muqaddasi, Al-Jahiz,
Al-Masudi, Abu Rayhan Biruni, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, and Ibn
Qutaybah. Though the
Qur'an expresses no racial prejudice, Lewis
argues that ethnocentric prejudice later developed among Arabs, for a
variety of reasons: their extensive conquests and slave trade;
the influence of Aristotelian ideas regarding slavery, which some
Muslim philosophers directed towards
Zanj (Bantu) and Turkic
peoples; and the influence of
Judeo-Christian ideas regarding
divisions among humankind. The Afro-
Arab author Al-Jahiz, himself
Zanj grandfather, wrote a book entitled Superiority of the
Blacks to the Whites, and explained why the
Zanj were black in
terms of environmental determinism in the "On the Zanj" chapter of The
Essays. By the 14th century, a significant number of slaves came
from sub-Saharan Africa; Lewis argues that this led to the likes of
Egyptian historian Al-Abshibi (1388–1446) writing: "It is said that
when the [black] slave is sated, he fornicates, when he is hungry, he
steals." According to Lewis, the 14th-century Tunisian scholar
Ibn Khaldun also wrote:
...beyond [known peoples of black West Africa] to the south there is
no civilization in the proper sense. There are only humans who are
closer to dumb animals than to rational beings. They live in thickets
and caves, and eat herbs and unprepared grain. They frequently eat
each other. They cannot be considered human beings. Therefore, the
Negro nations are, as a rule, submissive to slavery, because (Negroes)
have little that is (essentially) human and possess attributes that
are quite similar to those of dumb animals, as we have
However, according to
Wesleyan University professor Abdelmajid
Hannoum, such attitudes were not prevalent until the 18th and 19th
centuries. He argues that some accounts of
Arabic texts[which?] were
mistranslations by French
Orientalists projecting racist and
colonialist views of the 19th century into their translations of
Arabic writings. James E. Lindsay also argues that the
concept of an
Arab identity itself did not exist until modern
Limpieza de sangre
Further information: Limpieza de sangre
The Umayyad Caliphate invaded Hispania, with
Muslim Berber invaders
overthrowing the previous Visigothic rulers and creating
Al-Andalus, which contributed to the Golden age of Jewish
culture, lasting for six centuries. It was followed by the
centuries-long Reconquista, terminated under the Catholic
monarchs Ferdinand V and Isabella I. The legacy Catholic Spaniards
then formulated the
Cleanliness of blood doctrine. It was during this
time in history that the Western concept of aristocratic "blue blood"
emerged in a racialized, religious and feudal context, so as to
stem the upward social mobility of the converted New Christians.
Robert Lacey explains:
It was the Spaniards who gave the world the notion that an
aristocrat's blood is not red but blue. The Spanish nobility started
taking shape around the ninth century in classic military fashion,
occupying land as warriors on horseback. They were to continue the
process for more than five hundred years, clawing back sections of the
peninsula from its Moorish occupiers, and a nobleman demonstrated his
pedigree by holding up his sword arm to display the filigree of
blue-blooded veins beneath his pale skin—proof that his birth had
not been contaminated by the dark-skinned enemy. Sangre azul, blue
blood, was thus a euphemism for being a white man—Spain's own
particular reminder that the refined footsteps of the aristocracy
through history carry the rather less refined spoor of racism.
Following the expulsion of the
Moors and most of the Sephardic
Jews from the Iberian peninsula, the remaining
Jews and Muslims were
forced to convert to Roman Catholicism, becoming "New Christians", who
were sometimes discriminated against by the "Old Christians" in some
cities (e.g. Toledo), despite condemnations by the Church and the
State, which both welcomed the new flock. The
carried out by members of the
Dominican Order in order to weed out the
converts who still practiced
Islam in secret. The system
and ideology of the limpieza de sangre ostracized false Christian
converts from society in order to protect it against treason. The
remnants of such legislation persevered into the 19th century in
In Portugal, the legal distinction between New and
Old Christian was
only ended through a legal decree issued by the
Marquis of Pombal
Marquis of Pombal in
1772, almost three centuries after the implementation of the racist
discrimination. The limpieza de sangre legislation was common also
during the colonization of the Americas, where it led to the racial
and feudal separation of peoples and social strata in the colonies. It
was however often ignored in practice, as the new colonies needed
A 16th-century illustration by Flemish Protestant
Theodor de Bry for
Las Casas's Brevisima relación de la destrucción de las Indias,
depicting Spanish atrocities during the conquest of Cuba. Painting
made when Spain lead militarily the Catholic side during the French
Wars of Religion
At the end of the Renaissance, the
Valladolid debate (1550–1551)
concerning the treatment of natives of the "New World" opposed the
Dominican friar and Bishop of Chiapas
Bartolomé de Las Casas
Bartolomé de Las Casas to
another Dominican and Humanist philosopher Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda.
The latter argued that the Indians practiced human sacrifice of
innocents, cannibalism, and other such "crimes against nature" were
unacceptable and should be suppressed by any means possible including
war, thus reducing them to slavery or serfdom was in accordance
Catholic theology and natural law. To the contrary, Bartolomé de
Las Casas argued that the Amerindians were free men in the natural
order and deserved the same treatment as others, according to Catholic
theology. It was one of the many controversies concerning racism,
slavery, religion, and European morality that would arise in the
following centuries and which resulted in the legislation protecting
the natives. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black
domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white segovian
conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine (Spanish Florida), is the first
known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in the continental
Although antisemitism has a long history, related to
e.g. native Egyptian or Greek religions (anti-Judaism), racism
itself is sometimes described as a modern phenomenon. In the view of
the French philosopher and historian Michel Foucault, the first
formulation of racism emerged in the Early Modern period as the
"discourse of race struggle", a historical and political discourse,
which Foucault opposed to the philosophical and juridical discourse of
sovereignty. On the other hand, e.g. Chinese self-identification
as a "yellow race" predated such European racial concepts.
This European analysis, which first appeared in Great Britain, was
then carried on in
France by such people as Boulainvilliers, Nicolas
Fréret, and then, during the 1789 French Revolution, Sieyès, and
Augustin Thierry and Cournot. Boulainvilliers, who created
the matrix of such racist discourse in medieval France, conceived of
the "race" as being something closer to the sense of a "nation", that
is, in his time, the "race" meant the "people".
He conceived of
France as being divided between various nations—the
unified nation-state is an anachronism here—which themselves formed
different "races". Boulainvilliers opposed the absolute monarchy,
which tried to bypass the aristocracy by establishing a direct
relationship to the Third Estate. Thus, he developed the theory that
the French aristocrats were the descendants of foreign invaders, whom
he called the "Franks", while according to him, the Third Estate
constituted the autochthonous, vanquished Gallo-Romans, who were
dominated by the Frankish aristocracy as a consequence of the right of
conquest. Early modern racism was opposed to nationalism and the
nation-state: the Comte de Montlosier, in exile during the French
Revolution, who borrowed Boulainvilliers' discourse on the "Nordic
race" as being the French aristocracy that invaded the plebeian
"Gauls", thus showed his contempt for the Third Estate, calling it
"this new people born of slaves ... mixture of all races and of
Advertisement for Pears' Soap Caption reads, "Matchless for the
complexion..." Illustration of 'before and after' use of soap by black
child in the bath. Showing soap washes off his dark complexion.
While 19th century racism became closely intertwined with
nationalism, leading to the ethnic nationalist discourse that
identified the "race" with the "folk", leading to such movements as
pan-Germanism, pan-Turkism, pan-Arabism, and pan-Slavism, medieval
racism precisely divided the nation into various non-biological
"races", which were thought to be the consequence of historical
conquests and social conflicts.
Michel Foucault traced the genealogy
of modern racism to this medieval "historical and political discourse
of race struggle". According to him, it divided itself in the 19th
century according to two rival lines: on one hand, it was incorporated
by racists, biologists and eugenicists, who gave it the modern sense
of "race" and, even more, transformed this popular discourse into a
"state racism" (e.g., Nazism). On the other hand, Marxism also seized
this discourse founded on the assumption of a political struggle that
provided the real engine of history and continued to act underneath
the apparent peace. Thus,
Marxists transformed the essentialist notion
of "race" into the historical notion of "class struggle", defined by
socially structured positions: capitalist or proletarian. In The Will
to Knowledge (1976), Foucault analyzed another opponent of the "race
struggle" discourse: Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis, which opposed the
concept of "blood heredity", prevalent in the 19th century racist
Authors such as Hannah Arendt, in her 1951 book The Origins of
Totalitarianism, have said that the racist ideology (popular racism)
which developed at the end of the 19th century helped legitimize the
imperialist conquests of foreign territories and the atrocities that
sometimes accompanied them (such as the Herero and Namaqua
1904–1907 or the Armenian
Genocide of 1915–1917). Rudyard
The White Man's Burden
The White Man's Burden (1899) is one of the more famous
illustrations of the belief in the inherent superiority of the
European culture over the rest of the world, though it is also thought
to be a satirical appraisal of such imperialism. Racist ideology thus
helped legitimize the conquest and incorporation of foreign
territories into an empire, which were regarded as a humanitarian
obligation partially as a result of these racist beliefs.
A late-19th-century illustration from Ireland from One or Two
Neglected Points of View by H. Strickland Constable shows an alleged
similarity between "Irish Iberian" and "Negro" features in contrast to
the "higher" "Anglo-Teutonic."
However, during the 19th century, Western European colonial powers
were involved in the suppression of the
Arab slave trade in
Africa, as well as in the suppression of the slave trade in West
Africa. Some Europeans during the time period objected to
injustices that occurred in some colonies and lobbied on behalf of
aboriginal peoples. Thus, when the Hottentot Venus was displayed in
England in the beginning of the 19th century, the African Association
publicly opposed itself to the exhibition. The same year that Kipling
published his poem,
Joseph Conrad published
Heart of Darkness
Heart of Darkness (1899),
a clear criticism of the
Congo Free State
Congo Free State owned by Leopold II of
Examples of racial theories used include the creation of the Hamitic
ethno-linguistic group during the European exploration of Africa. It
was then restricted by
Karl Friedrich Lepsius
Karl Friedrich Lepsius (1810–1877) to
non-Semitic Afro-Asiatic languages.
The term Hamite was applied to different populations within North
Africa, mainly comprising Ethiopians, Eritreans, Somalis, Berbers, and
the ancient Egyptians. Hamites were regarded as Caucasoid peoples who
probably originated in either
Asia on the basis of their
cultural, physical and linguistic similarities with the peoples of
those areas. Europeans considered Hamites to be more
civilized than Sub-Saharan Africans, and more akin to themselves and
Semitic peoples. In the first two-thirds of the 20th century, the
Hamitic race was, in fact, considered one of the branches of the
Caucasian race, along with the Indo-Europeans, Semites, and the
Hamitic peoples themselves were often deemed to have
failed as rulers, which was usually ascribed to interbreeding with
Negroes. In the mid-20th century, the German scholar Carl Meinhof
(1857–1944) claimed that the Bantu race was formed by a merger of
Hamitic and Negro races. The Hottentots (Nama or Khoi) were formed by
the merger of
Bushmen (San) races—both being termed
One in a series of posters attacking
Radical Republicans on the issue
of black suffrage, issued during the Pennsylvania gubernatorial
election of 1866.
United States in the early 19th century, the American
Society was established as the primary vehicle for
proposals to return black Americans to greater freedom and equality in
Africa. The colonization effort resulted from a mixture of
motives with its founder
Henry Clay stating; "unconquerable prejudice
resulting from their color, they never could amalgamate with the free
whites of this country. It was desirable, therefore, as it respected
them, and the residue of the population of the country, to drain them
Racism spread throughout the
New World in the late 19th
century and early 20th century. Whitecapping, which started in Indiana
in the late 19th century, soon spread throughout all of North America,
causing many African laborers to flee from the land they worked on. In
the US during the 1860s, racist posters were used during election
campaigns. In one of these racist posters (see above), a black man is
depicted lounging idly in the foreground as one white man ploughs his
field and another chops wood. Accompanying labels are: "In the sweat
of thy face shalt thou eat thy bread," and "The white man must work to
keep his children and pay his taxes." The black man wonders, "Whar is
de use for me to work as long as dey make dese appropriations." Above
in a cloud is an image of the "Freedman's Bureau! Negro Estimate of
Freedom!" The bureau is pictured as a large domed building resembling
the U.S. Capitol and is inscribed "Freedom and No Work." Its columns
and walls are labeled, "Candy," "Rum, Gin, Whiskey," "Sugar Plums,"
"Indolence," "White Women," "Apathy," "White Sugar," "Idleness," and
On June 5, 1873, Sir Francis Galton, distinguished English explorer
and cousin of Charles Darwin, wrote in a letter to The Times:
My proposal is to make the encouragement of Chinese settlements of
Africa a part of our national policy, in the belief that the Chinese
immigrants would not only maintain their position, but that they would
multiply and their descendants supplant the inferior Negro
race ... I should expect that the African seaboard, now sparsely
occupied by lazy, palavering savages, might in a few years be tenanted
by industrious, order-loving Chinese, living either as a semidetached
dependency of China, or else in perfect freedom under their own
Further information: Racial policy of Nazi Germany, Holocaust, Racial
segregation in the United States, Rwandan Genocide, and Racial
stereotyping in advertising
Eichmann's list of the Jewish population in Europe, drafted for the
Wannsee Conference, held to ensure the cooperation of various levels
of the Nazi government in the Final Solution.
Naked Soviet POWs in Mauthausen concentration camp
A drinking fountain from the mid-20th century labelled "Colored" with
a picture of an
African-American man drinking
The Nazi party, which seized power in the 1933 German elections and
maintained a dictatorship over much of
Europe until the End of World
War II on the European continent, deemed the
Germans to be part of an
Aryan "master race" (Herrenvolk), who therefore had the right to
expand their territory and enslave or kill members of other races
The racial ideology conceived by the Nazis graded humans on a scale of
Aryan to non-Aryan, with the latter viewed as subhuman. At the
top of the scale of pure Aryans were
Germans and other Germanic
peoples including the Dutch, Scandinavians, and the English as well as
other peoples such as some northern Italians and the French who were
said to have a suitable admixture of Germanic blood. Nazi
policies labeled Romani people, people of color and
Poles, Serbs, Russians, Belarusians,
Ukrainians and Czechs) as
Jews were at the bottom of the
hierarchy, considered inhuman and thus unworthy of
life. In accordance with Nazi
racial ideology, approximately six million
Jews were killed in the
Holocaust. 2.5 million ethnic Poles, 0.5 million ethnic
Serbs and 0.22–0.5 million Romani were killed by the regime and
The Nazis considered most
Slavs to be Non-
Aryan Untermenschen. The
Nazi Party's chief racial theorist
Alfred Rosenberg adopted the term
Klansman Lothrop Stoddard's 1922 book The Revolt Against
Civilization: The Menace of the Under-man. Slavic nations such as
Croats who collaborated with Nazi Germany
were perceived as ethnically superior to other Slavs, mostly due to
pseudoscientific theories about these nations having a considerable
admixture of Germanic blood. In the secret plan Generalplan Ost
("Master Plan East") the Nazis resolved to expel, enslave, or
exterminate most Slavic people to provide "living space" for Germans,
however Nazi policy towards
Slavs changed during
World War II
World War II due to
manpower shortages which necessitated limited Slavic participation in
the Waffen-SS. Significant war crimes were committed against
Slavs, particularly Poles, and Soviet POWs had a far higher mortality
rate than their American and British counterparts due to deliberate
neglect and mistreatment. Between June 1941 and January 1942, the
Nazis killed an estimated 2.8 million
Red Army POWs, whom they viewed
German praise for America's institutional racism was continuous
throughout the early 1930s, and Nazi lawyers were advocates of the use
of American models. Race based U.S. citizenship laws and
anti-miscegenation laws (no race mixing) directly inspired the Nazi's
two principal Nuremberg racial laws—the Citizenship
Law and the
Blood Law. Hitler's 1925 memoir
Mein Kampf was full of admiration
for America's treatment of "coloreds". Nazi expansion eastward
was accompanied with invocation of America's colonial expansion
westward, with the accompanying actions toward the Native
Americans. In 1928, Hitler praised Americans for having "gunned
down the millions of Redskins to a few hundred thousand, and now keeps
the modest remnant under observation in a cage". On Nazi
Germany's expansion eastward, in 1941 Hitler stated, "Our Mississippi
[the line beyond which Thomas Jefferson wanted all Indians expelled]
must be the Volga."
White supremacy was dominant in the U.S. up to the civil rights
movement. On the U.S. immigration laws prior to 1965, sociologist
Stephen Klineberg cited the law as clearly declaring "that Northern
Europeans are a superior subspecies of the white race." While
anti-Asian racism was embedded in U.S. politics and culture in the
early 20th century, Indians were also racialized for their
anticolonialism, with U.S. officials, casting them as a "Hindu"
menace, pushing for Western imperial expansion abroad. The
Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U.S. citizenship to whites only,
and in the 1923 case,
United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind, the Supreme
Court ruled that high caste Hindus were not "white persons" and were
therefore racially ineligible for naturalized citizenship.
It was after the
Luce–Celler Act of 1946
Luce–Celler Act of 1946 that a quota of 100 Indians
per year could immigrate to the U.S. and become citizens. The
Nationality Act of 1965 dramatically opened entry to
the U.S. to immigrants other than traditional
Northern European and
Germanic groups, and as a result would significantly alter the
demographic mix in the U.S.
A sign posted above a bar that reads "No beer sold to Indians [Native
Americans]". Birney, Montana, 1941.
Serious race riots in Durban between Indians and
Zulus erupted in
1949. Ne Win's rise to power in
Burma in 1962 and his relentless
persecution of "resident aliens" led to an exodus of some 300,000
Burmese Indians. They migrated to escape racial discrimination
and wholesale nationalisation of private enterprise a few years later
in 1964. The
Zanzibar Revolution of January 12, 1964 put an end
to the local
Arab dynasty. Thousands of
Arabs and Indians in
Zanzibar were massacred in riots, and thousands more were detained or
fled the island. In August 1972, Ugandan President Idi Amin
started the expropriation of properties owned by Asians and
Europeans. In the same year, Amin ethnically cleansed
Uganda's Asians giving them 90 days to leave the country. Shortly
World War II
World War II the South African National Party took control of
the government in South Africa. Between 1948 and 1994, the Apartheid
regime took place. This regime based its ideology on the racial
separation of whites and non-whites including the unequal rights of
non-whites. Several protests and violence occurred during the struggle
against Apartheid, the most famous of these include the Sharpeville
Massacre in 1960, the
Soweto uprising in 1976, the Church Street
bombing of 1983 and the
Cape Town peace march of 1989.
On 12 September 2011, Julius Malema, the youth leader of South
Africa's ruling ANC, was found guilty of hate speech for singing
'Shoot the Boer' at a number of public events.
During the Congo Civil War (1998–2003), pygmies were hunted down
like game animals and eaten. Both sides in the war regarded them as
"subhuman" and some say their flesh can confer magical powers. UN
human rights activists reported in 2003 that rebels had carried out
acts of cannibalism. Sinafasi Makelo, a representative of the Mbuti
pygmies, has asked the
UN Security Council
UN Security Council to recognise cannibalism as
both a crime against humanity and an act of genocide. A report
released by the
United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial
Discrimination condemns Botswana's treatment of the 'Bushmen' as
racist. In 2008, the tribunal of the 15-nation Southern African
Development Community (SADC) accused Zimbabwean President Robert
Mugabe of having a racist attitude towards white people.
The mass demonstrations and riots against African students in Nanjing,
China, lasted from December 1988 to January 1989. Bar owners in
Beijing had been forced by the police "not to serve black
people or Mongolians" during the 2008 Summer Olympics, as the police
associated these ethnic groups with illegal prostitution and drug
trafficking. In November 2009, British newspaper The Guardian
reported that Lou Jing, of mixed Chinese and African parentage, had
emerged as the most famous talent show contestant in China and has
become the subject of intense debate because of her skin color.
Her attention in the media opened serious debates about racism in
China and racial prejudice.
Some 70,000 black African Mauritanians were expelled from Mauritania
in the late 1980s. In the Sudan, black African captives in the
civil war were often enslaved, and female prisoners were often
sexually abused. The
Darfur conflict has been described by some
as a racial matter. In October 2006,
Niger announced that it
would deport the
Arabs living in the
Diffa region of eastern
Chad. This population numbered about 150,000. While the
Arabs in preparation for the deportation, two
girls died, reportedly after fleeing Government forces, and three
women suffered miscarriages.
The burnt out remains of Govinda's Indian Restaurant in Fiji, May 2000
Jakarta riots of May 1998
Jakarta riots of May 1998 targeted many Chinese Indonesians.
The anti-Chinese legislation was in the Indonesian constitution until
1998. Resentment against Chinese workers has led to violent
confrontations in Africa and Oceania.
Anti-Chinese rioting, involving tens of thousands of people,
broke out in
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea in May 2009. Indo-Fijians suffered
violent attacks after the
Fiji coup of 2000. Non-indigenous
Fiji are subject to discrimination. Racial
divisions also exist in Guyana, Malaysia, Trinidad and
Tobago, Madagascar, or South Africa.
Peter Bouckaert, Human Rights Watch's emergencies director, said in an
interview that "racist hatred" is the chief motivation behind the
violence against Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar.
With the aim of preserving the demographic makeup of the Zionist
state, elements within Israeli society have been accused of
discriminatory behavior against the
Arab population and toward other
Jews of a darker complexion. These communities disproportionately
occupy laborer positions with the workforce. Accusations of
racism have also included birth control policies, education,
and housing discrimination.
One form of racism in the
United States was enforced racial
segregation which existed until the 1960s when it was outlawed in the
Civil Rights Act of 1964. It has been argued that this separation of
races continues to exist de facto today. The causes of segregation
vary from lack of access to loans and resources to discrimination in
The 2016 Pew Research poll found that Italians, in particular, hold
strong anti-Roma views, with 82% of Italians expressing negative
opinions about Roma. In Greece 67%, in
Hungary 64%, in
France 61%, in
Spain 49%, in Poland 47%, in the UK 45%, in Sweden 42%, in Germany
40%, and in the Netherlands 37% have an unfavourable view of
Main article: Scientific racism
Josiah C. Nott
Josiah C. Nott and George Gliddon's Indigenous races of
the earth (1857), which suggested black people ranked between white
people and chimpanzees in terms of intelligence.
Scottish philosopher and economist
David Hume said, "I am apt to
suspect the Negroes to be naturally inferior to the Whites. There
scarcely ever was a civilised nation of that complexion, nor even any
individual, eminent either in action or in speculation. No ingenious
manufacture among them, no arts, no sciences." German philosopher
Immanuel Kant stated: "The yellow Indians do have a meagre talent. The
Negroes are far below them, and at the lowest point are a part of the
In the 19th century, the German philosopher, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich
Hegel, declared that "
Africa is no historical part of the world."
Hegel further claimed that blacks had no "sense of personality; their
spirit sleeps, remains sunk in itself, makes no advance, and thus
parallels the compact, undifferentiated mass of the African
While opposed to slavery in the U.S, in 1858 President Abraham Lincoln
stated, "I am not, nor ever have been in favor of bringing about in
any way the social and political equality of the white and black
races, that I am not, nor ever have been in favor of making voters or
jurors of negroes, nor of qualifying them to hold office, nor to
intermarry with white people. I as much as any man am in favor of the
superior position assigned to the white race".
Austrian philosopher Otto Weininger, claimed: "A genius has perhaps
scarcely ever appeared amongst the negroes, and the standard of their
morality is almost universally so low that it is beginning to be
acknowledged in America that their emancipation was an act of
The German conservative, Oswald Spengler, remarked on what he
perceived as the culturally degrading influence of Africans in modern
Western culture: in The Hour of Decision Spengler denounced "the
'happy ending' of an empty existence, the boredom of which has brought
to jazz music and Negro dancing to perform the Death March for a great
Culture." During the Nazi era, German scientists rearranged
academia to support claims of a grand "Aryan" agent behind the
splendors of all human civilizations, including India and Ancient
Further information: Unilineal evolution
The modern biological definition of race developed in the 19th century
with scientific racist theories. The term scientific racism refers to
the use of science to justify and support racist beliefs, which goes
back to the early 18th century, though it gained most of its influence
in the mid-19th century, during the New
Imperialism period. Also known
as academic racism, such theories first needed to overcome the
Church's resistance to positivist accounts of history and its support
of monogenism, the concept that all human beings were originated from
the same ancestors, in accordance with creationist accounts of
These racist theories put forth on scientific hypothesis were combined
with unilineal theories of social progress, which postulated the
superiority of the European civilization over the rest of the world.
Furthermore, they frequently made use of the idea of "survival of the
fittest", a term coined by
Herbert Spencer in 1864, associated with
ideas of competition, which were named social
Darwinism in the 1940s.
Charles Darwin himself opposed the idea of rigid racial differences in
The Descent of Man
The Descent of Man (1871) in which he argued that humans were all of
one species, sharing common descent. He recognised racial differences
as varieties of humanity, and emphasised the close similarities
between people of all races in mental faculties, tastes, dispositions
and habits, while still contrasting the culture of the "lowest
savages" with European civilization.
At the end of the 19th century, proponents of scientific racism
intertwined themselves with eugenics discourses of "degeneration of
the race" and "blood heredity." Henceforth,
scientific racist discourses could be defined as the combination of
polygenism, unilinealism, social
Darwinism and eugenism. They found
their scientific legitimacy on physical anthropology, anthropometry,
craniometry, phrenology, physiognomy, and others now discredited
disciplines in order to formulate racist prejudices.
Before being disqualified in the 20th century by the American school
of cultural anthropology (Franz Boas, etc.), the British school of
social anthropology (Bronisław Malinowski, Alfred Radcliffe-Brown,
etc.), the French school of ethnology (Claude Lévi-Strauss, etc.), as
well as the discovery of the neo-Darwinian synthesis, such sciences,
in particular anthropometry, were used to deduce behaviours and
psychological characteristics from outward, physical appearances.
The neo-Darwinian synthesis, first developed in the 1930s, eventually
led to a gene-centered view of evolution in the 1960s. According to
the Human Genome Project, the most complete mapping of human DNA to
date indicates that there is no clear genetic basis to racial groups.
While some genes are more common in certain populations, there are no
genes that exist in all members of one population and no members of
Heredity and eugenics
Further information: Eugenics
The first theory of eugenics was developed in 1869 by Francis Galton
(1822–1911), who used the then popular concept of degeneration. He
applied statistics to study human differences and the alleged
"inheritance of intelligence", foreshadowing future uses of
"intelligence testing" by the anthropometry school. Such theories were
vividly described by the writer
Émile Zola (1840–1902), who started
publishing in 1871 a twenty-novel cycle, Les Rougon-Macquart, where he
linked heredity to behavior. Thus, Zola described the high-born
Rougons as those involved in politics (Son Excellence Eugène Rougon)
and medicine (Le Docteur Pascal) and the low-born Macquarts as those
fatally falling into alcoholism (L'Assommoir), prostitution (Nana),
and homicide (La Bête humaine).
During the rise of
Nazism in Germany, some scientists in Western
nations worked to debunk the regime's racial theories. A few argued
against racist ideologies and discrimination, even if they believed in
the alleged existence of biological races. However, in the fields of
anthropology and biology, these were minority positions until the
mid-20th century. According to the 1950
UNESCO statement, The
Race Question, an international project to debunk racist theories had
been attempted in the mid-1930s. However, this project had been
abandoned. Thus, in 1950,
UNESCO declared that it had resumed:
...up again, after a lapse of fifteen years, a project that the
International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation has wished to
carry through but that it had to abandon in deference to the
appeasement policy of the pre-war period. The race question had become
one of the pivots of
Nazi ideology and policy. Masaryk and Beneš took
the initiative of calling for a conference to re-establish in the
minds and consciences of men everywhere the truth about race ...
Nazi propaganda was able to continue its baleful work unopposed by the
authority of an international organisation.
The Third Reich's racial policies, its eugenics programs and the
Jews in the Holocaust, as well as
Romani people in
Porrajmos (the Romani Holocaust) and others minorities led to a
change in opinions about scientific research into race after the
war. Changes within scientific disciplines, such as
the rise of the Boasian school of anthropology in the United States
contributed to this shift. These theories were strongly denounced in
UNESCO statement, signed by internationally renowned
scholars, and titled The Race Question.
Polygenism and racial typologies
Polygenism and Typology (anthropology)
Madison Grant's map, from 1916, charting the "present distribution of
European races", with the Nordics in red, the Alpines in green, and
the Mediterraneans in yellow.
Works such as Arthur de Gobineau's An Essay on the Inequality of the
Human Races (1853–1855) may be considered as one of the first
theorizations of this new racism, founded on an essentialist notion of
race, which opposed the former racial discourse, of Boulainvilliers
for example, which saw in races a fundamentally historical reality,
which changed over time. Gobineau, thus, attempted to frame racism
within the terms of biological differences among humans, giving it the
legitimacy of biology.
Gobineau's theories would be expanded, in France, by Georges Vacher de
Lapouge (1854–1936)'s typology of races, who published in 1899 The
Aryan and his Social Role, in which he claimed that the white, "Aryan
race", "dolichocephalic", was opposed to the "brachycephalic" race, of
whom the "Jew" was the archetype. Vacher de Lapouge thus created a
hierarchical classification of races, in which he identified the "Homo
europaeus (Teutonic, Protestant, etc.), the "Homo alpinus" (Auvergnat,
Turkish, etc.), and finally the "Homo mediterraneus" (Neapolitan,
Andalus, etc.) He assimilated races and social classes, considering
that the French upper class was a representation of the Homo
europaeus, while the lower class represented the Homo alpinus.
Applying Galton's eugenics to his theory of races, Vacher de Lapouge's
"selectionism" aimed first at achieving the annihilation of trade
unionists, considered to be a "degenerate"; second, creating types of
man each destined to one end, in order to prevent any contestation of
labour conditions. His "anthroposociology" thus aimed at blocking
social conflict by establishing a fixed, hierarchical social
The same year,
William Z. Ripley
William Z. Ripley used identical racial classification
in The Races of
Europe (1899), which would have a great influence in
the United States. Other scientific authors include H.S. Chamberlain
at the end of the 19th century (a British citizen who naturalized
himself as German because of his admiration for the "
Aryan race") and
Madison Grant, a eugenicist and author of The Passing of the Great
Madison Grant provided statistics for the Immigration Act
of 1924, which severely restricted immigration of Jews, Slavs, and
southern Europeans, who were subsequently hindered in seeking to
escape Nazi Germany.
A human zoo (Völkerschau, "People Show") in
Stuttgart (Germany) in
Human zoos (called "People Shows"), were an important means of
bolstering popular racism by connecting it to scientific racism: they
were both objects of public curiosity and of anthropology and
anthropometry. Joice Heth, an
African American slave, was
displayed by P.T. Barnum in 1836, a few years after the exhibition of
Saartjie Baartman, the "Hottentot Venus", in England. Such exhibitions
became common in the New
Imperialism period, and remained so until
World War II. Carl Hagenbeck, inventor of the modern zoos, exhibited
animals beside humans who were considered "savages".
Ota Benga was displayed in 1906 by eugenicist Madison
Grant, head of the Bronx Zoo, as an attempt to illustrate the "missing
link" between humans and orangutans: thus, racism was tied to
Darwinism, creating a social Darwinist ideology that tried to ground
itself in Darwin's scientific discoveries. The 1931 Paris Colonial
Kanaks from New Caledonia. A "Congolese
village" was on display as late as 1958 at the Brussels' World Fair.
Theories about the origins of racism
Ethnocentrism and Tribalism
Sociological model of ethnic and racial conflict.
John Tooby and
Leda Cosmides were puzzled
by the fact that in the US race is one of the three characteristics
most often used in brief descriptions of individuals (the others are
age and sex). They reasoned that natural selection would not have
favoured the evolution of an instinct for using race as a
classification, because for most of human history, humans almost never
encountered members of other races. Tooby and Cosmides hypothesized
that modern people use race as a proxy (rough-and-ready indicator) for
coalition membership, since a better-than-random guess about "which
side" another person is on will be helpful if one does not actually
know in advance.
Robert Kurzban designed an experiment whose results
appeared to support this hypothesis. Using the Memory confusion
protocol, they presented subjects with pictures of individuals and
sentences, allegedly spoken by these individuals, which presented two
sides of a debate. The errors that the subjects made in recalling who
said what indicated that they sometimes misattributed a statement to a
speaker of the same race as the "correct" speaker, although they also
sometimes misattributed a statement to a speaker "on the same side" as
the "correct" speaker. In a second run of the experiment, the team
also distinguished the "sides" in the debate by clothing of similar
colors; and in this case the effect of racial similarity in causing
mistakes almost vanished, being replaced by the color of their
clothing. In other words, the first group of subjects, with no clues
from clothing, used race as a visual guide to guessing who was on
which side of the debate; the second group of subjects used the
clothing color as their main visual clue, and the effect of race
became very small.
Some research suggests that ethnocentric thinking may have actually
contributed to the development of cooperation. Political scientists
Ross Hammond and Robert Axelrod created a computer simulation wherein
virtual individuals were randomly assigned one of a variety of skin
colors, and then one of a variety of trading strategies: be
color-blind, favor those of your own color, or favor those of other
colors. They found that the ethnocentric individuals clustered
together, then grew until all the non-ethnocentric individuals were
In The Selfish Gene, evolutionary biologist
Richard Dawkins writes
that "Blood-feuds and inter-clan warfare are easily interpretable in
terms of Hamilton's genetic theory." Dawkins writes that racial
prejudice, while not evolutionarily adaptive, "could be interpreted as
an irrational generalization of a kin-selected tendency to identify
with individuals physically resembling oneself, and to be nasty to
individuals different in appearance". Simulation-based
experiments in evolutionary game theory have attempted to provide an
explanation for the selection of ethnocentric-strategy
Despite support for evolutionary theories relating to an innate origin
of racism, various studies have suggested racism is associated with
lower intelligence and less diverse peer groups during childhood. A
neuroimaging study on amygdala activity during racial matching
activities found increased activity to be associated with adolescent
age as well as less racially diverse peer groups which the author
conclude suggest an learned aspect of racism. A meta analysis of
neuroimaging studies found amygdala activity correlated to increased
scores on implicit measures of racial bias. It was also argued
amygdala activity in response to racial stimuli represents increased
threat perception rather than the traditional theory of the amygdala
activity represented ingroup-outgroup processing.
Racism has also
been associated with lower childhood IQ in an analysis of 15,000
people in the UK.
Nazism and race, Racial policy of Nazi Germany, Racial
Eugenics in Showa Japan,
Apartheid in South Africa,
Racial segregation in the United States, Ketuanan Melayu, Anti-Chinese
legislation in Indonesia, and White
Separate "white" and "colored" entrances to a café in North Carolina,
1935 Chart from
Nazi Germany used to explain the Nuremberg Laws,
Germans were to be considered
Jews and stripped of
Germans with three or more Jewish grandparents were
defined as Jews,
Germans with one or two Jewish grandparents were
deemed Mischling (mixed-blood).
State racism—that is, the institutions and practices of a
nation-state that are grounded in racist ideology—has played a major
role in all instances of settler colonialism, from the United States
to Australia. It also played a prominent role in the Nazi German
regime, in fascist regimes throughout Europe, and during the early
years of Japan's Shōwa period. These governments advocated and
implemented ideologies and policies that were racist, xenophobic and,
in the case of Nazism, genocidal. The politics of Zimbabwe
promote discrimination against whites, in an effort to ethnically
cleanse the country.
The Nuremberg Race Laws of 1935 prohibited sexual relations between
Aryan and Jew, considering it Rassenschande, "racial pollution".
Nuremberg Laws stripped all Jews, even quarter- and half-Jews
(second and first degree Mischlings), of their German citizenship.
This meant that they had no basic citizens' rights, e.g., the right to
vote. In 1936,
Jews were banned from all professional jobs,
effectively preventing them from having any influence in education,
politics, higher education and industry. On 15 November 1938, Jewish
children were banned from going to normal schools. By April 1939,
nearly all Jewish companies had either collapsed under financial
pressure and declining profits, or had been persuaded to sell out to
the Nazi government. This further reduced their rights as human
beings; they were in many ways officially separated from the German
populace. Similar laws existed in
Bulgaria – The
Law for protection
of the nation, Hungary, Romania, and Austria.
19th century political cartoon:
Uncle Sam kicks out the Chinaman,
referring to the Chinese Exclusion Act.
Legislative state racism is known to have been enforced by the
National Party of
South Africa during its
Apartheid regime between
1948 and 1994. Here a series of
Apartheid legislation was passed
through the legal systems to make it legal for white South Africans to
have rights which were superior to those of non-white South Africans.
Non-white South Africans were not allowed involvement in any governing
matters, including voting; access to quality healthcare; the provision
of basic services, including clean water; electricity; as well as
access to adequate schooling. Non-white South Africans were also
prevented from accessing certain public areas, from using certain
public transportation and were required to live only in certain
designated areas. Non-white South Africans were taxed differently than
white South Africans and they were also required to carry on them at
all times additional documentation, which later became known as "dom
passes", to certify their non-white South African citizenship. All of
these legislative racial laws were abolished through a series of equal
human rights laws which were passed at the end of the
Apartheid era in
the early 1990s.
The current constitution of Liberia, as enacted in 1984, is
racist in its Article 27, because it does not allow non-blacks to
become Liberian citizens: "only persons who are Negroes or of
Negro descent shall qualify by birth or by naturalization to be
citizens of Liberia".
Main article: Anti-racism
An anti-racism rally held outside Sydney Town Hall, December 2005.
Anti-racism includes beliefs, actions, movements, and policies which
are adopted or developed in order to oppose racism. In general, it
promotes an egalitarian society in which people are not discriminated
against on the basis of race. Movements such as the civil rights
movement and the Anti-
Apartheid Movement were examples of anti-racist
Nonviolent resistance is sometimes embraced as an element
of anti-racist movements, although this was not always the case. Hate
crime laws, affirmative action, and bans on racist speech are also
examples of government policy which is intended to suppress racism.
International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
UNESCO marks March 21 as the yearly International Day for the
Elimination of Racial Discrimination, in memory of the events that
occurred on March 21, 1960 in Sharpeville, South Africa, where police
killed demonstrators protesting against the apartheid regime.
Teaching about racism
Museum of Tolerance
Museum of Tolerance offers children and adults an opportunity to
interact with authentic artifacts from the Holocaust. The Southern
Law Center disseminates materials to teachers to help them
educate their students about the causes and effects of racism.
Curse and mark of Cain
Curse of Ham
Discrimination based on skin color
Environmental racism in Europe
Index of racism-related articles
Objectification of people
Racial bias in criminal news
Racism in horror films
Racism in the LGBT community
Social interpretations of race
Sociology of race and ethnic relations
References and notes
^ a b c Garner, Steve (2009). Racisms: An Introduction. Sage.
^ Newman, D. M. (2012). Sociology: exploring the architecture of
everyday life (9th ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE. p. 405.
ISBN 978-1-4129-8729-5. racism: Belief that humans are subdivided
into distinct groups that are different in their social behavior and
innate capacities and that can be ranked as superior or
^ "International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial
Discrimination". Office of the
United Nations High Commissioner for
Human Rights. Retrieved December 23, 2011.
^ "race (n2)". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 21 February
^ "Racism". The Canadian Encyclopedia. 2013. Retrieved 21 February
^ "Framework decision on combating racism and xenophobia". Council
Framework Decision 2008/913/JHA of 28 November 2008. European Union.
Retrieved 3 February 2011.
^ "International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial
Discrimination". UN Treaty Series. United Nations. Archived from the
original on 26 August 2011. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
^ Bamshad, Michael; Steve E. Olson (December 2003). "Does Race
Exist?". Scientific American. 289 (6): 78–85.
PMID 14631734. If races are defined as genetically discrete
groups, no. But researchers can use some genetic information to group
individuals into clusters with medical relevance.
^ Patrinos, Ari (2004). "'Race' and the human genome". Nature
Genetics. 36 (S1–S2): S1–S2. doi:10.1038/ng2150.
^ Keita, Shomarka O.Y. & Rick A. Kittles (1997). "The persistence
of racial thinking and the myth of racial divergence" (PDF). American
Anthropologist. 99 (3): 534–44. doi:10.1525/aa.19184.108.40.2064.
^ Smedley, Audrey & Brian D. Smedley (2005). "Race as biology is
fiction, racism as a social problem is real: Anthropological and
historical perspectives on the social construction of race". American
Psychologist. 60 (1): 16–26. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.694.7956 .
doi:10.1037/0003-066x.60.1.16. PMID 15641918.
^ "racialism, n." OED Online. September 2013. Oxford University Press.
(Accessed December 03, 2013).
^ "racism, n." OED Online. September 2013. Oxford University Press.
(Accessed December 03, 2013).
^ Miles, Robert (1989). Racism. Routledge. p. 42.
^ Fredrickson, George M. (2002). Racism: A Short History. Princeton,
NJ: Princeton University Press. p. 5. ISBN 9780691116525.
Archived from the original on 2016-03-08.
^ Bethencourt, Francisco (2014). Racisms: From the Crusades to the
Twentieth Century. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
^ "Universal Declaration of Human Rights". United Nations. Retrieved
22 February 2016.
^ "International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial
Discrimination". United Nations. Adopted December 1965, entered into
force January 1969. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
^ "Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice". United Nations. 1978.
Retrieved 22 February 2016.
^ Metraux, A. (1950). "United nations Economic and Security Council
Statement by Experts on Problems of Race". American Anthropologist. 53
(1): 142–45. doi:10.1525/aa.1951.53.1.02a00370.
^ "Racist and Religious Crime – CPS Prosecution Policy". The CPS.
^ Jon Dagsland Holgersen (23 July 2010) Rasebegrepet på vei ut av
loven Aftenposten. Retrieved 6 March 2017 (in Norwegian)
^ Rase: Et ubrukelig ord Aftenposten. Retrieved 10 December 2013 (in
^ Ministry of Labour The Act on prohibition of discrimination based on
ethnicity, religion, etc. Regjeringen.no. Retrieved 10 December 2013
^ Gossett, Thomas F. Race: The
History of an Idea in America. New
York: Oxford University Press, 1997. ISBN 0195097785
^ Feagin, Joe R. (2000). Racist America: Roots, Current Realities, and
Future Reparations. Routledge. ISBN 9780415925310.
^ Du Bois; W. E. B. (1903). The Souls of Black Folk. New York: Bantam
^ Wellman, David T. (1993). Portraits of White Racism. New York, NY:
Cambridge University Press. p. x.
^ Massey, D. & N. Denton (1989). "Hypersegregation in U.S.
Metropolitan areas: Black and Hispanic Segregation Along Five
Dimensions". Demography. 26 (3): 378–79. doi:10.2307/2061599.
^ Cazenave, Noel A & Darlene Alvarez Maddern (1999). "Defending
the White Race: White Male Faculty Opposition to a White Racism
Course". Race and Society. 2 (1): 25–50.
^ Sellers RM & JN Shelton (2003). "The role of racial identity in
perceived racial discrimination". Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology. 84 (5): 1079–92. doi:10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.119.
^ a b Greenwald, A.G.; Banaji, M.R. (1995). "Implicit social
cognition: Attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes". Psychological
Review. 102 (1): 4–27. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.304.6161 .
doi:10.1037/0033-295x.102.1.4. PMID 7878162.
^ Devos, T. (2008). "Attitudes and attitude change". Implicit
attitudes 101: Theoretical and empirical Insights. New York, NY:
Psychology Press. pp. 61–84.
^ Gawronski, B; Payne, B.K. (2010). "Handbook of Implicit Social
Cognition: Measurement, Theory and Application".
^ Eberhardt, Jennifer L.; et al. (2004). "Seeing Black: Race, Crime,
and Visual Processing". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
87 (6): 876–93. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.408.3542 .
doi:10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1686. PMID 15598112.
^ Belenko, Steven and
Cassia Spohn (2014). "Drugs, Crime, and
^ Van Dijk, Tuen (1992). Analyzing
Some Methodological Reflections in Race and
Ethnicity in Research
Methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. pp. 92–134.
^ Watson, Veronica T. (2013). The Souls of White Folk: African
American Writers Theorize Whiteness. Jackson, MS: The University Press
of Mississippi. p. 137. ISBN 9781496802453.
^ "Definition of racism in English". Oxford University Press.
Retrieved January 3, 2018.
^ "Definition of racism". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved January 3,
^ Blay, Zeba (26 August 2015). "'Reverse Racism': 4 Myths That Need To
Stop". Huffpost Black Voices. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
^ McWhorter, Ladelle (2009).
Racism and sexual oppression in
Anglo-America: a genealogy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
ISBN 9780253352965. OCLC 406565635.
^ a b c Cashmore, Ellis, ed. (2004). "Reverse Racism/Discrimination".
Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies. Routledge. p. 373.
^ a b Yee, June Ying (2008). "Racism, Types of". In Shaefer, Richard
T. Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society. SAGE.
pp. 1118–19. ISBN 978-1-41-292694-2.
^ Ansell, Amy Elizabeth (2013). "Affirmative Action;
Color-Consciousness". Race and Ethnicity: The Key Concepts. Routledge.
pp. 4, 46. ISBN 978-0-415-33794-6.
^ Emily Torbett (August 21, 2015). "Reverse racism: Can't exist by
definition, insulting to minority groups". The Daily Athenaeum.
Retrieved February 3, 2017.
^ Ansell, Amy Elizabeth (2013). "Reverse Racism". Race and Ethnicity:
The Key Concepts. Routledge. pp. 135–8.
^ Dennis, R.M. (2004). "Racism". In Kuper, A.; Kuper, J. The Social
Science Encyclopedia, Volume 2 (3rd ed.). London; New York: Routledge.
^ a b Dovidio, John F.; Gaertner, Samuel L., eds. (1986). "The
aversive form of racism". Prejudice,
Discrimination and Racism.
Academic Press. pp. 61–89. ISBN 978-0-12-221425-7.
^ Dovidio, John F.; Gaertner, Samuel L. (2004). "Aversive Racism". In
Olson, James M.; Zanna, Mark P. Advances in Experimental Social
Psychology. 36. pp. 1–52. doi:10.1016/S0065-2601(04)36001-6.
^ Saucier, Donald A.; Miller, Carol T.; Doucet, Nicole (2005).
"Differences in Helping Whites and Blacks: A Meta-Analysis".
Personality and Social Psychology Review. 9 (1): 2–16.
doi:10.1207/s15327957pspr0901_1. PMID 15745861.
^ Ansell, Amy E. (2008). "Color Blindness". In Schaefer, Richard T.
Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society. SAGE Publications.
pp. 320–322. ISBN 978-1-45-226586-5.
^ Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo (2001). White Supremacy and
Racism in the
Post-Civil Rights Era. Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc.
pp. 137–66. ISBN 978-1-58826-032-1.
^ Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo (2003).
Racism without Racists: Color-blind
Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States.
Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 2–29.
^ Parker, Laurence (1999). Race Is – Race Isn't: Critical Race
Theory and Qualitative Studies in Education. Westview Press.
p. 184. ISBN 0-8133-9069-9.
^ a b Ballantine, Jeanne H.; Roberts, Keith A. (2015). Our Social
World: Introduction to
Sociology (Condensed Version) (3rd ed.). Los
Angeles: SAGE. ISBN 9781452275758.
^ Wren, Karen (2001). "Cultural racism: Something rotten in the state
of Denmark?". Social & Cultural Geography. 2 (2): 141–62.
^ Blaut, James M. (1992). "The Theory of Cultural Racism". Antipode: A
Radical Journal of Geography. 24 (4): 289–99.
^ Savage, Charlie (December 21, 2011). "Countrywide Will Settle a Bias
Suit". The New York Times. Retrieved December 24, 2011.
^ Acuña, Rodolfo F. (2010-01-21). Occupied America: A
Chicanos (7th ed.). Boston: Longman. pp. 23–24.
^ "The World; Racism? Mexico's in Denial.", The New York Times, June
^ Richard W. Race, Analysing ethnic education policy-making in England
and Wales, Sheffield Online Papers in Social Research, University of
Sheffield, p. 12. Retrieved 20 June 2006. Archived September 23, 2006,
at the Wayback Machine.
^ Karenga, Maulana (22–23 June 2001). "The
Ethics of Reparations:
Holocaust of Enslavement" (PDF). The National Coalition
of Blacks for Reparations in America (N'COBRA). Retrieved 31 January
^ Mountz, Alison. (2009) Key Concepts in Political Geography. SAGE. p.
^ a b Said, Edward. (1978) Orientalism. New York: Pantheon Books. p.
^ Gregory, Derek. (2004). The Colonial Present. Blackwell publishers.
^ Said, Edward. (1978) Orientalism. New York: Pantheon Books. p. 360
^ Principles to Guide Housing Policy at the Beginning of the
Millennium, Michael Schill & Susan Wachter, Cityscape
^ Takashi Fujitani; Geoffrey Miles White; Lisa Yoneyama (2001).
Perilous memories: the Asia-Pacific War(s). Duke University Press.
p. 303. ISBN 978-0-8223-2564-2.
^ Miller, Stuart Creighton (1984-09-10). Benevolent Assimilation: The
American Conquest of the Philippines, 1899–1903. Yale University
Press. ISBN 978-0-300-03081-5. p. 5: "... imperialist
editors came out in favor of retaining the entire archipelago (using)
higher-sounding justifications related to the "white man's burden."
^ Opinion archive,
International Herald Tribune
International Herald Tribune (February 4, 1999).
"In Our Pages: 100, 75 and 50 Years Ago; 1899: Kipling's Plea".
International Herald Tribune: 6. : Notes that Rudyard Kipling's
new poem, "The White Man's Burden," "is regarded as the strongest
argument yet published in favor of expansion."
^ Out West. University of Nebraska Press. 2000. p. 96.
^ "L. Frank Baum's Editorials on the Sioux Nation". Archived from the
original on December 9, 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-09. Full text of
both, with commentary by professor A. Waller Hastings
^ Aronson, E., Wilson, T. D., & Akert, R. M. (2010). Social
Psychology (7th edition). New York: Pearson.
^ McConahay, J. B. (1983). "Modern
Racism and Modern Discrimination
The Effects of Race, Racial Attitudes, and Context on Simulated Hiring
Decisions". Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 9 (4):
^ Brief, A. P.; Dietz, J.; Cohen, R. R.; Pugh, S. D.; Vaslow, J. B.
(2000). "Just doing business: Modern racism and obedience to authority
as explanations for employment discrimination". Organizational
Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 81 (1): 72–97.
CiteSeerX 10.1.1.201.4044 . doi:10.1006/obhd.1999.2867.
^ McConahay, J. B. (1986). Modern racism, ambivalence, and the modern
^ Pettigrew, T. F. (1989). "The nature of modern racism in the United
States". Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale. Chicago
^ Staff (March 30, 2015) "How the biases in the back of your mind
affect how you feel about race"
PBS Newshour Accessed: October 9, 2017
^ C. Peter Chen (1945-02-23). "Joint Declaration of the Greater East
Asia Conference (below)". Ww2db.com. Retrieved 2011-01-26.
^ "Toward a World without Evil: Alfred Métraux as UNESCO
Anthropologist (1946–1962)", by Harald E.L. Prins, UNESCO
^ "European Court of Human Rights case law factsheet on racial
discrimination" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-14.
^ Text of the Convention Archived July 26, 2011, at the Wayback
Machine., International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Racial Discrimination, 1966
^  Archived January 12, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Pierre-André Taguieff, La force du préjugé, 1987 (in French)
^ "Race Studies in Denmark" (PDF). Geografisk Tidsskrift (in Danish).
19. 1907. Retrieved 2013-11-14.
^ Ladimeji, O.A. (1974). "Science,
Social Darwinism – a
review of Race by J R Baker".
^ Ladimeji, O.A. (2015). "
Racism and homophobia in Gladwell's Tipping
^ DuBois, W. E. B. (1897). "The Conservation of Races".
^ Marius Turda (2004). The idea of national superiority in Central
Europe, 1880–1918. Edwin Mellen Press.
^ National Analytical Study on Racist Violence and Crime, RAXEN Focal
Point for ITALY – Annamaria Rivera FRA. "Helping to make fundamental
rights a reality for everyone in the European Union" (PDF). European
Union Agency for Fundamental Rights. Archived from the original (PDF)
on December 16, 2008. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
^ Joseph L. Graves (2001). The Emperor's new clothes: biological
theories of race at the millennium. Rutgers University Press.
^ Inter-American Convention against
Racism and all forms of
Discrimination and Intolerance – Study prepared by the
Inter-American Juridical Committee 2002
^ Richter, Facing East from Indian Country, p. 208
^ Fredrickson, George M. 1988. The Arrogance of Race: Historical
Perspectives on Slavery, Racism, and Social Inequality. Middletown,
Wesleyan University Press
^ Reilly, Kevin; Kaufman, Stephen; Bodino, Angela (2003).
Racism : a global reader. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe.
pp. 45–52. ISBN 978-0-7656-1060-7.
^ UN General Assembly, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 10
December 1948, 217 A (III), available at:  [accessed 18 July 2012]
^ On this "nationalities question" and the problem of nationalism, see
the relevant articles for a non-exhaustive account of the state of
contemporary historical researches; famous works include: Ernest
Gellner, Nations and
Nationalism (1983); Eric Hobsbawm,
The Age of
Europe 1789–1848 (1962), Nations and Nationalism
since 1780 : programme, myth, reality (1990); Benedict Anderson,
Imagined Communities (1991); Charles Tilly, Coercion, Capital and
European States AD 990–1992 (1990); Anthony D. Smith, Theories of
Nationalism (1971), etc.
^ John Stuart Mill, Considerations on Representative Government, 1861
^ a b Hannah Arendt,
The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951)
^ Maurice Barrès, Le Roman de l'énergie nationale (The Novel of
National Energy, a trilogy started in 1897)
^ Hess, Richard S. (2016). The Old Testament: A Historical,
Theological, and Critical Introduction. Baker Academic. p. 59.
ISBN 149340573X. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
^ a b Kevin Reilly; Stephen Kaufman; Angela Bodino (2002-09-30).
Racism: A Global Reader. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 52–58.
Bernard Lewis (1992). Race and slavery in the Middle East: an
historical enquiry. Oxford University Press. pp. 54–55.
Aristotle on Slavery". Oregonstate.edu. Archived from the original
on September 6, 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-14.
^ Isaac, Benjamin H. (2006). The Invention of
Racism in Classical
Antiquity. Princeton University Press. p. 175.
ISBN 0-691-12598-8. Retrieved 2013-11-14.
^ Puzzo, Dante A. (1964). "
Racism and the Western Tradition". Journal
History of Ideas. 25 (4): 579–586. doi:10.2307/2708188.
^ "Slaves in Saudi". Naeem Mohaiemen. The Daily Star. July 27, 2004.
^ a b c d
Bernard Lewis (1992). Race and slavery in the Middle East:
an historical enquiry. Oxford University Press. p. 53.
^ Khalid, Abdallah (1977). The Liberation of Swahili from European
Appropriation. East African
Literature Bureau. p. 38. Retrieved
10 June 2014.
^ El Hamel, Chouki (2002). "'Race', slavery and
Islam in Maghribi
Mediterranean thought: the question of the Haratin in Morocco". The
Journal of North African Studies. 7 (3): 29–52 [39–40].
doi:10.1080/13629380208718472. Neither in the
Qur'an nor in the Hadith
is there any indication of racial difference among humankind. But as a
consequence of the
Arab conquests, a mutual assimilation between Islam
and the cultural and the scriptural traditions of Christian and Jewish
populations occurred. Racial distinctions between humankind with
reference to the sons of Noah is found in the Babylonian Talmud, a
collection of rabbinic writings which dates back to the sixth
^ Yosef Ben-Jochannan (December 1991). African origins of the major
"Western religions". Black Classic Press. p. 231.
^ "Medieval Sourcebook: Abû Ûthmân al-Jâhiz: From The Essays, c.
860 CE". Medieval Sourcebook. July 1998. Retrieved 2008-12-07.
^ Lewis, Bernard (2002). Race and
Slavery in the Middle East. Oxford
University Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-19-505326-5.
^ "West Asian views on black Africans during the medieval era".
Colorq.org. Retrieved 2010-05-23.
^ Hannoum, Abdelmajid (1 January 2003). "Translation and the Colonial
Imaginary: Ibn Khaldûn Orientalist".
History and Theory. 42 (1):
61–81. doi:10.1111/1468-2303.00230. JSTOR 3590803.
^ Lindsay, James E. (2005), Daily Life in the Medieval Islamic World,
Greenwood Publishing Group, pp. 12–5,
^ Andalusí, Fundación El Legado (2005-01-01). Maroc et
Espagne : une histoire commune = Marruecos y España : una
historia común (in French). Fundación El legado andalusì.
^ Sephardim. Jewish Virtual Library. Last accessed 27 December 2011.
^ O'Callaghan, Joseph F. (2013-09-10). Reconquest and Crusade in
Medieval Spain. University of Pennsylvania Press.
^ a b A. Chami, Pablo. "Limpieza de Sangre". Retrieved
^ Robert Lacey, Aristocrats. Little, Brown and Company, 1983, p. 67
^ Sicroff, Albert A. Los estatutos de Limpieza de Sangre.
^ Colección Legislativa de España (1870), p. 364
^ Avrum Ehrlich, Mark (2009). Encyclopedia of the Jewish diaspora:
origins, experiences, and culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 689.
^ Ginés de Sepúlveda, Juan (trans. Marcelino Menendez y Pelayo and
Manuel Garcia-Pelayo) (1941). Tratado sobre las Justas Causas de la
Guerra contra los Indios. Mexico D.F.: Fondo de Cultura Económica.
^ Bonar Ludwig Hernandez (2001). "The Las Casas-Sepúlveda
Controversy: 1550–1551" (PDF). Ex Post Facto. San Francisco State
University. 10: 95–104. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April
^ J. Michael Francis, PhD, Luisa de Abrego: Marriage, Bigamy, and the
Spanish Inquisition, http://laflorida.org External link in
^ Flannery, Edward (2004-11-02). The Anguish of the Jews: Twenty-Three
Antisemitism (2nd ed.). New York: Paulist Press.
^ Michel Foucault,
Society Must Be Defended (1976–77)
^ "Race and
Asia – Race And
Racism in China".
science.jrank.org. Retrieved 2016-08-01. Chinese descriptions of
themselves as a "yellow" race predated European use of such
^ Academic Press (2000). " Encyclopedia of Nationalism, Two-Volume
Set, Volume 2".
^ "Royal Navy and the Slave Trade : Battles : History".
Royal-navy.mod.uk. Archived from the original on May 10, 2011.
^ "Chasing Freedom Exhibition: the Royal Navy and the Suppression of
the Transatlantic Slave Trade". Royalnavalmuseum.org. 2006-11-21.
Archived from the original on December 10, 2009. Retrieved
^ Merriam Webster (editor), Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary,
10 Rev Ed edition, (Merriam-Webster: 1998), p. 563
^ Ronald James Harrison,
Africa and the Islands, (Wiley: 1965), p. 58
^ Dorothy Dodge, African
Politics in Perspective, (Van Nostrand:
1966), p. 11
^ Michael Senior, Tropical Lands: a human geography, (Longman: 1979),
^ A. H. M. Jones, Elizabeth Monroe,
History of Abyssinia, (Kessinger
Publishing: 2003), p. 25
^ "Background on conflict in Liberia". Fcnl.org. 2003-07-30. Archived
from the original on January 8, 2011. Retrieved 2011-01-26.
^ Maggie Montesinos Sale (1997). The Slumbering Volcano: American
Slave Ship Revolts and the Production of Rebellious Masculinity. p.
264. Duke University Press, 1997
^ Galton, Francis (9 June 1873). "
Africa for the Chinese". The London
and China Telegraph. 15 (510). London.
^ Gumkowski, Janusz; Leszczynski, Kazimierz. "Hitler's Plans for
Eastern Europe". Poland under Nazi Occupation. Archived from the
original on 27 July 2007.
^ Davies, Norman (2006).
Europe at War 1939–1945: No Simple Victory.
Macmillian Pubs (pp. 167, 4).
^ Operation Barbarossa:
Ethics against Human Dignity, by
André Mineau, (Rodopi, 2004) p. 180
^ a b The
Czechs under Nazi Rule: The Failure of National Resistance,
1939–1942, Vojtěch Mastný, Columbia University
^ Historical Dictionary of the Holocaust, p. 175 Jack R. Fischel.
2010. The policy of
Lebensraum was also the product of Nazi racial
ideology, which held that the Slavic peoples of the east were inferior
^ Hitler's Home Front: Wurttemberg Under the Nazis, Jill Stephenson p.
135, Other non-'Aryans' included Slavs, Blacks and Roma.
^ Race Relations Within Western Expansion, p. 98 Alan J. Levine. 1996.
Preposterously, Central European
Aryan theorists, and later the Nazis,
would insist that the Slavic-speaking peoples were not really Aryans
Politics of Fertility in Twentieth-Century Berlin, p. 118
Annette F. Timm. 2010. The Nazis' singleminded desire to "purify" the
German race through the elimination of non-Aryans (particularly Jews,
Gypsies, and Slavs)
^ Curta 2001, p. 9, 26–30.
^ Jerry Bergman, "
Eugenics and the Development of Nazi Race Policy",
Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith
Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith
PSCF 44 (June
Holocaust Encyclopedia –
Genocide of European Roma (Gypsies),
Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM).
Retrieved 9 August 2011.
^ Pauwels, Jacques R. The Great Class War 1914–1918. Formac
Publishing Company Limited. p. 88.
^ Gumkowski, Janusz; Leszczynski, Kazimierz; Robert, Edward
(translator) (1961). Hitler's Plans for Eastern Europe. Poland Under
Nazi Occupation (First ed.). Polonia Pub. House. p. 219.
OCLC 750570006. Archived from the original (Paperback) on
2011-04-09. Retrieved March 12, 2014.
^ Norman Davies.
Europe at War 1939–1945: No Simple Victory. pp.
^ Daniel Goldhagen, Hitler's Willing Executioners (p. 290) – "2.8
million young, healthy Soviet POWs" killed by the Germans, "mainly by
starvation ... in less than eight months" of 1941–42, before
"the decimation of Soviet POWs ... was stopped" and the Germans
"began to use them as laborers".
^ a b Whitman, James Q. (2017). Hitler's American Model: The United
States and the Making of Nazi Race Law. Princeton University Press.
^ "American laws against 'coloreds' influenced Nazi racial planners".
Times of Israel. Retrieved September 23, 2017
^ a b Westermann, Edward. B. (2016). Hitler's Ostkrieg and the Indian
Genocide and Conquest. University of Oklahoma Press.
^ Whitman, James Q. (2017). Hitler's American Model: The United States
and the Making of Nazi Race Law. Princeton University Press.
^ Fredrickson, George (1981). White Supremacy. Oxford Oxfordshire:
Oxford University Press. p. 162. ISBN 0-19-503042-7.
^ a b Jennifer Ludden. "1965 immigration law changed face of America".
NPR. Retrieved December 7, 2016.
^ Seema Sohi (2014). Echoes of Mutiny: Race, Surveillance, and Indian
Anticolonialism in North America. Oxford University Press. p. 8.
ISBN 978-0-19-937625-4. During the early decades of the twentieth
century, US Immigration, Justice, and State Department officials cast
Indian anticolonialists as a "Hindu" menace
^ Zhao, X. & Park, E.J.W. (2013). Asian Americans: An Encyclopedia
of Social, Cultural, Economic, and Political History. Greenwood. p.
1142. ISBN 978-1-59884-239-5
^ Schultz, Jeffrey D. (2002). Encyclopedia of
Minorities in American
Politics: African Americans and Asian Americans. p. 284.
^ "Roots in the Sand – the Archives". PBS. Retrieved
^ Current race riots like 1949 anti-Indian riots: South African
minister. Thaindian News. May 25, 2008.
^ Martin Smith (1991).
Burma – Insurgency and the
Ethnicity. London, New Jersey: Zed Books. pp. 43–44, 56–57,
^ Burma: Asians v. Asians. Time. 17 July 1964.
^ Conley, Robert (13 January 1964). "African Revolt Overturns Arab
Regime in Zanzibar". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 November
^ Plekhanov, Sergey (2004). A Reformer on the Throne: Sultan Qaboos
Bin Said Al Said. Trident Press. p. 91.
^ Citizen and Subject: Contemporary
Africa And The Legacy Of Late
Africa And The Legacy Of Late Colonialism,
p.12, Meike de Goede, CRC Press, 2017
^ Where In the World Should I Invest: An Insider's Guide to Making
Money Around the Globe, p.156, John Wiley & Sons
^ 1972: Asians given 90 days to leave Uganda. BBC.
^ "The birth and death of apartheid".
BBC News. June 17, 2002.
^ Staff reporters (11 September 2011). "ANC's youth leader found
guilty of hate speech for Shoot the Boer song". The Guardian.
Retrieved 11 September 2011.
^ "DR Congo
Pygmies appeal to UN".
BBC News. 2003-05-23. Retrieved
^ UN Condems [sic] Botswana's Racism. Survival International. August
^ "Stop your racist land grab, tribunal tells Robert Mugabe". The
Times. March 5, 2009
^ "The end of an era for Zimbabwe's last white farmers?".
Telegraph.co.uk. 26 June 2011.
Africa Leaves China In Quandary. The New York Times. December
^ Fears of a 'no-fun' Olympics in Beijing. The Age. July 19, 2008.
Archived March 16, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Stephen Vines (2009-11-01). "China's black pop idol exposes her
nation's racism". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
^ "TV talent show exposes China's race issue". CNN. 2009-12-22.
^ "Mauritania: Fair elections haunted by racial imbalance". IRIN
Africa. 5 March 2007.
Arab militia use 'rape camps' for ethnic cleansing of Sudan.
Telegraph. May 30, 2004.
Racism at root of Sudan's Darfur crisis. Csmonitor.com. July 14,
Niger starts mass
BBC News. 2006-10-26.
^ "Reuters AlertNet – Niger's
Arabs say expulsions will fuel race
hate". Alertnet.org. 2006-10-25. Archived from the original on 10
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2007-07-11).
"Refworld – The Leader in Refugee Decision Support". UNHCR.
^ "Analysis Indonesia: Why ethnic Chinese are afraid".
1998-02-12. Retrieved 2010-05-23.
Xenophobia against Chinese on the rise in Africa.
Afrik.com. August 5, 2009.
^ "Rioters attack Chinese after Zambian poll". Telegraph. October 3,
^ "Lesotho: Anti-Chinese resentment flares". IRIN Africa. 24 January
^ Spiller, Penny: "Riots highlight Chinese tensions",
Friday, 21 April 2006, 18:57 GMT
^ "Editorial: Racist moves will rebound on Tonga". The New Zealand
Herald. November 23, 2001. Retrieved November 4, 2011.
^ "Looters shot dead amid chaos of Papua New Guinea's anti-Chinese
riots". Archived 9 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. The Australian.
May 23, 2009.
^ "Overseas and under siege". The Economist. August 11, 2009.
^ Future bleak for Fiji's Indians.
BBC News. July, 2000.
^ "Dealing with the dictator". The Australian. April 16, 2009.
Archived from the original on 21 April 2009.
Fiji Islands: From Immigration to Emigration. Brij V. Lal. The
Australian National University.
Guyana turns attention to racism".
BBC News. September 20, 2005.
Racism alive and well in Malaysia".
Asia Times. March 24, 2006.
^ "Trouble in paradise".
BBC News. May 1, 2002
^ "Ethnic strife rocks Madagascar".
BBC News. May 14, 2002.
^ "Race war rocks Grabouw". Cape Times. March 20, 2012.
^ "Rohingya refugees share stories of sexual violence". Al Jazeera. 29
^ The Middle East, Abstracts and Index, Volume 19, Part 4.
Northumberland Press. 1996. p. 128. Retrieved 4 October
^ "Ethiopian birth control?". The Jerusalem Post.
^ Elise Knutsen (28 January 2013). "Israel Forcibly Injected African
Immigrants with Birth Control, Report Claims". Forbes.
^ Smith, Amelia (4 May 2014). "Israel: promised land for
Jews ... as
long as they're not black?".
Middle East Monitor – The Latest from
the Middle East. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
^ Thomas J. Sugrue, Sweet Land of Liberty: the Forgotten Struggle for
Civil Rights in the North (Random House: New York, 2008), pp.
^ Massey, Douglas S.; Denton, Nancy A. (1993). American Apartheid:
Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
^ "Negative opinions about Roma, Muslims in several European nations".
Pew Research Center. 11 July 2016.
^ Eric Morton. "Race nad
Racism in the works of David Hume". Archived
from the original on August 27, 2009.
^ a b Race and
Racism (O. R. P.) (Oxford Readings in Philosophy)
(Paperback) by Bernard Boxill[full citation needed]
^ On Blackness Without Blacks: Essays on the Image of the Black in
Germany, Boston: C.W. Hall, 1982, p. 94.
^ Abraham Lincoln, "Speeches and Writings 1832–1858: Speeches,
Letters, and Miscellaneous Writings : the Lincoln-Douglas
Debates, Volume 1". p. 638. Library of America, 1989
Sex and Character, New York: G.P. Putnam, 1906, p. 302.
^ The Hour of Decision, pp. 227–28
Charles Darwin (1871). "The descent of man, and selection in
relation to sex". John Murray. Archived from the original on September
30, 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-02.
^ Desmond, Adrian; James Richard Moore (1991). Darwin. Michael Joseph,
Penguin Group. ISBN 978-0-7181-3430-3. OCLC 185764721.
pp. 28, 147, 580.
^ "Minorities, Race, and Genomics". Retrieved 2009-05-12.
^ UNESCO, The Race Question, 1950
^ Matsuo Takeshi (University of Shimane, Japan). L'Anthropologie de
Georges Vacher de Lapouge: Race, classe et eugénisme (Georges Vacher
de Lapouge anthropology) in Études de langue et littérature
françaises 2001, n°79, pp. 47–57. ISSN 0425-4929; INIST-CNRS,
Cote INIST : 25320, 35400010021625.0050 (Abstract resume on the
^ Tucker, William H. (2007). The funding of scientific racism:
Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund. University of Illinois Press.
ISBN 978-0-252-07463-9. Lay summary (4 September 2010).
^ On A Neglected Aspect Of Western Racism, Kurt Jonassohn, December
^ Pascal Blanchard, Sandrine Lemaire & Nicolas Bancel (August
2000). "Human zoos – Racist theme parks for Europe's colonialists".
Le Monde diplomatique. ; "Ces zoos humains de la
Le Monde diplomatique
Le Monde diplomatique (in French). August
2000. (available to everyone)
^ Human Zoos, by Nicolas Bancel, Pascal Blanchard and Sandrine
Lemaire, in Le Monde diplomatique, August 2000 French – free
^ Savages and Beasts – The Birth of the Modern Zoo, Nigel Rothfels,
Johns Hopkins University Press
Colonial Exhibition of May 1931"
(PDF). (96.6 KB) by Michael G. Vann,
Santa Clara University
^ Robert Kurzban;
John Tooby &
Leda Cosmides (December 18, 2001).
"Can race be erased? Coalitional computation and social
categorization" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences. 98 (26): 15387–92. Bibcode:2001PNAS...9815387K.
doi:10.1073/pnas.251541498. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 65039 .
PMID 11742078. Retrieved 2008-06-11. . The authors provide a
summary and other comments at "(untitled)".
^ New Scientist. Issue 2595, 17 March 2007.
Richard Dawkins (2006). The selfish gene. Oxford University Press.
p. 99. ISBN 978-0-19-929115-1.
^ Hammond, R. A.; Axelrod, R. (2006). "The Evolution of
Ethnocentrism". Journal of Conflict Resolution. 50 (6): 926–36.
^ Telzer, Eva; Humphreys, Kathryn; Mor, Shapiro; Tottenham, Nim
(2013). "Amygdala Sensitivity to Race Is Not Present in Childhood but
Emerges over Adolescence". Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 25 (2):
234–44. doi:10.1162/jocn_a_00311. PMC 3628780 .
^ Chekroud, Adam M.; Everett, Jim A. C.; Bridge, Holly; Hewstone,
Miles (27 March 2014). "A review of neuroimaging studies of
race-related prejudice: does amygdala response reflect threat?".
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 8: 179. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00179.
ISSN 1662-5161. PMC 3973920 . PMID 24734016.
^ Hodson, G.; Busseri, M. A. (5 January 2012). "Bright Minds and Dark
Attitudes: Lower Cognitive Ability Predicts Greater
Ideology and Low Intergroup Contact". Psychological
Science. 23 (2): 187–95. doi:10.1177/0956797611421206.
^ Edward Russel of Liverpool, The Knights of Bushido, 2002, p. 238,
Herbert Bix, Hirohito and the making of modern Japan, 2001, pp.
313–14, 326, 359–60; Karel van Wolferen, The Enigma of Japanese
power, 1989, pp. 263–72
^ Paulino, Edward (December 2006). "Anti-Haitianism, Historical
Memory, and the Potential for Genocidal Violence in the Dominican
Genocide Studies International. University of Toronto
Press. 1 (3): 265. doi:10.3138/7864-3362-3R24-6231.
eISSN 2291-1855. ISSN 2291-1847.
^ "Tale of two farms in
Zimbabwe – March 30, 2005". CNN. 2005-03-30.
^ "'The Face of America in Africa' Must End Constitutional Racism".
The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2015-06-06.
^ Tannenbaum, Jessie; Valcke, Anthony; McPherson, Andrew (2009-05-01).
"Analysis of the Aliens and
Law of the Republic of
Liberia". Rochester, NY. SSRN 1795122 .
^ "1984 Liberian Constitution". www.onliberia.org. Retrieved
Allen, Theodore. (1994). 'The Invention of the White Race: Volume 1
London, UK: Verso.
Allen, Theodore. (1997). The Invention of the White Race: Volume 2
London, UK: Verso.
Barkan, Elazar (1992), The Retreat of Scientific Racism :
Changing Concepts of Race in Britain and the
United States between the
World Wars, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY.
Barth, Boris: nbn:de:0159-2010092173
Racism , European
Mainz: Institute of European History, 2011, retrieved: November 16,
Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. 2003.
Racism without Racists: Color-Blind
Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Curta, Florin (2001). The Making of the Slavs:
History and Archaeology
of the Lower Danube Region, c. 500–700. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 9781139428880.
Dain, Bruce (2002), A Hideous Monster of the Mind : American Race
Theory in the Early Republic,
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
(18th century US racial theory)
Daniels, Jessie (1997), White Lies: Race, Class, Gender and Sexuality
in White Supremacist Discourse, Routledge, New York, NY.
Daniels, Jessie (2009), Cyber Racism: White Supremacy Online and the
New Attack on Civil Rights, Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, MD.
Ehrenreich, Eric (2007), The Nazi Ancestral Proof: Genealogy, Racial
Science, and the Final Solution, Indiana University Press,
Ewen & Ewen (2006), "Typecasting: On the Arts and Sciences of
Human Inequality", Seven Stories Press, New York, NY.
Feagin, Joe R. (2006). Systemic Racism: A Theory of Oppression,
Routledge: New York, NY.
Feagin, Joe R. (2009). Racist America: Roots, Current Realities, and
Future Reparations, 2nd Edition.Routledge: New York, NY.
Eliav-Feldon, Miriam, Isaac, Benjamin & Ziegler, Joseph. 2009. The
Racism in the West, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge
Gibson, Rich (2005) Against
Racism and Irrationalism
Graves, Joseph. (2004) The Race Myth NY: Dutton.
Ignatiev, Noel. 1995. How the Irish Became White NY: Routledge.
Isaac, Benjamin. 1995 The Invention of
Racism in Classical Antiquity
Princeton: Princeton University Press
Lentin, Alana. (2008) Racism: A Beginner's Guide Oxford: One World.
Lévi-Strauss, Claude (1952), Race and History, (UNESCO).
Memmi, Albert (2000). Racism. University of Minnesota Press.
Moody-Adams, Michele (2005), "Racism", in Frey, R.G.; Heath Wellman,
Christopher, A companion to applied ethics, Blackwell Companions to
Philosophy, Oxford, UK Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing,
pp. 89–101, doi:10.1002/9780470996621.ch7,
Rocchio, Vincent F. (2000), Reel Racism : Confronting Hollywood's
Construction of Afro-American Culture, Westview Press.
Smedley, Audrey; Smedley, Brian D. (2005). "Race as
Racism as a Social Problem is Real". American Psychologist.
60 (1): 16–26. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.694.7956 .
doi:10.1037/0003-066x.60.1.16. PMID 15641918.
Smedley, Audrey. 2007. Race in North America: Origins and Evolution of
a World View. Boulder, CO: Westview.
Stoler, Ann Laura (1997). "Racial Histories and Their Regimes of
Truth". Political Power and Social Theory. 11: 183–206.
(historiography of race and racism)
Taguieff, Pierre-André (1987), La Force du préjugé : Essai sur
le racisme et ses doubles, Tel Gallimard, La Découverte.
Poliakov, Leon. The
Aryan Myth: A
History of Racist and Nationalistic
Europe (Barnes & Noble Books (1996))
Trepagnier, Barbara. 2006. Silent Racism: How Well-Meaning White
People Perpetuate the Racial Divide. Paradigm Publishers.
France Winddance (1997),
Racism in a Racial Democracy: The
Maintenance of White Supremacy in Brazil, Rutgers University Press.
UNESCO, The Race Question, 1950
Tali Farkash, "Racists among us" in Y-Net (Yediot Aharonot), "Jewish
Scene" section, April 20, 2007
Winant, Howard The New
Politics of Race (2004)
Winant, Howard and Omi, Michael Racial Formation in the United States
Routeledge (1986); Second Edition (1994).
Bettina Wohlgemuth (May 2007).
Racism in the 21st century: how
everybody can make a difference. ISBN 978-3-8364-1033-5.
Wright W. D. (1998) "
Racism Matters", Westport, CT: Praeger.
Look up racism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Racism.
Being a Black Male in
Cuba By Lucia Lopez, Havana Times May 5, 2009
Race, history and culture –
Ethics – March 1996 – Extract of two
articles by Claude Lévi-Strauss
Racism and the
Law – Information about race, racism and racial
distinctions in the law.
RacismReview, – created and maintained by American sociologists Joe
Feagin, PhD and Jessie Daniels, PhD, provides a research-based
analysis of racism.
Library resources about
Resources in your library
Links to related articles
Types of racism
Among White people
Among LGBT people
Among US minorities
in the media
in Charles Dickens' works
in early US films
in horror films
in school curricula
in US politics
Racism by region
List of racism-related articles
List of anti-ethnic terms
Segregation in countries by type
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Partition of India
Greece and Turkey
Partition of Bengal
Anti-miscegenation laws in the United States
Islam (in Iran)
Residential segregation in the United States
Jim Crow laws
Reservation in India
Separate but equal
Separate school (Canada)
See also: Desegregation
Race / Ethnicity / Nationality
Disability hate crime
Enemy of the people
LGBT hate crime
Violence against women
White power music
Age of candidacy
Cleanliness of blood
Crime of apartheid
Gender pay gap
Jim Crow laws
Law for Protection of the Nation
MSM blood donor controversy
Numerus clausus (as religious or racial quota)
Same-sex marriage (laws and issues prohibiting)
Racial bias in criminal news
Racism by country
Second-generation gender bias
Indigenous and minority rights
Free, prior and informed consent
in the United States
African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights
Bureau of Indian Affairs
Council of Indigenous Peoples(Taiwan)
Fundação Nacional do Índio
Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada
National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples
National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (Philippines)
United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues
Assembly of First Nations
Confederation of Indigenous
Nationalities of Ecuador
Congress of Aboriginal Peoples
Coordinator of Indigenous Organizations of the Amazon River Basin
Indigenous Environmental Network
Indigenous Peoples Council on Biocolonialism
International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs
National Indigenous Organization of Colombia
Native American Rights Fund
Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
Zapatista Army of National Liberation
Dakota Access Pipeline protests
Lands inhabited by indigenous peoples
American Indian reservation
Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 2007
2009 Peruvian political crisis
Depopulation of Diego Garcia
High Arctic relocation
Indigenous rights • Minority rights
Racism in Africa
Cape Verde (Cabo Verde)
Central African Republic
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire)
São Tomé and Príncipe
States with limited
Arab Democratic Republic
Canary Islands / Ceuta / Melilla (Spain)
Mayotte / Réunion (France)
Saint Helena / Ascension Island / Tristan da
Cunha (United Kingdom)
Racism in the Americas
Antigua and Barbuda
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Trinidad and Tobago
British Virgin Islands
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
US Virgin Islands
Racism in Asia
East Timor (Timor-Leste)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Racism in Europe
Bosnia and Herzegovina
States with limited
Isle of Man
Racism in Oceania
Federated States of Micronesia
Papua New Guinea
of New Zealand
and other territories
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Northern Mariana Islands
Wallis and Futuna
BNF: cb11940470z (d