Pyongyang or P'yŏngyang (UK: /ˌpjɒŋˈjæŋ/, US:
/ˌpjʌŋˈjɑːŋ/; Korean pronunciation: [pʰjʌŋ.jaŋ]) is
the capital and largest city of North Korea.
Pyongyang is located on the
Taedong River about 109 kilometres
(68 mi) upstream from its mouth on the Yellow Sea. According to
the 2008 population census, it has a population of 3,255,288. The
city was split from the South Pyongan province in 1946. It is
administered as a directly governed city (chikhalsi, 직할시) on the
same level as provincial governments, as opposed to special cities of
South Korea (teukbyeolsi, 특별시) such as Seoul.
3.1 After 1945
6 Administrative status and divisions
11 Education and science
13 Twin towns
14 See also
17 Further reading
18 External links
Pyongyang at night
The city's other historic names include Kisong, Hwangsong, Rakrang,
Sŏgyong, Sodo, Hogyong, Changan, and Heijō
(during Japanese rule in Korea). There are several variants.[a] During
the early 20th century,
Pyongyang came to be known among missionaries
as being the "
Jerusalem of the East", due to its historical status as
a stronghold of Christianity, namely Protestantism, especially during
Pyongyang revival of 1907.
After Kim Il-sung's death in 1994, some members of Kim Jong-il's
faction proposed changing the name of
Pyongyang to "
Kim Il-sung City"
(김일성시), but others suggested that
North Korea should begin
Kim Il-sung City" instead and grant
Kim Jong-il City", and in the end neither proposal was
In 1955, archaeologists excavated evidence of prehistoric occupation
in a large ancient village in the
Pyongyang area, called Kŭmtan-ni,
dating to the Jeulmun and Mumun pottery periods. North Koreans
Pyongyang with the mythological city of "Asadal"
(Hangul: 아사달), or
Wanggeom-seong (Hangul: 왕검성;
Hanja: 王儉城), the first second millennium BC capital of
Gojoseon ("Old Joseon") according to Korean historiographies beginning
with the 13th-century Samgungnyusa.
Historians[who?] deny this claim because earlier Chinese
historiographical works such as the Guanzi, Classic of Mountains and
Seas, Records of the Grand Historian, and Records of the Three
Kingdoms, mention a much later "Joseon". The
connection between the two therefore may have been asserted by North
Korea for the use of propaganda. Nevertheless,
Pyongyang became a major city in old Joseon.
Korean mythology asserts that
Pyongyang was founded in 1122 BC on the
site of the capital of the heavenly king Dangun. It is likely that
the area of
Pyongyang belonged to Wiman Joseon, the shortest-lasting
part of Gojoseon, which fell in the Han conquest of
Gojoseon in 108
Emperor Wu of Han
Emperor Wu of Han ordered four commanderies be set up, with Lelang
Commandery in the center and its capital established as 平壤 (Old
Chinese: *breŋ*naŋʔ, Standard Chinese: Pinyin: píngrǎng,
Korean: pyeongyang). Several archaeological findings from the later,
Eastern Han (20–220 AD) period in the Pyeongyang area seems to
suggest that Han forces later launched brief incursions around these
The area around the city was called Nanglang during the early Three
Kingdoms period. As the capital of Nanglang (낙랑국),[b] Pyeongyang
remained an important commercial and cultural outpost after the Lelang
Commandery was destroyed by an expanding
Goguryeo in 313.
Goguryeo moved its capital there in 427. According to Christopher
Pyongyang is the Sino-Korean reading of the name they gave
it in their language: Piarna, or "level land".
Pyongyang became the capital of the Protectorate General to
Pacify the East established by the
Tang dynasty of China. However, by
676, it was taken by Silla, but left on the border between
Pyongyang was left abandoned during the Later
until it was recovered by Wang Geon and decreed as the Western Capital
of Goryeo. During the
Joseon period, it became the provincial capital
of Pyeongan Province.
Korean and Chinese offensive during the Siege of
Chinese generals in
Pyongyang surrender to Imperial Japanese soldiers
during the Sino-Japanese War, October 1894, as depicted in Japanese
During the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98),
captured by the Japanese until they were defeated in the Siege of
Pyongyang. Later in the 17th century, it became temporarily
occupied during the Qing invasion of
Joseon until peace arrangements
were made between Korea and Qing China. While the invasions made
Koreans suspicious of foreigners, the influence of
to grow after the country opened itself up to foreigners in the 16th
Pyongyang became the base of Christian expansion in Korea,
and by 1880 it had more than 100 churches and more Protestant
missionaries than any other Asian city.
In 1890, the city had 40,000 inhabitants. It was the site of the
Pyongyang during the First Sino-Japanese War, which led to
the destruction and depopulation of much of the city. It was the
provincial capital of South
Pyeongan Province beginning in 1896. Under
Japanese colonial rule, the city became an industrial center, called
Heijō (平壤 read as へいじょう) in Japanese.
The aftermath of the Wanpaoshan Incident
In July 1931 the city experienced anti-Chinese riots as a result of
Wanpaoshan Incident and the sensationalized media reports about it
which appeared in Imperial Japanese and Korean newspapers.
Pyongyang had a population of 235,000.
Pyongyang in the 1920s
Pyongyang Station during the 1920s
Pyongyang City Hall during the 1920s
Pyongyang Tram during the 1920s
Sŏsŏng ward during the 1920s
Pyongyang during the 1920s
View of Moran Hill in Spring during the 1920s
View of Moran Hill during the 1920s
On 25 August 1945, the 25th army of the
Soviet Union entered Pyongyang
and it became the temporary capital of the Provisional People's
Committee for North Korea. A People's Committee was already
established there, led by veteran Christian nationalist Cho
Pyongyang became the de facto capital of
North Korea at
its establishment in 1948. At that time, the
aimed to recapture Korea's official capital, Seoul.
again severely damaged in the Korean War, during which it was briefly
occupied by South Korean forces from 19 October to 6 December 1950. In
1952, it was the target of the largest aerial raid of the entire war,
involving 1,400 UN aircraft.
After the war, the city was quickly rebuilt with Soviet aid, with many
buildings built in the style of Socialist Classicism. The plans for
the modern city of
Pyongyang were first displayed for public viewing
in a theatre building. On 27 July 1953 – the day the armistice
North Korea and
South Korea was signed – The Pyongyang
Review wrote: "While streets were in flames, an exhibition showing the
general plan of restoration of
Pyongyang was held at the Moranbong
Underground Theater", the air raid shelter of the government under
Moranbong. "On the way of victory... fireworks which streamed high
into the night sky of the capital in a gun salute briefly illuminated
the construction plan of the city which would rise soon with a new
In 2001, the authorities began a long-term modernization program. The
Ministry of Capital City Construction Development was included in the
cabinet in that year. In 2006, Kim Jong-il’s brother-in-law Jang
Song-thaek took charge of the ministry.
Pyongyang is in the west-central part of North Korea; the city lies on
a flat plain about 50 kilometres (31 mi) east of the Korea Bay,
an arm of the Yellow Sea. The
Taedong River flows southwestward
through the city toward the Korea Bay. The
Pyongyang plain, where the
city is situated, is one of the two large plains on the Western coast
of the Korean peninsula, the other being the Chaeryong plain. Both
have an area of approximately 500 square kilometers.
Pyongyang has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate
classification Dwa). Cold, dry winds can blow from
Siberia in winter,
making conditions very cold; the low temperature is usually below
freezing between November and early March, although the average
daytime high is at least a few degrees above freezing in every month
except January. The winter is generally much drier than summer, with
snow falling for 37 days on average.
The transition from the cold, dry winter to the warm, wet summer
occurs rather quickly between April and early May, and there is a
similarly abrupt return to winter conditions in late October and
November. Summers are generally hot and humid, with the East Asian
monsoon taking place from June until August; these are also the
hottest months, with average temperatures of 21 to 25 °C (70 to
77 °F), and daytime highs often above 30 °C (86 °F).
Climate data for
Pyongyang (1971–2000, extremes 1907–2016)
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: World Meteorological Organization
Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (extremes, humidity 1908–1936, and
Mansudae Assembly Hall, seat of the Supreme People's Assembly, the
North Korean parliament
Major government and other public offices are located in Pyongyang,
which is constitutionally designated as the country's capital. The
seat of the Workers' Party Central Committee and the Pyongyang
People's Committee are located in Haebangsan-dong, Chung-guyok. The
North Korea is located in Jongro-dong, Chung-guyok.
Pyongyang is also the seat of all major North Korean security
institutions. The largest of them, the Ministry of People's Security,
has 130,000 employees working in 12 bureaus. These oversee activities
as diverse as police services, security of party officials, classified
documents, census, civil registrations, large-scale public
construction, traffic control, fire safety, civil defense, public
health and customs. Another significant structure based in the
city is the State Security Department, whose 30,000 personnel manage
intelligence, political prison systems, military industrial security
and entry and exit management.
The politics and management of the city is dominated by the Workers'
Party of Korea, as they are in the national level. The city is managed
Pyongyang Party Committee of the Workers' Party of Korea. The
supreme standing state organ is the
Pyongyang People's Committee,
responsible for everyday events in support of the city. This includes
following local Party guidance as channeled through the Pyongyang
Party Committee, the distribution of resources prioritized to
Pyongyang, and providing support to KWP and internal security agency
personnel and families.
Administrative status and divisions
P'yŏngyang is divided into 19 wards (ku- or guyŏk) (the city proper)
and 2 counties (kun or gun).
Chung-guyok (중구역; 中區域)
Pyongchon-guyok (평천구역; 平川區域)
Potonggang-guyok (보통강구역; 普通江區域)
Moranbong-guyok (모란봉구역; 牡丹峰區域)
Sŏsŏng-guyŏk (서성구역; 西城區域)
Songyo-guyok (선교구역; 船橋區域)
Tongdaewŏn-guyŏk (동대원구역; 東大院區域)
Taedonggang-guyŏk (대동강구역; 大同江區域)
Sadong-guyŏk (사동구역; 寺洞區域)
Taesong-guyok (대성구역; 大城區域)
Mangyongdae-guyok (만경대구역; 萬景台區域)
Hyongjesan-guyok (형제산구역; 兄弟山區域)
Ryongsong-guyok (룡성구역; 龍城區域)
Samsok-guyok (삼석구역; 三石區域)
Ryokpo-guyok (력포구역; 力浦區域)
Rakrang-guyok (락랑구역; 樂浪區域)
Sunan-guyŏk (순안구역; 順安區域)
Unjong-guyok (은정구역; 恩情區域)
Kangdong County (강동군; 江東郡)
Foreign media reports in 2010 stated that Kangnam-gun, Chunghwa-gun,
Sŭngho-guyŏk had been transferred to the
administration of neighboring
North Hwanghae province.
Panorama of Pyongyang, as seen from the
Juche Tower in April 2012.
Ryugyong Hotel and part of the Monument to the Victorious Fatherland
Apartment buildings with green areas
Pyongyang was destroyed during the
Korean War and has been entirely
rebuilt according to a design reflecting Kim Il-sung's vision. His
dream was reportedly to create a capital that would boost morale in
the post-war years. The result was a city with wide, tree-lined
boulevards and public buildings with terraced landscaping, mosaics and
decorated ceilings. Its Russian-style architecture makes it
reminiscent of a Siberian city during winter snowfall, although
edifices of traditional Korean design somewhat soften this perception.
In summer, it is notable for its rivers, willow trees, flowers and
The streets are laid out in a north-south, east-west grid, giving the
city an orderly appearance. North Korean designers applied the
Swedish experience of self-sufficient urban neighbourhoods throughout
the entire country, and
Pyongyang is no exception. Its inhabitants are
mostly divided into administrative units of 5,000 to 6,000 people
(dong). These units all have similar sets of amenities including a
food store, a barber shop, a tailor, a public bathhouse, a post
office, a clinic, a library and others. Many residents occupy
high-rise apartment buildings. One of Kim Il-sung's priorities
Pyongyang was to limit the population. Authorities
maintain a restrictive regime of movement into the city, making it
East Asia as it is silent, uncrowded and spacious.
Pyongyang are divided into three major architectural
categories: monuments, buildings with traditional Korean motifs and
high-rises. Some of North Korea's most recognisable landmarks are
monuments, like the
Juche Tower, the Arch of Triumph and the Mansu
Hill Grand Monument. The first of them is a 170-meter granite spire
Juche ideology. It was completed in 1982 and contains
25,550 granite blocks, one for each day of Kim Il-sung's life up to
that point. The most prominent building on Pyongyang's skyline is
Ryugyong Hotel, the seventh highest building in the world terms of
floor count, the tallest unoccupied building in the world, and one
of the tallest hotels in the world. It has yet to open.
High-rise apartment buildings dominate the cityscape. The government
launched a mass construction campaign aiming to build 100,000 new
homes in 2011. The Changjon Street Apartment Complex was part of this
effort. Construction of the complex began after late leader Kim
Jong-il reportedly described the area as "pitiful". Other housing
complexes are being upgraded as well, but most are still poorly
insulated while elevators and central heating remain rare. These
new buildings foresaw the start of an urban renewal program that
continues under Kim Jong-un's leadership, with the old apartments of
the 1970s and '80s now replaced by new, taller high rise buildings and
new leisure parks like the
Kaesong Youth Park, as well as renovations
of older buildings.
Rungrado 1st of May Stadium
Rungrado 1st of May Stadium by the
Taedong River is the largest
mass-sports/athletic stadium in the world by capacity.
Notable landmarks in the city include:
the Ryugyong Hotel
the Kumsusan Palace of the Sun
the Arch of Triumph (heavily inspired by, but larger than, Paris's Arc
the birthplace of
Kim Il-sung at
Mangyongdae Hill at the city
two large stadiums:
Rungrado 1st of May Stadium
Kim Il-sung Stadium
the Mansu Hill complex, including the Korean Revolution Museum
Kim Il-sung Square
Yanggakdo International Hotel
Pyongyang TV Tower
Pyongyang TV Tower is a minor landmark. Other visitor attractions
include the Korea Central Zoo. The
Arch of Reunification
Arch of Reunification has a map of
a united Korea supported by two concrete Korean women dressed in
traditional dress straddling the Reunification Highway, which
Pyongyang to the
Korean Demilitarized Zone
Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ).
Monuments and sights of Pyongyang
Juche Tower Monument to the philosophy of
Arch of Triumph
Arch of Reunification, a monument to the goal of a reunified Korea
Monument to Party Founding
Rungnado May Day Stadium
Kumsusan Palace of the Sun
Tomb of King Tongmyeong
Mansu Hill Grand Monument
Mirae (Future) Scientist's Street
Pyongyang raengmyeon (평양랭면), cold buckwheat noodle soup
originating in Pyongyang
Pyongyang served as the provincial capital of South Pyongan Province
until 1946, and
Pyongyang cuisine shares the general culinary
tradition of the Pyeongan province. The most famous local food is
Pyongyang naengmyeon, or also called mul naengmyeon or just simply
Naengmyeon literally means "cold noodles", while the affix
mul refers to water because the dish is served in a cold broth.
Naengmyeon consists of thin and chewy buckwheat noodles in a cold
meat-broth with dongchimi (watery kimchi) and topped with a slice of
sweet Korean pear.
Pyongyang naengmyeon was originally eaten in homes built with ondol
(traditional underfloor heating) during the cold winter, so it is also
humorously called "
Pyongyang deoldeori" (shivering in Pyongyang).
Pyongyang locals sometimes enjoyed it as a haejangguk, which is any
type of food eaten as a hangover-cure, usually a warm soup.
Pyongyang dish, Taedonggang sungeoguk,
translates as "trout soup from the Taedong River". The soup features
trout (abundant in the Taedong River) along with black peppercorns and
salt. Traditionally, it has been served to guests visiting
Pyongyang. Therefore, there is a common saying, "How good was the
trout soup?", which is used to greet people returning from Pyongyang.
Another local specialty,
Pyongyang onban (literally "warm rice of
Pyongyang") comprises freshly cooked rice topped with sliced
mushrooms, chicken, and a couple of bindaetteok (pancakes made from
ground mung beans and vegetables).
Famous restaurants in the city include
Ch'ongryugwan. Some street foods exist in Pyongyang, where vendors
operate food stalls.
See also: Sport in North Korea
Pyongyang has a number of sports clubs, including the April 25 Sports
Club and the
Pyongyang City Sports Club. The most popular sport in
Pyongyang is football.
Pyongyang with the newly built Changjon Apartment Complex. The
Okryu Bridge and
Ryugyong Hotel are in the background
Pyongyang is North Korea's industrial center. Thanks to the
abundance of natural resources like coal, iron and limestone, as well
as good land and water transport systems, it was the first industrial
city to emerge in
North Korea after the Korean War. Light and heavy
industries are both present and have developed in parallel. Heavy
manufactures include cement, industrial ceramics, munitions and
weapons, but mechanical engineering remains the core industry. Light
Pyongyang and its vicinity include textiles, footwear
and food, among others.
Special emphasis is put on the production and
supply of fresh produce and subsidiary crops in farms on the city's
outskirts. Other crops include rice, corn and soybeans.
to achieve self-sufficiency in meat production. High-density
facilities raise pigs, chicken and other livestock.
The city still experiences frequent shortages of electricity. To
solve this problem, two power stations -
Huichon Power Stations 1 and
2 - were built in
Chagang Province and supply the city through direct
transmission lines. A second phase of the power expansion project was
launched in January 2013, consisting of a series of small dams along
the Chongchon River. The first two power stations have a maximum
generating capacity of 300 megawatts (MW), while the 10 dams to be
built under second phase are expected to generate about 120 MW. In
addition, the city has several existing or planned thermal power
stations. These include
Pyongyang TPS with a capacity of 500 MW, East
Pyongyang TPS with a capacity of 50 MW, and Kangdong TPS which is
Pyongyang Department Store No. 1
Pyongyang is home to several large department stores including the
Pothonggang Department Store,
Pyongyang Department Store No. 1,
Pyongyang Department Store No. 2, Kwangbok Department Store, Ragwon
Pyongyang Station Department Store, and the
Pyongyang Children’s Department Store.
The city also has Hwanggumbol Shop, a chain of state-owned convenience
stores supplying goods at prices cheaper than those in jangmadang
markets. Hwanggumbol Shops are specifically designed to control North
Korea's expanding markets by attracting consumers and guaranteeing the
circulation of money in government-operated stores.
Tatra KT8D5K tram
Pyongyang is also the main transport hub of the country: it has a
network of roads, railways and air routes which link it to both
foreign and domestic destinations. It is the starting point of
inter-regional highways reaching Nampo,
Wonsan and Kaesong.
Pyongyang railway station serves the main railway lines, including the
Pyongui Line and the Pyongbu Line. Regular international rail services
to Beijing, Chinese border city of
Moscow are also
A rail journey to
Beijing takes about 25 hours and
25 minutes (K27 from Beijing/K28 from Pyongyang, on Mondays,
Wednesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays); a journey to
Dandong takes about
6 hours (daily); a journey to
Moscow takes six days. The city also
connects to the
Eurasian Land Bridge
Eurasian Land Bridge via the Trans-Siberian Railway. A
high-speed rail link to
Wonsan is planned.
Tupolev Tu-204 of
Air Koryo at Sunan International Airport
The Metro, tram and trolleybus systems are used mainly by commuters as
a primary means of urban transportation. Cycle lanes were
introduced on main thoroughfares in July 2015. There are
relatively few cars in the city. Cars are a symbol of status in the
country due to their scarcity as a result of restrictions on import
because of international sanctions and domestic regulations. Some
roads are also reported to be in poor condition.
Air Koryo has scheduled international flights from
Pyongyang Sunan International Airport
Pyongyang Sunan International Airport to
Beijing (PEK), Shenyang
Shanghai (PVG) and Dandong. The only
domestic destinations are Hamhung, Wonsan, Chongjin,
Samjiyon. Since 31 March 2008,
Air China launched a regular service
Beijing and Pyongyang, although Air China's flights are
often canceled due to the lack of passengers.
Education and science
Kim Il-sung University, North Korea's oldest university, was
established in 1946. It has seven colleges, 14 faculties and 16
other institutes, graduate schools and university units. These
include the primary medical education and health personnel training
unit, the medical college; a physics faculty which covers a range of
studies including theoretical physics, optical science, geophysics and
astrophysics; an atomic energy institute and a human evolution
research office which studies human evolution through a
Juche point of
view. Kim Il-Sung University also has its own publishing house, sports
club (Ryongnamsan Sports Team), revolutionary museum, nature
museum, libraries, a gym, indoor swimming pool and educator apartment
houses. Its two main buildings were completed in 1965 (Building 1) and
1972 (Building 2). A third building on campus is planned.
Pyongyang University of Music and Dance
Other higher education establishments include Kim Chaek University of
Pyongyang University of Music and Dance
Pyongyang University of Music and Dance and Pyongyang
University of Foreign Studies.
Pyongyang University of Science and
Technology is the country's first private university where most of the
lecturers are American and courses are carried out in English.
A science and technology hall is under construction on Ssuk Islet. Its
stated purpose is to contribute to the "informatization of educational
resources" by centralizing teaching materials, compulsory literature
and experimental data for state-level use in a digital format.
Sosong-guyok hosts a 20
MeV cyclotron called MGC-20. The initial
project was approved by the
International Atomic Energy Agency
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
in 1983 and funded by the IAEA, the United States and the North Korean
government. The cyclotron was ordered from the
Soviet Union in 1985
and constructed between 1987 and 1990. It is used for student
training, production of medical isotopes for nuclear medicine as well
as studies in biology, chemistry and physics.
Medical centers include the Red Cross Hospital, the First People's
Hospital which is located near Moran Hill and was the first hospital
to be built in
North Korea after the liberation of Korea in 1945,
the Second People's Hospital, Ponghwa Recuperative Center (also known
Bonghwa Clinic or Presidential Clinic) located in Sokam-dong,
Potonggang-guyok, 1.5 km northwest of
Kim Il-sung Square,
Pyongyang Medical School Hospital, Namsan Treatment Center which is
adjacent Pyongyang's Maternity Hospital, Taesongsan General
Hospital, Kim Man-yoo Hospital, Staff Treatment Center and Okryu
Pyongyang is twinned with:
Chiang Mai, Thailand
Dubai, United Arab Emirates
North Korea portal
List of cities in North Korea
^ These include: Heijō-fu, Heizyō, Heizyō Hu,
Hpyeng-yang, P-hjöng-jang, Phyeng-yang, Phyong-yang,
Pienyang, Pingyang, Pyengyang, and Pieng-tang.
^ Nanglang-state is different from Lelang Commandery.
^ Station ID for
Pyongyang is 47058 Use this station ID to locate the
^ Funabashi, Yoichi (2007). The Peninsula Question: A Chronicle of the
Second Northern Korean Nuclear Crisis. Washington, DC: Brookings
Institution Press. p. 50. ISBN 0-8157-3010-1.
^ World Population Review -
North Korea Cities, World Population
^ a b "
Pyongyang Republic, Robert Collins p. 54" (PDF).
^ "The Secretarial Pool".
North Korea Leadership Watch. 6 May
^ "NK Media Reports
Pyongyang Apartment Collapse".
^ Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.).
Longman. ISBN 978-1-40588118-0.
^ D P R Korea, 2008 Population Census, National Report (pdf-file)
Archived 25 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on
^ ("Heijō: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.
^ "Heijō-fu: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013. )
^ "Heizyō: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.
^ "Heizyō Hu: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.
^ "Hpyeng-yang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.
^ "P-hjöng-jang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.
^ "Phyeng-yang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.
^ "Phyong-yang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.
^ "Pienyang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.
^ "Pingyang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.
^ "Pyengyang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.
^ EB (1878), p. 390.
^ Lankov, Andrei (16 March 2005). "North Korea's missionary position".
Asia Times Online. Retrieved 25 January 2013. By the early 1940s
Pyongyang was by far the most Protestant of all major cities of Korea,
with some 25–30% of its adult population being church-going
Christians. In missionary circles this earned the city the nickname
Jerusalem of the East".
^ Caryl, Christian (15 September 2007). "Prayer In Pyongyang". The
Daily Beast. The Newsweek/Daily Beast Co. Archived from the original
on 23 May 2012. Retrieved 25 January 2013. It's hard to say how many
covert Christians the North has; estimates range from the low tens of
thousands to 100,000.
Christianity came to the peninsula in the late
19th century. Pyongyang, in fact, was once known as the '
Pyongyang was to become 'Kim Il Sung City'; The followers of Kim
Jong Il suggested the idea". Daily NK. 2005-02-21. Retrieved
^ National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage. 2001. Geumtan-ri.
Hanguk Gogohak Sajeon [Dictionary of Korean Archaeology], pp.
148–149. NRICH, Seoul. ISBN 89-5508-025-5
^ a b c d e f g h "Pyongyang". Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Retrieved 19 April 2015.
^ Baxter, William H.; Sagart, Laurent. "Baxter-Sagart Old Chinese
reconstruction (Version 1.00)". Archived from the original on
2011-08-14. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
^ Beckwith, Christopher I. (2009). Empires of the Silk Road: A History
of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present. Princeton
University Press. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-691-13589-2.
^ a b Lahmeyer, Jan, "
North Korea – Urban Population", Populstat,
University of Utrecht
^ Memorandum (Institute of Pacific Relations, American Council), Vol.
2, No. 5 (Mar. 16, 1933), pp. 1-3
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pyongyang.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Pyongyang.
Look up pyongyang in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Interactive virtual tour Aerial view of
Super High Resolution Image Panoramic view of
22 minute video of bus ride through Pyongyang, DPRK on YouTube
North Korea Uncovered, (
North Korea Google Earth), a comprehensive
mapping of North Korea, including all of the locations mentioned
above, on Google Earth
Holidays in Pyongyang
Instagram photos of Pyongyang
City profile of Pyongyang
Pyongyang at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Pyongyang at night
Pyongyang at Night! on YouTube
Pyongyang at Night on 15 April 2012 on YouTube
Pyongyang at Night on YouTube
Pyongyang at Night River View DPRK on YouTube
Regions and administrative divisions of North Korea
Special administrative regions
Cities in North Korea
Directly governed city
Cities with special status
Capitals of Asia
Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in
North and Central Asia
West and Southwest Asia
Hong Kong (China)
Pyongyang, North Korea
Seoul, South Korea
Diego Garcia, BIOT (UK)
Kotte, Sri Lanka
New Delhi, India
Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei
Dili, East Timor
Flying Fish Cove,
Christmas Island (Australia)
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Phnom Penh, Cambodia
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Australia)
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine †
Kuwait City, Kuwait
North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus*
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Tskhinvali, South Ossetia*
† Disputed. See: Positions on Jerusalem.
National symbols of North Korea
Magnolia sieboldii (flower)
Northern goshawk (bird)
Pungsan dog (dog)
Juche Tower and
Foundation Day (day)