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Pyongyang
Pyongyang
or P'yŏngyang (UK: /ˌpjɒŋˈjæŋ/, US: /ˌpjʌŋˈjɑːŋ/;[6] Korean pronunciation: [pʰjʌŋ.jaŋ]) is the capital and largest city of North Korea. Pyongyang
Pyongyang
is located on the Taedong River
Taedong River
about 109 kilometres (68 mi) upstream from its mouth on the Yellow Sea. According to the 2008 population census, it has a population of 3,255,288.[7] The city was split from the South Pyongan province in 1946. It is administered as a directly governed city (chikhalsi, 직할시) on the same level as provincial governments, as opposed to special cities of South Korea
South Korea
(teukbyeolsi, 특별시) such as Seoul.

Contents

1 Names 2 Prehistory 3 History

3.1 After 1945

4 Geography

4.1 Climate

5 Politics 6 Administrative status and divisions 7 Cityscape

7.1 Landmarks

8 Culture

8.1 Cuisine

9 Sports 10 Economy

10.1 Retail 10.2 Transportation

11 Education and science 12 Healthcare 13 Twin towns 14 See also 15 Notes 16 References

16.1 Citations 16.2 Bibliography

17 Further reading 18 External links

18.1 Pyongyang
Pyongyang
at night

Names[edit] The city's other historic names include Kisong, Hwangsong, Rakrang, Sŏgyong, Sodo, Hogyong, Changan,[citation needed] and Heijō[8] (during Japanese rule in Korea). There are several variants.[a] During the early 20th century, Pyongyang
Pyongyang
came to be known among missionaries as being the " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
of the East", due to its historical status as a stronghold of Christianity, namely Protestantism, especially during the Pyongyang revival
Pyongyang revival
of 1907.[20][21] After Kim Il-sung's death in 1994, some members of Kim Jong-il's faction proposed changing the name of Pyongyang
Pyongyang
to " Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
City" (김일성시), but others suggested that North Korea
North Korea
should begin calling Seoul
Seoul
" Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
City" instead and grant Pyongyang
Pyongyang
the moniker " Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
City", and in the end neither proposal was implemented.[22] Prehistory[edit] In 1955, archaeologists excavated evidence of prehistoric occupation in a large ancient village in the Pyongyang
Pyongyang
area, called Kŭmtan-ni, dating to the Jeulmun and Mumun pottery periods.[23] North Koreans associate Pyongyang
Pyongyang
with the mythological city of "Asadal" (Hangul: 아사달), or Wanggeom-seong (Hangul: 왕검성; Hanja: 王儉城), the first second millennium BC capital of Gojoseon
Gojoseon
("Old Joseon") according to Korean historiographies beginning with the 13th-century Samgungnyusa. Historians[who?] deny this claim because earlier Chinese historiographical works such as the Guanzi, Classic of Mountains and Seas, Records of the Grand Historian, and Records of the Three Kingdoms, mention a much later "Joseon".[citation needed] The connection between the two therefore may have been asserted by North Korea for the use of propaganda.[citation needed] Nevertheless, Pyongyang
Pyongyang
became a major city in old Joseon. History[edit] Korean mythology
Korean mythology
asserts that Pyongyang
Pyongyang
was founded in 1122 BC on the site of the capital of the heavenly king Dangun.[24] It is likely that the area of Pyongyang
Pyongyang
belonged to Wiman Joseon, the shortest-lasting part of Gojoseon, which fell in the Han conquest of Gojoseon
Gojoseon
in 108 BC. Emperor Wu of Han
Emperor Wu of Han
ordered four commanderies be set up, with Lelang Commandery in the center and its capital established as 平壤 (Old Chinese: *breŋ*naŋʔ,[25] Standard Chinese: Pinyin: píngrǎng, Korean: pyeongyang). Several archaeological findings from the later, Eastern Han
Eastern Han
(20–220 AD) period in the Pyeongyang area seems to suggest that Han forces later launched brief incursions around these parts. The area around the city was called Nanglang during the early Three Kingdoms period. As the capital of Nanglang (낙랑국),[b] Pyeongyang remained an important commercial and cultural outpost after the Lelang Commandery was destroyed by an expanding Goguryeo
Goguryeo
in 313. Goguryeo
Goguryeo
moved its capital there in 427. According to Christopher Beckwith, Pyongyang
Pyongyang
is the Sino-Korean reading of the name they gave it in their language: Piarna, or "level land".[26] In 668, Pyongyang
Pyongyang
became the capital of the Protectorate General to Pacify the East established by the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
of China. However, by 676, it was taken by Silla, but left on the border between Silla
Silla
and Balhae. Pyongyang
Pyongyang
was left abandoned during the Later Silla
Silla
period, until it was recovered by Wang Geon and decreed as the Western Capital of Goryeo. During the Joseon
Joseon
period, it became the provincial capital of Pyeongan Province.

Korean and Chinese offensive during the Siege of Pyongyang
Pyongyang
(1593)

Chinese generals in Pyongyang
Pyongyang
surrender to Imperial Japanese soldiers during the Sino-Japanese War, October 1894, as depicted in Japanese ukiyo-e.

During the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98), Pyongyang
Pyongyang
was captured by the Japanese until they were defeated in the Siege of Pyongyang.[24] Later in the 17th century, it became temporarily occupied during the Qing invasion of Joseon
Joseon
until peace arrangements were made between Korea and Qing China. While the invasions made Koreans suspicious of foreigners, the influence of Christianity
Christianity
began to grow after the country opened itself up to foreigners in the 16th century. Pyongyang
Pyongyang
became the base of Christian expansion in Korea, and by 1880 it had more than 100 churches and more Protestant missionaries than any other Asian city.[24] In 1890, the city had 40,000 inhabitants.[27] It was the site of the Battle of Pyongyang
Pyongyang
during the First Sino-Japanese War, which led to the destruction and depopulation of much of the city. It was the provincial capital of South Pyeongan Province
Pyeongan Province
beginning in 1896. Under Japanese colonial rule, the city became an industrial center, called Heijō (平壤 read as へいじょう) in Japanese.

The aftermath of the Wanpaoshan Incident

In July 1931 the city experienced anti-Chinese riots as a result of the Wanpaoshan Incident
Wanpaoshan Incident
and the sensationalized media reports about it which appeared in Imperial Japanese and Korean newspapers.[28] By 1938, Pyongyang
Pyongyang
had a population of 235,000.[27]

Pyongyang
Pyongyang
in the 1920s

Pyongyang Station
Pyongyang Station
during the 1920s

Pyongyang
Pyongyang
City Hall during the 1920s

Pyongyang
Pyongyang
Tram during the 1920s

Sŏsŏng ward during the 1920s

View of Pyongyang
Pyongyang
during the 1920s

View of Moran Hill in Spring during the 1920s

View of Moran Hill during the 1920s

After 1945[edit] On 25 August 1945, the 25th army of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
entered Pyongyang and it became the temporary capital of the Provisional People's Committee for North Korea. A People's Committee was already established there, led by veteran Christian nationalist Cho Man-sik.[29] Pyongyang
Pyongyang
became the de facto capital of North Korea
North Korea
at its establishment in 1948. At that time, the Pyongyang
Pyongyang
government aimed to recapture Korea's official capital, Seoul. Pyongyang
Pyongyang
was again severely damaged in the Korean War, during which it was briefly occupied by South Korean forces from 19 October to 6 December 1950. In 1952, it was the target of the largest aerial raid of the entire war, involving 1,400 UN aircraft. After the war, the city was quickly rebuilt with Soviet aid, with many buildings built in the style of Socialist Classicism. The plans for the modern city of Pyongyang
Pyongyang
were first displayed for public viewing in a theatre building. On 27 July 1953 – the day the armistice between North Korea
North Korea
and South Korea
South Korea
was signed – The Pyongyang Review wrote: "While streets were in flames, an exhibition showing the general plan of restoration of Pyongyang
Pyongyang
was held at the Moranbong Underground Theater", the air raid shelter of the government under Moranbong. "On the way of victory... fireworks which streamed high into the night sky of the capital in a gun salute briefly illuminated the construction plan of the city which would rise soon with a new look".[30] In 2001, the authorities began a long-term modernization program. The Ministry of Capital City Construction Development was included in the cabinet in that year. In 2006, Kim Jong-il’s brother-in-law Jang Song-thaek took charge of the ministry. Geography[edit] Pyongyang
Pyongyang
is in the west-central part of North Korea; the city lies on a flat plain about 50 kilometres (31 mi) east of the Korea Bay, an arm of the Yellow Sea. The Taedong River
Taedong River
flows southwestward through the city toward the Korea Bay. The Pyongyang
Pyongyang
plain, where the city is situated, is one of the two large plains on the Western coast of the Korean peninsula, the other being the Chaeryong plain. Both have an area of approximately 500 square kilometers.[31] Climate[edit] Pyongyang
Pyongyang
has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dwa). Cold, dry winds can blow from Siberia
Siberia
in winter, making conditions very cold; the low temperature is usually below freezing between November and early March, although the average daytime high is at least a few degrees above freezing in every month except January. The winter is generally much drier than summer, with snow falling for 37 days on average. The transition from the cold, dry winter to the warm, wet summer occurs rather quickly between April and early May, and there is a similarly abrupt return to winter conditions in late October and November. Summers are generally hot and humid, with the East Asian monsoon taking place from June until August; these are also the hottest months, with average temperatures of 21 to 25 °C (70 to 77 °F), and daytime highs often above 30 °C (86 °F).

Climate data for Pyongyang
Pyongyang
(1971–2000, extremes 1907–2016)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 11.0 (51.8) 15.9 (60.6) 22.5 (72.5) 29.3 (84.7) 35.2 (95.4) 37.1 (98.8) 37.2 (99) 36.7 (98.1) 34.6 (94.3) 28.9 (84) 23.2 (73.8) 14.3 (57.7) 37.2 (99)

Average high °C (°F) −0.8 (30.6) 2.4 (36.3) 8.9 (48) 17.1 (62.8) 22.6 (72.7) 26.7 (80.1) 28.6 (83.5) 28.9 (84) 24.7 (76.5) 18.2 (64.8) 9.4 (48.9) 1.7 (35.1) 15.7 (60.3)

Daily mean °C (°F) −5.8 (21.6) −2.7 (27.1) 3.6 (38.5) 11.0 (51.8) 16.8 (62.2) 21.6 (70.9) 24.7 (76.5) 24.7 (76.5) 19.5 (67.1) 12.5 (54.5) 4.6 (40.3) −2.8 (27) 10.7 (51.3)

Average low °C (°F) −10.7 (12.7) −7.8 (18) −1.8 (28.8) 4.9 (40.8) 10.9 (51.6) 16.5 (61.7) 20.7 (69.3) 20.5 (68.9) 14.3 (57.7) 6.7 (44.1) −0.3 (31.5) −7.2 (19) 5.6 (42.1)

Record low °C (°F) −28.5 (−19.3) −23.4 (−10.1) −18.8 (−1.8) −4.5 (23.9) 1.4 (34.5) 7.0 (44.6) 12.3 (54.1) 12.3 (54.1) 2.7 (36.9) −6.6 (20.1) −19.9 (−3.8) −30.2 (−22.4) −30.2 (−22.4)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 12.2 (0.48) 11.0 (0.433) 24.7 (0.972) 49.9 (1.965) 72.2 (2.843) 90.3 (3.555) 275.2 (10.835) 212.8 (8.378) 100.2 (3.945) 39.9 (1.571) 34.9 (1.374) 16.5 (0.65) 939.8 (37)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 5.2 4.2 5.1 6.7 8.1 8.7 14.4 11.0 7.2 6.1 7.3 5.9 89.9

Average relative humidity (%) 74 71 66 63 66 70 80 78 74 72 72 73 72

Mean monthly sunshine hours 184 197 231 237 263 229 181 204 222 214 165 165 2,492

Source #1: World Meteorological Organization[32]

Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (extremes, humidity 1908–1936, and sun 1961–1990)[33][34][c]

Politics[edit]

Mansudae Assembly Hall, seat of the Supreme People's Assembly, the North Korean parliament

Major government and other public offices are located in Pyongyang, which is constitutionally designated as the country's capital.[35] The seat of the Workers' Party Central Committee and the Pyongyang People's Committee are located in Haebangsan-dong, Chung-guyok. The Cabinet of North Korea
North Korea
is located in Jongro-dong, Chung-guyok. Pyongyang
Pyongyang
is also the seat of all major North Korean security institutions. The largest of them, the Ministry of People's Security, has 130,000 employees working in 12 bureaus. These oversee activities as diverse as police services, security of party officials, classified documents, census, civil registrations, large-scale public construction, traffic control, fire safety, civil defense, public health and customs.[36] Another significant structure based in the city is the State Security Department, whose 30,000 personnel manage intelligence, political prison systems, military industrial security and entry and exit management.[37] The politics and management of the city is dominated by the Workers' Party of Korea, as they are in the national level. The city is managed by the Pyongyang
Pyongyang
Party Committee of the Workers' Party of Korea. The supreme standing state organ is the Pyongyang
Pyongyang
People's Committee, responsible for everyday events in support of the city. This includes following local Party guidance as channeled through the Pyongyang Party Committee, the distribution of resources prioritized to Pyongyang, and providing support to KWP and internal security agency personnel and families. Administrative status and divisions[edit] P'yŏngyang is divided into 19 wards (ku- or guyŏk) (the city proper) and 2 counties (kun or gun).[38]

Chung-guyok
Chung-guyok
(중구역; 中區域) Pyongchon-guyok
Pyongchon-guyok
(평천구역; 平川區域) Potonggang-guyok
Potonggang-guyok
(보통강구역; 普通江區域) Moranbong-guyok
Moranbong-guyok
(모란봉구역; 牡丹峰區域) Sŏsŏng-guyŏk
Sŏsŏng-guyŏk
(서성구역; 西城區域) Songyo-guyok
Songyo-guyok
(선교구역; 船橋區域) Tongdaewŏn-guyŏk
Tongdaewŏn-guyŏk
(동대원구역; 東大院區域) Taedonggang-guyŏk
Taedonggang-guyŏk
(대동강구역; 大同江區域)       Sadong-guyŏk
Sadong-guyŏk
(사동구역; 寺洞區域) Taesong-guyok
Taesong-guyok
(대성구역; 大城區域)

Mangyongdae-guyok
Mangyongdae-guyok
(만경대구역; 萬景台區域) Hyongjesan-guyok
Hyongjesan-guyok
(형제산구역; 兄弟山區域) Ryongsong-guyok
Ryongsong-guyok
(룡성구역; 龍城區域) Samsok-guyok
Samsok-guyok
(삼석구역; 三石區域) Ryokpo-guyok
Ryokpo-guyok
(력포구역; 力浦區域) Rakrang-guyok
Rakrang-guyok
(락랑구역; 樂浪區域) Sunan-guyŏk
Sunan-guyŏk
(순안구역; 順安區域) Unjong-guyok
Unjong-guyok
(은정구역; 恩情區域) Kangdong County
Kangdong County
(강동군; 江東郡)

Foreign media reports in 2010 stated that Kangnam-gun, Chunghwa-gun, Sangwŏn-gun, and Sŭngho-guyŏk
Sŭngho-guyŏk
had been transferred to the administration of neighboring North Hwanghae
North Hwanghae
province.[39] Cityscape[edit]

Panorama of Pyongyang, as seen from the Juche Tower
Juche Tower
in April 2012.

Ryugyong Hotel
Ryugyong Hotel
and part of the Monument to the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War

Apartment buildings with green areas

Pyongyang
Pyongyang
was destroyed during the Korean War
Korean War
and has been entirely rebuilt according to a design reflecting Kim Il-sung's vision.[40] His dream was reportedly to create a capital that would boost morale in the post-war years.[41] The result was a city with wide, tree-lined boulevards and public buildings with terraced landscaping, mosaics and decorated ceilings.[40] Its Russian-style architecture makes it reminiscent of a Siberian city during winter snowfall, although edifices of traditional Korean design somewhat soften this perception. In summer, it is notable for its rivers, willow trees, flowers and parkland.[40] The streets are laid out in a north-south, east-west grid, giving the city an orderly appearance.[40] North Korean designers applied the Swedish experience of self-sufficient urban neighbourhoods throughout the entire country, and Pyongyang
Pyongyang
is no exception. Its inhabitants are mostly divided into administrative units of 5,000 to 6,000 people (dong). These units all have similar sets of amenities including a food store, a barber shop, a tailor, a public bathhouse, a post office, a clinic, a library and others. Many residents occupy high-rise apartment buildings.[42] One of Kim Il-sung's priorities while designing Pyongyang
Pyongyang
was to limit the population. Authorities maintain a restrictive regime of movement into the city, making it atypical of East Asia
East Asia
as it is silent, uncrowded and spacious.[43] Structures in Pyongyang
Pyongyang
are divided into three major architectural categories: monuments, buildings with traditional Korean motifs and high-rises.[44] Some of North Korea's most recognisable landmarks are monuments, like the Juche
Juche
Tower, the Arch of Triumph and the Mansu Hill Grand Monument. The first of them is a 170-meter granite spire symbolizing the Juche
Juche
ideology. It was completed in 1982 and contains 25,550 granite blocks, one for each day of Kim Il-sung's life up to that point.[44] The most prominent building on Pyongyang's skyline is Ryugyong Hotel,[44] the seventh highest building in the world terms of floor count, the tallest unoccupied building in the world,[45] and one of the tallest hotels in the world. It has yet to open.[46][47] High-rise apartment buildings dominate the cityscape. The government launched a mass construction campaign aiming to build 100,000 new homes in 2011. The Changjon Street Apartment Complex was part of this effort. Construction of the complex began after late leader Kim Jong-il reportedly described the area as "pitiful".[48] Other housing complexes are being upgraded as well, but most are still poorly insulated while elevators and central heating remain rare.[49] These new buildings foresaw the start of an urban renewal program that continues under Kim Jong-un's leadership, with the old apartments of the 1970s and '80s now replaced by new, taller high rise buildings and new leisure parks like the Kaesong
Kaesong
Youth Park, as well as renovations of older buildings.[50] Landmarks[edit]

The Rungrado 1st of May Stadium
Rungrado 1st of May Stadium
by the Taedong River
Taedong River
is the largest mass-sports/athletic stadium in the world by capacity.

Notable landmarks in the city include:

the Ryugyong Hotel the Kumsusan Palace of the Sun the Arch of Triumph (heavily inspired by, but larger than, Paris's Arc de Triomphe) the birthplace of Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
at Mangyongdae
Mangyongdae
Hill at the city outskirts Juche
Juche
Tower two large stadiums:

Rungrado 1st of May Stadium Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
Stadium

the Mansu Hill complex, including the Korean Revolution Museum Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
Square Yanggakdo International Hotel

Pyongyang TV Tower
Pyongyang TV Tower
is a minor landmark. Other visitor attractions include the Korea Central Zoo. The Arch of Reunification
Arch of Reunification
has a map of a united Korea supported by two concrete Korean women dressed in traditional dress straddling the Reunification Highway, which stretches from Pyongyang
Pyongyang
to the Korean Demilitarized Zone
Korean Demilitarized Zone
(DMZ).

Monuments and sights of Pyongyang

Juche Tower
Juche Tower
Monument to the philosophy of Juche
Juche
(self-reliance)

Arch of Triumph

Arch of Reunification, a monument to the goal of a reunified Korea

Monument to Party Founding

Rungnado May Day Stadium

Kumsusan Palace of the Sun

Tomb of King Tongmyeong

Ryugyong Hotel

Mansu Hill Grand Monument

Mirae (Future) Scientist's Street

Culture[edit] Cuisine[edit]

Pyongyang
Pyongyang
raengmyeon (평양랭면), cold buckwheat noodle soup originating in Pyongyang

Pyongyang
Pyongyang
served as the provincial capital of South Pyongan Province until 1946,[51] and Pyongyang
Pyongyang
cuisine shares the general culinary tradition of the Pyeongan province. The most famous local food is Pyongyang
Pyongyang
naengmyeon, or also called mul naengmyeon or just simply naengmyeon. Naengmyeon
Naengmyeon
literally means "cold noodles", while the affix mul refers to water because the dish is served in a cold broth. Naengmyeon
Naengmyeon
consists of thin and chewy buckwheat noodles in a cold meat-broth with dongchimi (watery kimchi) and topped with a slice of sweet Korean pear. Pyongyang naengmyeon
Pyongyang naengmyeon
was originally eaten in homes built with ondol (traditional underfloor heating) during the cold winter, so it is also humorously called " Pyongyang
Pyongyang
deoldeori" (shivering in Pyongyang). Pyongyang
Pyongyang
locals sometimes enjoyed it as a haejangguk, which is any type of food eaten as a hangover-cure, usually a warm soup.[52] Another representative Pyongyang
Pyongyang
dish, Taedonggang sungeoguk, translates as "trout soup from the Taedong River". The soup features trout (abundant in the Taedong River) along with black peppercorns and salt.[53] Traditionally, it has been served to guests visiting Pyongyang. Therefore, there is a common saying, "How good was the trout soup?", which is used to greet people returning from Pyongyang. Another local specialty, Pyongyang
Pyongyang
onban (literally "warm rice of Pyongyang") comprises freshly cooked rice topped with sliced mushrooms, chicken, and a couple of bindaetteok (pancakes made from ground mung beans and vegetables).[52] Famous restaurants in the city include Okryu-gwan
Okryu-gwan
and Ch'ongryugwan.[54] Some street foods exist in Pyongyang, where vendors operate food stalls. Sports[edit] See also: Sport in North Korea Pyongyang
Pyongyang
has a number of sports clubs, including the April 25 Sports Club and the Pyongyang
Pyongyang
City Sports Club.[55] The most popular sport in Pyongyang
Pyongyang
is football.[citation needed] Economy[edit]

Central Pyongyang
Pyongyang
with the newly built Changjon Apartment Complex. The Okryu Bridge
Okryu Bridge
and Ryugyong Hotel
Ryugyong Hotel
are in the background

Pyongyang
Pyongyang
is North Korea's industrial center.[24] Thanks to the abundance of natural resources like coal, iron and limestone, as well as good land and water transport systems, it was the first industrial city to emerge in North Korea
North Korea
after the Korean War. Light and heavy industries are both present and have developed in parallel. Heavy manufactures include cement, industrial ceramics, munitions and weapons, but mechanical engineering remains the core industry. Light industries in Pyongyang
Pyongyang
and its vicinity include textiles, footwear and food, among others. Special
Special
emphasis is put on the production and supply of fresh produce and subsidiary crops in farms on the city's outskirts. Other crops include rice, corn and soybeans. Pyongyang
Pyongyang
aims to achieve self-sufficiency in meat production. High-density facilities raise pigs, chicken and other livestock.[24] The city still experiences frequent shortages of electricity.[56] To solve this problem, two power stations - Huichon
Huichon
Power Stations 1 and 2 - were built in Chagang Province
Chagang Province
and supply the city through direct transmission lines. A second phase of the power expansion project was launched in January 2013, consisting of a series of small dams along the Chongchon River. The first two power stations have a maximum generating capacity of 300 megawatts (MW), while the 10 dams to be built under second phase are expected to generate about 120 MW.[56] In addition, the city has several existing or planned thermal power stations. These include Pyongyang
Pyongyang
TPS with a capacity of 500 MW, East Pyongyang
Pyongyang
TPS with a capacity of 50 MW, and Kangdong TPS which is under construction.[57] Retail[edit]

Pyongyang
Pyongyang
Department Store No. 1

Pyongyang
Pyongyang
is home to several large department stores including the Pothonggang Department Store, Pyongyang
Pyongyang
Department Store No. 1, Pyongyang
Pyongyang
Department Store No. 2, Kwangbok Department Store, Ragwon Department Store, Pyongyang Station
Pyongyang Station
Department Store, and the Pyongyang
Pyongyang
Children’s Department Store.[58] The city also has Hwanggumbol Shop, a chain of state-owned convenience stores supplying goods at prices cheaper than those in jangmadang markets. Hwanggumbol Shops are specifically designed to control North Korea's expanding markets by attracting consumers and guaranteeing the circulation of money in government-operated stores.[59] Transportation[edit]

Tatra KT8D5K tram

Pyongyang
Pyongyang
is also the main transport hub of the country: it has a network of roads, railways and air routes which link it to both foreign and domestic destinations. It is the starting point of inter-regional highways reaching Nampo, Wonsan
Wonsan
and Kaesong.[24] Pyongyang
Pyongyang
railway station serves the main railway lines, including the Pyongui Line
Pyongui Line
and the Pyongbu Line. Regular international rail services to Beijing, Chinese border city of Dandong
Dandong
and Moscow
Moscow
are also available. A rail journey to Beijing
Beijing
takes about 25 hours and 25 minutes (K27 from Beijing/K28 from Pyongyang, on Mondays, Wednesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays); a journey to Dandong
Dandong
takes about 6 hours (daily); a journey to Moscow
Moscow
takes six days. The city also connects to the Eurasian Land Bridge
Eurasian Land Bridge
via the Trans-Siberian Railway. A high-speed rail link to Wonsan
Wonsan
is planned.[60]

Tupolev Tu-204
Tupolev Tu-204
of Air Koryo
Air Koryo
at Sunan International Airport

The Metro, tram and trolleybus systems are used mainly by commuters as a primary means of urban transportation.[24] Cycle lanes were introduced on main thoroughfares in July 2015.[61] There are relatively few cars in the city. Cars are a symbol of status in the country due to their scarcity as a result of restrictions on import because of international sanctions and domestic regulations.[62] Some roads are also reported to be in poor condition.[63] State-owned Air Koryo
Air Koryo
has scheduled international flights from Pyongyang Sunan International Airport
Pyongyang Sunan International Airport
to Beijing
Beijing
(PEK), Shenyang (SHE), Vladivostok
Vladivostok
(VVO), Shanghai
Shanghai
(PVG) and Dandong.[64] The only domestic destinations are Hamhung, Wonsan, Chongjin, Hyesan
Hyesan
and Samjiyon. Since 31 March 2008, Air China
Air China
launched a regular service between Beijing
Beijing
and Pyongyang,[65] although Air China's flights are often canceled due to the lack of passengers.[66] Education and science[edit] Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
University, North Korea's oldest university, was established in 1946.[24] It has seven colleges, 14 faculties and 16 other institutes, graduate schools and university units.[67] These include the primary medical education and health personnel training unit, the medical college; a physics faculty which covers a range of studies including theoretical physics, optical science, geophysics and astrophysics;[68] an atomic energy institute and a human evolution research office which studies human evolution through a Juche
Juche
point of view. Kim Il-Sung University also has its own publishing house, sports club (Ryongnamsan Sports Team),[69] revolutionary museum, nature museum, libraries, a gym, indoor swimming pool and educator apartment houses. Its two main buildings were completed in 1965 (Building 1) and 1972 (Building 2). A third building on campus is planned.[70]

The Pyongyang
Pyongyang
University of Music and Dance

Other higher education establishments include Kim Chaek University of Technology, Pyongyang University of Music and Dance
Pyongyang University of Music and Dance
and Pyongyang University of Foreign Studies. Pyongyang
Pyongyang
University of Science and Technology is the country's first private university where most of the lecturers are American and courses are carried out in English.[71][72] A science and technology hall is under construction on Ssuk Islet. Its stated purpose is to contribute to the "informatization of educational resources" by centralizing teaching materials, compulsory literature and experimental data for state-level use in a digital format.[73] Sosong-guyok
Sosong-guyok
hosts a 20 MeV
MeV
cyclotron called MGC-20. The initial project was approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency
International Atomic Energy Agency
(IAEA) in 1983 and funded by the IAEA, the United States and the North Korean government. The cyclotron was ordered from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1985 and constructed between 1987 and 1990. It is used for student training, production of medical isotopes for nuclear medicine as well as studies in biology, chemistry and physics.[74] Healthcare[edit] Medical centers include the Red Cross Hospital, the First People's Hospital which is located near Moran Hill and was the first hospital to be built in North Korea
North Korea
after the liberation of Korea in 1945,[75] the Second People's Hospital, Ponghwa Recuperative Center (also known as Bonghwa Clinic or Presidential Clinic) located in Sokam-dong, Potonggang-guyok, 1.5 km northwest of Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
Square,[76] Pyongyang
Pyongyang
Medical School Hospital, Namsan Treatment Center which is adjacent[77] Pyongyang's Maternity Hospital, Taesongsan General Hospital,[78] Kim Man-yoo Hospital, Staff Treatment Center and Okryu Children's Hospital. Twin towns[edit] Pyongyang
Pyongyang
is twinned with:

Algiers, Algeria[79] Baghdad, Iraq[80] Chiang Mai, Thailand[80] Dubai, United Arab Emirates[80] Jakarta, Indonesia[80] Kathmandu, Nepal[80] Moscow, Russia[80] Tianjin, China[80] Beijing, China[81]

See also[edit]

North Korea
North Korea
portal

List of cities in North Korea

Notes[edit]

^ These include: Heijō-fu,[9] Heizyō,[10] Heizyō Hu,[11] Hpyeng-yang,[12] P-hjöng-jang,[13] Phyeng-yang,[14] Phyong-yang,[15] Pienyang,[16] Pingyang,[17] Pyengyang,[18] and Pieng-tang.[19] ^ Nanglang-state is different from Lelang Commandery. ^ Station ID for Pyongyang
Pyongyang
is 47058 Use this station ID to locate the sunshine duration

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Funabashi, Yoichi (2007). The Peninsula Question: A Chronicle of the Second Northern Korean Nuclear Crisis. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press. p. 50. ISBN 0-8157-3010-1.  ^ World Population Review - North Korea
North Korea
Cities, World Population Review, 2017  ^ a b " Pyongyang
Pyongyang
Republic, Robert Collins p. 54" (PDF).  ^ "The Secretarial Pool". North Korea
North Korea
Leadership Watch. 6 May 2014.  ^ "NK Media Reports Pyongyang
Pyongyang
Apartment Collapse". www.dailynk.com.  ^ Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN 978-1-40588118-0.  ^ D P R Korea, 2008 Population Census, National Report (pdf-file) Archived 25 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2018-02-17. ^ ("Heijō: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.  ^ "Heijō-fu: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013. ) ^ "Heizyō: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.  ^ "Heizyō Hu: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.  ^ "Hpyeng-yang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.  ^ "P-hjöng-jang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.  ^ "Phyeng-yang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.  ^ "Phyong-yang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.  ^ "Pienyang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.  ^ "Pingyang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.  ^ "Pyengyang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013.  ^ EB (1878), p. 390. ^ Lankov, Andrei (16 March 2005). "North Korea's missionary position". Asia Times Online. Retrieved 25 January 2013. By the early 1940s Pyongyang
Pyongyang
was by far the most Protestant of all major cities of Korea, with some 25–30% of its adult population being church-going Christians. In missionary circles this earned the city the nickname " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
of the East".  ^ Caryl, Christian (15 September 2007). "Prayer In Pyongyang". The Daily Beast. The Newsweek/Daily Beast Co. Archived from the original on 23 May 2012. Retrieved 25 January 2013. It's hard to say how many covert Christians the North has; estimates range from the low tens of thousands to 100,000. Christianity
Christianity
came to the peninsula in the late 19th century. Pyongyang, in fact, was once known as the ' Jerusalem
Jerusalem
of the East.'  ^ " Pyongyang
Pyongyang
was to become 'Kim Il Sung City'; The followers of Kim Jong Il suggested the idea". Daily NK. 2005-02-21. Retrieved 2014-10-04.  ^ National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage. 2001. Geumtan-ri. Hanguk Gogohak Sajeon [Dictionary of Korean Archaeology], pp. 148–149. NRICH, Seoul. ISBN 89-5508-025-5 ^ a b c d e f g h "Pyongyang". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 19 April 2015.  ^ Baxter, William H.; Sagart, Laurent. "Baxter-Sagart Old Chinese reconstruction (Version 1.00)". Archived from the original on 2011-08-14. Retrieved 20 May 2012.  ^ Beckwith, Christopher I. (2009). Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present. Princeton University Press. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-691-13589-2.  ^ a b Lahmeyer, Jan, " North Korea
North Korea
– Urban Population", Populstat, University of Utrecht  ^ Memorandum (Institute of Pacific Relations, American Council), Vol. 2, No. 5 (Mar. 16, 1933), pp. 1-3 ^ Buzo, Adrian (2002). The Making of Modern Korea. London: Routledge. pp. 54–57. ISBN 0-415-23749-1.  ^ Schinz, Alfred; Eckart, Dege (1990), "Pyongyang-Ancient and Modern – the Capital of North Korea", GeoJournal, 22 (1): 25  ^ Country Study 2009, p. 63. ^ "World Weather Information Service - Pyongyang". WMO. Retrieved 1 September 2016.  ^ "Klimatafel von Pyongyang
Pyongyang
(Pjöngjang) / Korea (Nordkorea)" (PDF). DWD. Retrieved 1 September 2016.  ^ "Station 47058 Pyongyang". Global station data 1961–1990—Sunshine Duration. Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 1 September 2016.  ^ Country Study 2009, p. 196. ^ Country Study 2009, pp. 276-277. ^ Country Study 2009, p. 277. ^ "행정구역현황 (Haengjeong Guyeok Hyeonhwang)". NK Chosun. Archived from the original on 9 January 2006. Retrieved 10 January 2006.  Also Administrative divisions of North Korea
North Korea
Archived 18 October 2004 at the Wayback Machine. (used as reference for hanja) ^ " Pyongyang
Pyongyang
now more than one-third smaller; food shortage issues suspected", Asahi Shinbun, 17 July 2010, retrieved 19 July 2010  ^ a b c d Country Study 2009, p. 91. ^ Country Study 2009, p. 93-94. ^ Country Study 2009, p. 97. ^ Country Study 2009, p. 91-92. ^ a b c "Architecture and City Planning". Library of Congress. Retrieved 24 April 2015.  ^ Glenday, Craig. Guinness World Records 2014. p. 144. ISBN 978-1-908843-15-9.  ^ Staff (15 October 2009). "Will 'Hotel of Doom' ever be finished?". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 24 April 2015.  ^ Yoon, Sangwon (1 November 2012). "Kempinski to Operate World's Tallest Hotel in North Korea". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 24 April 2015.  ^ Lee, Seok Young (25 August 2011). ""Pitiful" Changjeon Street the Top Priority". Daily NK. Retrieved 30 August 2011.  ^ " Pyongyang
Pyongyang
glitters but most of NKorea still dark". Yahoo News. 29 April 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2015.  ^ Makinen, Julie (20 May 2016). " North Korea
North Korea
is building something other than nukes: architecture with some zing". Los Angeles Times.  ^ 평양시 平壤市 [Pyongyang] (in Korean). Nate/Encyclopedia of Korean Culture. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011.  ^ a b 닮은 듯 색다른 매력을 간직한 북한의 음식 문화 (in Korean). Korea Knowledge Portal. 19 June 2009. Archived from the original on 9 October 2011.  ^ Ju, Wan-jung (주완중) (12 June 2000). '오마니의 맛' 관심 [Attention to "Mother's taste"] (in Korean). The Chosun Ilbo.  ^ Lankov, Andrei (2007), North of the DMZ: Essays on daily life in North Korea, McFarland, pp. 90–91, ISBN 978-0-7864-2839-7  ^ "The Sights and Sounds of Domestic Football in North Korea". Footy Fair. August 2015. Retrieved 2018-01-18.  ^ a b "Ten Power Plants on Chongchon River under Construction to Increase Power Supply to Pyongyang". Institute for Far Eastern Studies. 19 December 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2015.  ^ "Pyongyang's Perpetual Power Problems". 38North.org. 25 November 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2015.  ^ " Pyongyang Metro
Pyongyang Metro
maps". Archived from the original on 26 October 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2013.  ^ "Effort to Prevent Outflow of Capital into Markets". Institute for Far Eastern Studies. 20 March 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015.  ^ "Outline for Development of Wonsan-Kumgangsan Tourist Region Revealed". Institute for Far Eastern Studies. 26 March 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015.  ^ By Reuters 6:58AM BST 14 Jul 2015 (2015-07-14). "North Korea installs bike lanes in Pyongyang". Telegraph. Retrieved 2017-04-03.  ^ Martin, Bradley K. (9 July 2007). "In Kim's North Korea, Cars Are Scarce Symbols of Power, Wealth". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 11 July 2015. Retrieved 27 September 2012.  ^ Fisher, Max. "North Korean Press Bus Takes Wrong Turn, Opening Another Crack in the Hermit Kingdom". The Atlantic. Retrieved 17 April 2012.  ^ " Air Koryo
Air Koryo
opens new office selling tickets for third country travel". ^ 国航开通北京至平壤航线. Sina. ^ 国航17日起暂停平壤航线. China
China
Central Television. ^ "Structure of the University". Kim Il-Sung University. Retrieved 20 April 2015.  ^ "Colleges and Faculties". Kim Il-Sung University. Retrieved 20 April 2015.  ^ "Research Institutes and Units". Kim Il-Sung University. Retrieved 20 April 2015.  ^ "Main Buildings". Kim Il-Sung University. Retrieved 20 April 2015.  ^ "Inside North Korea's Western-funded university". BBC News. 3 February 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2015.  ^ "In North Korea, a Western-backed university". The Washington Post. 8 October 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2015.  ^ "Science and Technology Hall to be Built in Pyongyang's Ssuk Islet". Institute for Far Eastern Studies. 23 January 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.  ^ "MGC-20 Cyclotron". NTI.org. Retrieved 20 April 2015.  ^ KCNA, May 22, 2002 ^ "Ponghwa Clinic Expanded During 2009-2010, NK Leadership Watch".  ^ "Where Did Kim Jong Il Receive His Surgery?".  ^ "I Had A Scary Encounter With North Korea's Crumbling Healthcare System".  ^ "Anniversary of sister-city relations". KCNA. 6 January 2000. Archived from the original on 26 January 2005. Retrieved 3 December 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g Corfield, Justin (2013). "Sister Cities". Historical Dictionary of Pyongyang. London: Anthem Press. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-85728-234-7.  ^ "2013年对外交往". Foreign Affairs Office of the People's Government of Beijing
Beijing
Municipality. Retrieved 2018-03-28. (in simplified Chinese)

Bibliography[edit]

"Corea", Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed., Vol. VI, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1878, pp. 390–394 . " North Korea
North Korea
– A Country Study" (PDF). Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Country Studies. 2009. 

Further reading[edit]

Kracht, Christian, Eva Munz & Lukas Nikol. The Ministry of Truth: Kim Jong Il's North Korea. Feral House, October 2007. ISBN 978-1-93259527-7. Springer, Chris. Pyongyang: The Hidden History of the North Korean Capital. Saranda Books, 2003. ISBN 963-00-8104-0. Willoughby, Robert. North Korea: The Bradt Travel Guide. Globe Pequot, 2003. ISBN 1-84162-074-2. Dormels, Rainer. North Korea's Cities: Industrial facilities, internal structures and typification. Jimoondang, 2014. ISBN 978-89-6297-167-5

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pyongyang.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Pyongyang.

Look up pyongyang in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Interactive virtual tour Aerial view of Pyongyang
Pyongyang
city Super High Resolution Image Panoramic view of Pyongyang
Pyongyang
city 22 minute video of bus ride through Pyongyang, DPRK on YouTube North Korea
North Korea
Uncovered, ( North Korea
North Korea
Google Earth), a comprehensive mapping of North Korea, including all of the locations mentioned above, on Google Earth Holidays in Pyongyang Instagram photos of Pyongyang City profile of Pyongyang Pyongyang
Pyongyang
at Curlie (based on DMOZ)

Pyongyang
Pyongyang
at night[edit]

Pyongyang
Pyongyang
at Night! on YouTube Pyongyang
Pyongyang
at Night on 15 April 2012 on YouTube Pyongyang
Pyongyang
at Night on YouTube Pyongyang
Pyongyang
at Night River View DPRK on YouTube

v t e

Regions and administrative divisions of North Korea

Regions

Kwanbuk

Kwannam

Kwanso Gwandong

Yeongdong Yeongseo

Hwanghae

Provinces

Chagang North Hamgyong South Hamgyong North Hwanghae South Hwanghae Kangwon North Pyongan South Pyongan Ryanggang

Direct-administered city

Pyongyang

Special
Special
cities

Rason

Special
Special
administrative regions

Kaesong Kumgang Sinuiju

v t e

Pyongyang

Districts

Chung Hyŏngjesan Man'gyŏngdae Moranbong Pot'onggang P'yŏngch'ŏn Rangrang Ryŏkp'o Ryongsŏng Sadong Samsŏk Sŏn'gyo Sŏsŏng Sunan Taedonggang Taesŏng Tongdaewŏn Ŭnjŏng

Counties

Kangdong

v t e

Cities in North Korea

Directly governed city

Pyongyang

Cities with special status

Rason Nampo Kaesong

Provincial capitals

Chongjin Haeju Hamhung Hyesan Kanggye Pyongsong Sariwon Sinuiju Wonsan

Other cities

Anju Chongju Hoeryong Huichon Kaechon Kimchaek Kusong Manpo Munchon Sinpo Songnim Sunchon Tanchon Tokchon

v t e

Capitals of Asia

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

North and Central Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West and Southwest Asia

Ashgabat, Turkmenistan Astana, Kazakhstan* Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan Dushanbe, Tajikistan Moscow, Russia* Tashkent, Uzbekistan

East Asia

Beijing, China Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(China) Macau, Macau
Macau
(China) Pyongyang, North Korea Seoul, South Korea Taipei, Taiwan
Taiwan
(ROC) Tokyo, Japan Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Kabul, Afghanistan Dhaka, Bangladesh Diego Garcia, BIOT (UK) Islamabad, Pakistan Kathmandu, Nepal Kotte, Sri Lanka Malé, Maldives New Delhi, India Thimphu, Bhutan

Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Bangkok, Thailand Dili, East Timor Flying Fish Cove, Christmas Island
Christmas Island
(Australia) Hanoi, Vietnam Jakarta, Indonesia* Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Manila, Philippines Naypyidaw, Myanmar Phnom Penh, Cambodia Singapore Vientiane, Laos West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(Australia)

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Amman, Jordan Ankara, Turkey* Baghdad, Iraq Baku, Azerbaijan* Beirut, Lebanon Cairo, Egypt* Doha, Qatar Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine † Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain

Muscat, Oman Nicosia, Cyprus* North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus* Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen Stepanakert, Artsakh* Sukhumi, Abkhazia* Tbilisi, Georgia* Tehran, Iran Tskhinvali, South Ossetia* Yerevan, Armenia*

*Transcontinental country. † Disputed. See: Positions on Jerusalem.

v t e

National symbols of North Korea

Constitutional

Flag Emblem Anthem Pyongyang
Pyongyang
(capital)

Other

Magnolia sieboldii
Magnolia sieboldii
(flower) Northern goshawk
Northern goshawk
(bird) Pine
Pine
(tree) Pungsan dog
Pungsan dog
(dog) Kimchi
Kimchi
(dish) Chosŏn-ot (dress) Ssirŭm (sport) Juche Tower
Juche Tower
and Mangyongdae
Mangyongdae
(monuments) Foundation Day (day) Chollima

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 147740730 LCCN: n80014572 GND: 42851

.