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Motto: (류경/柳京) (Korean ) "Dynamic Labors "

Map of North Korea
North Korea
with Pyongyang
Pyongyang
highlighted

Coordinates: 39°1′10″N 125°44′17″E / 39.01944°N 125.73806°E / 39.01944; 125.73806 Coordinates : 39°1′10″N 125°44′17″E / 39.01944°N 125.73806°E / 39.01944; 125.73806

COUNTRY North Korea
North Korea

REGION P\'yŏngan

DISTRICTS 18 districts, 1 county

* Chung-guyok * Pyongchon-guyok * Potonggang-guyok * Moranbong-guyok * Sosong-guyok * Songyo-guyok * Tongdaewon-guyok * Taedonggang-guyok * Sadong-guyok * Taesong-guyok * Mangyongdae-guyok * Hyongjesan-guyok * Ryongsong-guyok * Samsok-guyok * Ryokpo-guyok * Nakrang-guyok * Sunan-guyok * Unjong-guyok * Kangdong-gun

GOVERNMENT

• CHAIRMAN OF PYONGYANG PEOPLE\'S COMMITTEE Cha Hui-rim

• SECRETARY OF THE WORKERS\' PARTY OF KOREA PYONGYANG CITY COMMITTEE Kim Su-gil

AREA

• TOTAL 3,194 km2 (1,233 sq mi)

ELEVATION 38 m (125 ft)

POPULATION

• TOTAL 2,581,076

THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS KOREAN TEXT. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Hangul and Hanja .

PYONGYANG (/ˈpjɒŋˈjæŋ, ˈpjʌŋ-/ ; (Chosŏn\'gŭl : 평양; Hancha : 平壤), Korean pronunciation: , literally: "Flat Land" or "Peaceful Land") is the capital and largest city of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (commonly known as North Korea).

Pyongyang
Pyongyang
is located on the Taedong River about 109 kilometres (68 mi) upstream from its mouth on the Yellow Sea and, according to preliminary results from the 2008 population census, has a population of 3,255,388. The city was split from the South Pyongan province in 1946. It is administered as a directly governed city (_chikhalsi_, 직할시) on the same level as provincial governments, as opposed to a special city (_teukbyeolsi_, 특별시) as Seoul
Seoul
is in South Korea
South Korea
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Names * 2 Prehistory

* 3 History

* 3.1 After 1945

* 4 Geography and climate * 5 Politics * 6 Administrative status and divisions

* 7 Cityscape

* 7.1 Landmarks

* 8 Culture

* 8.1 Cuisine

* 9 Sports

* 10 Economy

* 10.1 Retail * 10.2 Transportation

* 11 Education and science * 12 Healthcare * 13 Twin towns * 14 See also * 15 Notes

* 16 References

* 16.1 Citations * 16.2 Bibliography

* 17 Further reading

* 18 External links

* 18.1 Pyongyang
Pyongyang
at night

NAMES

The city's other historic names include _Kisong_, _Hwangsong_, _Rakrang_, _Sŏgyong_, _Sodo_, _Hogyong_, _Changan_, and _Heijō_ (during Japanese rule in Korea ). There are several variants. During the early 20th century, Pyongyang
Pyongyang
came to be known among missionaries as being the " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
of the East", due to its historical status as a stronghold of Christianity
Christianity
, namely Protestantism .

After Kim Il-sung\'s death in 1994, some members of Kim Jong-il 's faction proposed changing the name of Pyongyang
Pyongyang
to " Kim Il-sung City" (김일성시), but others suggested that North Korea
North Korea
should begin calling Seoul
Seoul
" Kim Il-sung City" instead and grant Pyongyang
Pyongyang
the moniker " Kim Jong-il City", and in the end neither proposal was implemented.

PREHISTORY

In 1955, archaeologists excavated evidence of prehistoric occupation in a large ancient village in the Pyongyang
Pyongyang
area, called Kŭmtan-ni, dating to the Chŭlmun and Mumun pottery periods . North Koreans associate Pyongyang
Pyongyang
with " Asadal " (아사달), or _Wanggomsŏng _ (왕검성; 王儉城), the first second millennium BC capital of the Gojoseon
Gojoseon
kingdom according to Korean history books, notably _Samguk Yusa _.

Many South Korean historians deny this claim because other Chinese history books such as the _Guanzi _, _ Shanhaijing _, _ Shiji
Shiji
_, and _ Sanguozhi _ place Asadal around the Liao River located in western Manchuria
Manchuria
. The connection between the two therefore may have been asserted by North Korea
North Korea
for the use of propaganda. Nevertheless, Pyongyang
Pyongyang
became a major city under Gojoseon.

HISTORY

Pyongyang
Pyongyang
was founded in 1122 BC on the site of the Tangun Dynasty's capital, according to legends. It is likely that the area of Pyongyang
Pyongyang
belonged to Wiman Joseon , the shortest-lasting part of Gojoseon
Gojoseon
if both Dangun and Gija Joseon were real, which fell in the Wiman Joseon–Han War in 108 BC. Emperor Wu of the Han dynasty ordered four commanderies be set up, with Lelang Commandery
Lelang Commandery
in the center and its capital established as 平壤 ( Old Chinese
Old Chinese
: *breŋ*naŋʔ, modern Mandarin : píngrǎng, Korean: pyongyang). Several archaeological findings from the later, Eastern Han
Eastern Han
(20–220 AD) period in the Pyongyang
Pyongyang
area seems to suggest that Han forces later launched brief incursions around these parts.

The area around the city was called Nanglang during the early Three Kingdoms period. As the capital of Nanglang kingdom (낙랑국), Pyongyang
Pyongyang
remained an important commercial and cultural outpost after Lelang Commandery
Lelang Commandery
was destroyed by an expanding Goguryeo in 313.

Goguryeo moved its capital there in 427. According to Christopher Beckwith , _Pyongyang_ is the Sino-Korean reading of the name they gave it in their language: _Piarna_, or "level land".

In 668, Pyongyang
Pyongyang
became the capital of the Protectorate General to Pacify the East established by the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
of China. However, by 676, it was taken by Silla
Silla
, but left on the border between Silla
Silla
and Balhae
Balhae
(Bohai). This lasted until the time of the Goryeo
Goryeo
dynasty, when the city was revived as _Sŏgyŏng_ ( Hangul : 서경; Hanja : 西京; "Western Capital") although it was never actually a capital of the kingdom. It was the provincial capital of the Pyeongan Province during the Joseon dynasty . Korean and Chinese offensive during the Siege of Pyongyang (1593) Chinese generals in Pyongyang surrender to Imperial Japanese soldiers during the Sino-Japanese War , October 1894, as depicted in Japanese ukiyo-e .

During the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98) , Pyongyang
Pyongyang
was captured by the Japanese until the Japanese were defeated in the Siege of Pyongyang
Pyongyang
. Later in the 17th century, it became temporarily occupied during Second Manchu invasion of Korea
Second Manchu invasion of Korea
until peace arrangements were made between Korea and the Manchus . While the invasions made Koreans suspicious of foreigners, the influence of Christianity
Christianity
began to grow after the country opened itself up to foreigners in the 16th century. Pyongyang
Pyongyang
became the base of Christian expansion in Korea, and by 1880 it had more than 100 churches and more Protestant missionaries than any other Asian city.

In 1890, the city had 40,000 inhabitants. It was the site of the Battle of Pyongyang
Pyongyang
during the First Sino-Japanese War , which led to the destruction and depopulation of much of the city. It was the provincial capital of South Pyeongan Province from 1896. Under colonial rule , the city became an industrial center, called Heijō (平壤 read as へいじょう) in Japanese. The aftermath of the Wanpaoshan Incident

In July 1931 the city experienced anti-Chinese riots as a result of the Wanpaoshan Incident and the sensationalized media reports of the incident which appeared in Imperial Japanese and Korean newspapers.

By 1938, Pyongyang
Pyongyang
had a population of 235,000.

* Pyongyang
Pyongyang
in the 1920s

*

Pyongyang Station during the 1920s *

Pyongyang
Pyongyang
City Hall during the 1920s *

Pyongyang
Pyongyang
Tram during the 1920s *

Sŏsŏng ward during the 1920s *

View of Pyongyang
Pyongyang
during the 1920s *

View of Moran Hill in Spring during the 1920s *

View of Moran Hill during the 1920s

AFTER 1945

On 25 August 1945, the 25th army of the Soviet Army
Soviet Army
entered Pyongyang, and it became the temporary capital of the Provisional People\'s Committee for North Korea
North Korea
. A People's Committee was already established there, led by veteran Christian nationalist Cho Man-sik . Pyongyang
Pyongyang
became the de facto capital of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea at its establishment in 1948. At that time, the Pyongyang
Pyongyang
government aimed to recapture Korea's official capital, Seoul
Seoul
. Pyongyang
Pyongyang
was again severely damaged in the Korean War , during which it was briefly occupied by South Korean forces from 19 October to 6 December 1950. In 1952, it was the target of the largest aerial raid of the entire war, involving 1,400 UN aircraft.

After the war, the city was quickly rebuilt with Soviet aid, with many buildings built in the style of Socialist Classicism . The plans for the modern city of Pyongyang
Pyongyang
were first displayed for public viewing in a theatre building. On 27 July 1953 – the day the armistice between North Korea
North Korea
and South Korea
South Korea
was signed – _The Pyongyang
Pyongyang
Review _ wrote: "While streets were in flames, an exhibition showing the general plan of restoration of Pyongyang
Pyongyang
was held at the Moranbong Underground Theater", the air raid shelter of the government under Moran Hill . "On the way of victory... fireworks which streamed high into the night sky of the capital in a gun salute briefly illuminated the construction plan of the city which would rise soon with a new look".

In 2001, the authorities began a long-term modernization program. The Ministry of Capital City Construction Development was included in the cabinet in that year. In 2006, Kim Jong-il’s brother-in-law Jang Song-thaek took charge of the ministry.

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

PYONGYANG (1971-2000)

CLIMATE CHART (EXPLANATION )

J F M A M J J A S O N D

12 −1 −11 11 2 −8 25 9 −2 50 17 5 72 23 11 90 27 17 275 29 21 213 29 21 100 25 14 40 18 7 35 9 0 17 2 −7

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in mm

_Source: WMO_

IMPERIAL CONVERSION

J F M A M J J A S O N D

0.5 31 13 0.4 36 18 1 48 29 2 63 41 2.8 73 52 3.6 80 62 11 83 69 8.4 84 69 3.9 76 58 1.6 65 44 1.4 49 31 0.6 35 19

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in inches

Pyongyang
Pyongyang
is in the west-central part of North Korea; the city lies on a flat plain about 50 kilometres (31 mi) east of the Korea Bay , an arm of the Yellow Sea . The Taedong River flows southwestward through the city toward the Korea Bay. The Pyongyang
Pyongyang
plain, where the city is situated, is one of the two large plains on the Western coast of the Korean peninsula, the other being the Chaeryong plain. Both have an area of approximately 500 square kilometers.

Pyongyang
Pyongyang
has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification _Dwa_). Cold, dry winds can blow from Siberia
Siberia
in winter, making conditions very cold; the low temperature is usually below freezing between November and early March, although the average daytime high is at least a few degrees above freezing in every month except January. The winter is generally much drier than summer, with snow falling for 37 days on average.

The transition from the cold, dry winter to the warm, wet summer occurs rather quickly between April and early May, and there is a similar abrupt return to winter conditions in late October and November. Summers are generally hot and humid, with the East Asian monsoon taking place from June until August; these are also the hottest months, with average temperatures of 21 to 25 °C (70 to 77 °F), and daytime highs often above 30 °C (86 °F).

CLIMATE DATA FOR PYONGYANG (1971–2000, EXTREMES 1907–2016)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 11.0 (51.8) 15.9 (60.6) 22.5 (72.5) 29.3 (84.7) 35.2 (95.4) 37.1 (98.8) 37.2 (99) 36.7 (98.1) 34.6 (94.3) 28.9 (84) 23.2 (73.8) 14.3 (57.7) 37.2 (99)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) −0.8 (30.6) 2.4 (36.3) 8.9 (48) 17.1 (62.8) 22.6 (72.7) 26.7 (80.1) 28.6 (83.5) 28.9 (84) 24.7 (76.5) 18.2 (64.8) 9.4 (48.9) 1.7 (35.1) 15.7 (60.3)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) −5.8 (21.6) −2.7 (27.1) 3.6 (38.5) 11.0 (51.8) 16.8 (62.2) 21.6 (70.9) 24.7 (76.5) 24.7 (76.5) 19.5 (67.1) 12.5 (54.5) 4.6 (40.3) −2.8 (27) 10.7 (51.3)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −10.7 (12.7) −7.8 (18) −1.8 (28.8) 4.9 (40.8) 10.9 (51.6) 16.5 (61.7) 20.7 (69.3) 20.5 (68.9) 14.3 (57.7) 6.7 (44.1) −0.3 (31.5) −7.2 (19) 5.6 (42.1)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −28.5 (−19.3) −23.4 (−10.1) −18.8 (−1.8) −4.5 (23.9) 1.4 (34.5) 7.0 (44.6) 12.3 (54.1) 12.3 (54.1) 2.7 (36.9) −6.6 (20.1) −19.9 (−3.8) −30.2 (−22.4) −30.2 (−22.4)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 12.2 (0.48) 11.0 (0.433) 24.7 (0.972) 49.9 (1.965) 72.2 (2.843) 90.3 (3.555) 275.2 (10.835) 212.8 (8.378) 100.2 (3.945) 39.9 (1.571) 34.9 (1.374) 16.5 (0.65) 939.8 (37)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.1 MM) 5.2 4.2 5.1 6.7 8.1 8.7 14.4 11.0 7.2 6.1 7.3 5.9 89.9

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 74 71 66 63 66 70 80 78 74 72 72 73 72

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 184 197 231 237 263 229 181 204 222 214 165 165 2,492

Source #1: World Meteorological Organization
World Meteorological Organization

Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (extremes, humidity 1908–1936, and sun 1961–1990)

POLITICS

Mansudae Assembly Hall
Mansudae Assembly Hall
, seat of the Supreme People\'s Assembly , the North Korean parliament

Major government and other public offices are located in Pyongyang, which is constitutionally designated as the country's capital. The seat of the Workers\' Party Central Committee is located in Haenbangsan-dong, Chung-guyok . Pyongyang
Pyongyang
People's Committee is located in Haebangsan-dong, Chung-guyok . The Cabinet of North Korea is located in Jongro-dong, Chung-guyok .

Pyongyang
Pyongyang
is also the seat of all major North Korean security institutions. The largest of them, the Ministry of People\'s Security , has 130,000 employees working in 12 bureaus. These oversee activities as diverse as police services, security of party officials, classified documents, census, civil registrations, large-scale public construction, traffic control , fire safety, civil defense , public health and customs . Another major structure based in the city is the State Security Department , whose 30,000 personnel manage WW3 intelligence, political prison systems, military industrial security and entry and exit management.

The politics and management of the city is dominated by the Workers\' Party of Korea , as they are in the national level. The city is managed by the Pyongyang
Pyongyang
Party Committee of the Workers' Party of Korea. The supreme standing state organ is the Pyongyang
Pyongyang
People's Committee, responsible for everyday events in support of the city. This includes following local Party guidance as channeled through the Pyongyang
Pyongyang
Party Committee, the distribution of resources prioritized to Pyongyang, and providing support to KWP and internal security agency personnel and families.

ADMINISTRATIVE STATUS AND DIVISIONS

P'yŏngyang is divided into 19 wards (_ku-_ or _guyŏk_) _(the city proper)_ and 2 counties (_kun_ or _gun_).

* Chung-guyok (중구역; 中區域) * Pyongchon-guyok (평천구역; 平川區域) * Potonggang-guyok (보통강구역; 普通江區域) * Moranbong-guyok (모란봉구역; 牡丹峰區域) * Sŏsŏng-guyŏk (서성구역; 西城區域) * Songyo-guyok (선교구역; 船橋區域) * Tongdaewŏn-guyŏk (동대원구역; 東大院區域) * Taedonggang-guyŏk (대동강구역; 大同江區域) * Sadong-guyŏk (사동구역; 寺洞區域) * Taesong-guyok (대성구역; 大城區域)

* Mangyongdae-guyok (만경대구역; 萬景台區域) * Hyongjesan-guyok (형제산구역; 兄弟山區域) * Ryongsong-guyok (룡성구역; 龍城區域) * Samsok-guyok (삼석구역; 三石區域) * Ryokpo-guyok (력포구역; 力浦區域) * Rakrang-guyok (락랑구역; 樂浪區域) * Sunan-guyŏk (순안구역; 順安區域) * Unjong-guyok (은정구역; 恩情區域) * Kangdong County (강동군; 江東郡)

Foreign media reports in 2010 stated that Kangnam-gun , Chunghwa-gun , Sangwŏn-gun , and Sŭngho-guyŏk had been transferred to the administration of neighboring North Hwanghae province.

CITYSCAPE

_ Panorama of Pyongyang, as seen from the Juche_ Tower in April 2012. Ryugyong Hotel
Ryugyong Hotel
and part of the Monument to the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Apartment buildings with green areas

Pyongyang
Pyongyang
was destroyed during the Korean War and has been entirely rebuilt according to a design reflecting Kim Il-sung's vision. His dream was reportedly to create a capital that would boost morale in the post-war years. The result was a city with wide, tree-lined boulevards and public buildings with terraced landscaping, mosaics and decorated ceilings. Its Russian-style architecture makes it reminiscent of a Siberian city during winter snowfall, although edifices of traditional Korean design somewhat soften this perception. In summer, it is notable for its rivers, willow trees, flowers and parkland.

The streets are laid out in a north-south, east-west grid, giving the city an orderly appearance. North Korean designers applied the Swedish experience of self-sufficient urban neighbourhoods throughout the entire country, and Pyongyang
Pyongyang
is no exception. Its inhabitants are mostly divided into administrative units of 5,000 to 6,000 people (_dong_). These units all have similar sets of amenities including a food store, a barber shop, a tailor , a public bathhouse, a post office , a clinic, a library and others. Many residents occupy high-rise apartment buildings. One of Kim Il-sung's priorities while designing Pyongyang
Pyongyang
was to limit the population. Authorities maintain a restrictive regime of movement into the city, making it atypical of East Asia
East Asia
as it is silent, uncrowded and spacious.

Structures in Pyongyang
Pyongyang
are divided into three major architectural categories: monuments, buildings with traditional Korean motifs and high-rises. Some of North Korea's most recognisable landmarks are monuments, like the _Juche_ Tower , the Arch of Triumph and the Mansu Hill Grand Monument . The first of them is a 170-meter granite spire symbolizing the _ Juche
Juche
_ ideology. It was completed in 1982 and contains 25,550 granite blocks, one for each day of Kim Il-sung's life up to that point. The most prominent building on Pyongyang's skyline is Ryugyong Hotel
Ryugyong Hotel
, the seventh highest building in the world terms of floor count, the tallest unoccupied building in the world, and one of the tallest hotels in the world . It has yet to open.

High-rise apartment buildings dominate the cityscape. The government launched a mass construction campaign aiming to build 100,000 new homes in 2011. The Changjon Street Apartment Complex was part of this effort. Construction of the complex began after late leader Kim Jong-il reportedly described the area as "pitiful". Other housing complexes are being upgraded as well, but most are still poorly insulated while elevators and central heating remain rare. These new buildings foresaw the start of an urban renewal program that continues under Kim Jong-un's leadership, with the old apartments of the 70s and 80s now replaced by new, taller high rise buildings and new leisure parks like the Kaesong
Kaesong
Youth Park, as well as renovations of older buildings.

LANDMARKS

The Rungrado 1st of May Stadium by the Taedong River is the largest mass-sports/athletic stadium in the world by capacity.

Notable landmarks in the city include:

* the Ryugyong Hotel
Ryugyong Hotel
* the Kumsusan Palace of the Sun * the Arch of Triumph (heavily inspired by, but larger than, Paris 's Arc de Triomphe
Arc de Triomphe
) * the birthplace of Kim Il-sung at Mangyongdae Hill at the city outskirts * _Juche_ Tower

* two large stadiums:

* Rungrado 1st of May Stadium * Kim Il-sung Stadium

* the Mansu Hill complex , including the Korean Revolution Museum * Kim Il-sung Square * Yanggakdo International Hotel
Yanggakdo International Hotel

Pyongyang TV Tower is a minor landmark. Other visitor attractions include the Korea Central Zoo . The Arch of Reunification has a map of a united Korea supported by two concrete Korean women dressed in traditional dress straddling the Reunification Highway , which stretches from Pyongyang
Pyongyang
to the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ).

* Monuments and sights of Pyongyang

*

_Juche_ Tower Monument to the philosophy of _ Juche
Juche
_ (self-reliance) *

Arch of Triumph *

Arch of Reunification , a monument to the goal of a reunified Korea *

Monument to Party Founding *

Rungnado May Day Stadium *

Kumsusan Palace of the Sun *

Tomb of King Dongmyeong *

Ryugyong Hotel
Ryugyong Hotel
*

Mansu Hill Grand Monument
Mansu Hill Grand Monument
*

Mirae Scientist's Street

CULTURE

CUISINE

_ Pyongyang
Pyongyang
raengmyeon _ (평양랭면), cold buckwheat noodle soup originating in Pyongyang
Pyongyang

Pyongyang
Pyongyang
served as the provincial capital of South Pyongan Province until 1946, and Pyongyang
Pyongyang
cuisine shares the general culinary tradition of the Pyeongan province. The most famous local food is _ Pyongyang naengmyeon _, or also called _mul naengmyeon_ or just simply _naengmyeon_. _Naengmyeon_ literally means "cold noodles", while the affix _mul_ refers to water because the dish is served in a cold broth. _Naengmyeon_ consists of thin and chewy buckwheat noodles in a cold meat-broth with _dongchimi _ (watery kimchi) and topped with a slice of sweet Korean pear .

Pyongyang
Pyongyang
_naengmyeon_ was originally eaten in homes built with _ondol _ (traditional underfloor heating ) during the cold winter, so it is also humorously called _" Pyongyang
Pyongyang
deoldeori"_ (shivering in Pyongyang). Pyongyang
Pyongyang
locals sometimes enjoyed it as a _haejangguk _, which is any type of food eaten as a hangover-cure, usually a warm soup.

Another representative Pyongyang
Pyongyang
dish, _ Taedonggang sungeoguk _, translates as "trout soup from the Taedong River ". The soup features trout (abundant in the Taedong River) along with black peppercorns and salt. Traditionally, it has been served to guests visiting Pyongyang. Therefore, there is a common saying, "How good was the trout soup?", which is used to greet people returning from Pyongyang. Another local specialty, _ Pyongyang
Pyongyang
onban_ (literally "warm rice of Pyongyang"), comprises freshly cooked rice topped with sliced mushrooms, chicken, and a couple of _bindaetteok _ (pancakes made from ground mung beans and vegetables).

Famous restaurants in the city include Okryu-gwan and Ch'ongryugwan. Some street foods exist in Pyongyang, where vendors operate food stalls .

SPORTS

See also: Sport in North Korea
North Korea

Pyongyang
Pyongyang
has a number of sports clubs, including the April 25 Sports Club and the Pyongyang City Sports Club . The most popular sport in Pyongyang
Pyongyang
is football .

ECONOMY

Central Pyongyang
Pyongyang
with the newly built Changjon Apartment Complex. The Okryu Bridge and Ryugyong Hotel
Ryugyong Hotel
are in the background

Pyongyang
Pyongyang
is North Korea's industrial center. Thanks to the abundance of natural resources like coal , iron and limestone , as well as good land and water transport systems, it was the first industrial city to emerge in North Korea
North Korea
after the Korean War. Light and heavy industries are both present and have developed in parallel. Heavy manufactures include cement , industrial ceramics, munitions and weapons, but mechanical engineering remains the core industry. Light industries in Pyongyang
Pyongyang
and its vicinity include textiles , footwear and food, among others. Special
Special
emphasis is put on the production and supply of fresh produce and subsidiary crops in farms on the city's outskirts. Other crops include rice , corn and soybeans . Pyongyang aims to achieve self-sufficiency in meat production. High-density facilities raise pigs, chicken and other livestock.

The city still experiences a shortage of electricity. To solve this problem, two power stations - Huichon Power Stations 1 and 2 - were built in Chagang Province and supply the city through direct transmission lines. A second phase of the power expansion project was launched in January 2013, consisting of a series of small dams along the Chongchon River . The first two power stations have a maximum generating capacity of 300 megawatts (MW), while the 10 dams to be built under second phase are expected to generate about 120 MW. In addition, the city has several existing or planned thermal power stations . These include Pyongyang
Pyongyang
TPS with a capacity of 500 MW, East Pyongyang
Pyongyang
TPS with a capacity of 50 MW, and Kangdong TPS which is under construction.

RETAIL

Pyongyang Department Store No. 1

Pyongyang
Pyongyang
is home to several large department stores including the Pothonggang Department Store , Pyongyang Department Store No. 1 , Pyongyang
Pyongyang
Department Store No. 2, Kwangbok Department Store, Ragwon Department Store, Pyongyang Station Department Store, and the Pyongyang
Pyongyang
Children’s Department Store.

The city also has Hwanggumbol Shop, a chain of state-owned convenience stores supplying goods at prices cheaper than those in jangmadang markets. Hwanggumbol Shops are specifically designed to control North Korea's expanding markets by attracting consumers and guaranteeing the circulation of money in government-operated stores.

TRANSPORTATION

Tatra KT8D5K tram

Pyongyang
Pyongyang
is also the main transport hub of the country: it has a network of roads, railways and air routes which link it to both foreign and domestic destinations. It is the starting point of inter-regional highways reaching Nampo, Wonsan and Kaesong. Pyongyang railway station serves the main railway lines, including the Pyongui Line and the Pyongbu Line . Regular international rail services to Beijing
Beijing
, Chinese border city of Dandong and Moscow
Moscow
are also available.

A rail journey to Beijing
Beijing
takes about 25 hours and 25 minutes (K27 from Beijing/K28 from Pyongyang, on Mondays, Wednesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays); a journey to Dandong takes about 6 hours (daily); a journey to Moscow
Moscow
takes six days. The city also connects to the Eurasian Land Bridge via the Trans-Siberian Railway . A high-speed rail link to Wonsan is planned. Tupolev Tu-204
Tupolev Tu-204
of Air Koryo at Sunan International Airport

The Metro , tram and trolleybus systems are used mainly by commuters as a primary means of urban transportation. Cycle lanes were introduced on main thoroughfares in July 2015. There are few cars in the city. Cars are a symbol of status in the country due to their scarcity as a result of restrictions on import because of international sanctions and domestic regulations. Some roads are also reported to be in a poor condition.

State-owned Air Koryo has scheduled international flights from Pyongyang Sunan International Airport to Beijing
Beijing
(PEK ), Shenyang (SHE ), Vladivostok
Vladivostok
(VVO ), Shanghai
Shanghai
(PVG ) and Dandong . The only domestic destinations are Hamhung , Wonsan , Chongjin
Chongjin
, Hyesan and Samjiyon . Since 31 March 2008, Air China
Air China
launched a regular service between Beijing
Beijing
and Pyongyang. Although Air China's flights are often canceled due to the lack of passengers.

EDUCATION AND SCIENCE

Kim Il-sung University , North Korea's oldest university, was established in 1946. It has seven colleges, 14 faculties and 16 other institutes, graduate schools and university units. These include the primary medical education and health personnel training unit, the medical college; a physics faculty which covers a range of studies including theoretical physics , optical science, geophysics and astrophysics ; an atomic energy institute and a human evolution research office which studies human evolution through a Juche
Juche
point of view. Kim Il-Sung University also has its own publishing house, sports club (Ryongnamsan Sports Team), revolutionary museum, nature museum, libraries, a gym, indoor swimming pool and educator apartment houses. Its two main buildings were completed in 1965 (Building 1) and 1972 (Building 2). A third building on campus is planned. The Pyongyang University of Music and Dance
Pyongyang University of Music and Dance

Other higher education establishments include Kim Chaek University of Technology , Pyongyang University of Music and Dance
Pyongyang University of Music and Dance
and Pyongyang University of Foreign Studies . Pyongyang
Pyongyang
University of Science and Technology is the country's first private university where most of the lecturers are American and courses are carried out in English. A science and technology hall is under construction on Ssuk Islet. Its stated purpose is to contribute to the "informatization of educational resources" by centralizing teaching materials, compulsory literature and experimental data for state-level use in a digital format.

Sosong-guyok hosts a 20 MeV cyclotron called MGC-20. The initial project was approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1983 and funded by the IAEA, the United States and the North Korean government. The cyclotron was ordered from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1985 and constructed between 1987 and 1990. It is used for student training, production of medical isotopes for nuclear medicine as well as studies in biology, chemistry and physics.

HEALTHCARE

Medical centers include the Red Cross Hospital, the First People's Hospital which is located near Moran Hill and was the first hospital to be built in North Korea
North Korea
after the liberation of Korea in 1945, the Second People's Hospital, Ponghwa Recuperative Center (also known as Ponghwa Clinic or Presidential Clinic) located in Sokam-dong, Potonggang-guyok , 1.5 km northwest of Kim Il-sung Square , Pyongyang Medical School Hospital, Namsan Treatment Center which is adjacent Pyongyang\'s Maternity Hospital , Taesongsan General Hospital, Kim Man-yoo Hospital, Staff Treatment Center and Okryu Children's Hospital.

TWIN TOWNS

Pyongyang
Pyongyang
is twinned with:

* Kathmandu
Kathmandu
, Nepal
Nepal
* Tianjin
Tianjin
, China
China

SEE ALSO

* North Korea
North Korea
portal

* List of cities in North Korea
North Korea

NOTES

* ^ These include: Heijō-fu, Heizyō, Heizyō Hu, Hpyeng-yang, P-hjöng-jang, Phyeng-yang, Phyong-yang, Pienyang, Pingyang, Pyengyang, and Pieng-tang. * ^ Nanglang-state is different from Lelang Commandery. * ^ Station ID for Pyongyang
Pyongyang
is 47058 Use this station ID to locate the sunshine duration

REFERENCES

CITATIONS

* ^ _City population by sex, city and city type_, UN , 2008, retrieved 27 October 2016 * ^ _A_ _B_ " Pyongyang
Pyongyang
Republic, Robert Collins p. 54" (PDF). * ^ "The Secretarial Pool". _ North Korea
North Korea
Leadership Watch_. 6 May 2014. * ^ "NK Media Reports Pyongyang
Pyongyang
Apartment Collapse". _www.dailynk.com_. * ^ United Nations Statistics Division; Preliminary results of the 2008 Census of Population of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea conducted on 1–15 October 2008 (PDF-FILE) Retrieved on 2009-03-01. * ^ ("Heijō: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013. * ^ "Heijō-fu: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013. ) * ^ "Heizyō: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013. * ^ "Heizyō Hu: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013. * ^ "Hpyeng-yang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013. * ^ "P-hjöng-jang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013. * ^ "Phyeng-yang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013. * ^ "Phyong-yang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013. * ^ "Pienyang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013. * ^ "Pingyang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013. * ^ "Pyengyang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013. * ^ _EB_ (1878) , p. 390. * ^ Lankov, Andrei (16 March 2005). "North Korea\'s missionary position". _Asia Times Online_. Retrieved 25 January 2013. By the early 1940s Pyongyang
Pyongyang
was by far the most Protestant of all major cities of Korea, with some 25–30% of its adult population being church-going Christians. In missionary circles this earned the city the nickname " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
of the East". * ^ Caryl, Christian (15 September 2007). "Prayer In Pyongyang". _The Daily Beast_. The Newsweek/Daily Beast Co. Retrieved 25 January 2013. It's hard to say how many covert Christians the North has; estimates range from the low tens of thousands to 100,000. Christianity
Christianity
came to the peninsula in the late 19th century. Pyongyang, in fact, was once known as the ' Jerusalem
Jerusalem
of the East.' * ^ " Pyongyang
Pyongyang
was to become \'Kim Il Sung City\'; The followers of Kim Jong Il suggested the idea". _ Daily NK _. 2005-02-21. Retrieved 2014-10-04. * ^ National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage. 2001. Geumtan-ri. _Hanguk Gogohak Sajeon_ , pp. 148–149. NRICH, Seoul. ISBN 89-5508-025-5 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ "Pyongyang". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 19 April 2015. * ^ Baxter, William H. ; Sagart, Laurent . "Baxter-Sagart Old Chinese reconstruction (Version 1.00)". Archived from the original on 2011-08-14. Retrieved 20 May 2012. * ^ Beckwith, Christopher I. (2009). _Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present_. Princeton University Press. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-691-13589-2 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Lahmeyer, Jan, " North Korea
North Korea
– Urban Population", _Populstat_, University of Utrecht * ^ Memorandum (Institute of Pacific Relations, American Council), Vol. 2, No. 5 (Mar. 16, 1933), pp. 1-3 * ^ Buzo, Adrian (2002). _The Making of Modern Korea_. London: Routledge. pp. 54–57. ISBN 0-415-23749-1 . * ^ Schinz, Alfred; Eckart, Dege (1990), "Pyongyang-Ancient and Modern – the Capital of North Korea", _GeoJournal_, 22 (1): 25 * ^ "World Weather Information Service - Pyongyang". WMO. Retrieved 28 December 2014. * ^ Country Study 2009 , p. 63. * ^ "World Weather Information Service - Pyongyang". WMO. Retrieved 1 September 2016. * ^ "Klimatafel von Pyongyang
Pyongyang
(Pjöngjang) / Korea (Nordkorea)" (PDF). DWD. Retrieved 1 September 2016. * ^ "Station 47058 Pyongyang" . _Global station data 1961–1990—Sunshine Duration_. Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 1 September 2016. * ^ Country Study 2009 , p. 196. * ^ Country Study 2009 , p. 276-277. * ^ Country Study 2009 , p. 277. * ^ "행정구역현황 (_Haengjeong Guyeok Hyeonhwang_)". _NK Chosun_. Retrieved 10 January 2006. Also Administrative divisions of North Korea
North Korea
(used as reference for hanja) * ^ " Pyongyang
Pyongyang
now more than one-third smaller; food shortage issues suspected", _ Asahi Shinbun _, 17 July 2010, retrieved 19 July 2010 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Country Study 2009 , p. 91. * ^ Country Study 2009 , p. 93-94. * ^ Country Study 2009 , p. 97. * ^ Country Study 2009 , p. 91-92. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Architecture and City Planning". Library of Congress . Retrieved 24 April 2015. * ^ Glenday, Craig. _Guinness World Records 2014_. p. 144. ISBN 978-1-908843-15-9 . * ^ Staff (15 October 2009). "Will \'Hotel of Doom\' ever be finished?". _BBC News_. BBC. Retrieved 24 April 2015. * ^ Yoon, Sangwon (1 November 2012). "Kempinski to Operate World’s Tallest Hotel in North Korea". _Bloomberg L.P_. Retrieved 24 April 2015. * ^ Lee, Seok Young (25 August 2011). ""Pitiful" Changjeon Street the Top Priority". Daily NK. Retrieved 30 August 2011. * ^ " Pyongyang
Pyongyang
glitters but most of NKorea still dark". Yahoo News. 29 April 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2015. * ^ Makinen, Julie (20 May 2016). " North Korea
North Korea
is building something other than nukes: architecture with some zing". _Los Angeles Times_. * ^ 평양시 平壤市 (IN KOREAN). NATE/ENCYCLOPEDIA OF KOREAN CULTURE. * ^ _A_ _B_ 닮은 듯 색다른 매력을 간직한 북한의 음식 문화 (IN KOREAN). KOREA KNOWLEDGE PORTAL. 19 JUNE 2009. * ^ Ju, Wan-jung (주완중) (12 June 2000). \'오마니의 맛\' 관심 (IN KOREAN). THE CHOSUN ILBO . * ^ Lankov, Andrei (2007), _North of the DMZ: Essays on daily life in North Korea_, McFarland, pp. 90–91, ISBN 978-0-7864-2839-7 * ^ _A_ _B_ "Ten Power Plants on Chongchon River under Construction to Increase Power Supply to Pyongyang". Institute for Far Eastern Studies. 19 December 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2015. * ^ "Pyongyang’s Perpetual Power Problems". 38North.org. 25 November 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2015. * ^ " Pyongyang Metro
Pyongyang Metro
maps". Retrieved 17 March 2013. * ^ "Effort to Prevent Outflow of Capital into Markets". Institute for Far Eastern Studies. 20 March 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015. * ^ "Outline for Development of Wonsan-Kumgangsan Tourist Region Revealed". Institute for Far Eastern Studies. 26 March 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015. * ^ By Reuters 6:58AM BST 14 Jul 2015 (2015-07-14). "North Korea installs bike lanes in Pyongyang". Telegraph. Retrieved 2017-04-03. * ^ Martin, Bradley K. (9 July 2007). "In Kim\'s North Korea, Cars Are Scarce Symbols of Power, Wealth". _Bloomberg_. Archived from the original on 11 July 2015. Retrieved 27 September 2012. * ^ Fisher, Max. "North Korean Press Bus Takes Wrong Turn, Opening Another Crack in the Hermit Kingdom". _The Atlantic_. Retrieved 17 April 2012. * ^ " Air Koryo opens new office selling tickets for third country travel". * ^ 国航开通北京至平壤航线. Sina. * ^ 国航17日起暂停平壤航线. China
China
Central Television. * ^ "Structure of the University". Kim Il-Sung University. Retrieved 20 April 2015. * ^ "Colleges and Faculties". Kim Il-Sung University. Retrieved 20 April 2015. * ^ "Research Institutes and Units". Kim Il-Sung University. Retrieved 20 April 2015. * ^ "Main Buildings". Kim Il-Sung University. Retrieved 20 April 2015. * ^ "Inside North Korea\'s Western-funded university". BBC News. 3 February 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2015. * ^ "In North Korea, a Western-backed university". The Washington Post. 8 October 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2015. * ^ "Science and Technology Hall to be Built in Pyongyang’s Ssuk Islet". Institute for Far Eastern Studies. 23 January 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015. * ^ "MGC-20 Cyclotron". NTI.org. Retrieved 20 April 2015. * ^ KCNA, May 22, 2002 * ^ "Ponghwa Clinic Expanded During 2009-2010, NK Leadership Watch". * ^ "Where Did Kim Jong Il Receive His Surgery?". * ^ "I Had A Scary Encounter With North Korea’s Crumbling Healthcare System". * ^ "Bilateral Relations (Nepal–North Korea)". Government of Nepal
Nepal
Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 8 September 2013. * ^ First China-DPRK sister cities meeting held in Pyongyang.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* "Corea", _Encyclopædia Britannica_, 9th ed., Vol. VI, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1878, pp. 390–394 . * " North Korea
North Korea
– A Country Study" (PDF). Library of Congress Country Studies . 2009.

FURTHER READING

* Kracht, Christian , Eva Munz ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

_ Regions and administrative divisions of North Korea
North Korea

REGIONS

* Kwanbuk

* Kwannam

* Kwanso

* Gwandong

* Yeongdong * Yeongseo

* Hwanghae

PROVINCES

* Chagang * North Hamgyong * South Hamgyong * North Hwanghae * South Hwanghae * Kangwon * North Pyongan * South Pyongan * Ryanggang

DIRECT-ADMINISTERED CITY

* Pyongyang

SPECIAL CITIES

* Nampo * Rason

SPECIAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGIONS

* Kaesong
Kaesong
* Kumgang * Sinuiju

* v * t * e

Pyongyang
Pyongyang

DISTRICTS

* Chung * Hyŏngjesan * Man\'gyŏngdae * Moranbong * Pot\'onggang * P\'yŏngch\'ŏn * Rangrang * Ryŏkp\'o * Ryongsŏng * Sadong * Samsŏk * Sŏn\'gyo * Sŏsŏng * Sunan * Taedonggang * Taesŏng * Tongdaewŏn * Ŭnjŏng

COUNTIES

* Kangdong

* v * t * e

Cities in North Korea
North Korea

DIRECTLY GOVERNED CITY

* Pyongyang

CITIES WITH SPECIAL STATUS

* Rason * Nampo * Kaesong
Kaesong

PROVINCIAL CAPITALS

* Chongjin
Chongjin
* Haeju
Haeju
* Hamhung * Hyesan * Kanggye * Pyongsong * Sariwon * Sinuiju * Wonsan

OTHER CITIES

* Anju * Chongju * Hoeryong * Huichon * Kaechon * Kimchaek * Kusong * Manpo * Munchon * Sinpo * Songnim * Sunchon * Tanchon * Tokchon

* v * t * e

Capitals of Asia

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics_

North and Central Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West and Southwest Asia

* ASHGABAT , Turkmenistan * ASTANA , Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
* * BISHKEK , Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
* DUSHANBE , Tajikistan
Tajikistan
* MOSCOW , Russia
Russia
* * TASHKENT , Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan

EAST ASIA

* BEIJING , China
China
* HONG KONG , _ Hong Kong
Hong Kong
_ (China) * MACAU , _ Macau
Macau
_ (China) * PYONGYANG, North Korea
North Korea
* SEOUL , South Korea
South Korea
* TAIPEI , _ Taiwan
Taiwan
_ (ROC) * TOKYO , Japan
Japan
* ULAANBAATAR , Mongolia
Mongolia

* KABUL , Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* DHAKA , Bangladesh
Bangladesh
* DIEGO GARCIA , _BIOT _ (UK ) * ISLAMABAD , Pakistan
Pakistan
* KATHMANDU , Nepal
Nepal
* KOTTE , Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
* MALé , Maldives
Maldives
* NEW DELHI , India
India
* THIMPHU , Bhutan
Bhutan

* BANDAR SERI BEGAWAN , Brunei
Brunei
* BANGKOK , Thailand
Thailand
* DILI , East Timor
East Timor
* FLYING FISH COVE , _ Christmas Island _ ( Australia
Australia
) * HANOI , Vietnam
Vietnam
* JAKARTA , Indonesia
Indonesia
* * KUALA LUMPUR , Malaysia
Malaysia
* MANILA , Philippines
Philippines
* NAYPYIDAW , Myanmar
Myanmar
* PHNOM PENH , Cambodia
Cambodia
* CENTRAL AREA , Singapore
Singapore
* VIENTIANE , Laos
Laos
* WEST ISLAND , _ Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
_ ( Australia
Australia
)

* ABU DHABI , United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
* AMMAN , Jordan
Jordan
* ANKARA , Turkey
Turkey
* * BAGHDAD , Iraq
Iraq
* BAKU , Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
* * BEIRUT , Lebanon
Lebanon
* CAIRO , Egypt
Egypt
*

* SANA\\'A , Yemen
Yemen
* STEPANAKERT , _Nagorno-Karabakh _* * SUKHUMI , _ Abkhazia
Abkhazia
_* * TBILISI , Georgia * * TEHRAN , Iran
Iran
* TSKHINVALI , _ South Ossetia
South Ossetia
_* * YEREVAN , Armenia
Armenia
*

* Transcontinental country . † See: Positions on Jerusalem
Jerusalem
. Both Israel and Palestinians claim Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as capital. Jerusalem
Jerusalem
contains the Israeli parliament and almost all Israeli government ministries. Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
contains most foreign embassies in Israel; Ramallah is the administrative seat of the Palestinian Authority.

* v * t * e

_ National symbols of North Korea
North Korea

CONSTITUTIONAL

* Flag * Emblem * Anthem * Pyongyang
Pyongyang
(capital)

OTHER

* Magnolia sieboldii _ (flower) * Northern goshawk (bird) * Pine
Pine
(tree) * Pungsan dog (dog) * Kimchi (dish) * _Chosŏn-ot_ (dress) * _Ssirŭm _ (sport) * _Juche_ Tower and Mangyongdae (monuments) * Foundation Day (day) * Chollima
Chollima

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 147740730 * LCCN : n80014572 * GND : 4285178-6 * NDL : 00646261

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Pyongyang
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