PUNK IDEOLOGIES are a group of varied social and political beliefs
associated with the punk subculture and punk rock . In its original
incarnation, the punk subculture originated out of working class angst
and the frustrations many youth were feeling about economic inequality
and the bourgeois hypocrisy and neglect of working people and their
struggles. It was primarily concerned with concepts such as pro
working-class, anti-establishment , equality, freedom,
anti-authoritarianism , anti-corporate culture/corruption, anti-war ,
free-thought and non-conformity . One of its main tenets was a
rejection of mainstream, corporate mass culture and its values. It
continued to evolve its ideology as the movement spread throughout
North America from its origins in England and New York and embrace a
range anti-racist and anti-sexist belief systems. Punk ideologies
range from left wing views (e.g.,
NOFX ) to right wing beliefs (e.g.,
Punk ideologies are usually expressed through punk rock music and
lyrics, punk literature such as amateur zines , spoken word
performances or recordings, punk fashion , or punk visual art . Some
punks have participated in direct action , such as protests , boycotts
, squatting , vandalism , or property destruction .
Punk fashion was
originally an expression of nonconformity, as well as opposition to
both mainstream culture and the statu quo .
Punk fashion often
displays aggression, rebellion, and individualism. Some punks wear
clothing or have tattoos that express sociopolitical messages. Punk
visual art also often includes political messages. Many punks wear
second-hand clothing, partly as an anti-consumerist statement.
An attitude common in the punk subculture is the opposition to
selling out , which refers to abandoning of one's values and/or a
change in musical style toward pop and embracing anything in
mainstream capitalist culture or more radio-friendly rock in exchange
for wealth, status, or power.
Selling out also has the meaning of
adopting a more mainstream lifestyle and ideology. The issue of
authenticity is important in the punk subculture—the pejorative term
poseur is applied to those who associate with punk and adopt its
stylistic attributes but are deemed not to share or understand the
underlying values or philosophy.
Because anti-establishment attitudes are such an important part of
the punk subculture, a network of independent record labels , venues
and distributors has developed. Some punk bands have chosen to break
from this independent system and work within the established system of
major labels . The do it yourself (DIY) ideal is common in the punk
scene, especially in terms of music recording and distribution,
concert promotion, and photocopying magazines, posters and flyers. The
DIY was coined by commentators after the fact.
On religious issues, punk is mostly atheist or agnostic , but some
punk bands have promoted religions such as Christianity ,
Islam , the
Rastafari movement or Krishna .
* 1 Specific ideologies and philosophies
Animal rights and veganism
* 1.3 Apoliticism
* 1.4 Christianity
* 1.6 Hare Krishna
* 1.9 Libertarianism
* 1.10 Neo-Nazism
* 2 Criticism of punk ideologies
* 3 See also
* 4 Bibliography
* 5 References
SPECIFIC IDEOLOGIES AND PHILOSOPHIES
The following include some of the most common ideologies and
philosophies within the punk subculture (in alphabetical order).
Anarcho-punk A punk protester carries a sign
including an anarchy symbol.
There is a complex and worldwide underground of punks committed to
anarchism as a serious political ideology, sometimes termed "peace
punks" or "anarcho-punks ." While some well-known punk bands such as
Sex Pistols and
The Exploited had songs about anarchy , notably
Anarchy in the UK , they did not embrace anarchism as a
disciplined ideology. As such, these bands are not considered part of
the anarcho-punk scene.
Anarcho-punks typically believe in direct action . Many anarcho-punks
are pacifists (e.g.
Crass and Discharge ) and therefore believe in
using non-violent means of achieving their aims. These include
peaceful protest, squatting , graffiti , culture jamming , ecotage ,
freeganism , boycotting , civil disobedience , hacktivism and
subvertising . Some anarcho-punks believe that violence or property
damage is an acceptable way of achieving social change (e.g. Conflict
). This manifests itself as rioting , vandalism , wire cutting, hunt
sabotage , participation in
Animal Liberation Front
Animal Liberation Front - or Earth
Liberation Front -style activities, and in extreme cases, bombings.
Notable anarchist punk artists include:
Dave Insurgent ,
Subhumans (British band)
Subhumans (British band) ,
Colin Jerwood , and
Dave Dictor .
ANIMAL RIGHTS AND VEGANISM
In the 1980s, both straight edge hardcore punk in the United States
and anarcho-punk in the
United Kingdom became associated with animal
rights . Consequently, vegetarianism and veganism became a feature of
the punk subculture. This association continues on into the 21st
century, as evidenced by the prominence of vegan punk events such as
Fluff Fest in Europe.
Some punks claim to be non-political, such as the band Charged GBH
and the singer
G.G. Allin , although some socio-political ideas have
appeared in their lyrics. Some
Charged GBH songs have discussed social
issues, and a few have expressed anti-war views.
G.G. Allin expressed
a vague desire to kill the United States president and destroy the
political system in his song "Violence Now". Punk subgenres that are
generally apolitical include: glam punk , psychobilly , horror punk ,
punk pathetique , deathrock and pop punk . Many of the bands credited
with starting the punk movement were decidedly apolitical, including
The Dictators ,
Ramones (which featured staunch conservative Johnny
Ramone alongside liberal activist
Joey Ramone ),
New York Dolls
New York Dolls ,
Johnny Thunders & The Heartbreakers , and