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PUNK IDEOLOGIES are a group of varied social and political beliefs associated with the punk subculture and punk rock . In its original incarnation, the punk subculture originated out of working class angst and the frustrations many youth were feeling about economic inequality and the bourgeois hypocrisy and neglect of working people and their struggles. It was primarily concerned with concepts such as pro working-class, anti-establishment , equality, freedom, anti-authoritarianism , anti-corporate culture/corruption, anti-war , free-thought and non-conformity . One of its main tenets was a rejection of mainstream, corporate mass culture and its values. It continued to evolve its ideology as the movement spread throughout North America from its origins in England and New York and embrace a range anti-racist and anti-sexist belief systems. Punk ideologies range from left wing views (e.g., The Clash ) to right wing beliefs (e.g., Nazi punk ).

Punk ideologies
Punk ideologies
are usually expressed through punk rock music and lyrics, punk literature such as amateur zines , spoken word performances or recordings, punk fashion , or punk visual art . Some punks have participated in direct action , such as protests , boycotts , squatting , vandalism , or property destruction . Punk fashion was originally an expression of nonconformity, as well as opposition to both mainstream culture and the statu quo . Punk fashion often displays aggression, rebellion, and individualism. Some punks wear clothing or have tattoos that express sociopolitical messages. Punk visual art also often includes political messages. Many punks wear second-hand clothing, partly as an anti-consumerist statement.

An attitude common in the punk subculture is the opposition to selling out , which refers to abandoning of one's values and/or a change in musical style toward pop and embracing anything in mainstream capitalist culture or more radio-friendly rock in exchange for wealth, status, or power. Selling out also has the meaning of adopting a more mainstream lifestyle and ideology. The issue of authenticity is important in the punk subculture—the pejorative term _poseur _ is applied to those who associate with punk and adopt its stylistic attributes but are deemed not to share or understand the underlying values or philosophy.

Because anti-establishment attitudes are such an important part of the punk subculture, a network of independent record labels , venues and distributors has developed. Some punk bands have chosen to break from this independent system and work within the established system of major labels . The do it yourself (DIY) ideal is common in the punk scene, especially in terms of music recording and distribution, concert promotion, and photocopying magazines, posters and flyers. The expression DIY was coined by commentators after the fact.

On religious issues, punk is mostly atheist or agnostic , but some punk bands have promoted religions such as Christianity , Buddhism
Buddhism
, Islam
Islam
, the Rastafari movement or Krishna .

CONTENTS

* 1 Specific ideologies and philosophies

* 1.1 Anarchism * 1.2 Apolitical * 1.3 Christianity * 1.4 Conservatism * 1.5 Islam
Islam
* 1.6 Krishna * 1.7 Liberalism * 1.8 Libertarianism * 1.9 Neo-Nazism * 1.10 Nihilism * 1.11 Socialism * 1.12 Straight edge

* 2 Criticism of punk ideologies * 3 See also * 4 Bibliography * 5 References

SPECIFIC IDEOLOGIES AND PHILOSOPHIES

The following include some of the most common ideologies and philosophies within the punk subculture (in alphabetical order).

ANARCHISM

Main article: Anarcho-punk A punk protester carries a sign including an anarchy symbol.

There is a complex and worldwide underground of punks committed to anarchism as a serious political ideology, sometimes termed "peace punks" or "anarcho-punks ." While some well-known punk bands such as the Sex Pistols and The Exploited had songs about anarchy , notably the Pistols' _ Anarchy
Anarchy
in the UK _, they did not embrace anarchism as a disciplined ideology. As such, these bands are not considered part of the anarcho-punk scene.

Anarcho-punks typically believe in direct action . Many anarcho-punks are pacifists (e.g. Crass and Discharge ) and therefore believe in using non-violent means of achieving their aims. These include peaceful protest, squatting , graffiti , culture jamming , ecotage , freeganism , boycotting , civil disobedience , hacktivism and subvertising . Some anarcho-punks believe that violence or property damage is an acceptable way of achieving social change (e.g. Conflict ). This manifests itself as rioting , vandalism , wire cutting, hunt sabotage , participation in Animal Liberation Front - or Earth Liberation Front -style activities, and in extreme cases, bombings. Notable anarchist punk artists include: Aus-Rotten , Dave Insurgent , Crass , Subhumans (British band) , Colin Jerwood , and Dave Dictor .

APOLITICAL

Some punks claim to be non-political, such as the band Charged GBH and the singer G.G. Allin , although some socio-political ideas have appeared in their lyrics. Some Charged GBH songs have discussed social issues, and a few have expressed anti-war views. G.G. Allin expressed a vague desire to kill the United States president and destroy the political system in his song "Violence Now". Punk subgenres that are generally apolitical include: glam punk , psychobilly , horror punk , punk pathetique , deathrock and pop punk . Many of the bands credited with starting the punk movement were decidedly apolitical, including The Dictators , Ramones (which featured staunch conservative Johnny Ramone alongside liberal activist Joey Ramone ), New York Dolls , Television , Johnny Thunders & The Heartbreakers , and Richard Hell ">

* ^ Glasper, Ian (2006), _The Day the Country Died: A History of Anarcho Punk 1980 to 1984_, Cherry Red publishing, ISBN 978-1-901447-70-5 * ^ "The GG Allin SuperSite Lyrics - Violence Now - Assassinate The President". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on October 27, 2009. Retrieved 2014-05-20. * ^ _A_ _B_ http://www.allmusic.com/style/christian-punk-ma0000002639/artists * ^ http://www.allmusic.com/artist/the-crucified-mn0000135837 * ^ " Billy Zoom interview". Markprindle.com. Retrieved 2014-05-20. * ^ McPheeters, Sam (2009-08-31). "Survival Of The Streets VICE United States". Vice.com. Retrieved 2014-05-20. * ^ Archived August 23, 2006, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ http://www.johndoerevolution.com/2010/08/hd-pe.html * ^ http://www.newstimes.com/news/article/Latest-hed-p-e-album-has-plenty-of-messages-116661.php * ^ http://www.killyourstereo.com/interviews/1025867/hedp-e * ^ http://www.ownblood-magazine.de/interviews187.htm * ^ "SLUG Magazine ANTiSEEN". Slugmag.com. 2004-09-29. Retrieved 2012-08-13. * ^ "Punk Icon Exene Cervenka Endorses Gary Johnson - Reason 24/7". Reason.com. 2012-10-13. Retrieved 2014-05-20. * ^ http://www.3ammagazine.com/3am/interview-with-simon-critchley/ * ^ _A_ _B_ http://www.marxists.org/history/erol/periodicals/theoretical-review/19801802.htm * ^ Ensminger, David, _Left of the Dial: Conversations with Punk Icons_ (Oakland, CA: PM Press) p. 47 * ^ _Seventies Unplugged - Gerard DeGroot - Google Books_. Books.google.ca. 2011-05-20. Retrieved 2014-05-20. * ^ Salewicz, Chris (May 13, 2008). _Redemption Song: The Ballad of Joe Strummer_. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-0865479821 . * ^ Matthew Worley. " Oi! Oi! Oi!: Class, Locality, and British Punk". Tcbh.oxfordjournals.org. Retrieved 2014-05-20. * ^ Alexis Petridis. "Misunderstood or hateful? Oi!\'s rise and fall Music". The Guardian. Retrieved 2014-05-20. * ^ Bushell, Garry. "Oi!—The Truth". garry-bushell.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2008-07-31. Retrieved 2010-11-19. * ^ _A_ _B_ Marcus, Greil, Lipstick Traces: A Secret History of the Twentieth Century, Harvard University Press, 1989. ISBN 0-571-23228-0 * ^ http://www.styleweekly.com/Studi/archives/2016/04/05/punk-rock-bernie-sanders-mural-goes-up-on-broad-street * ^ http://www.vice.com/read/how-bernie-sanders-242-main-street-shaped-the-northeast-punk-scene-515

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