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The Punjab
Punjab
(/pʌnˈdʒɑːb/ ( listen), /-ˈdʒæb/, /ˈpʌndʒɑːb/, /-dʒæb/), also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers";[1] Punjabi: پنجاب‬ (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi)), is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India. Not being a political unit, the boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. Until the Partition of Punjab
Partition of Punjab
in 1947, the British Punjab
Punjab
Province encompassed the present-day Indian states of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh, and Delhi, and the Pakistani provinces of Punjab and Islamabad
Islamabad
Capital Territory. It bordered the Balochistan
Balochistan
and Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
regions to the west, Kashmir
Kashmir
to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, and Rajasthan
Rajasthan
and Sindh
Sindh
to the south. The people of the Punjab
Punjab
today are called Punjabis, and their principal language is Punjabi. The main religions of the Punjab
Punjab
region are Islam, Sikhism, and Hinduism. Other religious groups are Christianity, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, and Ravidassia. The Punjab region
Punjab region
has been inhabited by the Indus Valley Civilisation, Indo-Aryan peoples, and Indo-Scythians, and has seen numerous invasions by the Persians, Greeks, Kushans, Ghaznavids, Timurids, Mughals, Pashtuns, British, and others. Historic foreign invasions mainly targeted the most productive central region of the Punjab
Punjab
known as the Majha
Majha
region,[2] which is also the bedrock of Punjabi culture and traditions.[3]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Political geography

2.1 1947
1947
definition 2.2 Present day maps 2.3 Major cities 2.4 Major cities 2.5 Greater Punjab

3 Climate 4 History

4.1 Timeline

5 People

5.1 Ethnic background 5.2 Languages 5.3 Religions 5.4 Punjabi festivals 5.5 Punjabi clothing

6 Economy 7 Gallery 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Etymology[edit] The region was originally called Sapta Sindhu,[4] the Vedic land of the seven rivers flowing into the ocean.[5] The later name of the region, Punjab, is a compound of two Persian words,[1][6] Panj (five) and āb (water), introduced to the region by the Turko-Persian conquerors[7] of India, and more formally popularised during the Mughal Empire.[8][9] Punjab
Punjab
thus means "The Land of Five Waters", referring to the rivers Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, and Beas.[10] All are tributaries of the Indus River, the Chenab being the largest. Political geography[edit] There are two main definitions of the Punjab
Punjab
region: the 1947 definition and the older 1846–1849 definition. A third definition incorporates both the 1947
1947
and the older definitions but also includes northern Rajasthan
Rajasthan
on a linguistic basis and ancient river movements. 1947
1947
definition[edit] The 1947
1947
definition defines the Punjab region
Punjab region
with reference to the dissolution of British India
India
whereby the then British Punjab
Punjab
Province was partitioned between India
India
and Pakistan. In Pakistan, the region now includes the Punjab
Punjab
province and Islamabad
Islamabad
Capital Territory. In India, it includes the Punjab
Punjab
state, Chandigarh, Haryana,[11] and Himachal Pradesh. Using the 1947
1947
definition, the Punjab
Punjab
borders the Balochistan
Balochistan
and Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
regions to the west, Kashmir
Kashmir
to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, and Rajasthan
Rajasthan
and Sindh
Sindh
to the south. Accordingly, the Punjab region
Punjab region
is very diverse and stretches from the hills of the Kangra Valley
Kangra Valley
to the plains and to the Cholistan Desert. Present day maps[edit]

Punjab, Pakistan

Punjab, India, 2014

Haryana, India

Himachal Pradesh, India

Major cities[edit] Main article: List of cities in the Punjab region
Punjab region
by population

Badshahi Mosque, Lahore

A moment at Golden Temple

Golden Temple, Amritsar

Clock Tower, Faisalabad

Aerial view of Multan
Multan
Ghanta Ghar chawk

Open Hand monument, Chandigarh

Faisal Masjid (Margalla Hills)

Using the 1947
1947
definition of the Punjab
Punjab
region, some of the major cities of the area include Lahore, Faisalabad
Faisalabad
and Ludhiana.

Older 1846–1849 definition

The Punjab, 1849

The Panjab, 1880

Punjab
Punjab
Province (British India), 1909

The older definition of the Punjab region
Punjab region
focuses on the collapse of the Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
and the creation of the British Punjab
Punjab
province between 1846 and 1849. According to this definition, the Punjab
Punjab
region incorporates, in Pakistan, Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
including Bhimber
Bhimber
and Mirpur[12] and parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
(especially Peshawar[13][14] known in the Punjab region
Punjab region
as Pishore).[15] In India the wider definition includes parts of Delhi
Delhi
and Jammu Division.[16][17] Using the older definition of the Punjab
Punjab
region, the Punjab
Punjab
region covers a large territory and can be divided into five natural areas:[1]

the eastern mountainous region including Jammu Division
Jammu Division
and Azad Kashmir; the trans-Indus region including Peshawar; the central plain with its five rivers; the north-western region, separated from the central plain by the Salt Range between the Jhelum
Jhelum
and the Indus rivers; the semi-desert to the south of the Sutlej
Sutlej
river.

The formation of the Himalayan Range of mountains to the east and north-east of the Punjab
Punjab
is the result of a collision between the north-moving Indo-Australian Plate
Indo-Australian Plate
and the Eurasian Plate. The plates are still moving together, and the Himalayas
Himalayas
are rising by about 5 millimetres (0.2 in) per year. The upper regions are snow-covered the whole year. Lower ranges of hills run parallel to the mountains. The Lower Himalayan Range runs from north of Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
through Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and further south. The mountains are relatively young, and are eroding rapidly. The Indus and the five rivers of the Punjab
Punjab
have their sources in the mountain range and carry loam, minerals and silt down to the rich alluvial plains, which consequently are very fertile.[18] Major cities[edit] According to the older definition, some of the major cities include Jammu, Peshawar
Peshawar
and parts of Delhi.

Bahu Fort, Jammu, India

Peshawar
Peshawar
Museum

Jama Masjid, Delhi

City view, Mirpur

Greater Punjab[edit] The third definition of the Punjab region
Punjab region
adds to the definitions cited above and includes parts of Rajasthan[19][20][21][22] on linguistic lines and takes into consideration the location of the Punjab
Punjab
rivers in ancient times. In particular, the Sri Ganganagar and Hanumangarh
Hanumangarh
districts are included in the Punjab
Punjab
region.[23]

Anupgarh fort in Anupgarh city

Bhatner fort in Hanumangarh
Hanumangarh
city

Climate[edit]

The snow-covered Himalayas

The climate is a factor contributing to the economy of the Punjab. It is not uniform over the whole region, with the sections adjacent to the Himalayas
Himalayas
receiving heavier rainfall than those at a distance.[24] There are three main seasons and two transitional periods. During the hot season, from about mid April to the end of June, the temperature may reach 49 °C (120 °F). The monsoon season, from July to September, is a period of heavy rainfall, providing water for crops in addition to the supply from canals and irrigation systems. The transitional period after the monsoon is cool and mild, leading to the winter season, when the temperature in January falls to 5 °C (41 °F) at night and 12 °C (54 °F) by day. During the transitional period from winter to the hot season, sudden hailstorms and heavy showers may occur, causing damage to crops.[25] History[edit] Main article: History of the Punjab

Taxila
Taxila
in Pakistan
Pakistan
is a World Heritage Site

The Punjab region
Punjab region
of India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
has a historical and cultural link to Indo-Aryan peoples
Indo-Aryan peoples
as well as partially to various indigenous communities. As a result of several invasions from Central Asia
Central Asia
and the Middle East, many ethnic groups and religions make up the cultural heritage of the Punjab. In prehistoric times, one of the earliest known cultures of South Asia, the Indus Valley civilisation was located in the region. The epic battles described in the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
are described as being fought in what is now the State of Haryana
Haryana
and historic Punjab. The Gandharas, Kambojas, Trigartas, Andhra, Pauravas, Bahlikas (Bactrian settlers of the Punjab), Yaudheyas and others sided with the Kauravas in the great battle fought at Kurukshetra.[26] According to Dr Fauja Singh and Dr L. M. Joshi: "There is no doubt that the Kambojas, Daradas, Kaikayas, Andhra, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas, Saindhavas and Kurus had jointly contributed to the heroic tradition and composite culture of ancient Punjab".[27]

Menander I
Menander I
Soter (165/155 –130 BCE), conqueror of the Punjab, carved out a Greek kingdom in the Punjab
Punjab
and ruled the Punjab
Punjab
until his death in 130 BC.[28][29]

In 326 BCE, Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
invaded Pauravas
Pauravas
and defeated King Porus. His armies entered the region via the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
in northwest Pakistan
Pakistan
and his rule extended up to the city of Sagala
Sagala
(present-day Sialkot
Sialkot
in northeast Pakistan). In 305 BCE the area was ruled by the Maurya
Maurya
Empire. In a long line of succeeding rulers of the area, Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
and Ashoka
Ashoka
stand out as the most renowned. The Maurya
Maurya
presence in the area was then consolidated in the Indo-Greek Kingdom in 180 BCE. Menander I
Menander I
Soter "The Saviour" (known as Milinda in Indian sources) is the most renowned leader of the era, he conquered the Punjab
Punjab
and made Sagala
Sagala
the capital of his Empire.[28] Menander carved out a Greek kingdom in the Punjab
Punjab
and ruled the region till his death in 130 BCE.[29] The neighbouring Seleucid
Seleucid
Empire rule came to an end around 12 BCE, after several invasions by the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
and the Scythian people. In 711–713 CE, the 18-year-old Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim
of Taif, a city in what is now Saudi Arabia, came by way of the Arabian Sea with Arab troops to defeat Raja Dahir. Bin Qasim then led his troops to conquer the Sindh
Sindh
and Punjab
Punjab
regions for the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate, making him the first to bring Islam
Islam
to the region.

A section of the Lahore
Lahore
Fort built by the Mughal emperor Akbar

During the establishment and consolidation of the Muslim Turkic Mughal Empire prosperity, growth, and relative peace were established, particularly under the reign of Jahangir. Muslim empires ruled the Punjab
Punjab
for approximately 1,000 years. The period was also notable for the emergence of Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
(1469–1539), the founder of Sikhism. In 1758, Punjab
Punjab
came under the rule of Marathas, who captured the region by defeating the Afghan forces of Ahmad Shah Abdali. Abdali's Indian invasion weakened the Maratha influence, but he could not defeat the Sikhs. After the death of Ahmad Shah, the Punjab
Punjab
was freed from the Afghan yoke by Sikhs
Sikhs
between 1773 and 1818. At the time of the formation of the Dal Khalsa
Khalsa
in 1748 at Amritsar, the Punjab
Punjab
had been divided into 36 areas and 12 separate Sikh
Sikh
principalities, called misl. From this point onward, the beginnings of a Punjabi Sikh
Sikh
Empire emerged. Out of the 36 areas, 22 were united by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The other 14 accepted British sovereignty. After Ranjit Singh's death, assassinations and internal divisions severely weakened the empire. Six years later the British East India
India
Company was given an excuse to declare war, and in 1849, after two Anglo- Sikh
Sikh
wars, the Punjab
Punjab
was annexed by the British. In the Indian Rebellion of 1857
Indian Rebellion of 1857
the Sikh
Sikh
rulers backed the East India Company, providing troops and support,[30] but in Jhelum
Jhelum
35 British soldiers of HM XXIV regiment were killed by the local resistance, and in Ludhiana
Ludhiana
a rebellion was crushed with the assistance of the Punjab
Punjab
chiefs of Nabha
Nabha
and Malerkotla. The British Raj
British Raj
had political, cultural, philosophical, and literary consequences in the Punjab, including the establishment of a new system of education. During the independence movement, many Punjabis played a significant role, including Madan Lal Dhingra, Sukhdev Thapar, Ajit Singh Sandhu, Bhagat Singh, Udham Singh, Kartar Singh Sarabha, Bhai Parmanand, Muhammad Iqbal, Chaudhary Rehmat Ali, and Lala Lajpat Rai. At the time of partition in 1947, the province was split into East and West Punjab. East Punjab
East Punjab
(48%) became part of India, while West Punjab (52%) became part of Pakistan.[31] The Punjab
Punjab
bore the brunt of the civil unrest following the end of the British Raj, with casualties estimated to be in the millions.[citation needed] Timeline[edit]

3300–1500 BCE: Harappan civilisation 1500–1000 BCE: (Rigvedic) Vedic civilisation 1000–500 BCE: Middle and late Vedic Period 599 BCE: Birth of Mahavira 567–487 BCE: Time of Gautama Buddha 550 BCE – 600 CE: Buddhism
Buddhism
remained prevalent 326 BCE: Alexander's Invasion of Punjab 322–298 BCE: Chandragupta I, Maurya
Maurya
period 273–232 BCE: Reign of Ashoka 125–160 BCE: Rise of the Sakas 2 BCE: Beginning of Rule of the Sakas 45–180: Rule of the Kushans 320–550: Gupta Empire 500: Hunnic Invasion 510–650: Vardhana's Era 711–713: Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim
conquers Sindh
Sindh
and small part of Punjab region 713–1200: Rajput
Rajput
states, Kabul Shahi
Kabul Shahi
& small Muslim kingdoms 1206–1290: Mamluk dynasty established by Mohammad Ghori 1290–1320: Khalji dynasty
Khalji dynasty
established by Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji 1320–1413: Tughlaq dynasty
Tughlaq dynasty
established by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq 1414–1451: Sayyid dynasty
Sayyid dynasty
established by Khizr Khan 1451–1526: Lodhi dynasty
Lodhi dynasty
established by Bahlul Khan Lodhi 1469–1539: Guru Nanak 1526–1707: Mughal rule

1526–1530: Zaheeruddin Muhammad Babur 1530–1540: Nasiruddin Muhammad Humayun 1540–1545: Sher Shah Suri
Sher Shah Suri
of Afghanistan 1545–1554: Islam
Islam
Shah Suri 1555–1556: Nasiruddin Muhammad Humayun 1556–1556: Hem Chandra Vikramaditya 1556–1605: Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar 1605–1627: Nooruddin Muhammad Jahangir 1627–1658: Shahaabuddin Muhammad Shah Jahan 1658–1707: Mohiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
Alamgir

1539–1675: Period of 8 Sikh
Sikh
Gurus from Guru Angad Dev
Guru Angad Dev
to Guru Tegh Bahadur 1675–1708: Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
(10th Sikh
Sikh
Guru) 1699: Birth of the Khalsa 1708–1713: Conquests of Banda Bahadur 1722: Birth of Ahmed Shah Durrani, either in Multan
Multan
in Mughal Empire or Herat
Herat
in Afghanistan 1714–1759: Sikh
Sikh
chiefs (Sardars) war against Afghans & Mughal Governors 1739: Invasion by Nader Shah
Nader Shah
and defeat of weakened Mughal Empire 1747–1772: Durrani Empire
Durrani Empire
led by Ahmad Shah Durrani 1756–1759: Sikh
Sikh
and Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
cooperation in the Punjab 1761: The Third Battle of Panipat, between the Durrani Empire
Durrani Empire
against the Maratha Empire. 1762: 2nd massacre (Ghalughara) from Ahmed Shah's 2nd invasion 1765–1801: Rise of the Sikh
Sikh
Misls which gained control of significant swathes of Punjab 1801–1839: Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
also known as Sarkar Khalsa, Rule by Maharaja Ranjit Singh 1845–1846: First Anglo- Sikh
Sikh
War 1846: Jammu
Jammu
joined with the new state of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir 1848–1849: Second Anglo- Sikh
Sikh
War 1849: Complete annexation of Punjab
Punjab
into British India 1849–1947: British rule 1901: Peshawar
Peshawar
and adjoining districts separated from the Punjab Province 1911: Parts of Delhi
Delhi
separated from Punjab
Punjab
Province 1947: The Partition of India
India
divided Punjab
Punjab
into two parts. The Eastern part (with two rivers) became the Indian Punjab
Punjab
and the Western part (three rivers) the Pakistan
Pakistan
Punjab 1966: Indian Punjab
Punjab
divided into three parts: Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh 1973–1995: Punjab
Punjab
insurgency

People[edit] Main article: Punjabi people

Ethnic Punjabis
Punjabis
in Pakistan

Ethnic background[edit] Ethnic ancestries of modern Punjabis
Punjabis
include a mixture of Indo-Aryan and Indo-Scythian. Semitic ancestries can also be found in lesser numbers. With the advent of Islam, settlers from Turkestan, Afghanistan, and Kashmir
Kashmir
have also integrated into the Muslim Punjabi society. However, the majority of Punjab
Punjab
is still made up of the Arains, Dalits, Gujjars, Jats, Khatris, Tarkhans, Brahmins, Bhats, Awans, Kambojs, Rajputs Sainis, Kumhars, and others.[citation needed] In the past, the most densely populated area has been the Majha
Majha
region of Punjab.

v t e

Ethnic groups, social groups and tribes of the Punjab

Agrawal

Bansal

Arains

Dhankhar

Brahmins

Punjabi Brahmins Saraswat Brahmins Bali Chhibber Datt Mohan Mohyal

Scheduled Castes

Ad-Dharmi Balmiki Bazigar Chamar Khateek Mazhabi Sikh Mochi Mirasi Nat Ramdasia Sikh Ravidasi

Ahirs

Yaduvanshi Ahirs Ahirs Ghosi Hindu
Hindu
Ghosi Aharwar Ranghar

Gurjars

Gurjar
Gurjar
Parihar Bhati Baisla

Jats

Aulakh Bajwa Chaudhary Chohan Dhankhar Kharal Khokhar Khullar Randhawa Sandhu Sidhu Sial Sodhi Sohal Virk

Labana

Labana

Khatris

Ahuja Babbar Khukhrain Kohli Malhotra Malik Oberoi Roshan Sabharwal Sahni Sethi Sodhi Vohra

Rajputs

Awan Bais Butta Bhatti Janjua Mair Manhas Parmar Ranial Shaktawat

Tarkhans

Panesar Ramgharia Sohal

Arora Bagga Bakarwal Bania Kamboj Kumhar Sansi Sayyid

Languages[edit]

Dialects of Punjabi

Main article: Punjabi language The major language spoken in the Punjab
Punjab
is Punjabi. In the Indian Punjab
Punjab
this is written in the Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
script. Pakistan
Pakistan
uses the Shahmukhi
Shahmukhi
script, that is closer to Urdu
Urdu
script. Hindi, written in the Devanagri
Devanagri
script, is used widely in the Indian states of Himanchal Pradesh and Haryana. Several dialects of Punjabi are spoken in the different regions. The Majhi dialect
Majhi dialect
is considered to be textbook Punjabi and is shared by both countries. Religions[edit] The vast majority of Pakistani Punjabis
Punjabis
are Sunni Muslim
Sunni Muslim
by faith, but also include large minority faiths mostly Shia Muslim, Ahmadi Muslim and Christians. The Indian states of Haryana
Haryana
and Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
are mostly Hindu-majority. Sikhism, founded in the late 15th century, is the main religion practised in the post-1966 Indian Punjab
Punjab
state. About 60% of the population of Punjab
Punjab
state is Sikh, 37% is Hindu, and the rest are Muslims, Christians, and Jains.[32] However, due to large scale migration from Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, Bengal
Bengal
and Odisha
Odisha
the demographics have become more skewed than reported earlier. Punjab
Punjab
state contains the holy Sikh
Sikh
cities of Amritsar, Anandpur Sahib, Tarn Taran Sahib, Fatehgarh Sahib
Fatehgarh Sahib
and Chamkaur Sahib. The Punjab
Punjab
was home to several Sufi saints, and Sufism is well established in the region.[33] Also, Kirpal Singh
Kirpal Singh
revered the Sikh Gurus as saints.[34]

Population trends for major religious groups in the Punjab
Punjab
Province of British India
India
(1881–1941)[35]

Religious group Population % 1881 Population % 1891 Population % 1901 Population % 1911 Population % 1921 Population % 1931 Population % 1941

Islam 47.6% 47.8% 49.6% 51.1% 51.1% 52.4% 53.2%

Hinduism 43.8% 43.6% 41.3% 35.8% 35.1% 30.2% 29.1%

Sikhism 8.2% 8.2% 8.6% 12.1% 12.4% 14.3% 14.9%

Christianity 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.8% 1.3% 1.5% 1.5%

Other religions / No religion 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 1.6% 1.3%

Punjabi festivals[edit] See also: Punjabi festivals, List of Sikh
Sikh
festivals, Hindu
Hindu
Punjabi Festivals, and Festivals in Lahore Punjabis
Punjabis
celebrate the following cultural, seasonal and religious festivals:

Maghi Lohri Maha Shivratri Holi Vaisakhi Teeyan Raksha Bandhan Shab-e-Miraj Diwali Gurpurab Hola Mohalla Mela Chiraghan Bandi Chhor Divas Dussehra Karwa Chauth Eid Christmas Navratri

Punjabi clothing[edit] Traditional Punjabi clothing
Punjabi clothing
includes the following:

Salwar (Punjabi) Suit Patiala
Patiala
salwar Punjabi Tamba and Kurta Phulkari Punjabi Ghagra Shalwar kameez Kurta

Economy[edit]

Phulkari
Phulkari
embroidery from Patiala

Main articles: Economy of Punjab, Pakistan
Punjab, Pakistan
and Economy of Punjab, India The historical region of Punjab
Punjab
is considered to be one of the most fertile regions on Earth. Both east and west Punjab
Punjab
produce a relatively high proportion of India
India
and Pakistan's food output respectively. The region has been used for extensive wheat farming, in addition rice, cotton, sugarcane, fruit, and vegetables are also grown. The agricultural output of the Punjab region
Punjab region
in Pakistan
Pakistan
contributes significantly to Pakistan's GDP. Both Indian and Pakistani Punjab
Punjab
are considered to have the best infrastructure of their respective countries. Indian Punjab
Punjab
has been estimated to be the second richest state in India.[36] Pakistani Punjab
Punjab
produces 68% of Pakistan's food grain production.[37] Its share of Pakistan's GDP
GDP
has historically ranged from 51.8% to 54.7%.[38] Called "The Granary of India" or "The Bread Basket of India", Indian Punjab
Punjab
produces 1% of the world's rice, 2% of its wheat, and 2% of its cotton.[39] In 2001, it was recorded that farmers made up 39% of Indian Punjab's workforce. Gallery[edit]

This section contains what may be an unencyclopedic or excessive gallery of images. Galleries containing indiscriminate images of the article subject are discouraged; please improve or remove the section accordingly. (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The Mughal era Badshahi Mosque, Lahore

The fort at Bathinda

The main gate of the Qila Mubarak, Patiala

The Golden Temple in Amritsar

The Baradari of Ranjit Singh, built in the Hazuri Bagh

The Samadhi of Ranjit Singh

The Alamgiri Gate, built in 1673, is the main entrance to the Lahore Fort.

The Phuara Chowk (lit. Fountain Crossing) in Patiala

The memorial to the Jallianwala Bagh massacre

Jalandhar
Jalandhar
railway station reception block

Irrigated land in the Punjab

The tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam

The Shalimar Gardens in Lahore

Mohindra College
Mohindra College
in Patiala
Patiala
at night

The Wazir Khan Mosque
Wazir Khan Mosque
in Lahore

The Hiran Minar
Hiran Minar
in Sheikhupura, a tribute to Jahangir's favourite antelope

The tomb of Nur Jahan in Lahore

The tomb of Jahangir
Jahangir
in Lahore

The Noor Mahal (Palace of Light) in Bahawalpur

The Jhelum
Jhelum
River, one of the major rivers of the Punjab

The Mankiala stupa
Mankiala stupa
near Islamabad

The Open Hand monument in Chandigarh

Closer view of Amar Mahal Museum, Jammu

Ghainta ghar, Peshawar

Dakhni Sarai, Nakodar
Nakodar
(gate)

Shrine Baba Budda Ji Nakodar

See also[edit]

Punjab
Punjab
portal

Chak (village) Dhani (settlement type) Music of Punjab Punjabi culture Punjabi language Punjabi cuisine Punjabi dance Sikhism

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

^ a b c H K Manmohan Siṅgh. "The Punjab". The Encyclopedia of Sikhism, Editor-in-Chief Harbans Singh. Punjabi University, Patiala. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 18 August 2015.  ^ Jatiinder Aulakh. Archaeological History of Majha: Research Book about Archaeology and Mythology with Rare Photograph. Createspace Independent Pub, 2014 ^ Arrain, Anabasis, V.22, p.115 ^ D. R. Bhandarkar, 1989, Some Aspects of Ancient Indian Culture: Sir WIlliam Meyers Lectures, 1938-39, Asia Educational Services, p. 2. ^ A.S. valdiya, "River Sarasvati was a Himalayn-born river", Current Science, vol 104, no.01, ISSN 0011-3891. ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (2013). Punjab: A History from Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
to Mountbatten. New Delhi, India, Urbana, Illinois: Aleph Book Company. p. 1 ("Introduction"). ISBN 978-93-83064-41-0.  ^ Canfield, Robert L. (1991). Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. p. 1 ("Origins"). ISBN 978-0-521-52291-5.  ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (2013). Punjab: A History from Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
to Mountbatten. New Delhi, India, Urbana, Illinois: Aleph Book Company. ISBN 978-93-83064-41-0.  ^ Shimmel, Annemarie (2004). The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture. London, United Kingdom: Reaktion Books Ltd. ISBN 1-86189-1857.  ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed., vol. 20, Punjab, p.107 ^ Darpan, Pratiyogita (1 October 2009). "Pratiyogita Darpan". Pratiyogita Darpan. Archived from the original on 20 September 2016 – via Google Books.  ^ History of Panjab Hill States, Hutchison, Vogel 1933 Mirpur was made a part of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
in 1846 ^ Changes in the Socio-economic Structures in Rural North-West Pakistan
Pakistan
By Mohammad Asif Khan [1] Archived 14 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Peshawar
Peshawar
was separated from Punjab
Punjab
Province in 1901. ^ Gill, Pritam Singh (1978) History of Sikh
Sikh
nation: foundation, assassination, resurrection. New Academic Pub. Co. In June of 1984 year, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi ordered a military assault on the most significant religious center for the Sikhs, Darbar Sahib (i.e., the Golden Temple) in Amritsar, Punjab. The attack killed thousands of civilians. On October 31, 1984, Mrs. Gandhi was assassinated by two of her Sikh
Sikh
bodyguards id=8CVuAAAAMAAJ&q=peshawar+sikh+empire&dq=peshawar+sikh+empire&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjw79Dr9vLNAhWICsAKHfA8AgcQ6AEITzAH Archived 7 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Nadiem, Ihsan H. (2007). Peshawar: heritage, history, monuments. Sang-e-Meel Publications. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 13 September 2015.  ^ " Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 10 March 2016.  ^ "Epilogue, Vol 4, Issue 11". Archived from the original on 4 February 2016.  ^ G. S. Gosal. "Physical Geography of the Punjab" (PDF). University of California, Santa Barbara. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 June 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2012.  ^ The Times Atlas of the World, Concise Edition. London: Times Books. 1995. p. 36. ISBN 0 7230 0718 7.  ^ Grewal, J S (2004). Historical Geography of the Punjab
Punjab
(PDF). Punjab Research Group, Volume 11, No 1. Journal of Punjab
Punjab
Studies. pp. 4, 7, 11. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 December 2012.  ^ see the Punjab
Punjab
Doabs ^ Pritam Singh and Shinder S. Thandi, ed. (1996). Globalisation and the region: explorations in Punjabi identity. Coventry Association for Punjab
Punjab
Studies, Coventry University. p. 361.  ^ Balder Raj Nayat (1966). Minority Politics in the Punjab. Archived from the original on 5 February 2016. Retrieved 13 September 2015.  ^ Maps of India, Climate of Punjab
Punjab
Archived 30 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Royal Geographical Society Climate and Landscape of the Punjab Archived 30 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Buddha Parkash, Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Panjab, p 36. ^ History of Panjab, Vol I, p. 4, Dr L. M. Joshi, Dr Fauja Singh. ^ a b Hazel, John (2013). Who's Who in the Greek World. Routledge. p. 155. ISBN 9781134802241. Menander king in India, known locally as Milinda, born at a village named Kalasi near Alasanda (Alexandria-in-the-Caucasus), and who was himself the son of a king. After conquering the Punjab, where he made Sagala
Sagala
his capital, he made an expedition across northern India
India
and visited Patna, the capital of the Mauraya empire, though he did not succeed in conquering this land as he appears to have been overtaken by wars on the north-west frontier with Eucratides.  ^ a b Ahir, D. C. (1971). Buddhism
Buddhism
in the Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh. Maha Bodhi Society of India. p. 31. OCLC 1288206. Demetrius died in 166 B.C., and Apollodotus, who was a near relation of the King died in 161 B.C. After his death, Menander carved out a kingdom in the Punjab. Thus from 161 B.C. onward Menander was the ruler of Punjab
Punjab
till his death in 145 B.C. or 130 B.C.  ^ Ganda Singh (August 2004). "The Truth about the Indian Mutiny". Sikh Spectrum. Archived from the original on 20 May 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 February 2016. Retrieved 11 February 2016. . Daily Times (10 May 2012). Retrieved on 2013-07-12. ^ "Census Reference Tables, C-Series Population by religious communities". Census of India. 2001. Archived from the original on 1 July 2010. Retrieved 25 July 2010.  ^ "Sufi Saints of the Punjab". Punjabics.com. Archived from the original on 30 December 2013. Retrieved January 2015.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ Kirpal Singh, Sant. "The Punjab
Punjab
– Home of Master Saints". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved January 2015.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ Gopal Krishan. "Demography of the Punjab
Punjab
(1849–1947)" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2015.  ^ " Punjab
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second richest state in country: CII", Times of India, 8 April 2004. ^ Pakistani government statistics Archived 8 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine., retrieved 14 April 2007. ^ Provincial Accounts of Pakistan: Methodology and Estimates 1973-2000 Template:Date=June 2016 ^ Yadav, Kiran (11 February 2013). "Punjab". Agropedia. Archived from the original on 6 March 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

Narang, K.S.; Gupta, Dr H.R. (1969). History of the Punjab
History of the Punjab
1500-1858 (PDF). U. C. Kapur & Sons, Delhi. Retrieved 22 January 2014.  [Quraishee 73] Punjabi Adab De Kahani, Abdul Hafeez Quaraihee, Azeez Book Depot, Lahore, 1973. [Chopra 77] Punjab
Punjab
as a Sovereign State, Gulshan Lal Chopra, Al-Biruni, Lahore, 1977. Patwant Singh. 1999. The Sikhs. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-50206-0. The Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Panjab, 1971, Buddha Parkash. Social and Political Movements in ancient Panjab, Delhi, 1962, Buddha Parkash. History of Porus, Patiala, Buddha Parkash. History of the Panjab, Patiala, 1976, Fauja Singh, L. M. Joshi (Ed). The Legacy of the Punjab, 1997, R. M. Chopra. The Rise Growth and Decline of Indo-Persian Literature, R. M. Chopra, 2012, Iran Culture House, New Delhi. 2nd revised edition, published in 2013. Sims, Holly. "The State and Agricultural
Agricultural
Productivity: Continuity versus Change in the Indian and Pakistani Punjabs." Asian Survey, 1 April 1986, Vol. 26(4), pp. 483–500

External links[edit]

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Coordinates: 31°N 74°E / 31°N 74°E / 31; 74

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