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Alphaproteobacteria[3] Betaproteobacteria[4] Hydrogenophilalia[4] Gammaproteobacteria[5] Acidithiobacillia[5] Deltaproteobacteria[6] Epsilonproteobacteria[7] Oligoflexia[8]

Proteobacteria
Proteobacteria
is a major phylum of gram-negative bacteria. They include a wide variety of pathogens, such as Escherichia, Salmonella, Vibrio, Helicobacter, Yersinia, Legionellales, and many other notable genera.[9] Others are free-living (non-parasitic), and include many of the bacteria responsible for nitrogen fixation. Carl Woese
Carl Woese
established this grouping in 1987, calling it informally the "purple bacteria and their relatives".[10] Because of the great diversity of forms found in this group, it was named after Proteus, a Greek god of the sea capable of assuming many different shapes and is not named after the genus Proteus.[1][11] Some Alphaproteobacteria
Alphaproteobacteria
can grow at very low levels of nutrients and have unusual morphology such as stalks and buds. Others include agriculturally important bacteria capable of inducing nitrogen fixation in symbiosis with plants. The type order is the Caulobacterales, comprising stalk-forming bacteria such as Caulobacter. The Betaproteobacteria
Betaproteobacteria
are highly metabolically diverse and contain chemolithoautotrophs, photoautotrophs, and generalist heterotrophs. The type order is the Burkholderiales, comprising an enormous range of metabolic diversity, including opportunistic pathogens. The Hydrogenophilalia are obligate thermophiles and include heterotrophs and autotrophs. The type order is the Hydrogenophilales. The Gammaproteobacteria
Gammaproteobacteria
are the largest class in terms of species with validly published names. The type order is the Pseudomonadales, which include the genera Pseudomonas
Pseudomonas
and the nitrogen-fixing Azotobacter. The Acidithiobacillia contain only sulfur, iron and uranium-oxidising autotrophs. The type order is the Acidithiobacillales, which includes economically important organisms used in the mining industry such as Acidithiobacillus spp. The Deltaproteobacteria
Deltaproteobacteria
include bacteria that are predators on other bacteria and are important contributors to the anaerobic side of the sulfur cycle. The type order is the Myxococcales, which includes organisms with self-organising abilities such as Myxococcus
Myxococcus
spp. The Epsilonproteobacteria
Epsilonproteobacteria
are often slender, Gram-negative rods that are helical or curved. The type order is the Campylobacterales, which includes important food pathogens such as Campylobacter
Campylobacter
spp. The Oligoflexia are filamentous aerobes. The type order is the Oligoflexales, which contains the genus Oligoflexus.

Contents

1 Characteristics 2 Taxonomy 3 Transformation 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links

Characteristics[edit] All "Proteobacteria" are gram-negative (though some may stain Gram-positive or Gram-variable in practice), with an outer membrane mainly composed of lipopolysaccharides. Many move about using flagella, but some are nonmotile or rely on bacterial gliding. The latter include the Myxobacteriales, an order of bacteria that can aggregate to form multicellular fruiting bodies. Also, a wide variety in the types of metabolism exists. Most members are facultatively or obligately anaerobic, chemolithoautotrophic, and heterotrophic, but numerous exceptions occur. A variety of genera, which are not closely related to each other, convert energy from light through photosynthesis. "Proteobacteria" are associated with the imbalance of microbiota of the lower reproductive tract of women. These species are associated with inflammation.[12] Protobacteria are part of a normal, healthy placental microbiome.[13][14] Taxonomy[edit]

Phylogeny of "Proteobacteria"

Acidobacteria

Deltaproteobacteria

Epsilonproteobacteria

Alphaproteobacteria

Zetaproteobacteria

Gammaproteobacteria

Betaproteobacteria

Phylogeny of the "Proteobacteria" according to ARB living tree, iTOL, Bergey's and others

The group is defined primarily in terms of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences. The "Proteobacteria" are divided into six classes with validly published names, referred to by the Greek letters
Greek letters
alpha through epsilon and the Acidithiobacillia and Oligoflexia. These were previously regarded as subclasses of the phylum, but they are now treated as classes. These classes are monophyletic.[15][16][17] The genus Acidithiobacillus, part of the Gammaproteobacteria
Gammaproteobacteria
until it was transferred to class Acidithiobacillia in 2013,[18] was previously regarded as paraphyletic to the Betaproteobacteria
Betaproteobacteria
according to multigenome alignment studies.[19] In 2017, the Betaproteobacteria
Betaproteobacteria
was subject to major revisions and the class Hydrogenophilalia was created to contain the order Hydrogenophilales[20] Proteobacterial classes with validly published names include some prominent genera:[21] e.g.:

Alphaproteobacteria: Brucella, Rhizobium, Agrobacterium, Caulobacter, Rickettsia, Wolbachia, etc. Betaproteobacteria: Bordetella, Ralstonia, Neisseria, Nitrosomonas, etc. Gammaproteobacteria: Escherichia, Shigella, Salmonella, Yersinia, Buchnera, Haemophilus, Vibrio, Pseudomonas, etc. Deltaproteobacteria: Desulfovibrio, Geobacter, Bdellovibrio, etc. Epsilonproteobacteria: Helicobacter, Campylobacter, Wolinella, etc. Oligoflexia: Oligoflexus. Acidithiobacillia: Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Thermithiobacillus tepidarius Hydrogenophilalia: Hydrogenophilus thermoluteolus, Tepidiphilus margaritifer

Transformation[edit] Transformation, a process in which genetic material passes from bacterium to another,[22] has been reported in at least 30 species of "Proteobacteria" distributed in the classes alpha, beta, gamma and epsilon.[23] The best-studied "Proteobacteria" with respect to natural genetic transformation are the medically important human pathogens Neisseria
Neisseria
gonorrhoeae (class beta), Haemophilus
Haemophilus
influenzae (class gamma) and Helicobacter
Helicobacter
pylori (class epsilon).[24] Natural genetic transformation is a sexual process involving DNA transfer from one bacterial cell to another through the intervening medium and the integration of the donor sequence into the recipient genome. In pathogenic "Proteobacteria", transformation appears to serve as a DNA repair process that protects the pathogen’s DNA from attack by their host’s phagocytic defenses that employ oxidative free radicals.[24] Notes[edit]

References[edit]

^ a b Stackebrandt, E.; Murray, R. G. E.; Truper, H. G. (1988). " Proteobacteria
Proteobacteria
classis nov., a Name for the Phylogenetic Taxon That Includes the "Purple Bacteria
Bacteria
and Their Relatives"". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 38 (3): 321–325. doi:10.1099/00207713-38-3-321.  ^ Garrity, G. M., Bell, J. A. & Lilburn, T. (2005). Phylum
Phylum
XIV. Proteobacteria
Proteobacteria
phyl. nov. In: Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd edn, vol. 2 (The Proteobacteria), part B (The Gammaproteobacteria), p. 1. Edited by D. J. Brenner, N. R. Krieg, J. T. Staley & G. M. Garrity. New York: Springer. ^ Garrity GM, Bell JA, Lilburn T (2005). "Class I. Alphaproteobacteria class. nov.". In Brenner DJ, Krieg NR, Staley JT, Garrity GM. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Volume 2: The Proteobacteria
Proteobacteria
Part C (The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta- and Epsilonproteobacteria
Epsilonproteobacteria
(2nd ed.). Springer. p. 1. doi:10.1002/9781118960608.cbm00041.  ^ a b Boden R, Hutt LP, Rae AW (2017). "Reclassification of Thiobacillus aquaesulis (Wood & Kelly, 1995) as Annwoodia aquaesulis gen. nov., comb. nov., transfer of Thiobacillus (Beijerinck, 1904) from the Hydrogenophilales to the Nitrosomonadales, proposal of Hydrogenophilalia class. nov. within the "Proteobacteria", and four new families within the orders Nitrosomonadales
Nitrosomonadales
and Rhodocyclales". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 67: 1191–1205. doi:10.1099/ijsem.0.001927.  ^ a b Williams KP, Kelly DP (2013). "Proposal for a new class within the phylum Proteobacteria, Acidithiobacillia classis nov., with the type order Acidithiobacillales, and emended description of the class Gammaproteobacteria". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 63: 2901–2906. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.049270-0.  ^ Kuever J, Rainey FA, Widdel F (2005). "Class IV. Deltaproteobacteria class. nov.". In Brenner DJ, Krieg NR, Staley JT, Garrity GM. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Volume 2: The Proteobacteria
Proteobacteria
Part C (The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta- and Epsilonproteobacteria
Epsilonproteobacteria
(2nd ed.). Springer. p. 922. doi:10.1002/9781118960608.cbm00043.  ^ Garrity GM, Bell JA, Lilburn T (2005). "Class V. Epsilonproteobacteria
Epsilonproteobacteria
class. nov.". In Brenner DJ, Krieg NR, Staley JT, Garrity GM. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Volume 2: The Proteobacteria
Proteobacteria
Part C (The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta- and Epsilonproteobacteria
Epsilonproteobacteria
(2nd ed.). Springer. p. 1145. doi:10.1002/9781118960608.cbm00044.  ^ Nakai R, Nishijima M, Tazato N, Handa Y, Karray F, Sayadi S, Isoda H, Naganuma T (2014). "Oligoflexus tunisiensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a Gram-negative, aerobic, filamentous bacterium of a novel proteobacterial lineage, and description of Oligoflexaceae fam. nov., Oligoflexales ord. nov. and Oligoflexia classis nov". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 64: 3353–3359. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.060798-0. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Madigan, M. and J. Martinko. (eds.) (2005). Brock Biology of Microorganisms (11th ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-144329-1. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Woese, CR (1987). "Bacterial evolution". Microbiological Reviews. 51 (2): 221–71. PMC 373105 . PMID 2439888.  ^ "Proteobacteria". Discover Life: Tree of Life. Retrieved 2007-02-09.  ^ Bennett, John (2015). Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 9781455748013; Access provided by the University of Pittsburgh  ^ Mor, Gil; Kwon, Ja-Young (2015). "Trophoblast-microbiome interaction: a new paradigm on immune regulation". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 213 (4): S131–S137. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2015.06.039. ISSN 0002-9378. PMID 26428492.  ^ Todar, K. "Pathogenic E. coli". Online Textbook of Bacteriology. University of Wisconsin–Madison Department of Bacteriology. Retrieved 2007-11-30.  ^ Noel R. Krieg; Don J. Brenner; James T. Staley (2005). Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology: The Proteobacteria. Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-95040-2.  ^ Ciccarelli, FD; Doerks, T; Von Mering, C; Creevey, CJ; Snel, B; Bork, P (2006). "Toward automatic reconstruction of a highly resolved tree of life". Science. 311 (5765): 1283–7. doi:10.1126/science.1123061. PMID 16513982.  ^ Yarza, P; Ludwig, W; Euzéby, J; Amann, R; Schleifer, KH; Glöckner, FO; Rosselló-Móra, R (2010). "Update of the All-Species Living Tree Project based on 16S and 23S rRNA sequence analyses". Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 33 (6): 291–9. doi:10.1016/j.syapm.2010.08.001. PMID 20817437. . ^ Williams, KP; Kelly, DP (2013). "Proposal for a new class within the phylum Proteobacteria, Acidithiobacillia classis nov., with the type order Acidithiobacillales, and emended description of the class Gammaproteobacteria". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 63 (Pt 8): 2901–6. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.049270-0. PMID 23334881.  ^ Williams, K. P.; Gillespie, J. J.; Sobral, B. W. S.; Nordberg, E. K.; Snyder, E. E.; Shallom, J. M.; Dickerman, A. W. (2010). "Phylogeny of Gammaproteobacteria". Journal of Bacteriology. 192 (9): 2305–14. doi:10.1128/JB.01480-09. PMC 2863478 . PMID 20207755.  ^ Boden, R.; Hutt, L. P.; Rae, A. W. (2017). "Reclassification of Thiobacillus aquaesulis (Wood & Kelly, 1995) as Annwoodia aquaesulis gen. nov., comb. nov., transfer of Thiobacillus (Beijerinck, 1904) from the Hydrogenophilales to the Nitrosomonadales, proposal of Hydrogenophilalia class. nov. within the Proteobacteria, and four new families within the orders Nitrosomonadales
Nitrosomonadales
and Rhodocyclales". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 67: 1191–1205. doi:10.1099/ijsem.0.001927. PMID 28581923.  ^ Interactive Tree of Life ^ Johnston C, Martin B, Fichant G, Polard P, Claverys JP (2014). "Bacterial transformation: distribution, shared mechanisms and divergent control". Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 12 (3): 181–96. doi:10.1038/nrmicro3199. PMID 24509783.  ^ Johnsborg O, Eldholm V, Håvarstein LS (2007). "Natural genetic transformation: prevalence, mechanisms and function". Res. Microbiol. 158 (10): 767–78. doi:10.1016/j.resmic.2007.09.004. PMID 17997281.  ^ a b Michod RE, Bernstein H, Nedelcu AM (2008). "Adaptive value of sex in microbial pathogens". Infect. Genet. Evol. 8 (3): 267–85. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2008.01.002. PMID 18295550. 

External links[edit]

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Proteobacteria

Proteobacteria
Proteobacteria
information from Palaeos. Proteobacteria. – J. P. Euzéby: List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature.

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Prokaryotes: Bacteria
Bacteria
classification (phyla and orders)

Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukaryota (Supergroup Plant Hacrobia Heterokont Alveolata Rhizaria Excavata Amoebozoa Opisthokonta

Animal Fungi)

G-/ OM

Terra-/ Glidobacteria (BV1)

Eobacteria

Deinococcus–Thermus

Deinococcales Thermales

Chloroflexi

Anaerolineales Caldilineales Chloroflexales Herpetosiphonales Dehalococcoidales Ktedonobacterales Thermogemmatisporales Thermomicrobiales Sphaerobacterales

other glidobacteria

Thermodesulfobacteria thermophiles

Aquificae Thermotogae

Cyanobacteria

Proteobacteria (BV2)

Alpha

Caulobacterales Kiloniellales Kordiimonadales Magnetococcales Parvularculales Rhizobiales Rhodobacterales Rhodospirillales Rickettsiales Sneathiellales Sphingomonadales

Beta

Burkholderiales Hydrogenophilales Methylophilales Neisseriales Nitrosomonadales Procabacteriales Rhodocyclales

Gamma

Acidithiobacillales Aeromonadales Alteromonadales Cardiobacteriales Chromatiales Enterobacteriales Legionellales Methylococcales Oceanospirillales Orbales Pasteurellales Pseudomonadales Salinisphaerales Thiotrichales Vibrionales Xanthomonadales

Delta

Bdellovibrionales Desulfarculales Desulfobacterales Desulfovibrionales Desulfurellales Desulfuromonadales Myxococcales Syntrophobacterales Syntrophorhabdales

Epsilon

Campylobacterales Nautiliales

Zeta

Mariprofundales

BV4

Spirochaetes

Spirochaetes

Sphingobacteria (FCB group)

Fibrobacteres Chlorobi

Chlorobiales Ignavibacteriales

Bacteroidetes

Bacteroidales Cytophagales Flavobacteriales Sphingobacteriales

Planctobacteria/ (PVC group)

Chlamydiae Lentisphaerae

Lentisphaerales Oligosphaerales Victivallales

Planctomycetes

Phycisphaerales Planctomycetales

Verrucomicrobia

Puniceicoccales Opitutales Chthoniobacterales Verrucomicrobiales

"Poribacteria"

Other GN

Acidobacteria

Acidobacteriales Acanthopleuribacterales Holophagales Solibacterales

Armatimonadetes

Armatimonadales Chthonomonadales Fimbriimonadales

Caldiserica Chrysiogenetes Deferribacteres Dictyoglomi Elusimicrobia Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Synergistetes

G+/ no OM

Firmicutes (BV3)

Bacilli

Bacillales Lactobacillales

Clostridia

Clostridiales Halanaerobiales Thermoanaerobacteriales Natranaerobiales

Erysipelotrichia

Erysipelotrichiales

Thermolithobacteria

Thermolithobacterales

Tenericutes/ Mollicutes

Mycoplasmatales Entomoplasmatales Anaeroplasmatales Acholeplasmatales Haloplasmatales

Negativicutes

Selenomonadales

Actinobacteria (BV5)

Actinobacteria

Actinomycetales Bifidobacteriales

Acidimicrobiia

Acidimicrobiales

Coriobacteriidae

Coriobacteriales

Nitriliruptoria

Euzebyales Nitriliruptorales

Rubrobacteria

Gaiellales Rubrobacterales Thermoleophilales Solirubrobacterales

Incertae sedis

†Archaeosphaeroides †Eobacterium †Leptotrichites

Source: Bergey's Manual (2001–2012). Alternative views: Wikispecies.

v t e

Infectious diseases Bacterial disease: Proteobacterial G−

primarily A00–A79, 001–041, 080–109

α

Rickettsiales

Rickettsiaceae/ (Rickettsioses)

Typhus

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
typhi

Murine typhus

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
prowazekii

Epidemic typhus, Brill–Zinsser disease, Flying squirrel typhus

Spotted fever

Tick-borne

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
rickettsii

Rocky Mountain spotted fever

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
conorii

Boutonneuse fever

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
japonica

Japanese spotted fever

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
sibirica

North Asian tick typhus

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
australis

Queensland tick typhus

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
honei

Flinders Island spotted fever

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
africae

African tick bite fever

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
parkeri

American tick bite fever

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
aeschlimannii

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
aeschlimannii infection

Mite-borne

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
akari

Rickettsialpox

Orientia tsutsugamushi

Scrub typhus

Flea-borne

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
felis

Flea-borne spotted fever

Anaplasmataceae

Ehrlichiosis: Anaplasma phagocytophilum

Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasmosis

Ehrlichia chaffeensis

Human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis

Ehrlichia ewingii

Ehrlichiosis ewingii infection

Rhizobiales

Brucellaceae

Brucella
Brucella
abortus

Brucellosis

Bartonellaceae

Bartonellosis: Bartonella henselae

Cat-scratch disease

Bartonella quintana

Trench fever

Either B. henselae or B. quintana

Bacillary angiomatosis

Bartonella bacilliformis

Carrion's disease, Verruga peruana

β

Neisseriales

M+

Neisseria
Neisseria
meningitidis/meningococcus

Meningococcal disease, Waterhouse–Friderichsen syndrome, Meningococcal septicaemia

M−

Neisseria
Neisseria
gonorrhoeae/gonococcus

Gonorrhea

ungrouped:

Eikenella corrodens/Kingella kingae

HACEK

Chromobacterium violaceum

Chromobacteriosis infection

Burkholderiales

Burkholderia pseudomallei

Melioidosis

Burkholderia mallei

Glanders

Burkholderia cepacia complex Bordetella
Bordetella
pertussis/ Bordetella
Bordetella
parapertussis

Pertussis

γ

Enterobacteriales (OX−)

Lac+

Klebsiella pneumoniae

Rhinoscleroma, Klebsiella pneumonia

Klebsiella granulomatis

Granuloma inguinale

Klebsiella oxytoca

Escherichia
Escherichia
coli: Enterotoxigenic Enteroinvasive Enterohemorrhagic O157:H7 O104:H4

Hemolytic-uremic syndrome

Enterobacter aerogenes/Enterobacter cloacae

Slow/weak

Serratia marcescens

Serratia infection

Citrobacter koseri/Citrobacter freundii

Lac−

H2S+

Salmonella
Salmonella
enterica

Typhoid fever, Paratyphoid fever, Salmonellosis

H2S−

Shigella
Shigella
dysenteriae/sonnei/flexneri/boydii

Shigellosis, Bacillary dysentery

Proteus
Proteus
mirabilis/ Proteus
Proteus
vulgaris Yersinia
Yersinia
pestis

Plague/Bubonic plague

Yersinia
Yersinia
enterocolitica

Yersiniosis

Yersinia
Yersinia
pseudotuberculosis

Far East scarlet-like fever

Pasteurellales

Haemophilus:

H. influenzae

Haemophilus
Haemophilus
meningitis Brazilian purpuric fever

H. ducreyi

Chancroid

H. parainfluenzae

HACEK

Pasteurella multocida

Pasteurellosis Actinobacillus

Actinobacillosis

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

HACEK

Legionellales

Legionella pneumophila/Legionella longbeachae

Legionnaires' disease

Coxiella burnetii

Q fever

Thiotrichales

Francisella tularensis

Tularemia

Vibrionaceae

Vibrio
Vibrio
cholerae

Cholera

Vibrio
Vibrio
vulnificus Vibrio
Vibrio
parahaemolyticus Vibrio
Vibrio
alginolyticus Plesiomonas shigelloides

Pseudomonadales

Pseudomonas
Pseudomonas
aeruginosa

Pseudomonas
Pseudomonas
infection

Moraxella catarrhalis Acinetobacter baumannii

Xanthomonadaceae

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

Cardiobacteriaceae

Cardiobacterium hominis

HACEK

Aeromonadales

Aeromonas hydrophila/Aeromonas veronii

Aeromonas infection

ε

Campylobacterales

Campylobacter
Campylobacter
jejuni

Campylobacteriosis, Guillain–Barré syndrome

Helicobacter
Helicobacter
pylori

Peptic ulcer, MALT lymphoma, Gastric cancer

Helicobacter
Helicobacter
cinaedi

Helicobacter
Helicobacter
cellulitis

Biology portal

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q130999 EoL: 311 EPPO: 1PROBP Fossilworks: 325166 ITIS:

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