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The Portuguese Renaissance
Renaissance
refers to the cultural and artistic movement in Portugal
Portugal
during the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries. Though the movement coincided with the Spanish and Italian Renaissances, the Portuguese Renaissance
Renaissance
was largely separate from other European Renaissances and instead was incredibly important in opening Europe to the unknown and bringing a more worldly view to those European Renaissances, as at the time the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
spanned the globe.[1] As the pioneer of the Age of Discoveries, Portugal
Portugal
flourished in the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries, with voyages to India, the Orient, the Americas, and Africa. This immense trade network would create an incredibly wealthy Portuguese nobility
Portuguese nobility
and monarchy, that would become patrons for an incredible flourishing of culture, arts, and technology in Portugal
Portugal
and all over the world.

Contents

1 Context 2 Sciences

2.1 Cartography

3 Arts

3.1 Architecture 3.2 Painting

4 Humanities

4.1 Language 4.2 Literature

5 References 6 External links

Context[edit]

The vastness and diversity of the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
was a key factor behind the Portuguese Renaissance.

Diplomats, merchants, students, humanists, scholars, and artists, from all over Europe, were drawn to Portugal
Portugal
during its Renaissance. The maritime trade of the Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery
played a decisive role in the evolution of the Portuguese Renaissance. Trade intensified contacts with important centers of the Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
and it allowed a new commercial bourgeoisie to prosper and have excess funds to become patrons of the Portuguese Renaissance, much like the other Renaissances of Europe.[citation needed] The discovery of new worlds and contact with other civilizations led to a cultural mix, which was reflected in the arts and literature of the Portuguese Renaissance. The contact with the civilizations of Africa and the East led to the importation of numerous objects of ceramics, textiles and furniture, precious woods, ivory and silk, in turn, led to the emergence of new artistic forms resulting cultural exchanges between Europe, and East Africa, through the Portuguese. The new trade of items with the newly discovered lands is also what allowed the Portuguese Renaissance
Renaissance
to be funded, by creating a wealthy Portuguese nobility
Portuguese nobility
and merchant class. It was Portugal's connection, through the vast Portuguese Empire, to a full world of trade, culture, and commerce, from Japan
Japan
to Brazil
Brazil
and from the Azores
Azores
to Goa, that allowed the Portuguese Renaissance
Renaissance
to be born. Portugal's unique ability to interact and colonize other peoples (later called Lusotropicalism), allowed it fund a flourishing Renaissance
Renaissance
of its own, of arts, humanities, religion, and sciences alike, not just in its mainland, but throughout its empire, due to the special link that the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
had to Portugal. Sciences[edit]

Pedro Nunes
Pedro Nunes
was a great scientist of Europe, innovating maths and inventing many devices, such as the nonius.

As the pioneer in Age of Discovery, Portugal
Portugal
and its renaissance attracted experts in astronomy, mathematics, and naval technology, which made Portugal
Portugal
a technical and scientific capital of Europe. During the Portuguese Renaissance, there was a plethora of technical works being created, such as mappa mundi, globes, treatises on the art of sailing, scripts, reports of shipwrecks, itineraries, and studies on tropical medicine. Among the treatises on astronomy, oceanography, and nautical studies, major works included the following:

Esmeraldo de Situ Orbis, 1506, Duarte Pacheco Pereira Treaty on the Sphere, 1537, Pedro Nunes Route Map of the Purple Sea, 1541, João de Castro Ars Nautica, 1555, Fernão de Oliveira Manuscript on the Production of Naus, 1580, Fernão de Oliveira

Pedro Nunes, one of the first Europeans to apply mathematics to cartography, discovered the concept of rhumb lines, later applied to the Mercator projection, which, in 1569, revolutionized cartography. He was also the inventor of several measuring apparatus, including the nonius, to measure fractions of a degree. With Vasco da Gama's arrival in India, and the Portuguese Empire's expansion into that land, many scientists were sent eastward to study and compile new drugs and medicinal plants. The botonist Tomé Pires and physicians Garcia de Orta
Garcia de Orta
and Cristóvão da Costa collected and published works on new plants and local medicines. Cartography[edit] Portuguese portolan chart were in great demand in Europe, for their greater knowledge and accuracy. Although protected as a state secret, the cartographic knowledge would eventually be passed clandestinely by some of those involved in the operation. One such example is the Cantino planisphere, which was stolen from the Casa da Índia, the Portuguese royal ministry for all things maritime, for the Duke of Ferrara in 1502,[2] or the Dieppe maps, commissioned by Henry II of France and Henry VIII of England, which were copies of stolen Portuguese maps of the period.[3] In 1475, for the first time a Latin translation of Ptolemy's world map, from the second century, was printed. Portuguese exploration and studies soon revealed the gaps of ancient knowledge, such as how in 1488, passing the Cape of Good Hope, Bartolomeu Dias
Bartolomeu Dias
proved Ptolemy was erroneous in that there was no passage to the Indian Ocean. In 1492, Martin Behaim, after his training in Portugal, and in service to the King of Portugal, built the first known globe, which had Europe and Asia were separated by a single ocean, a theory that Christopher Columbus, who was also trained in Portugal, would test later that year.

The 1502 Cantino planisphere
Cantino planisphere
was the Padrão Real made by the Casa da Índia

The 1574 map of the Captaincy Colonies of Brazil, by Luís Teixeira

The 1584 Açores Insulae map of the Azores
Azores
Islands, by Luís Teixeira

The 1575 map of Portugal
Portugal
and its African colonies, by Sebastião Lopes

The 1554 map showing the global Portuguese Empire, by Lopo Homem

The 1563 map of the North Atlantic Portuguese Empire, by Lazaro Luis

The 1504 map of North Africa and Europe, by Pedro Reinel

The 1583 map of global European empires, by Sebastião Lopes

Arts[edit] The arts in the Portuguese Renaissance
Renaissance
are a matter of historiographical dispute. This is because despite arts flourishing in this time, they did not follow the classicist aesthetic standards on which the Italians built their Renaissance. The arts of the Portuguese Renaissance
Renaissance
were unique amongst other Renaissance
Renaissance
arts. They were a mixing of Late Gothic style
Gothic style
with the innovations of the fifteenth century and a Portuguese national twist all at once. The assimilation with the Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
arts model only really begins around 1540, when Portuguese Renaissance
Renaissance
artists start breaking away from their national norms and adapt their works to the classicist Italian and Spanish model, though still keeping a Portuguese nature.[4][5][6] Architecture[edit] Main article: Renaissance
Renaissance
architecture in Portugal

Francisco de Arruda's Belém Tower
Belém Tower
is one of the most emblematic architectural pieces of the Portuguese Renaissance.

In terms of architecture, much like many sections of the arts, the Portuguese Renaissance
Renaissance
did not, for the most and initial part, follow the paths of the other Renaissances, which heavily focused on the sophistication and simplicity of the ancient Greeks and Romans. For the larger part of the Portuguese Renaissance, its architecture was largely the continuation and elaboration of the Gothic style. The profits of the spice trade, during the reigns of John II, Manuel I, and John III, financed the sumptuous and dominant style of the Portuguese Renaissance, the Manueline
Manueline
style.[7] The Manueline
Manueline
was largely an intricate and complex style, with heavy gothic and light neo-classical influence, that was unique to Portugal. The first known building to be done in Manueline
Manueline
style is the Monastery of Jesus of Setubal, by the architect Diogo de Boitaca, one of the originators and masters of the style. The nave of the monastery's church, supported by spiral columns, reveals the attempt to unify and make equal of the church, a style which reaches its climax in the church of Jerónimos Monastery, completed in 1520 by architect João de Castilho. Francisco de Arruda's Belém Tower
Belém Tower
and chapter window of the Convent of the Order of Christ, in Tomar, are some of the most famous examples of the Manueline
Manueline
style, and Portuguese Renaissance
Renaissance
architecture in a whole. Austere Renaissance
Renaissance
classicism did not flourish much in the Portuguese Renaissance, but slowly established itself from the 1530s and onward, with the help of both foreigners and nationals, like Francisco de Holanda and Diogo de Torralva. The Hermitage of Nossa Senhora da Conceição, in Tomar, by Diogo de Torralva, is an excellent examples of the pure Renaissance
Renaissance
classical architecture from the Portuguese Renaissance. Some examples of the strong and pure classical Renaissance
Renaissance
are Miguel de Arruda's Igreja da Graça, in Évora, Diogo de Arruda's Ducal Palace of Vila Viçosa, in Vila Viçosa, and the Cloister of King D. John III, at the Convent of the Order of Christ, by Diogo de Torralva and Filippo Terzi, considered one of the most emblematic pieces of the Portuguese Renaissance. The Quinta da Bacalhoa and the Casa dos Bicos
Casa dos Bicos
are good examples of strong classical Renaissance
Renaissance
style palaces, which still hold Manueline
Manueline
tendencies.

The classical side portal of the Old Cathedral of Coimbra, by João de Ruão

The façade of the Church of Nossa Senhora da Graça, by Miguel de Arruda

The manueline façade of the Monastery of Santa Cruz, by Diogo de Boitaca

The Cloister of John III, at the Convent of Christ, by Diogo de Torralva and Filippo Terzi

The classical façade of the Ducal Palace of Vila Viçosa, by Diogo de Arruda

The façade of the Church of Nossa Senhora da Conceição Velha, by Francisco Ferreira

The cloister of Jerónimos Monastery, by Teodósio Frias and Diogo Vaz

The House of Misericórdia, in Viana do Castelo, by João Lopes

Painting[edit]

John III's reign, which saw Portuguese monopoly on the Spice trade, allowed a flourishing of Portuguese painting.

Painting was one of the more distinguishing factors of the Portuguese Renaissance, being one of the more contrasting arts to the other Renaissances of Europe. Painting in the Portuguese Renaissance
Renaissance
was largely sober and almost exclusively religious, being more inline with the Northern Renaissance
Renaissance
in nature, not following the pomp and excess of the Italian and Spanish Renaissances. Portuguese Renaissance
Renaissance
painting was largely in contact with Flemish style.[8] Links between the two movements reached a new level, in 1430, with the marriage of Isabel of Aviz, Infanta of Portugal, to Philip III, Duke of Burgundy. While the marriage was in negotiations, the Burgundian court sent the famed Jan van Eyck, to paint the Portrait of Isabel of Aviz. Van Eyck remained in Portugal
Portugal
for over a year, where he established a school of art, alongside Olivier de Gand and Jean d'Ypres.[9] This school gave origin to the School of Masters of the Sé Cathedral of Angra do Heroísmo, which was fostered by Jácome de Bruges. Nuno Gonçalves, author of the Saint Vincent Panels,[10] and designer of the Pastrana Tapestries, is considered one of the precursors of Portuguese Renaissance
Renaissance
painting in Portugal.[11] In his panels, considered one of the most important pieces of painted art in Portuguese history, he depicts prominent figures of Portuguese nobility, royalty, and clergy of the time with a dry style but powerfully realistic. His concern of portraying each figure individually, shows heavy Flemish influence, and foreshadows later Renaissance
Renaissance
concerns.[12] At the beginning of the 16th century, various schools of painters were active throughout Portugal
Portugal
and its empire, often in collaboration with foreigners. A common trend amongst these schools of the Portuguese Renaissance
Renaissance
was to give credit to their works of art as a school, and leave the actual author anonymous, making it difficult to attribute authorship. Even amongst those painters that gave their name to their works, it is complicated to verify the total validity of authorship due to the habit of collective works. A famous example of this was by court painter Jorge Afonso, whose pieces were often worked on by his colleagues at court, such as Frei Carlos, Francisco Henriques, Cristóvão de Figueiredo, Garcia Fernandes, Gregório Lopes, and Jorge Leal, amongst others. In Northern Portugal, a similar group existed, centered on Vasco Fernandes, alongside Gaspar Vaz and Fernão de Anes.[13] During the Portuguese Renaissance, the largest center of learning and arts was Lisbon, which thrived as a great city of Europe, because of its privileged position as a major trading center, open to a constant flow of new information, cultures, and finance.[14] Lisbon
Lisbon
was a true center of the European Renaissance, where artists and scholars from the corners of Europe came to try to make it rich. The rich Lisbon nobility funded countless paintings, often for either religious institutions in Lisbon
Lisbon
or in their feudal estates. The Portuguese royal court often transferred between Lisbon, Coimbra, a former capital of Portugal, and Évora, which allowed these three cities to establish themselves as the largest centers of the Portuguese Renaissance. In Coimbra, the School of Coimbra
Coimbra
was founded by Vicente Gil and his son, Manuel Vicente.[15] In Évora, Manuel I of Portugal established a rich court, which would see its height under his son, Cardinal Infante Henrique of Aviz, Archbishop of Évora, who founded the University of Évora
Évora
and its school of arts.[16]

Arrival of the Relics at Madre de Deus, by Cristóvão de Figueiredo and Garcia Fernandes

Portrait of King Cardenal Henrique I of Portugal, by the School of Évora

Ribeira Palace
Ribeira Palace
and the Terreiro do Paço, by Rodrigo Stoop

Portrait of João Manuel, Prince of Portugal, by Antonio Moro

Saint Peter on his Throne, by Vasco Fernandes

Portrait of Sebastian I of Portugal, by Cristóvão de Morais

Marriage of D. Manuel I, as Saint Aleixo, and Maria of Aragon, as his wife, by Garcia Fernandes

Family of King D. Manuel I at the Fons Vitae; Colijn de Coter

Humanities[edit] In Portugal, as in the rest of Europe, the printing press played a key role in its Renaissance. The first printing presses came to Portugal by the hand of Jewish printers via Italy.[17] The first book printed in Portuguese in Portugal
Portugal
was the Sacramental, printed in Chaves, in 1488, by Clemente Sanches de Vercial. By 1490, books were being printed in Lisbon, Porto, and Braga. Because of the new access to mass production of language and literature pieces, the Portuguese Renaissance
Renaissance
saw a great flourishment for written work, from treatises to theatre, as well as the advancement and sophistication of the Portuguese language. Because of Portugal's key place in global relations, at the time, literary works of the Portuguese Renaissance influenced a great deal of foreign literary movements and linguistic studies. Language[edit]

João de Barros
João de Barros
was a true man of the Portuguese Renaissance, having been a military man, historian, and grammaticist.

The Portuguese Renaissance
Renaissance
produced a plethora of poets, historians, critics, theologians, and moralists, of whom the Portuguese Renaissance
Renaissance
was their golden age. Language was one of the purest parts of the Portuguese Renaissance, due to the large number of erudite words imported from classical Latin and ancient Greek, which greatly increased the complexity of the Portuguese language. The sixteenth century Cancioneiro Geral, by Garcia de Resende, is often agreed upon to mark the end of Old Portuguese and the beginning of Modern Portuguese. The standardization of the Portuguese language
Portuguese language
started in 1536, when Fernão de Oliveira published his Grammatica da lingoagem portuguesa, the first literary piece that laid rules and standards for the Portuguese language.[18][19] In 1540, João de Barros, a distinguished officer of the Portuguese crown, published the Grammatica da Língua Portuguesa com os Mandamentos da Santa Madre Igreja, which taught the standards of the Portuguese language
Portuguese language
alongside the morals and culture of the Portuguese people. João de Barros's Grammatica was the second piece that sought to standardize the Portuguese language, and is considered the world's first illustrated text book.[20] The great interest in philology, during the Portuguese Renaissance, spread the use of etymological spellings, creating Portuguese words through justification of their Latin roots. The 1576 Orthographia da lingoa portuguesa, by Duarte Nunes de Leão, a great pioneer in the study of Portuguese orthography, was one of the major works in support for the greater Latinisation of the Portuguese language. The printing press was key in the expansion of the Portuguese language, allowing new spellings, words, and grammar to be seen by most Portuguese speakers. Due to the success of the Portuguese Empire, and the padroado of the Portuguese missionary efforts, the Portuguese language
Portuguese language
came to be known as the "Christian language" in many parts of Asia. In concordance with the principles of the Portuguese Renaissance, many schools of learning and colleges were founded throughout Portugal
Portugal
and its empire.[21] It was the scholars of the Portuguese Renaissance
Renaissance
that compiled some of the first interlingua dictionaries and literary works, able to do so because of the great distribution of the Portuguese Empire. These dictionaries were often the first linguistic interactions Europeans had to these far east cultures, such as the 1580 Chinese-Portuguese Dictionary,[22] by Miguel Ruggeiro and Mateus Rigo, the 1603 Nippo Jisho Japanese-Portuguese Dictionary,[23] by João Rodrigues, and the 1651 Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum Portuguese-Latin-Vietnamese Dictionary, by Alexandre de Rhodes.[24] Because of the great prestige and importance of the Portuguese Renaissance
Renaissance
on nautical studies and sciences, most explorers of the time studied in Portugal
Portugal
and carried the Portuguese language
Portuguese language
to newly discovered lands. Many Portuguese words have entered the lexicon of other languages, such as sepatu, shoe in Indonesian, from the Portuguese sapato, Keju, cheese in Malay, from the Portuguese queijo, meza, table in Swahili, from the Portuguese mesa, and botan, buton, from botão, kappa, cover, from capa, and from the various Japanese words of Portuguese origin. Simultaneously, following the expansionist and knowledge seeking nature of the Portuguese Renaissance, the Portuguese language
Portuguese language
imported many words from foreign idioms, such as cachimbo, meaning pipe, from the Kimbundu kixima, and algodão, meaning cotton, from the Arabic al-qutun.

The 1516 Cancioneiro Geral, by Garcia de Resende

The 1540 Grammatica da Língua Portuguesa com os Mandamentos da Santa Madre Igreja, by João de Barros

The 1583 Portuguese-Chinese Dictionary, by Miguel Ruggeiro and Mateus Rigo

The 1651 Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum, by Alexandre de Rhodes

The 1536 Grammatica da lingoagem portuguesa, by Fernão de Oliveira

The 1554 Livro das Obras de Garcia de Resende, by Garcia de Resende

The 1576 Orthographia da lingoa portuguesa, by Duarte Nunes de Leão

The 1540 Grammatica da Língua Portuguesa com os Mandamentos da Santa Madre Igreja, by João de Barros

Literature[edit]

Luís de Camões's contributions to the Portuguese language
Portuguese language
are so great that it is often dubbed the Language of Camões.

The Portuguese Renaissance
Renaissance
was a golden age for literary works in Portugal. The abundance of funds and interest lead to the creation of some of the best known pieces of the Portuguese language. Because of Portugal's importance during the Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery
and strategic location as a waypoint between Europe and the rest of the world, many of these literary works were able to circulate outside of Portugal
Portugal
and achieve popularity throughout Europe. In 1516, Garcia de Resende
Garcia de Resende
published the Cancioneiro General, which contained more than two hundred separate literary works, of various authors, from the reigns of D. Afonso V and D. John II. Among the various authors represented in the Cancioneiro Geral, Francisco de Sá de Miranda, Gil Vicente, and Bernardim Ribeiro
Bernardim Ribeiro
were the most important and famous authors to the literary scene of the Portuguese Renaissance. Sá de Miranda was crucial to the internationalization of the literary works of the Portuguese Renaissance. After returning from his studies abroad, in 1526, Sá de Miranda introduced new forms of literary expression to Portugal, like the sonnet and the sestina. From 1502 until 1536, Gil Vicente
Gil Vicente
wrote and staged forty one pieces of drama, both in Portuguese and Castilian, including mysteries, farces, comedies, and tragedies, which would earn him a space in history as the "Father of Iberian drama". Bernardim Ribeiro
Bernardim Ribeiro
introduced the Pastoral
Pastoral
novel to the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
with his 1554 Menina e Moça, alongside the eclogues of Cristóvão Falcão. From the Portuguese Renaissance, there was no greater writer than Luís de Camões, whose treasured works have nicknamed the Portuguese language as the Language of Camões.[25] Camões was instrumental in reintroducing classical forms of literature, most importantly the epic, through his 1572 masterpiece, Os Lusíadas, considered one of the greatest pieces of Portuguese literature
Portuguese literature
from all time. During the Portuguese Renaissance, chivalric romances were a literary phenomenon of the Iberian Peninsula, and of Europe as a whole, to a lesser extent. These novels based themselves on the idealization of mediaeval chivalric codes, and were filled with princes and princesses, knights and damsels, and almost always had a Christian moral. This type of novel was best personified in the 1508 version of João de Lobeira's Amadis de Gaula
Amadis de Gaula
by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo, the 1541 Cronica do famoso e muito esforçado cavalleiro Palmeirim d´Inglaterra by Francisco de Moraes, and the 1522 Crónica do Imperador Clarimundo, by João de Barros.[7]

The 1572 Os Lusíadas, by Luís de Camões

The 1517 Auto da Barca do Inferno, by Gil Vicente

The 1675 Europa Portuguesa, by Manuel de Faria e Sousa

The 1569 Tratado das Cousas da China, by Gaspar da Cruz

The 1562 Compilaçam de Todalas Obras, by Gil Vicente

The 1679 Sermões, by António Vieira

The 1665 Obras Métricas, by Francisco Manuel de Mello

The 1614 Peregrinação, by Fernão Mendes Pinto

References[edit]

^ University, Brown, The John Carter Brown Library. "Portuguese Overseas Travels and European Readers". Portugal
Portugal
and Renaissance Europe. JCB Exhibitions. Retrieved 19 July 2011. ^ Leite, Duarte. O mais antigo mapa do Brasil. In: Dias, Carlos Malheiros (coord.). História da Colonização Portuguesa do Brasil (v. 2). p. 223-281 e il. à p. 229. ^ Cartographie historique du Golfe persique: actes du colloque organisé les 21 et 22 avril 2004 à Téhéran par l'EPHE, l'université de Téhéran et le Centre de documentation et de recherche d'Iran ^ Caetano, Joaquim. Ao Modo de Itália ^ Ribeiro, Maria Teresa P. D. A Escola do Mestre de Romeira e o Maneirismo Escalabitano: 1540-1620. Universidade de Coimbra, 1992. pp. 1-2 [1] ^ Serrão, Vítor. A pintura Maneirista em Portugal. Lisboa: Instituto de Língua e Cultura Portuguesa, 1991. p. 9 ^ a b Bergin, Thomas Goddard, Jennifer Speake (2004). Encyclopedia of the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Reformation. London: Infobase Publishing. ISBN 0816054517.  ^ Caetano, Joaquim. O Melhor Oficial de Pintura que Naquele Tempo Havia [2] ^ Vasconcellos, Joaquim de. A Pintura Portuguesa nos Séculos XV e XVI. Coimbra: Imprensa da Universidade, 1929. pp. 10-12. [3] ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20070901011455/http://www.uc.pt/artes/6spp/n1.html. Archived from the original on September 1, 2007. Retrieved January 4, 2013.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ Britannica Educational Publishing, One hundred most influential painters and sculptors of the Renaissance, p.101 ^ Sandra Sider, Handbook to life in Renaissance
Renaissance
Europe, p.76 ^ Rodrigues, Dalila. Vasco Fernandes, Esboço Biográfico. In Grão Vasco e a Pintura Europeia do Renascimento. Lisboa: Comissão Nacional para as Comemorações dos Descobrimentos Portugueses, 1992 [4] Archived July 17, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Serrão, p. 13 ^ Dias, Pedro — Vicente Gil e Manuel Vicente, pintores da Coimbra Manuelina. Coimbra: Câmara Municipal de Coimbra
Coimbra
2003. Catálogo da Exposição. ^ Veríssimo Serrão, Joaquim (1978). História de Portugal
Portugal
- Volume III: O Século de Ouro (1495-1580). Lisboa: Verbo.  ^ [5], Imprensa em Portugal: prototipógrafos judeus em tipógrafos.net. ^ Tesouros impressos da Bibioteca Nacional GRAMMATICA DA LINGOAGEM PORTUGUESA DE ^ Cantarino, Nelson. O idioma nosso de cada dia, in: Revista de História da Biblioteca Nacional, ano 1, nº 8, fev/mar 2006 (Seção: Documento Por Dentro da Biblioteca) – Texto parcial Archived 2012-12-08 at Archive.is, sítio obtido em 31 de janeiro de 2008. ^ Cantarino, Nelson. O idioma nosso de cada dia, in: Revista de História da Biblioteca Nacional, ano 1, nº 8, fev/mar 2006 (Seção: Documento Por Dentro da Biblioteca) – Texto parcial Archived 2012-12-08 at Archive.is, sítio obtido em 31 de janeiro de 2008. ^ ZWRTJES, Otto, Even Hovdhaugen (2004). John Benjamins Publishing Company, ed. Missionary linguistics: selected papers from the First International Conference on Missionary Linguistics, Oslo, 13-16 March, 2003, Volume 1. pp. 141–160. ISBN 9027245975. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ "Dicionário Português-Chinês : 葡汉辞典 (Pu-Han cidian): Portuguese-Chinese dictionary", por Miguel Ruggieri e Matteo Ricci; editado por John W. Witek. Publicado em 2001, Biblioteca Nacional. ISBN 9725652983. Parcialmente disponível no Google Books ^ Michael Cooper; “The Nippo Jisho” (review of the Vocabulario da Lingoa de Japam com Adeclaracao em Portugues, Feito por Alguns Padres, e Irmaos da Companhia de Jesu) Monumenta Nipponica Vol. 31, No. 4 (Winter, 1976), pp. 417–430 ^ Researches Into the Physical History of Mankind By James Cowles p.501 [6] ^ "Língua de Camões". Recanto das Letras. September 2010. Retrieved 27 February 2013. 

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