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Portuguese creoles are creole languages which have Portuguese as the lexifier language.

Contents

1 Origins

1.1 Origin of the name

2 Concise list 3 Africa

3.1 Upper Guinea 3.2 Gulf of Guinea 3.3 Portuguese pidgins

4 South Asia

4.1 India 4.2 Sri Lanka

5 Southeast Asia

5.1 Macau

6 Americas 7 See also 8 Notes 9 External links

Origins[edit] Portuguese overseas exploration in the 15th and 16th centuries led to the establishment of a Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
with trading posts, forts and colonies in Africa, Asia and the Americas. Contact between the Portuguese language
Portuguese language
and native languages gave rise to many Portuguese-based pidgins, used as linguas francas throughout the Portuguese sphere of influence. In time, many of these pidgins were nativized, becoming new stable creole languages. As is the rule in most creoles, the lexicon of these languages can be traced to the parent languages, usually with predominance of Portuguese; while the grammar is mostly original and unique to each creole with little resemblance to the syntax of Portuguese or the substrate language. These creoles are (or were) spoken mostly by communities of descendants of Portuguese, natives, and sometimes other peoples from the Portuguese colonial empire. Until recently creoles were considered "degenerate" dialects of Portuguese unworthy of attention. As a consequence, there is little documentation on the details of their formation. Since the 20th century, increased study of creoles by linguists led to several theories being advanced. The monogenetic theory of pidgins assumes that some type of pidgin language — dubbed West African Pidgin Portuguese — based on Portuguese was spoken from the 15th to 18th centuries in the forts established by the Portuguese on the West African coast. This variety was the starting point of all the pidgin and creole languages. This would explain to some extent why Portuguese lexical items can be found in many creoles, but more importantly, it would account for the numerous grammatical similarities shared by such languages, such as the preposition na, meaning "in" and/or "on", which would come from the Portuguese contraction na meaning "in the" (feminine singular). Origin of the name[edit] See also: Creole peoples The Portuguese word for "creole" is crioulo, which derives from the verb criar ("to raise", "to bring up") and a suffix -oulo of debated origin. Originally the word was used to distinguish the members of any ethnic group who were born and raised in the colonies from those who were born in their homeland. In Africa it was often applied to locally born people of (wholly or partly) Portuguese descent, as opposed to those born in Portugal; whereas in Brazil
Brazil
it was also used to distinguish locally born black people of African descent from those who had been brought from Africa as slaves. In time, however, this generic sense was lost, and the word crioulo or its derivatives (like "Creole" and its equivalents in other languages) became the name of several specific Upper Guinean communities and their languages: the Guinean people and their Kriol language, Cape Verdean people and their Kriolu language, all of which still today have very vigorous use, suppressing the importance of official standard Portuguese. Concise list[edit]

Upper Guinea Creoles

Cape Verdean Creole: Vigorous use, Cape Verde
Cape Verde
Islands. Guinea Creole: Vigorous use. Lingua franca in Guinea-Bissau, also spoken in Casamance, Senegal. Growing number of speakers.

Gulf of Guinea
Gulf of Guinea
Creoles

Angolar: A heavy substrate of Kimbundu, spoken on São Tomé
São Tomé
Island, São Tomé
São Tomé
and Príncipe. Annobonese: Vigorous use. Spoken on Annobón
Annobón
island, Equatorial Guinea Forro: Forro is becoming the language of social networks. Spoken on São Tomé
São Tomé
Island, São Tomé
São Tomé
and Príncipe. Principense: Almost extinct. Spoken on Príncipe
Príncipe
Island, São Tomé and Príncipe.

Indo-Portuguese Creoles

Indo-Portuguese

Indo-Portuguese Malabar-Sri Lankan Portuguese: Grouping Sri Lankan Portuguese, Battilocan Portuguese, Malabar Indo-Portuguese. Spoken in the coastal cities of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and Malabar, India.

Northern Indo-Portuguese

Daman and Diu
Daman and Diu
Portuguese: spoken in Daman and Diu, India. (old decreolization) Korlai Indo-Portuguese: spoken in Korlai, India.

Southeast Asian

Macanese

Macanese: Spoken in Macau
Macau
and Hong Kong, China. (old decreolization)

Malayo-Portuguese

Kristang: spoken in Malaysia
Malaysia
and emigrant communities in Singapore
Singapore
and Perth, Western Australia. Português de Bidau: extinct.

Africa[edit] Upper Guinea[edit] The oldest Portuguese-based creole are the so-called Crioulos of Upper Guinea, born around the Portuguese settlements along the northwest coast of Africa. Portuguese Creoles are the mother tongues of most people in Cape Verde. In Guinea-Bissau, the creole is used as lingua franca among people speaking different languages, and is becoming the mother tongue of a growing population. They consist of two languages:

Guinea Creole (Kriol): lingua franca of Guinea-Bissau, also spoken in Casamance, Senegal
Senegal
and in Gambia. Cape Verdean Creole
Cape Verdean Creole
(Kriolu, Kriol): a dialect continuum on the islands of Cape Verde.

Gulf of Guinea[edit] Another group of Creoles is spoken in the Gulf of Guinea, in São Tomé and Príncipe
Príncipe
and Equatorial Guinea. Many other Portuguese creoles probably existed[citation needed] in the former Portuguese feitorias in the Gulf of Guinea, but also in the Congo region.

Angolar (Ngola, N'góla): in coastal areas of São Tomé
São Tomé
Island. Annobonese (Fa d'Ambu): on Annobón
Annobón
Island. Forro:[1] in São Tomé. Principense (Lunguyê) (almost extinct): on Príncipe
Príncipe
Island. Tonga Portuguese (Português dos Tongas)[2]

Portuguese pidgins[edit] Portuguese pidgins still exist in Angola
Angola
and Mozambique, uncreolized. A Portuguese pidgin, known as Pequeno Português, is still used as lingua franca between people speaking different languages. South Asia[edit] India[edit] See also: Indo-Portuguese creoles The numerous Portuguese outposts in India
India
and Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
gave rise to many Portuguese-based creole languages, of which only a few have survived to the present. The largest group were the Norteiro languages, spoken by the Norteiro people, the Christian Indo-Portuguese in the North Konkan. Those communities were centered on Baçaim, modern Vasai, which was then called the “Northern Court of Portuguese India” (in opposition to the "Southern Court" at Goa). The creole languages spoken in Baçaim, Salsete, Thana, Chevai, Mahim, Tecelaria, Dadar, Parel, Cavel, Bandora (modern Bandra), Gorai, Morol, Andheri, Versova, Malvan, Manori, Mazagão, and Chaul
Chaul
are now extinct. The only surviving Norteiro creoles are:

Diu Indo-Portuguese (almost extinct): in Diu. Daman Indo-Portuguese (Língua da Casa): in Daman. Kristi: in Korlai, Maharashtra.

These surviving Norteiro creoles have suffered drastic changes in the last decades. Standard Portuguese re-influenced the creole of Daman in the mid-20th century. The Creoles of the Coast of Coromandel, such as of Meliapor, Madras, Tuticorin, Cuddalore, Karikal, Pondicheri, Tranquebar, Manapar, and Negapatam, were already extinct by the 19th century. Their speakers (mostly the people of mixed Portuguese-Indian ancestry, known locally as Topasses) switched to English after the British takeover. Most of the creoles of the Coast of Malabar, namely those of Cananor, Tellicherry, Mahé, Cochin (modern Kerala), and Quilon) had become extinct by the 19th century. In Cananor
Cananor
and Tellicherry, some elderly people still spoke some creole in the 1980s. The only creole that is still spoken (by a few Christian families only) is:

Vypin
Vypin
Indo-Portuguese: in the Vypin
Vypin
Island, near Kerala.

Christians, even in Calcutta, used Portuguese until 1811. A Portuguese Creole was still spoken in the early 20th century. Portuguese creoles were spoken in Bengal, such as at Balasore, Pipli, Chandernagore, Chittagong, Midnapore
Midnapore
and Hugli. Sri Lanka[edit] Significant Portuguese-based creole flourished among the so-called Burgher and Kaffir communities of Sri Lanka:

Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Indo-Portuguese: around Batticaloa
Batticaloa
and Trincomalee (Portuguese Burghers) and Puttalam
Puttalam
(Kaffirs).

In the past, Portuguese creoles were also spoken in Myanmar
Myanmar
and Bangladesh. Southeast Asia[edit]

Southeast Asia Portuguese creoles: Papiá Kristang of Malaysia
Malaysia
(1) and Macaista Chapado of Macao, SAR (2).

The earliest Portuguese creole in the region probably arose in the 16th century in Malacca, Malaysia, as well as in the Moluccas. After the takeover of those places by the Dutch in the 17th century, many creole-speaking slaves were taken to other places in Indonesia
Indonesia
and South Africa, leading to several creoles that survived until recent times:

Kristang (Cristão): in Malacca
Malacca
(Malaysia) and Singapore. Mardijker (extinct in the 19th century): by the Mardijker people
Mardijker people
of Batavia (Jakarta) = Papiá Tugu (extinct in 1978): in Kampung Tugu, Jakarta, Indonesia. Portugis (extinct around 1950): in the Ambon, Ternate
Ternate
islands and Minahasa, Indonesia Bidau Portuguese (extinct in the 1960s): in the Bidau area of Dili, East Timor.

The Malacca
Malacca
creole also had an influence on the creole of Macau
Macau
(see below). The Portuguese were present in the island of Flores, Indonesia
Indonesia
since the 16th century, mainly in Larantuka
Larantuka
and Sikka; but the local creole language, if any, has not survived. Other Portuguese-based creoles were once spoken in Thailand
Thailand
(In Kudi Chin and Conception) and Bayingy in Burma. Macau[edit] The Portuguese language
Portuguese language
was present in Portugal's colony Macau
Macau
since the mid-16th century. A Portuguese creole, Patua, developed there, first by interaction with the local Cantonese people, and later modified by an influx of refugees from the Dutch takeover of Portuguese colonies in Indonesia.

Macanese (Macaista, Patuá): in Macau
Macau
and, to a lesser extent, in Hong Kong.

Americas[edit]

Location map of Aruba, Bonnaire, and Curaçao, where Papiamento
Papiamento
is spoken

Papiamento
Papiamento
(spoken in Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao in the Caribbean) is a Portuguese-based creole that is undergoing significant Spanish influence.[3] There is no consensus regarding the position of Saramaccan, with some scholars classifying it as Portuguese Creole with an English relexification. Saramaccan may be an English Creole with Portuguese words, since structurally (morphology and syntax) it is related to the Surinamese Creoles (Sranan, Ndyuka and Jamaican Maroon), despite the heavy percentage of Portuguese origin words. Other English creole languages of Suriname, such as Paramaccan or Kwinti, have also Portuguese influences.[citation needed] Although sometimes classified as a creole, the Cupópia language from the Quilombo do Cafundó, at Salto de Pirapora, São Paulo, discovered in 1978 and spoken by less than 40 people as a secret language,[4] is better classified as a Portuguese variety since it is structurally similar to Portuguese, in spite of having a large number of Bantu words in its lexicon. For languages with these characteristics, H. H. do Couto has forged the designation of Anticreole,[5] which would be the inverse of a Creole language, as they are seen by the non-European input theories (i.e.: Creoles = African languages grammar + European languages lexicon; Anticreoles = European languages grammar + African languages lexicon). There is a Portuguese dialect in Helvécia, South of Bahia
Bahia
that is theorized as presenting signs of an earlier decreolization. Ancient Portuguese creoles originating from Africa are still preserved in the ritual songs of the Afro-Brazilian animist religions (Candomblé)[citation needed]. It has been conjectured that vernacular of Brazil
Brazil
(not the official and standard Brazilian Portuguese) resulted from decreolization of a creole based on Portuguese and native languages; but this is not a widely accepted view. Vernacular Brazilian Portuguese
Brazilian Portuguese
is continuous with European Portuguese, and in fact quite conservative in some aspects.[6] Academic specialists compiled by linguist Volker Noll[7][8] affirm that the Brazilian linguistic phenomena are the "nativização", nativization/nativism of a most radically Romanic form. The phenomena in Brazilian Portuguese
Brazilian Portuguese
are Classical Latin and Old Portuguese heritage. This is not a creole form, but a radical Romanic form.[6] Regardless of borrowings and minor changes, it must be kept in mind that Brazilian Portuguese
Brazilian Portuguese
is not a Portuguese creole, since both grammar and vocabulary remain real Portuguese and its origins can be traced directly from 16th century European Portuguese.[9] Some authors, like Swedish Parkvall,[10] classify it as a Semicreole in the concept defined by Holm:[11] a Semicreole is a language that has undergone “partial restructuring, producing varieties which were never fully pidginized and which preserve a substantial part of their lexifier’s structure (...) while showing a noticeable degree of restructuring”. Nevertheless, scholars like Anthony Julius Naro and Maria Marta Pereira Scherre demonstrated how every single phenomenon found in Brazilian Portuguese
Brazilian Portuguese
can also be found in regional modern European Portuguese and 1500s and 1600s European Portuguese, such as the epic poetry of Luís de Camões, as well as other Romance languages such as Aranese, French, Italian and Romanian, classifying these phenomena as a natural Romance drift.[12][13] Vernacular Brazilian Portuguese
Brazilian Portuguese
is continuous with European Portuguese and its phonetics is more conservative in several aspects, characterizing the nativization of a koiné formed by several regional European Portuguese variations brought to Brazil
Brazil
and its natural drift.[12][14] See also[edit]

Sri Lankan Portuguese Creole

Notes[edit]

^ Forro was a declaration of freedom of a specific slave used in Portugal and its colonies. These were the most wished documents for the enslaved population. These freeded slaves developed and stabilized a creole. ^ Sandra Luísa Rodrigues Madeira, "Towards an Annotated Bibliography of Restructured Portuguese in Africa", Faculdade de Letras, Universidade de Coimbra, 2008. ^ Armin Schwegler, "Monogenesis Revisited", in Rickford & Romaine, 1999, Creole Genesis, Attitudes and Discourse, p. 252. ^ Em Cafundó, esforço para salvar identidade. São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga, SP: O Estado de S. Paulo, 24 December 2006, p. A8. ^ Hildo Honório do Couto, "Anticrioulo: manifestação lingüística de resistência cultural", 2002. ^ a b "Origens do português brasileiro". Archived 2012-09-06 at Archive.is ^ Noll, Volker, "Das Brasilianische Portugiesisch", 1999. ^ http://m.travessa.com.br/produtoAmp.aspx?codartigo=ddb98df7-bdbd-4b7c-929a-780431289d26 ^ https://books.google.com.br/books/about/Origens_do_português_brasileiro.html?id=4PEuAAAAYAAJ&redir_esc=y ^ Mikael Parkvall, "The alleged creole past of Brazilian Vernacular Portuguese", in d' Andrade, Pereria & Mota, 1999, Crioulos de Base Portuguesa, p. 223. ^ Holm, J., "American Black English and Afrikaans: two Germanic semicreoles", 1991. ^ a b Naro & Scherre (2007) ^ https://books.google.com.br/books/about/Origens_do_português_brasileiro.html?id=4PEuAAAAYAAJ&redir_esc=y ^ https://books.google.com.br/books/about/Origens_do_português_brasileiro.html?id=4PEuAAAAYAAJ&redir_esc=y

External links[edit]

The Origins of Negation in the Gulf of Guinea
Gulf of Guinea
Creoles Reconstructing Kriol syllable structures The Portuguese language
Portuguese language
heritage in the East The Portuguese Cultural Imprint on Sri Lanka Papia, Relijang e Tradisang, The Portuguese Eurasians in Malaysia Malacca
Malacca
Portuguese Eurasian Association Malacca
Malacca
Portuguese Settlement Singapore
Singapore
Eurasian Association Kristang page Declaraçon di mundo intêro di Dréto di tudo homi co tudo mudjer Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Kriolu of Santiago Declaraçom Universal di Diritu di Omis Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Kriol Declaraçón Universal di Dirêtu di Hómé Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Forro Dutch Portuguese Colonial History Dutch Portuguese Colonial History Association for Portuguese and Spanish Lexically Based Creoles (ACBLPE) Associação Brasileira de Estudos Crioulos e Similares (ABECS)

v t e

Portuguese-based creole languages

Upper Guinea

Cape Verdean Creole Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau
Creole

Lower Guinea

Angolar Annobonese Cafundó Forro Principense

Indo-Portuguese

Cannanore Indo-Portuguese Cochin Indo-Portuguese (extinct) Daman and Diu
Daman and Diu
Portuguese Korlai Indo-Portuguese Sri Lankan Portuguese

Southeast Asian

Mardijker or Papiá Tugu (extinct) Bidau Portuguese (extinct) Papiá Kristang Portugis (extinct)

East Asian

Macanese

Caribbean

Papiamento

Creoles with strong Portuguese lexical influence

Bozal

.