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A portmanteau (/pɔːrtˈmæntoʊ/ ( listen), /ˌpɔːrtmænˈtoʊ/[a][b]) or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words,[1] in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word,[1][2][3] as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog,[2][4] or motel, from motor and hotel.[5] In linguistics, a portmanteau is defined as a single morph that represents two or more morphemes.[6][7][8][9] The definition overlaps with the grammatical term contraction, but contractions are formed from words that would otherwise appear together in sequence, such as do and not to make don't, whereas a portmanteau word is formed by combining two or more existing words that all relate to a singular concept. A portmanteau also differs from a compound, which does not involve the truncation of parts of the stems of the blended words. For instance, starfish is a compound, not a portmanteau, of star and fish; whereas a hypothetical portmanteau of star and fish might be stish.

Contents

1 Origin 2 Examples in English

2.1 Standard English

2.1.1 Formal 2.1.2 Informal 2.1.3 Business

2.2 Non-standard English

2.2.1 Name-meshing

3 Other languages

3.1 Arabic 3.2 Bulgarian 3.3 Filipino 3.4 French 3.5 Galician 3.6 German 3.7 Modern Hebrew 3.8 Hindi 3.9 Hungarian 3.10 Icelandic 3.11 Indonesian 3.12 Japanese 3.13 Spanish 3.14 Tibetan

4 Word/morph (linguistics) 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

Origin[edit] The word portmanteau was first used in this sense by Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
in the book Through the Looking-Glass
Through the Looking-Glass
(1871),[10] in which Humpty Dumpty explains to Alice the coinage of the unusual words in "Jabberwocky",[11] where slithy means "slimy and lithe" and mimsy is "miserable and flimsy". Humpty Dumpty
Humpty Dumpty
explains to Alice the practice of combining words in various ways:

You see it's like a portmanteau—there are two meanings packed up into one word.

In his introduction to The Hunting of the Snark, Carroll uses portmanteau when discussing lexical selection:

Humpty Dumpty's theory, of two meanings packed into one word like a portmanteau, seems to me the right explanation for all. For instance, take the two words "fuming" and "furious." Make up your mind that you will say both words, but leave it unsettled which you will say first … if you have the rarest of gifts, a perfectly balanced mind, you will say "frumious."[11]

In then-contemporary English, a portmanteau was a suitcase that opened into two equal sections. The etymology of the word is the French porte-manteau, from porter, "to carry", and manteau, "cloak" (from Old French mantel, from Latin mantellum).[12] In modern French, a porte-manteau is a clothes valet, a coat-tree or similar article of furniture for hanging up jackets, hats, umbrellas and the like.[13][14][15] It has also been used, especially in Europe, as a formal description for coat racks from the French words porter (to carry) and manteau (cloak). An occasional synonym for "portmanteau word" is frankenword, an autological word exemplifying the phenomenon it describes, blending "Frankenstein" and "word".[16] Examples in English[edit] Main article: List of portmanteaus Standard English[edit] Formal[edit]

The original "Gerrymander" pictured in an 1812 cartoon. The word is a portmanteau of Massachusetts Governor Elbridge Gerry's name with "salamander."

Many neologisms are examples of blends, but many blends have become part of the lexicon.[11] In Punch in 1896, the word brunch (breakfast + lunch) was introduced as a "portmanteau word."[17] In 1964, the newly independent African republic of Tanganyika
Tanganyika
and Zanzibar
Zanzibar
chose the portmanteau word Tanzania
Tanzania
as its name. Similarly Eurasia
Eurasia
is a portmanteau of Europe and Asia. Some city names are portmanteaus of the border regions they straddle: Texarkana spreads across the Texas-Arkansas border, while Calexico and Mexicali
Mexicali
are respectively the American and Mexican sides of a single conurbation. A scientific example is a liger, which is a cross between a male lion and a female tiger (a tigon or tiglon is a similar cross in which the male is a tiger). Many company or brand names are portmanteaus, including Microsoft, a portmanteau of microcomputer and software; the cheese "Cambozola" combines a similar rind to "Camembert" with the same mold used to make "Gorgonzola"; passenger rail company "Amtrak", a portmanteau of "America" and "track"; "Velcro", a portmanteau of the French "Velours" (velvet) and "Crochet" (hook); "Verizon," a portmanteau of "veritas" (Latin for truth) and "horizon"; and ComEd
ComEd
(a Chicago-area electric utility company), a portmanteau of "Commonwealth" and Edison (Thomas Edison). "Jeoportmanteau!" is a recurring category on the American television quiz show Jeopardy!. The category's name is itself a portmanteau of the words "Jeopardy" and "portmanteau." Responses in the category are portmanteaus constructed by fitting two words together. Informal[edit] Portmanteau
Portmanteau
words may be produced by joining together proper nouns with common nouns, such as "gerrymandering", which refers to the scheme of Massachusetts Governor Elbridge Gerry
Elbridge Gerry
for politically contrived redistricting; the perimeter of one of the districts thereby created resembled a very curvy salamander in outline. The term gerrymander has itself contributed to portmanteau terms bjelkemander and playmander. Oxbridge
Oxbridge
is a common portmanteau for the UK's two oldest universities, those of Oxford
Oxford
and Cambridge.

A spork

Many portmanteau words receive some use but do not appear in all dictionaries. For example, a spork is an eating utensil that is a combination of a spoon and a fork, and a skort is an item of clothing that is part skirt, part shorts. On the other hand, turducken, a dish made by inserting a chicken into a duck, and the duck into a turkey, was added to the Oxford
Oxford
English Dictionary in 2010. Similarly, the word refudiate was first used by Sarah Palin
Sarah Palin
when she misspoke, conflating the words refute and repudiate. Though initially a gaffe, the word was recognized as the New Oxford
Oxford
American Dictionary's "Word of the Year" in 2010.[18] Brexit
Brexit
is a recent (2016) example, referring to Britain's planned exit from the European Union. Business[edit] The business lexicon is replete with newly coined portmanteau words like "permalance" (permanent freelance), "advertainment" (advertising as entertainment), "advertorial" (a blurred distinction between advertising and editorial), "infotainment" (information about entertainment or itself intended to entertain by virtue of its manner of presentation), and "infomercial" (informational commercial). A company name may also be portmanteau (e.g., Timex is a portmanteau of Time (referring to Time magazine) and Kleenex)[19] as well as a product name (e.g., Renault
Renault
markets its Twingo, a combination of twist, swing and tango).[20] Non-standard English[edit] Name-meshing[edit] Two proper names can also be used in creating a portmanteau word in reference to the partnership between people, especially in cases where both persons are well-known, or sometimes to produce epithets such as "Billary" (referring to former United States
United States
president Bill Clinton and his wife, former United States
United States
Secretary of State Hillary Clinton). In this example of recent American political history, the purpose for blending is not so much to combine the meanings of the source words but "to suggest a resemblance of one named person to the other"; the effect is often derogatory, as linguist Benjamin Zimmer states.[21] By contrast, the public, including the media, use portmanteaux to refer to their favorite pairings as a way to "...giv[e] people an essence of who they are within the same name."[22] This is particularly seen in cases of fictional and real-life "supercouples". An early known example, Bennifer, referred to film stars Ben Affleck
Ben Affleck
and Jennifer Lopez. Other examples include Brangelina
Brangelina
( Brad Pitt
Brad Pitt
and Angelina Jolie) and TomKat
TomKat
( Tom Cruise
Tom Cruise
and Katie Holmes).[22] "Desilu Productions" was a Los Angeles, California-based company jointly owned by couple and actors Desi Arnaz and Lucille Ball. Miramax
Miramax
is the combination of the first names of the parents of the Weinstein brothers. On Wednesday, June 28, 2017, The New York Times crossword included the quip, "How I wish Natalie Portman dated Jacques Cousteau, so I could call them 'Portmanteau'."[23] Holidays are another example, as in Thanksgivukkah, a portmanteau neologism given to the convergence of the American holiday of Thanksgiving and the first day of the Jewish holiday
Jewish holiday
of Hanukkah
Hanukkah
on Thursday, 28 November 2013.[24][25] Other languages[edit] Arabic[edit] In vernacular Arabic, contractions are a pretty common phenomenon, in which mostly prepositions are added to other words to create a word with a new meaning. For example, the Hejazi word for "not yet" is لسع/لسه (lessa/lessaʕ), which is a combination of the words لـ (li, for) and الساعة (assaʕa,the hour). Other examples in Hejazi Arabic
Hejazi Arabic
include:

إيش (ʔēš , what), from أي (ʔay, which) and شيء (šayʔ, thing). ليش (lēš, why), from لـ (li, for) and أي (ʔay, which) and شيء (šayʔ, thing). معليش (maʕlēš, is it ok?/sorry), from ما (mā, nothing) and عليه (ʕalayh, on him) and شيء (šayʔ, thing). فين (fēn, where), from في (fī, in) and أين (ʔayn, where). دحين (daḥēn or daḥīn, now), from ذا (ḏā, this) and الحين (alḥīn, part of time). إلين (ʔilēn, until), from إلى (ʔilā, to) and أن (ʔan, that). بعدين (baʕdēn, later), from بَعْد (baʕd, after) and أََيْن (ʔayn, part of time). علشان/عشان (ʕašān/ʕalašān, because), from على (ʕalā, on) and شأن (šaʔn, matter). كمان (kamān, also/more), from كما (kamā as) and أن (ʔan that). إيوه (ʔīwa, yes), from إي (ʔī, yes) and و (wa, swear to or promise by) and الله (allāh, God).[26][clarification needed]

A few rare or facetious examples would include:

لعم[pronunciation?] from ("naʕm", yes) and ("la", no), implying you are not sure متشائل[pronunciation?] ("mutashaʔim", pessimist) and ("mutafaʔil", optimist), the title of a novel published by Emile Habibi in 1974. The title is translated in English to "The Pessoptimist." كهرماء ("kahramaʔ", utilities) coined from كهرباء ("kahrabaʔ", electricity) and ماء ("maʔ", water), the national utilities company of Qatar كهرطيسي ("kahratisi", electromagnetic) coined from كهرباء ("kahrabaʔ", electricity) and مغناطيسي[pronunciation?]("magnetic")

Bulgarian[edit] In the Bulgarian language, the most common use of portmanteau is as a part of advertising campaigns. One such example is the word gintuition (джинтуиция pronounced dzhintuitsia), which is made up from the words gin and intuition. This one, in particular, is used, not surprisingly, as a part of a gin commercial. Another example is the word charomat, which consists of the words чар (the Bulgarian word for charm) and аромат (meaning aroma), made popular by an ad about a coffee brand. Filipino[edit] Certain portmanteaus in Filipino have come into use to describe popular combinations of items in a Filipino breakfast. An example of such a combination order is kankamtuy: an order of kanin (rice), kamatis (tomatoes) and tuyo (dried fish). Another is tapsi: an order of tapa and sinangág. Other examples include variations using a silog suffix, usually some kind of meat served with sinangág and itlog (egg). The three most commonly seen silogs are tapsilog (having tapa as the meat portion), tocilog (having tocino as the meat portion), and longsilog (having longganisa as the meat portion). Other silogs include hotsilog (with a hot dog), bangsilog (with bangus (milkfish)), dangsilog (with danggit (rabbitfish)), spamsilog (with Spam), adosilog (with adobo), chosilog (with chorizo), chiksilog (with chicken), cornsilog (with corned beef), and litsilog (with lechon/litson). An establishment that specializes in such meals is called a tapsihan or "tapsilugan". The name of a common Filipino mongrel dogs askal is derived from Tagalog words "asong kalye" or "street dog" because these dogs are commonly seen in streets. Askals are also called "aspins", a combination of "asong Pinoy" or "Philippine Dog". Another Filipino portmanteau is a popular but slightly dated female name Luzviminda derived from the Philippines' three major island groups Luzon, Visayas
Visayas
and Mindanao. Many Filipinos are very fond of speaking in Tagalog with some English words and thus are actually speaking in Taglish. Tagalog is a dialect in the island of Luzon
Luzon
and the basis for the national language Filipino. French[edit] Despite its French etymology (modern spelling: portemanteau), portmanteau is not used in French in this context. It is indeed a false friend. It refers to a coat stand or coat hook (literally a "coat support"), but in the past, it could also refer to a cloth drape knights would use to pack their gear. It was in this context that it first came to its English use, and the metaphorical use of a linguistic phenomenon (putting one word inside another, as into a case) is an English coinage. The French linguistic term mot-valise, literally a "suitcase-word", is a relatively recent back-translation from English, attested only since 1970. Although French of France is regulated by the Académie française (which has had a conservative attitude to neologisms) it produced a number of portmanteau words such as franglais (frenglish) or courriel (courrier électronique = email) and has used the technique in literature (Boris Vian) or to create brands: Transilien (Transports franciliens = Île-de-France transportation system).[27] French in Canada has a second regulatory body, named OQLF, an agency of the Government of Quebec, which is independent of the Académie. It has a tendency to produce neologisms in order to replace anglicisms. It created the portmanteaus courriel and clavardage (clavier + bavardage), for example.[clarification needed] Another example in Quebec
Quebec
(but made outside of OQLF) is Centricois, which means person from the region Centre-du-Québec (winner of a contest organised by the SSJB
SSJB
of Centre-du-Québec in 1999).[citation needed] Galician[edit] Galician has many portmanteaus, some existing also in Portuguese but many others not (or only in the North of Portugal, close to Galicia), which can be explained by its popular origin: carambelo (frozen candy), from caramelo (candy) and carámbano (icicle); martabela (a kind of dead bolt), from martelo (hammer) and tarabela (a kind of drill bit); rabuñar (to scratch with a fingernail, for instance a cat or a person), from rabuxa (a small tail, and also a common ill in tails) and rañar (to scratch); millenta ("many thousands", also common in Portuguese milhenta), from milleiro (one thousand) and cento (one hundred); runxir (to crackle, applied to some things only), from ruxir (to howl) and renxer (to grind the teeth), or vagamundo (tramp), from vagabundo (wanderer) and mundo (world), currently "vagamundo" and "vagabundo" mean the same, and the former is considered a vulgarism[clarification needed]. German[edit] Kofferwort, a German synonym for portmanteau, is a recent literal translation of French mot-valise, attested since 1983. However, the phenomenon is well known in German poetry. A modern example of German portmanteau is 'Teuro', combining 'teuer' (expensive) and 'Euro'. Other examples are Mainhattan, a Central business district
Central business district
in Frankfurt
Frankfurt
on the river Main like Manhattan, New York and Kreuzkölln, the Berlin area bordering between Kreuzberg
Kreuzberg
and Neukölln. 'Jein' is a widely used contraction of 'Ja' (yes) and 'Nein' (no), to indicate a combination of the two. Modern Hebrew[edit] Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
abounds with European mechanisms such as blending: Along with קומפקט דיסק (kompaktdisk, compact disc), Hebrew has the blend תקליטור (taklitor), which consists of the Jewish-descent תקליט (taklít, record) and אור (or, light). Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
is full of portmanteau blends, such as the following:[28]

ערפיח (arpíakh, smog), from ערפל (arafél, fog) and פיח (píakh, soot) מדרחוב (midrakhov, (pedestrian) promenade), from מדרכה (midrakhá, footpath) and רחוב (rekhóv, street) מחזמר (makhazémer, musical), from מחזה (makhazé, play [noun]) and זמר (zémer, song)

Other blends include the following:

מגדלור (migdalór, lighthouse), from מגדל (migdál, tower) and אור (or, light) רמזור (ramzór, traffic light), from רמז (rémez, signal) and אור (or, light)

Sometimes the root of the second word is truncated, giving rise to a blend that resembles an acrostic:

תפוז (tapúz, orange (fruit)), from תפוח (tapúakh, apple) and זהב (zaháv, gold)

Hindi[edit] A portmanteau common in both Hindi and English is Hinglish, which refers to the vernacular of the people in (the Hindi-speaking regions of) North India, where they mix Hindi and English in the spoken language. Another modern day example is the BrahMos
BrahMos
missile, whose name is a portmanteau of two rivers, Brahmaputra and Moskva. Compounds displaying Sanskritic sandhi are extremely commonplace in Hindi, but as compounds showing sandhi still consist of multiple morphemes, these are not portmanteaux. Hungarian[edit] In Hungarian language, the first decades of the 19th century saw the language-reforming movement (Hungarian: nyelvújítás), when some authors and poets, like Ferenc Kazinczy, Pál Bugát, Mihály Fazekas, Miklós Révai and others created approximately 10,000 new words and phrases in order to develop Hungarian language to a modern and progressive tongue. Among these new phrases there are some portmanteaux: gyufa (safety matches), consists of gyújtó (burner) and fa (wood). Icelandic[edit] There is a tradition of linguistic purism in Icelandic, and neologisms are frequently created from pre-existing words. For example, Tölva ("computer") is a portmanteau of tala ("digit; number") and völva ("oracle or seeress").[29] Indonesian[edit] In Indonesian, portmanteaux are often used as both formal and informal acronyms and referrals. Many organizations and government bodies use them for brevity. Journalists often create portmanteaux for particular historical moments. Examples include: Formal and journalism uses:

Golput: voters who abstain from voting, from Golongan Putih, "blank party" or "white party".[30] Jagorawi: a motorway linking the cities of Jakarta, Bogor
Bogor
and Ciawi. Jabodetabek: the neighboring cities of Jakarta, consisting of Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, Bekasi, and sometimes Cianjur (Jabodetabekjur). The Suramadu Bridge
Suramadu Bridge
connects the cities of Surabaya
Surabaya
and Madura "Malari": refers to "Malapetaka 15 Januari" – a social riot that happened on 15 January 1974. Military units, e.g. Kopassus
Kopassus
army special forces unit, from Komando Pasukan Khusus, "special forces command". Another example is the Kopaska
Kopaska
navy frogman unit, from Komando Pasukan Katak, "Frogman Command". Governmental bodies, e.g. "Kemdikbud", refers to "Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan" (Education and Culture Ministry), where the ministry leader is called "Mendikbud", "Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan" (Minister of Education and Culture).

Informal uses, for example:

Asbun = Asal bunyi: carelessly speaking Mafia = matematika + fisika + kimia: math, physics, and chemistry, three school subjects that are often related with arithmetic Caper = cari perhatian: attention seeker Warnet = warung internet: internet cafe Alay = anak layangan: unfashionable people Copas = Copy paste: copying other people's work without permission Ropang = roti panggang: toasted bread Nasgor = nasi goreng

Japanese[edit] A very common type of portmanteau in Japanese forms one word from the beginnings of two others (that is, from two back-clippings).[31] The portion of each input word retained is usually two morae, which is tantamount to one kanji in most words written in kanji. The inputs to the process can be native words, Sino-Japanese words, gairaigo (later borrowings), or combinations thereof. A Sino-Japanese example is the name 東大 (Tōdai) for the University of Tokyo, in full 東京大学 (Tōkyō daigaku). With borrowings, typical results are words such as パソコン (pasokon), meaning personal computer (PC), which despite being formed of English elements does not exist in English; it is a uniquely Japanese contraction of the English personal computer (パーソナル・コンピュータ, pāsonaru konpyūta). Another example, Pokémon
Pokémon
(ポケモン), is a contracted form of the English words pocket (ポケット, poketto) and monsters (モンスター, monsutā).[32] A famous example of a blend with mixed sources is karaoke (カラオケ, karaoke), blending the Japanese word for empty (空, kara) and the English word orchestra (オーケストラ, ōkesutora). Some Anime titles also are portmanteaus, such as Hetalia (ヘタリア). It came from Hetare (ヘタレ) which means "idiot" and Itaria (イタリア) which means Italy, and for the anime Servamp which came from English word Servant (サヴァント) and Vampire (ヴァンパイア). Spanish[edit] Although not very common in Spanish (except for some compulsory contractions such as 'a el'='al'), portmanteaux are finding their way into the language mainly through marketing and media efforts, such as in Mexican Spanish
Mexican Spanish
'cafebrería' from 'cafetería' and 'librería', or Teletón from 'televisión' and 'maratón'. However, it is very frequent in commercial brands of any type (for instance, "chocolleta", from "chocolate" + "galleta", cookie), and above all family-owned business (of small size, for instance: Rocar, from "Roberto" + "Carlos", and Mafer, from "Maria" + "Fernanda"). Such usages are obviously prompted by the registering of a distinguishable trademark, but with time is common that a specific trademark became the name of the all similar products, like in Cola Cao, a name which is very common to use to refer any similar product. A somehow popular example in Spain is the word Gallifante[33], a portmanteau of Gallo y Elefante (Cockerel and Elephant). It was the price for the Spanish version of the children TV show Child's Play (Juego de niños)[34][better source needed] that ran on the public television channel La 1 of Television Española (TVE) from 1988 to 1992.[35] Tibetan[edit] Neologisms are also frequently created from pre-existing words in the Tibetan languages. For example, kubkyab (the common word for "chair") combines the words kub ("butt"), kyag ("a stand"), and gyab nye ("cushion," often for the back). Gyabnye is itself a blend of gyabten ("back support") and nyeba, the verb for "lean against, recline, rest on." Thus the word for chair is "a standing support for one's butt and back to rest on." Tibetan also employs portmanteaus frequently in names of important figures and spiritual practices, such as His Holiness Penor Rinpoche, with Penor being pema norbu ("lotus jewel"), and the Buddhist practice of Dzogchen, or dzogpa chenpo, the "Great Perfection." Tibetan is rich with portmanteaus. Word/morph (linguistics)[edit] In linguistics, the term blend is used to refer to the general combination of words, and the term portmanteau is reserved for the narrow sense of combining two or more morphemes in one morph. E.g. in the Latin word animalis the ending -is is a portmanteau morph because it is used for two morphemes: the singularity and the genitive case. In English two separate morphs are used (of an animal). The term may also be extended to include contractions. Examples of such combinations include:

Language Combination Portmanteau

Portuguese a o ao

a a à

de o do

de a da

a aquele àquele

a aquela àquela

a aquilo àquilo

de ela dela

de ele dele

de eles deles

de elas delas

em uma numa

em um num

em uns nuns

em umas numas

em a na

em o no

em as nas

em os nos

French à le au

à les aux

de le du

de les des

en les ès

German in das ins

in dem im

von dem vom

an dem am

an das ans

zu dem zum

zu der zur

Irish de an den

do an don

Spanish a el al

de el del

Italian a il al

a la alla

a lo allo

a l' all'

a i ai

a gli agli

a le alle

di il del

di la della

di lo dello

di l' dell'

di i dei

di gli degli

di le delle

da il dal

da la dalla

da lo dallo

da l' dall'

da i dai

da gli dagli

da le dalle

Cornish a an a'n

Welsh i ein i'n

o ein o'n

West Frisian bist do bisto

yn de yn 'e

This usage has been referred to as "portmanteau morph".[6] While in Portuguese, French, Spanish and Italian the use of the short forms is obligatory (with the exception of ès in French, which is archaic in most senses), German and Cornish speakers theoretically may freely choose the form they use. In German, portmanteaus clearly dominate in spoken language, whilst in written language, both forms are in use. See also[edit]

Linguistics
Linguistics
portal

Blend word List of geographic names derived from portmanteaus Hybrid word List of portmanteaus Neologism Syllabic abbreviation

Notes[edit]

^ Pronounced port-MAN-toh or PORT-man-TOH ^ Pronounced -tohz

References[edit]

^ a b Garner's Modern American Usage Archived 27 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine., p. 644 ^ a b "Portmanteau". Merriam-Webster Offline Dictionary. Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 21 June 2008.  ^ " Portmanteau
Portmanteau
word". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000. Archived from the original on 26 November 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2008.  ^ "portmanteau word". Webster's New World College Dictionary. Cleveland: Wiley. 2010. ISBN 0-7645-7125-7.  ^ " Portmanteau
Portmanteau
word". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2013.  ^ a b "What is a portmanteau morph?". LinguaLinks Library. 2003. Archived from the original on 19 June 2008.  ^ Thomas, David (1983). "An invitation to grammar". Summer Institute of Linguistics. Bangkok: Mahidol University: 9.  ^ Crystal, David (1985). "A dictionary of linguistics and phonetics" (2nd ed.). New York: Basil Blackwell: 237.  ^ Hartmann, R.R.K.; Stork, F.C. (1972). "Dictionary of language and linguistics". London: Applied Science: 180.  ^ "portmanteau, n.". Oxford
Oxford
English Dictionary, third edition. Oxford: Oxford
Oxford
University Press. 2010. Retrieved 23 February 2011.  ^ a b c Fromkin, V., Rodman, R., and Hyams, N. (2007) An Introduction to Language, Eighth Edition. Boston: Thomson Wadsworth. ISBN 1-4130-1773-8. ^ "Portmanteau." The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000. ^ Petit Robert: portemanteau – "malle penderie" (suitcase in which clothes hang) ^ "PORTEMANTEAU : Définition de PORTEMANTEAU". cnrtl.fr. Archived from the original on 21 August 2014.  ^ Such a "coat bag" is mentioned in Chapter 12 of Alexander Dumas' The Count of Monte Cristo. ^ "Frankenwords: They're Alive!" The Guardian, 5 February, 2016 Archived 10 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Punch, 1 August 1896, 58/2 ^ "NEW OXFORD AMERICAN DICTIONARY'S 2010 WORD OF THE YEAR IS..." Archived from the original on 16 January 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2012.  ^ Shawn Tully (7 March 2015). "The crazy, true-life adventures of Norway's most radical billionaire". Fortune. Archived from the original on 28 July 2016. A few years later Thomas Olsen would rechristen the company Timex. He hatched the iconic name from an unusual confluence of sources. Recalls Fred: “My father always loved to noodle with words. He liked to read Time magazine, and he used a lot of Kleenex, so he put the two names together and got Timex.”  ^ "Twist, Swing and Tango — it's the new Renault
Renault
Twingo". MotorTorque.com. Archived from the original on 2 September 2014.  ^ Zimmer, Benjamin (1 November 2005). "A perilous portmanteau?". Language Log. University of Pennsylvania. Archived from the original on 29 December 2008. Retrieved 11 November 2008.  ^ a b Winterman, Denise (3 August 2006). "What a mesh". BBC News Magazine. Archived from the original on 16 December 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2008.  ^ "The Daily Crossword". 28 June 2017.  Missing or empty url= (help) ^ Christine Byrne (2 October 2013). "How To Celebrate Thanksgivukkah, The Best Holiday Of All Time". Buzzfeed. Archived from the original on 9 October 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2013.  ^ Stu Bykofsky (22 October 2012). "Thanks for Thanukkah!". Philly.com. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2013.  ^ Wallah (Arabic) ^ The name also combines the word lien (link) ^ See p. 62 in Zuckermann, Ghil'ad (2009), Hybridity versus Revivability: Multiple Causation, Forms and Patterns, Journal of Language Contact, Varia 2 (2009), pp. 40–67. ^ Kristján Árnason; Sigrún Helgadóttir (1991), "Terminology and Icelandic Language Policy", Behovet och nyttan av terminologiskt arbete på 90-talet, Nordterm 5, Nordterm-symposium, pp. 7–21 ^ "Golput – Schott's Vocab Blog – NYTimes.com". The New York Times. 17 February 2009. Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2009.  ^ "What are contracted words like rimokon?". Sljfaq.org. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2013.  ^ Rosen, Eric. "Japanese loanword accentuation: epenthesis and foot form interacting through edge-interior alignment∗" (PDF). University of British Columbia. sfu.ca. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 June 2011. Retrieved 25 November 2010.  ^ http://www.rtve.es/alacarta/videos/para-todos-la-2/gallifantes/1030400// ^ es:Juego de niños (programa de televisión) ^ https://elpais.com/diario/1988/06/04/radiotv/581378404_850215.html

External links[edit]

Look up portmanteau, portmanteau word, or Category:English blends in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Lexiconcept.com—an online portmanteau generator Portmanteaur.com—a tool for making portmanteaus Portmanteau
Portmanteau
tool – Invent new words

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