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Podiata (Cavalier-Smith, 2012)[1] or Sulcozoa (incl. Unikonts, Cavalier-Smith, 2012) or Sarcomastigota (incl. Unikonts, Cavalier-Smith, 1983)[2] are a proposed clade containing the Unikonts (incl. Opisthokont and Amoebozoa) and smaller groupings such as Diphyllatea and Rigifilda, Breviata, Ancyromonas (Planomonas), Mantamonadida, and Apusomonadida. The smaller groupings were formerly assigned to Varisulca, which was found to be highly paraphyletic, and Apusozoa, in which only the Breviata, Apusomonadida (and maybe the Mantamonadida) remain. The relationships among Podiata is not resolved.

Scotokaryotes/Opimoda/Neozoa

Metamonada




Malawimonas


Sulcozoa/Podiata/

Diphyllatea




Rigifilida


Amorphea/

Amoebozoa


Obazoa

Opisthokonta


Apusozoa


Apusomonadida



Mantamonadida




Breviata




Unikont

Sarcomastigota


The position of Ancyromonas, Breviata and Mantamonadida is uncertain.[3][4]

References

  1. ^ Cavalier-Smith, Thomas (2013). "Early evolution of eukaryote feeding modes, cell structural diversity, and classification of the protozoan phyla Loukozoa, Sulcozoa, and Choanozoa". European Journal of Protistology. 49 (2): 115–178. doi:10.1016/j.ejop.2012.06.001. 
  2. ^ Ruggiero, Michael A.; Gordon, Dennis P.; Orrell, Thomas M.; Bailly, Nicolas; Bourgoin, Thierry; Brusca, Richard C.; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Guiry, Michael D.; Kirk, Paul M. (2015-06-11). "Correction: A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms". PLOS ONE. 10 (6): e0130114. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0130114. ISSN 1932-6203. 
  3. ^ Orr, Russell J. S.; Zhao, Sen; Klaveness, Dag; Yabuki, Akinori; Ikeda, Keiji; Makoto, Watanabe M.; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran (2017-10-08). "Enigmatic Diphyllatea eukaryotes: Culturing and targeted PacBio RS amplicon sequencing reveals a higher order taxonomic diversity and global distribution". bioRxiv 199125Freely accessible. 
  4. ^ Eme, Laura; Sharpe, Susan C.; Brown, Matthew W.; Roger, Andrew J. (2014-08-01). "On the Age of Eukaryotes: Evaluating Evidence from Fossils and Molecular Clocks". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. 6 (8): a016139. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a016139. ISSN 1943-0264. PMC 4107988Freely accessible. PMID 25085908.