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Philip Marlowe
Philip Marlowe
(/ˈmɑːrloʊ/) is a fictional character created by Raymond Chandler. Marlowe first appeared under that name in The Big Sleep, published in 1939. Chandler's early short stories, published in pulp magazines like Black Mask and Dime Detective, featured similar characters with names like "Carmady" and "John Dalmas". Some of those short stories were later combined and expanded into novels featuring Marlowe, a process Chandler called "cannibalizing" but is more commonly known in publishing as a fixup. When the non-cannibalized stories were republished years later in the short story collection The Simple Art of Murder, Chandler changed the names of the protagonists to Philip Marlowe. His first two stories, "Blackmailers Don't Shoot" and "Smart-Aleck Kill" (with a detective named Mallory), were never altered in print but did join the others as Marlowe cases for the television series Philip Marlowe, Private Eye. Marlowe's character is foremost within the genre of hardboiled crime fiction that originated in the 1920s, notably in Black Mask magazine, in which Dashiell Hammett's The Continental Op
The Continental Op
and Sam Spade
Sam Spade
first appeared. Underneath the wisecracking, hard-drinking, tough private eye, Marlowe is quietly contemplative and philosophical and enjoys chess and poetry. While he is not afraid to risk physical harm, he does not dish out violence merely to settle scores. Morally upright, he is not fooled by the genre's usual femmes fatales, such as Carmen Sternwood in The Big Sleep. Chandler's treatment of the detective novel exhibits an effort to develop the form. His first full-length book, The Big Sleep, was published when Chandler was 51; his last, Playback when he was 70. Seven novels were produced in the last two decades of his life. An eighth, Poodle Springs, was completed posthumously by Robert B. Parker and published years later.

Contents

1 Inspiration 2 Biographical notes 3 Influences and adaptations 4 Marlowe bibliography

4.1 Works by Raymond Chandler 4.2 Authorized works by other writers 4.3 Film adaptations 4.4 Radio and television adaptations 4.5 Video game adaptations

5 See also 6 References 7 External links

7.1 Audio

Inspiration[edit] Explaining the origin of Marlowe's character, Chandler commented that "Marlowe just grew out of the pulps. He was no one person."[1] When creating the character, Chandler had originally intended to call him Mallory; his stories for the Black Mask magazine featured characters that are considered precursors to Marlowe. The emergence of Marlowe coincided with Chandler's transition from writing short stories to novels.[2] Chandler was said[3] to have taken the name Marlowe from Marlowe House, to which he belonged during his time at Dulwich College. Marlowe House was named for Christopher Marlowe, a hard-drinking Elizabethan writer who graduated in philosophy and worked secretly for the government. Biographical notes[edit]

Ed Bishop
Ed Bishop
had the title role in BBC Radio's Philip Marlowe
Philip Marlowe
radio drama series.

Philip Marlowe
Philip Marlowe
is a fictional character created by Raymond Chandler
Raymond Chandler
in a series of novels including The Big Sleep, Farewell, My Lovely
Farewell, My Lovely
and The Long Goodbye. Chandler is not consistent as to Marlowe's age. In The Big Sleep, set in 1936, Marlowe's age is given as 33, while in The Long Goodbye (set fourteen years later) Marlowe is 42. In a letter to D. J. Ibberson of April 19, 1951, Chandler noted among other things that Marlowe is 38 years old and was born in Santa Rosa, California. He had a couple of years at college and some experience as an investigator for an insurance company and the district attorney's office of Los Angeles County. He was fired from the D.A.'s office for insubordination (or as Marlowe put it, "talking back"). The D.A.'s chief investigator, Bernie Ohls, is a friend and former colleague and a source of information for Marlowe within law enforcement. Marlowe is about six feet one and a half inches (186.68 cm) tall and weighs about 190 pounds (86 kg). He first lived at the Hobart Arms, on Franklin Avenue near North Kenmore Avenue (in The Big Sleep), but then moved to the Bristol Hotel, where he stayed for about ten years. By 1950 (in The Long Goodbye) he has rented a house on Yucca Avenue and continued at the same place in early 1952 in Playback, the last full-length Chandler Marlowe novel. His office, originally on the seventh floor of an unnamed building in 1936, is at #615 on the sixth floor of the Cahuenga Building by March/April 1939 (the date of Farewell, My Lovely), which is on Hollywood Boulevard
Hollywood Boulevard
near Ivar. North Ivar Avenue is between North Cahuenga Boulevard to the west and Vine Street to the east. The office telephone number is Glenview 7537. Marlowe's office is modest and he doesn't have a secretary (unlike Sam Spade). He generally refuses to take divorce cases. He smokes and prefers Camels. At home he sometimes smokes a pipe. A chess adept, he almost exclusively plays against himself, or plays games from books. He drinks whiskey or brandy frequently and in relatively large quantities. For example, in The High Window, he gets out a bottle of Four Roses, and pours glasses for himself, for Det. Lt. Breeze and for Spangler. At other times he is drinking Old Forester, a Kentucky bourbon: "I hung up and fed myself a slug of Old Forester
Old Forester
to brace my nerves for the interview. As I was inhaling it I heard her steps tripping along the corridor." (The Little Sister) However, in Playback he orders a double Gibson at a bar while tailing Betty Mayfield. Also, in The Long Goodbye, he and Terry Lennox drink Gimlets. Marlowe is adept at using liquor to loosen peoples' tongues. An example is in The High Window, when Marlowe finally persuades the detective-lieutenant, whose "solid old face was lined and grey with fatigue", to take a drink and thereby loosen up and give out. "Breeze looked at me very steadily. Then he sighed. Then he picked the glass up and tasted it and sighed again and shook his head sideways with a half smile; the way a man does when you give him a drink and he needs it very badly and it is just right and the first swallow is like a peek into a cleaner, sunnier, brighter world." He frequently drinks coffee. Eschewing the use of filters (see Farewell My Lovely), he uses a vacuum coffee maker (see The Long Goodbye, chapter 5). He takes his coffee with cream in the mornings but has it black at other times. Typical of classic private eyes, Marlowe is the eternal bachelor in all of the novels. But in the opening paragraphs of Poodle Springs he has just married Linda Loring, the divorced daughter of the press tycoon Harlan Potter. He knows her from The Long Goodbye, where they spent one night together, and from Playback, where she, after one and a half years, surprisingly called him from Paris and proposed to him ("I'm asking you to marry me"). Influences and adaptations[edit]

This article may contain indiscriminate, excessive, or irrelevant examples. Please improve the article by adding more descriptive text and removing less pertinent examples. See's guide to writing better articles for further suggestions. (June 2017)

In the pilot episode of Bored to Death
Bored to Death
the main character Jonathan Ames (played by Jason Schwartzman) reads Farewell My Lovely
Farewell My Lovely
and uses the name Philip Marlowe
Philip Marlowe
as a pseudonym. Marlowe has appeared in short stories and novels by writers other than Chandler, such as Raymond Chandler's Philip Marlowe: A Centennial Celebration (1988). The central character in Dennis Potter's The Singing Detective is crime novelist Philip E. Marlow, portrayed in the original TV version by Michael Gambon
Michael Gambon
and in the later film version by Robert Downey, Jr. Marlowe is referenced in the lyrics to Burton Cummings' 1979 song "Dream of a Child" and Dire Straits' "Private Investigations". The two main characters of the film Radioactive Dreams
Radioactive Dreams
are named Philip and Marlowe; Philip narrates it in a similar style as Chandler's novels. In the Star Trek: The Next Generation episode "The Big Goodbye" (obviously in reference to The Big Sleep
The Big Sleep
and The Long Goodbye), a computer malfunction traps Jean-Luc Picard, Data, and Beverly Crusher in a 1940s Dixon Hill detective story holodeck program. Dixon Hill is an homage to such characters as Philip Marlowe
Philip Marlowe
and Sam Spade, among others. In Kamen Rider W, Sokichi Narumi gives Raito Sonozaki the name "Philip" due to his fondness of Philip Marlowe. Smart Philip (2003): Crime comedy inspired by Chandler's work with Tomáš Hanák
Tomáš Hanák
as Philip Marlowe.

Marlowe bibliography[edit] Works by Raymond Chandler[edit]

"Finger Man" (1934), (short story): This story originally featured an unnamed narrator, identified as "Carmady" in subsequent stories, and later renamed Marlowe for book publication. "Goldfish" (1936), (short story): This story originally featured Carmady, later renamed Marlowe for book publication. "Red Wind" (1938), (short story): This story originally featured John Dalmas, later renamed Marlowe for book publication. "Trouble Is My Business" (1939) (short story): This story originally featured John Dalmas, later renamed Marlowe for book publication. The Big Sleep
The Big Sleep
(1939) Farewell, My Lovely
Farewell, My Lovely
(1940) The High Window
The High Window
(1942) The Lady in the Lake (1943) The Little Sister
The Little Sister
(1949) The Simple Art of Murder
The Simple Art of Murder
(1950) (short story collection) The Long Goodbye (1953) Playback (1958) Poodle Springs (only the first four chapters were completed and then left unfinished at Chandler's death in 1959; completed by Robert B. Parker, 1989) "The Pencil" (AKA "Marlowe Takes On the Syndicate", "Wrong Pigeon", and "Philip Marlowe's Last Case") (1959), (short story): Chandler's last completed work about Marlowe, his first Marlowe short story in more than twenty years, and the first short story originally written about Marlowe.

Authorized works by other writers[edit]

Marlowe, as he appeared in volume 9 of Detective Conan

"Ten Percent of Life" (1987, ISBN 9-780671-634193), by Hiber Conteris. Fireside Books. Raymond Chandler
Raymond Chandler
meets Philip Marlowe. Raymond Chandler's Philip Marlowe: a Centennial Celebration (1988, ISBN 1-59687-847-9) A collection of short stories edited by Byron Preiss. The second edition (1999, ISBN 0-671-03890-7) included two additional stories. Poodle Springs (publication date October 1989, ISBN 0-399-13482-4) by Robert B. Parker. An authorized completion of Chandler's unfinished last work. Perchance to Dream (1991, ISBN 0-399-13580-4) by Robert B. Parker. An authorized sequel to Chandler's The Big Sleep. The Black-Eyed Blonde (2014) by John Banville
John Banville
writing as "Benjamin Black"[4] has the same title as a Marlowe short story Benjamin M. Schutz contributed to the 1988 collection, Raymond Chandler's Philip Marlowe: A Centennial Celebration. Raymond Chandler
Raymond Chandler
Speaking (1971), by Dorothy Gardener and Katherine Sorley Walker. New York: Books for Library Press.

Film adaptations[edit]

Mitchum as Marlowe in Farewell, My Lovely
Farewell, My Lovely
(1975)

Time to Kill (1942) — (adaptation of The High Window
The High Window
with detective Michael Shayne
Michael Shayne
substituting for Marlowe) Lloyd Nolan
Lloyd Nolan
as Shayne. The Falcon Takes Over
The Falcon Takes Over
(1942) — (adaptation of Farewell My Lovely with detective "The Falcon" substituting for Marlowe) George Sanders as The Falcon. Murder, My Sweet
Murder, My Sweet
(1944) — (adaptation of [and released in the UK as] Farewell My Lovely) Dick Powell
Dick Powell
as Marlowe. The Big Sleep
The Big Sleep
(1946) — Humphrey Bogart
Humphrey Bogart
as Marlowe. Lady in the Lake
Lady in the Lake
(1947) — Robert Montgomery as Marlowe. The Brasher Doubloon
The Brasher Doubloon
(1947) — (adaptation of [and released in the UK as] The High Window) George Montgomery as Marlowe. Marlowe (1969) — (adaptation of The Little Sister) James Garner
James Garner
as Marlowe. This became the partial inspiration for The Rockford Files, the other being the series Maverick. The Long Goodbye (1973) — Elliott Gould
Elliott Gould
as Marlowe. Farewell My Lovely
Farewell My Lovely
(1975) — Robert Mitchum
Robert Mitchum
as Marlowe. The Big Sleep
The Big Sleep
(1978) — Robert Mitchum
Robert Mitchum
as Marlowe. Poodle Springs (1959/1989) — James Caan
James Caan
as Marlowe.

Radio and television adaptations[edit]

Gerald Mohr
Gerald Mohr
in the CBS Radio
CBS Radio
series The Adventures of Philip Marlowe (1948–1951)

Lux Radio Theater, Murder My Sweet, adapted from the 1944 film, CBS Radio, June 11, 1945 ( Dick Powell
Dick Powell
as Marlowe) The New Adventures Of Philip Marlowe, NBC Radio series, June 17, 1947 to September 9, 1947 ( Van Heflin
Van Heflin
as Marlowe) Suspense, CBS radio, January 10, 1948 (cameo by series host Robert Montgomery in The Adventures of Sam Spade
Sam Spade
cross-over, "The Kandy Tooth") Lux Radio Theater, Lady in the Lake, adapted from the 1947 film, CBS Radio, February 9, 1948 (Robert Montgomery as Marlowe) Hollywood Star Time, Murder My Sweet, adapted from the 1944 film, CBS Radio, June 8, 1948 ( Dick Powell
Dick Powell
as Marlowe) The Adventures of Philip Marlowe, CBS Radio
CBS Radio
series, September 26, 1948 to September 15, 1951 ( Gerald Mohr
Gerald Mohr
as Marlowe) Climax!, The Long Goodbye, adapted from the novel, CBS Television, October 7, 1954 ( Dick Powell
Dick Powell
as Marlowe) Philip Marlowe, ABC Television series, October 6, 1959 to March 29, 1960 ( Philip Carey
Philip Carey
as Marlowe) The BBC Presents: Philip Marlowe, BBC Radio series, September 26, 1977 to September 23, 1988 ( Ed Bishop
Ed Bishop
as Marlowe) Philip Marlowe, Private Eye, HBO/London Weekend Television Television series, April 16, 1983 to May 14, 1983, April 27, 1986 to June 3, 1986[5] ( Powers Boothe
Powers Boothe
as Marlowe) Fallen Angels, "Red Wind", adapted from the short story, Showtime Television, November 26, 1995 ( Danny Glover
Danny Glover
as Marlowe) Poodle Springs, adapted from the novel (a fragment completed by Robert B. Parker), HBO Television movie, July 25, 1998 ( James Caan
James Caan
as Marlowe) Marlowe, a 2007 TV pilot ( Jason O'Mara as Marlowe) In 2011 the BBC started a series of radio adaptations of all the Philip Marlowe
Philip Marlowe
novels under the heading Classic Chandler. Toby Stephens played Philip Marlowe
Philip Marlowe
throughout. The series started on February 5, 2011 on BBC Radio 4
BBC Radio 4
with a 90-minute adaptation of The Big Sleep and continued with The Lady in the Lake (February 12, 2011), Farewell My Lovely
Farewell My Lovely
(February 19, 2011) and a 60-minute version of Playback (February 26, 2011). The series continued later that year with 90-minute adaptations The Long Goodbye (October 1, 2011). The High Window (October 8, 2011), The Little Sister
The Little Sister
(October 15, 2011) and a 60-minute version of Poodle Springs (October 22, 2011).

Video game adaptations[edit]

Philip Marlowe: Private Eye, Byron Preiss (developer), Simon & Schuster (publisher), 1 January 1997

See also[edit]

Novels portal

Crime fiction for an overview

References[edit]

Notes

^ Lid 1969, p. 158 ^ Lid 1969, pp. 158–159 ^ "Who Was Who in Dulwich: Raymond Chandler". The Dulwich Society. 1 August 2008. Retrieved February 22, 2011.  ^ http://www.thebookseller.com/news/banville-bring-back-chandler.html ^ Philip Marlowe, Private Eye
Philip Marlowe, Private Eye
at IMDb

Bibliography

Lid, R. W. (1969), " Philip Marlowe
Philip Marlowe
Speaking", The Kenyon Review, Kenyon College, 31 (2): 153–178, JSTOR 4334891 

External links[edit]

Philip Marlowe
Philip Marlowe
on IMDb BBC Radio 4
BBC Radio 4
Presents: Classic Chandler

Audio[edit]

OTR Network Library: The Adventures of Philip Marlowe
The Adventures of Philip Marlowe
(63 episodes) Philip Marlowe
Philip Marlowe
on Outlaws Old Time Radio Corner

v t e

Raymond Chandler's The Big Sleep

Films

The Big Sleep
The Big Sleep
(1946) The Big Sleep
The Big Sleep
(1978)

Other

Perchance to Dream Philip Marlowe

v t e

Works by Raymond Chandler

Novels

The Big Sleep Farewell, My Lovely The High Window The Lady in the Lake The Little Sister The Long Goodbye Playback Poodle Springs

Characters

Philip Marlowe

Short story collections

Five Murderers Five Sinister Characters Fingerman and Other Stories The Simple Art of Murder Killer in the Rain The Midnight Raymond Chandler Trouble is My Business Pickup on Noon Street Spanish Blood

Non-fiction

Raymond Chandler
Raymond Chandler
Speaking Selected Letters of Raymond Chandler

Screenplays

Double Indemnity And Now Tomorrow The Unseen The Blue Dahlia Strangers on a Train Playback

Film adaptations

Time to Kill (1942) The Falcon Takes Over
The Falcon Takes Over
(1942) Murder, My Sweet
Murder, My Sweet
(1944) The Big Sleep
The Big Sleep
(1946) Lady in the Lake
Lady in the Lake
(1947) The Brasher Doubloon
The Brasher Doubloon
(1947) Marlowe (1969) The Long Goodbye (1973) Farewell, My Lovely
Farewell, My Lovely
(1975) The Big Sleep
The Big Sleep
(1978) Poodle Sp

.