PepsiCo, Inc. is an American multinational food, snack, and beverage
corporation headquartered in Purchase, New York.
PepsiCo has interests
in the manufacturing, marketing, and distribution of grain-based snack
foods, beverages, and other products.
PepsiCo was formed in 1965 with
the merger of the Pepsi-
Cola Company and Frito-Lay, Inc.
since expanded from its namesake product
Pepsi to a broader range of
food and beverage brands, the largest of which included an acquisition
Tropicana Products in 1998 and the
Quaker Oats Company
Quaker Oats Company in 2001,
which added the
Gatorade brand to its portfolio.
As of January 26, 2012, 22 of PepsiCo's brands generated retail sales
of more than $1 billion apiece, and the company's products
were distributed across more than 200 countries, resulting in annual
net revenues of $43.3 billion. Based on net revenue,
the second largest food and beverage business in the world. Within
PepsiCo is the largest food and beverage business by
Indra Nooyi has been the chief executive of
2006. The company's beverage distribution and bottling is conducted by
PepsiCo as well as by licensed bottlers in certain regions.
Approximately 274,000 employees generated $66.415 billion in
revenue as of 2013.
1.2 Acquisitions and divestments
2 Products and brands
3 Business divisions
3.1 North America Beverages
Frito-Lay North America
3.3 Quaker Foods North America
3.4 Latin America
3.5 Europe and Sub-Saharan Africa
3.6 Asia, Middle East and North Africa
4 Corporate governance
4.2 Charitable activities
5 Environmental record and product nutrition
5.1 Environmental record
5.1.1 Rainforests and palm oil
5.1.2 Genetically Modified Food Ingredients
5.1.3 Water usage (India, U.S., U.K.)
5.1.4 Pesticide regulation (India)
Packaging and recycling
Energy usage and carbon footprint
5.2 Product nutrition
5.2.1 Product diversity
Ingredient changes in Pepsi
5.2.3 Distribution to children
6 See also
8 External links
The recipe for the soft drink
Pepsi was first developed in the 1880s
by Caleb Bradham, a pharmacist and industrialist from New Bern, North
Carolina. He coined the name "Pepsi-Cola" in 1898. As the cola
developed in popularity, he created the Pepsi-
Cola Company in 1902 and
registered a patent for his recipe in 1903. The Pepsi-
was first incorporated in the state of
Delaware in 1919. The
company went bankrupt in 1931 and on June 8 of that year, the
trademark and syrup recipe were purchased by Charles Guth, who owned a
syrup manufacturing business in Baltimore. Guth was also the president
of Loft, Incorporated, a leading candy manufacturer, and he used the
company's labs and chemists to reformulate the syrup. He further
contracted to stock the soda in Loft's large chain of candy shops and
restaurants, which were known for their soda fountains, used Loft
resources to promote Pepsi, and moved the soda company to a location
close by Loft's own facilities in New York City. In 1935, the
shareholders of Loft sued Guth for his 91% stake of Pepsi-
in the landmark case
Guth v. Loft Inc.
Guth v. Loft Inc. Loft won the suit and on May
29, 1941 formally absorbed
Pepsi into Loft, which was then re-branded
Cola Company that same year. Loft restaurants and candy
stores were spun off at this time. In the early 1960s, Pepsi-Cola's
product lines expanded with the creation of Diet
Pepsi and purchase of
In 1965, the Pepsi-
Cola Company merged with Frito-Lay, Inc. to become
PepsiCo, Inc. At the time of its foundation,
PepsiCo was incorporated
in the state of
Delaware and headquartered in Manhattan, New York. The
company's headquarters were relocated to their present location of
Purchase, New York
Purchase, New York in 1970, and in 1986
PepsiCo was reincorporated
in the state of North Carolina.
Acquisitions and divestments
Between the late-1970s and the mid-1990s,
PepsiCo expanded via
acquisition of businesses outside of its core focus of packaged food
and beverage brands; however it exited these non-core business lines
largely in 1997, selling some, and spinning off others into a new
company named Tricon Global Restaurants, which later became known as
Yum! Brands, Inc.
PepsiCo also previously owned several other
brands that it later sold so it could focus on its primary snack food
and beverage lines, according to investment analysts reporting on the
divestments in 1997. Brands formerly owned by
Pizza Hut, Taco Bell, KFC, Hot 'n Now, East Side
Mario's, D'Angelo Sandwich Shops, Chevys Fresh Mex, California
Pizza Kitchen, Stolichnaya (via licensed agreement), Wilson
Sporting Goods, and North American Van Lines.
The divestments concluding in 1997 were followed by multiple
large-scale acquisitions, as
PepsiCo began to extend its operations
beyond soft drinks and snack foods into other lines of foods and
PepsiCo purchased the orange juice company Tropicana
Products in 1998, and merged with
Quaker Oats Company
Quaker Oats Company in 2001,
adding with it the
Gatorade sports drink line and other Quaker Oats
brands such as
Chewy Granola Bars
Chewy Granola Bars and Aunt Jemima, among others.
In August 2009,
PepsiCo made a $7 billion offer to acquire the
two largest bottlers of its products in North America:
Group and PepsiAmericas. In 2010 this acquisition was completed,
resulting in the formation of a new wholly owned subsidiary of
Beverages Company. In February 2011, the company
made its largest international acquisition by purchasing a two-thirds
(majority) stake in Wimm-Bill-Dann Foods, a Russian food company that
produces milk, yogurt, fruit juices, and dairy products. When it
acquired the remaining 23% stake of
Wimm-Bill-Dann Foods in October
PepsiCo became the largest food and beverage company in
In July 2012,
PepsiCo announced a joint venture with the Theo Muller
Group which was named Muller Quaker Dairy. This marked PepsiCo's first
entry into the dairy space in the U.S. The joint venture was
dissolved in December 2015.
The Coca-Cola Company
The Coca-Cola Company has historically been considered PepsiCo's
primary competitor in the beverage market, and in December 2005,
The Coca-Cola Company
The Coca-Cola Company in market value for the first
time in 112 years since both companies began to compete. In 2009, The
Cola Company held a higher market share in carbonated soft drink
sales within the U.S. In the same year,
PepsiCo maintained a
higher share of the U.S. refreshment beverage market, however,
reflecting the differences in product lines between the two
companies. As a result of mergers, acquisitions, and partnerships
PepsiCo in the 1990s and 2000s, its business has shifted to
include a broader product base, including foods, snacks, and
beverages. The majority of PepsiCo's revenues no longer come from the
production and sale of carbonated soft drinks.
for less than 50 percent of its total revenue in 2009. In the same
year, slightly more than 60 percent of PepsiCo's beverage sales came
from its primary non-carbonated brands, namely
Quaker Oats brands hold a significant share of
the U.S. snack food market, accounting for approximately 39 percent of
U.S. snack food sales in 2009. One of PepsiCo's primary
competitors in the snack food market overall is Kraft Foods, which in
the same year held 11 percent of the U.S. snack market share.
Other competitors for soda are RC Cola,
Cola Turka, Kola Real, Inca
Kola, Zamzam Cola, Mecca-Cola, Virgin Cola, Parsi Cola, Qibla Cola,
Evoca Cola, Corsica Cola, Breizh Cola, and Afri Cola.
Products and brands
PepsiCo Brands based on 2009 retail sales
Lay's potato chips
7 Up (outside U.S.)
Doritos tortilla chips
Lipton teas (PepsiCo/
Quaker foods and snacks
Ruffles potato chips
Aquafina bottled water
Tostitos tortilla chips
Fritos corn chips
Walkers potato crisps
PepsiCo Annual Report $0
PepsiCo's product mix as of 2015 (based on worldwide net revenue)
consists of 53 percent foods, and 47 percent beverages. On a
worldwide basis, the company's current products lines include several
hundred brands that in 2009 were estimated to have generated
approximately $108 billion in cumulative annual retail sales.
The primary identifier of a food and beverage industry main brand is
annual sales over $1 billion. As of 2015, 22
PepsiCo brands met that
mark, including: Pepsi, Diet Pepsi, Mountain Dew, Lay's, Gatorade,
Tropicana, 7 Up, Doritos,
Lipton Teas, Brisk, Quaker Foods, Cheetos,
Mirinda, Ruffles, Aquafina, Naked, Kevita, Propel, Sobe, H2oh, Sabra,
Starbucks (ready to Drink Beverages),
Pepsi Max, Tostitos, Mist Twst,
Fritos, and Walkers.
The structure of PepsiCo's global operations has shifted multiple
times in its history as a result of international expansion, and as of
2016 it is separated into six main divisions: North America Beverages,
Frito-Lay North America, Quaker Foods North America, Latin America,
Europe and Sub-Saharan African, and Asia, Middle East and North
Africa. As of 2015, 73 percent of the company's net revenues came
from North and South America; 17 percent from Europe and Sub-Saharan
Africa; and 10 percent from Asia, the Middle East, and Africa.
PepsiCo and its combined subsidiaries employed approximately 263,000
people worldwide as of December 2015.
North America Beverages
This division contributed 33 percent of PepsiCo's net revenue as of
2015, and involves the manufacture (and in some cases licensing),
marketing and sales of both carbonated and non-carbonated beverages in
North America. The main brands distributed under this division
include Pepsi, Mountain Dew, Gatorade,
7 Up (outside the U.S.),
Tropicana Pure Premium orange juice, Mist Twst,
Tropicana juice drinks, AMP Energy, Naked Juice, and Izze. Aquafina,
the company's bottled water brand, is also marketed and licensed
through North America Beverages. In 2015,
PepsiCo also introduced
Stubborn Soda, a line of carbonated beverages without high fructose
PepsiCo also has formed partnerships with several beverage brands it
does not own, in order to distribute or market them with its own
brands. As of 2010, its partnerships include: Starbucks
(Frappuccino, DoubleShot, and Iced Coffee), Unilever's
Lipton Brisk and
Lipton Iced Tea), and Dole (licensed juices and
Frito-Lay North America
Frito-Lay North America, the result of a merger in 1961 between the
Frito Company and the H.W. Lay Company, produces the top selling line
of snack foods in the U.S. Its main brands in the U.S., Canada, and
Mexico and include
Ruffles potato chips;
Tostitos tortilla chips and dips;
Cheetos cheese flavored
Fritos corn chips;
Rold Gold pretzels; Sun Chips; and Cracker
Jack popcorn. Products made by this division are sold to independent
distributors and retailers, and are transported from Frito-Lay's
manufacturing plants to distribution centers, principally in vehicles
owned and operated by the company.
The division contributed 23 percent of PepsiCo's net revenue in
2015. Until November 2009, Christopher Furman, President of
Ventura Foods Inc., occupied the position of Food Services
Quaker Foods North America
Quaker Foods North America, created following PepsiCo's acquisition of
Quaker Oats Company
Quaker Oats Company in 2001, manufactures, markets, and sells
Quaker Oatmeal, Rice-A-Roni, Cap'n Crunch, and Life cereals, as well
Near East side dishes within North America. This division also owns
and produces the
Aunt Jemima brand, which as of 2009 was the top
selling line of syrups and pancake mixes within this region.
Gamesa are two of PepsiCo's food and snack business lines
headquartered in Mexico, and they were acquired by
PepsiCo in 1966 and
Frito-Lay products in Mexico,
including local brands such as Poffets, Rancheritos, Crujitos, and
Gamesa is the largest manufacturer of cookies in Mexico,
distributing brands such as Emperador, Arcoiris and Marías
The division contributed 4 percent of PepsiCo's net revenues in
PepsiCo's Latin America Foods (Spanish:
Snacks América Latina)
operations market and sell primarily Quaker- and Frito-Lay-branded
snack foods within Central and South America, including Argentina,
Brazil, Peru, and other countries in this region.
Latina purchased Peruvian company Karinto S.A.C. including its
production company Bocaditas Nacionales (with three production
facilities in Peru) from the Hayashida family of Lima in 2009, adding
the Karito brand to its product line, including Cuates, Fripapas, and
The company started a new market strategy to sell their
product in Mexico, stating that about one third of the population has
difficulty pronouncing "Pepsi". They started manufacturing and selling
their product under the label 'Pécsi', the advertisement campaign
features the Mexican soccer celebrity Cuauhtémoc Blanco. This is not
the first time it has happened, back in 2009,
PepsiCo used the same
strategy successfully in Argentina.
Pepsico will market and distribute
Starbucks products in several Latin
American countries for 2016.
The division contributed 13 percent of PepsiCo's net revenues in
Europe and Sub-Saharan Africa
Lay's is a brand of chips in the United States
Lay's UK brand
PepsiCo began to expand its distribution in Europe in the 1980s, and
in 2015 it made up 17 percent of the company's global net revenue.
Unlike PepsiCo's Americas business segments, both foods and beverages
are manufactured and marketed under one umbrella division in this
region, known as
PepsiCo Europe. The primary brands sold by
Europe include Pepsi-
Frito-Lay snacks, Tropicana
juices, and Quaker food products, as well as regional brands unique to
Europe such as Walkers crisps, Copella, Paw Ridge, Snack-a-Jack,
Duyvis, and others.
PepsiCo also produces and distributes the soft
drink 7UP in Europe via license agreement. Pepsico has 3 sites in
South Africa (Isando, Parrow, and Prospecton) which produce
PepsiCo's European presence expanded in Russia in 2009 as the company
announced a $1B investment, and with its acquisition of Russian
juice and dairy product brand
Wimm-Bill-Dann Foods in December 2010
and Lebedyansky juice producer in March 2008.
Asia, Middle East and North Africa
The most recently created operating division of
PepsiCo covers Asia,
the Middle East and Africa. In addition to the production and
sales of several worldwide Pepsi-Cola, Quaker Foods, and Frito-Lay
beverage and food product lines (including
Pepsi and Doritos), this
segment of PepsiCo's business markets regional brands such as Mirinda,
Kurkure, and Red Rock Deli, among others. While
PepsiCo owns its
own manufacturing and distribution facilities in certain parts of
these regions, more of this production is conducted via alternate
means such as licensing (which it does with Aquafina), contract
manufacturing, joint ventures, and affiliate operations. PepsiCo's
businesses in these regions, as of 2015, contributed 10 percent to the
company's net revenue worldwide.
In August 2012,
PepsiCo signed an agreement with a local Myanmar
distributor to sell its soft drinks after a 15-year break to re-enter
Headquartered in Purchase, New York, with research and development
headquarters in Valhalla, New York, PepsiCo's
Chairman and CEO is
Indra Nooyi. The board of directors is composed of eleven outside
directors as of 2010, including Ray Lee Hunt, Shona Brown, Victor
Dzau, Arthur C. Martinez, Sharon Percy Rockefeller, Daniel Vasella,
Dina Dublon, Ian M. Cook, Alberto Ibargüen, and Lloyd G. Trotter.
Former top executives at
PepsiCo include Steven Reinemund, Roger
Enrico, D. Wayne Calloway, John Sculley, Michael H. Jordan, Donald M.
Kendall, Christopher A. Sinclair, Irene Rosenfeld, David C. Novak,
Brenda C. Barnes, and Alfred Steele.
On October 1, 2006, former Chief Financial Officer and President Indra
Steve Reinemund as Chief Executive Officer. Nooyi
remained as the corporation's president, and became
Chairman of the
Board in May 2007, later (in 2010) being named No.1 on Fortune's list
of the "50 Most Powerful Women" and No.6 on Forbes' list of the
"World's 100 Most Powerful Women".
PepsiCo received a 100 percent
rating on the
Corporate Equality Index released by the LGBT-advocate
Human Rights Campaign
Human Rights Campaign starting in 2004, the third year of the
In November 2014, the firm's president Zein Abdalla announced he would
be stepping down from his position at the firm by the end of 2014.
PepsiCo headquarters are located in the neighborhood of Purchase,
New York, in the town of Harrison, New York. It was one of the last
architectural works by Edward Durell Stone. It consists of seven
three-story buildings. Each building is connected to its neighbor
through a corner. The property includes the Donald M. Kendall
Sculpture Gardens with 45 contemporary sculptures open to the public.
Works include those of Alexander Calder, Henry Moore, and Auguste
Westchester Magazine stated "The buildings' square blocks rise
from the ground into low, inverted ziggurats, with each of the three
floors having strips of dark windows; patterned pre-cast concrete
panels add texture to the exterior surfaces." In 2010 the magazine
ranked the building as one of the ten most beautiful buildings in
At one time
PepsiCo had its headquarters in 500 Park Avenue in Midtown
Manhattan, New York City. In 1956
PepsiCo paid $2 million for
the original building.
PepsiCo built the new 500 Park Avenue in
1960. In 1966,
Mayor of New York City
Mayor of New York City
John Lindsay started a
private campaign to convince
PepsiCo to remain in New York City.
Six months later, the company announced that it was moving to 112
acres (45 ha) of the Blind Brook Polo Club in Westchester
PepsiCo left the
Manhattan building, it became known
as the Olivetti Building.
Headquarters of Pepsi-
Cola Venezuela (ES)
PepsiCo has maintained a philanthropic program since 1962 called the
PepsiCo Foundation, in which it primarily funds "nutrition and
activity, safe water and water usage efficiencies, and education,"
according to the foundation's website. In 2009, $27.9 million
was contributed through this foundation, including grants to the
United Way and YMCA, among others.
PepsiCo launched an initiative they call the
Project, in which individuals submit and vote on charitable and
nonprofit collaborations. The main recipients of grants as part of
the refresh project are community organizations with a local focus and
nonprofit organizations, such as a high school in
Michigan that—as a
result of being selected in 2010—received $250,000 towards
construction of a fitness room. Following the Gulf of Mexico oil
spill in the spring of 2010,
PepsiCo donated $1.3 million to grant
winners determined by popular vote. As of October 2010, the
company had provided a cumulative total of $11.7 million in
funding, spread across 287 ideas of participant projects from 203
cities in North America. In late 2010, the refresh project was
reported to be expanding to include countries outside of North America
Environmental record and product nutrition
According to its 2009 annual report,
PepsiCo states that it is
"committed to delivering sustainable growth by investing in a
healthier future for people and our planet," which it has
defined in its mission statement since 2006 as "Performance with
Purpose". According to news and magazine coverage on the subject
in 2010, the objective of this initiative is to increase the number
and variety of healthier food and beverage products made available to
its customers, employ a reduction in the company's environmental
impact, and to facilitate diversity and healthy lifestyles within
its employee base. Its activities in regards to the
pursuit of its goals—namely environmental impacts of production and
the nutritional composition of its products—have been the subject of
recognition from health and environmental advocates and organizations,
and at times have raised concerns among its critics. As the result of
a more recent focus on such efforts, "critics consider (PepsiCo) to be
perhaps the most proactive and progressive of the food companies",
according to former
New York Times
New York Times food industry writer Melanie Warner
Rainforests and palm oil
PepsiCo Palm Oil Commitments published in May 2014 were welcomed
by media as a positive step towards ensuring that the company's palm
oil purchases will not contribute to deforestation and human rights
abuses in the palm oil industry. NGOs warned that the commitments
did not go far enough, and in light of the deforestation crisis in
Southeast Asia, have called on the company to close the gaps in its
Genetically Modified Food Ingredients
PepsiCo has contributed $1,716,300 to oppose the passage of California
Proposition 37, which would mandate the disclosure of genetically
modified crops used in the production of California food
PepsiCo believes "that genetically-modified
products can play a role in generating positive economic, social and
environmental contributions to societies around the world;
particularly in times of food shortages."
Water usage (India, U.S., U.K.)
PepsiCo's usage of water was the subject of controversy in India in
the early and mid-2000s, in part because of the company's alleged
impact on water usage in a country where water shortages are a
perennial issue. In this setting,
PepsiCo was perceived by India-based
environmental organizations as a company that diverted water to
manufacture a discretionary product, making it a target for critics at
As a result, in 2003
PepsiCo launched a country-wide program to
achieve a "positive water balance" in India by 2009. In 2007,
Indra Nooyi made a trip to India to address water usage
practices in the country, prompting prior critic Sunita Narain,
director of the Centre for Science & Environment (CSE), to note
PepsiCo "seem(s) to be doing something serious about water
now." According to the company's 2009 corporate citizenship
report, as well as media reports at the time, the company (in
2009) replenished nearly six billion liters of water within India,
exceeding the aggregate water intake of approximately five billion
liters by PepsiCo's India manufacturing facilities.
Water usage concerns have arisen at times in other countries where
PepsiCo operates. In the U.S., water shortages in certain regions
resulted in increased scrutiny on the company's production facilities,
which were cited in media reports as being among the largest water
users in cities facing drought—such as Atlanta, Georgia. In
response, the company formed partnerships with non-profit
organizations such as the
Earth Institute and Water.org, and in 2009
began cleaning new
Gatorade bottles with purified air instead of
rinsing with water, among other water conservation practices. In
the United Kingdom, also in response to regional drought conditions,
PepsiCo snacks brand Walkers' reduced water usage at its largest
potato chip facility by 45 percent between the years 2001 and 2008. In
doing so, the factory used machinery that captured water naturally
contained in potatoes, and used it to offset the need for outside
As a result of water reduction practices and efficiency improvements,
PepsiCo in 2009 saved more than 12 billion liters of water
worldwide, compared to its 2006 water usage. Environmental
advocacy organizations including the Natural Resources Defense Council
and individual critics such as
Rocky Anderson (mayor of Salt Lake
City, Utah) voiced concerns in 2009, noting that the company could
conserve additional water by refraining from the production of
discretionary products such as Aquafina. The company maintained
its positioning of bottled water as "healthy and convenient", while
also beginning to partially offset environmental impacts of such
products through alternate means, including packaging weight
Pesticide regulation (India)
PepsiCo's India operations were met with substantial resistance in
2003 and again in 2006, when an environmental organization in New
Delhi made the claim that, based on its research, it believed that the
levels of pesticides in
PepsiCo (along with those from rival The
Cola Company), exceeded a set of proposed safety standards on
soft drink ingredients that had been developed by the Bureau of Indian
PepsiCo denied the allegations, and India's health
ministry has also dismissed the allegations—both questioning the
accuracy of the data compiled by the CSE, as it was tested by its own
internal laboratories without being verified by outside peer
review. The ensuing dispute prompted a short-lived ban on the
The Coca-Cola Company
The Coca-Cola Company soft drinks within India's
southwestern state of
Kerala in 2006; however this ban was
reversed by the
Kerala High Court one month later.
In November 2010, the
Supreme Court of India
Supreme Court of India invalidated a criminal
complaint filed against
PepsiCo India by the
Kerala government, on the
basis that the beverages did meet local standards at the time of the
allegations. The court ruling stated that the "percentage of
pesticides" found in the tested beverages was "within the tolerance
limits subsequently prescribed in respect of such product," since at
the time of testing "there was no provision governing pesticide
adulteration in cold drinks." In 2010,
PepsiCo was among the
12 multinational companies that displayed "the most impressive
corporate social responsibility credentials in emerging markets", as
determined by the U.S. Department of State. PepsiCo's India unit
received recognition on the basis of its water conservation and safety
practices and corresponding results.
Packaging and recycling
Environmental advocates have raised concern over the environmental
impacts surrounding the disposal of PepsiCo's bottled beverage
products in particular, as bottle recycling rates for the company's
products in 2009 averaged 34 percent within the U.S. The company
has employed efforts to minimize these environmental impacts via
packaging developments combined with recycling initiatives. In 2010,
PepsiCo announced a goal to create partnerships that prompt an
increase in the beverage container recycling rate in the U.S. to 50
percent by 2018.
One strategy enacted to reach this goal has been the placement of
interactive recycling kiosks called "Dream Machines" in supermarkets,
convenience stores, and gas stations, with the intent of increasing
access to recycling receptacles. The use of resin to
manufacture its plastic bottles has resulted in reduced packaging
weight, which in turn reduces the volume of fossil fuels required to
PepsiCo products. The weight of
Aquafina bottles was
reduced nearly 40 percent, to 15 grams, with a packaging redesign
in 2009. Also in that year,
Naked Juice began production
and distribution of the first 100 percent post-consumer recycled
On March 15, 2011,
PepsiCo unveiled the world's first plant-based PET
bottle. The bottle is made from plant-based materials, such as switch
grass, corn husks, and pine bark, and is 100% recyclable. PepsiCo
plans to use more by-products (of their manufacturing processes) such
as orange peels and oat hulls in the bottles.
PepsiCo has identified
methods to create a molecular structure that is the same as normal
petroleum-based PET—which will make the new bottle technology,
dubbed "Green Bottle", feel the same as normal PET.
PepsiCo will pilot
production in 2012, and upon successful completion of the pilot,
intends moving to full-scale commercialization.
Energy usage and carbon footprint
PepsiCo, along with other manufacturers in its industry, has drawn
criticism from environmental advocacy groups for the production and
distribution of plastic product packaging, which consumed an
additional 1.5 billion US gallons (5,700,000 m3) of
petrochemicals in 2008. These critics have also expressed apprehension
over the production volume of plastic packaging, which results in the
emission of carbon dioxide. Beginning largely in 2006, PepsiCo
began development of more efficient means of producing and
distributing its products using less energy, while also placing a
focus on emissions reduction. In a comparison of 2009 energy
usage with recorded usage in 2006, the company's per-unit use of
energy was reduced by 16 percent in its beverage plants and 7 percent
in snack plants.
In 2009, Tropicana (owned by PepsiCo) was the first brand in the U.S.
to determine the carbon footprint of its orange juice product, as
certified by the Carbon Trust, an outside auditor of carbon
emissions. Also in 2009,
PepsiCo began the test deployment of
so-called "green vending machines", which reduce energy usage by 15
percent in comparison to average models in use. It developed these
machines in coordination with Greenpeace, which described the
initiative as "transforming the industry in a way that is going to be
more climate-friendly to a great degree."
From its founding in 1965 until the early 1990s, the majority of
PepsiCo's product line consisted of carbonated soft drinks and
PepsiCo broadened its product line substantially
throughout the 1990s and 2000s with the acquisition and development of
what its CEO deemed as "good-for-you" products, including Quaker Oats,
Naked Juice, and Tropicana orange juice. Sales of such
PepsiCo brands totaled $10 billion in 2009,
representing 18 percent of the company's total revenue in that year.
This movement into a broader, healthier product range has been
moderately well received by nutrition advocates; though commentators
in this field have also suggested that
PepsiCo market its healthier
items as aggressively as less-healthy core products.
In response to shifting consumer preferences and in part due to
increasing governmental regulation,
PepsiCo in 2010 indicated its
intention to grow this segment of its business, forecasting that sales
of fruit, vegetable, whole grain, and fiber-based products will amount
to $30 billion by 2020. To meet this intended target, the
company has said that it plans to acquire additional health-oriented
brands while also making changes to the composition of existing
products that it sells.
Ingredient changes in Pepsi
Public health advocates have suggested that there may be a link
between the ingredient makeup of PepsiCo's core snack and carbonated
soft drink products and rising rates of health conditions such as
obesity and diabetes. The company aligns with personal responsibility
advocates, who assert that food and beverages with higher proportions
of sugar or salt content are fit for consumption in moderation by
individuals who also exercise on a regular basis.
Changes to the composition of its products with nutrition in mind have
involved reducing fat content, moving away from trans-fats, and
producing products in calorie-specific serving sizes to discourage
overconsumption, among other changes. One of the earlier
ingredient changes involved sugar and caloric reduction, with the
introduction of Diet
Pepsi in 1964 and
Pepsi Max in 1993—both of
which are variants of their full-calorie counterpart, Pepsi. More
recent changes have consisted of saturated fat reduction, which
Frito-Lay reduced by 50% in
Ruffles potato chips in the U.S.
between 2006 and 2009. Also in 2009, PepsiCo's Tropicana brand
introduced a new variation of orange juice (Trop50) sweetened in part
by the plant Stevia, which reduced calories by half. Since 2007,
the company also made available lower-calorie variants of Gatorade,
which it calls "G2". On May 5, 2014,
PepsiCo announced that the
company would remove the flame retardant chemical known as "Brominated
Vegetable Oil" from many of its products, but a time-frame was not
Distribution to children
As public perception placed additional scrutiny on the marketing and
distribution of carbonated soft drinks to children,
in 2010 that by 2012, it will remove beverages with higher sugar
content from primary and secondary schools worldwide. It also,
under voluntary guidelines adopted in 2006, replaced "full-calorie"
beverages in U.S. schools with "lower-calorie" alternatives, leading
to a 95 percent reduction in the 2009 sales of full-calorie variants
in these schools in comparison to the sales recorded in 2004. In
2008, in accordance with guidelines adopted by the International
PepsiCo eliminated the advertising
and marketing of products that do not meet its nutrition standards, to
children under the age of 12.
Michelle Obama initiated a campaign to end
childhood obesity (titled Let's Move!), in which she sought to
encourage healthier food options in public schools, improved food
nutrition labeling, and increased physical activity for children. In
response to this initiative, PepsiCo, along with food manufacturers
Campbell Soup, Coca-Cola, General Mills, and others in an alliance
referred to as the "Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation", announced
in 2010 that the companies will collectively cut one trillion calories
from their products sold by the end of 2012 and 1.5 trillion
calories by the end of 2015.
List of assets owned by PepsiCo
^ a b c d e f "2017 annual results" (PDF). PepsiCo, Inc.
^ Bryson York, Emily. "
Pepsi says three drinks now billion-dollar
brands". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
PepsiCo 2013 Annual Report" (PDF). Retrieved August 3, 2014.
^ "Pepsico 2014 Annual Report Form" (PDF).
^ Bellis, Mary. "The History of
Cola / Caleb Bradham". About.com
Inventors. Retrieved December 14, 2010.
^ a b "
PepsiCo Company Description (as filed with the SEC)". NASDAQ.
Retrieved December 15, 2010.
^ "PepsiCo, Inc. Company History". Funding Universe. Retrieved
December 14, 2010.
^ Antman, Rachel A. (September 29, 2006). "The Donald M. Kendall
Sculpture Gardens". The New York Times. Retrieved December 15,
^ "Yum! Brands, Inc. Company History". Funding Universe. Retrieved
December 15, 2010.
^ Stevenson, Tom (January 24, 1997). "
PepsiCo to spin off Pizza Hut
and KFC". The Independent (U.K.). London. Retrieved December 15,
^ a b c "Pepsico Picks Name For Planned Spinoff". The New York Times.
June 28, 1997. Retrieved December 14, 2010.
^ Hamstra, Mark (April 28, 1997). "
PepsiCo sells Hot 'n Now, eyes
other divestitures". Nation's Restaurant News. Retrieved December 15,
2010. [dead link]
^ Johnson, Greg (February 27, 1997). "Marie Callender Parent Buys East
Side Mario's Chain". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 15,
^ Hamstra, Mark (August 25, 1997). "Papa Gino's to buy D'Angelo sub
chain". Nation's Restaurant News. Archived from the original on
February 18, 2007. Retrieved December 15, 2010.
^ Collins, Glenn (July 4, 1997). "Pepsico Selling California Pizza
Kitchens to Investment Fund". The New York Times. Retrieved December
^ Ogg, Jon (December 2, 2010). "
Pepsi Acquisition of WBD Goes Much
Deeper Into Russia". 24/7 Wall Street. Retrieved December 15,
^ Freudenheim, Milt (February 21, 1989). "Amer Group to Acquire Wilson
Sporting Goods". The New York Times. Retrieved December 15,
^ "Norfolk Southern Corp. to Acquire North American Van Lines". The
Los Angeles Times. January 13, 1998. Retrieved December 15,
^ Hays, Constance L. (July 26, 1998). "Pepsico Buys Tropicana". The
New York Times. Retrieved December 12, 2010.
Pepsi Buys Quaker in $13.4B Stock Deal". ABC News. December 4,
2000. Retrieved December 12, 2010.
^ Herper, Matthew; Schiffman, Betsy (August 2, 2001). "
Quaker. Now What?". Forbes. Retrieved December 12, 2010.
^ Kaplan, Andrew (April 2010). "What
PepsiCo hopes to gain from the
merger with its two largest bottlers" (PDF). Beverage World. Archived
from the original (PDF) on December 18, 2010. Retrieved December 14,
PepsiCo to Buy Rest of Russian Beverage Company". The New York
Times. February 3, 2011. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
Pepsi Concludes Wimm-Bill-Dann Buy In Largest Ever Foreign
Acquisition Of Russian Company". Seeking Alpha. September 12, 2011.
Retrieved October 24, 2011.
^ Kelleher, Jim (October 19, 2011). "Time to Snack on
Barron's. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
PepsiCo and Germany's Theo Muller Group to Enter U.S. Dairy Market
With European-Style Premium Yogurt".
^ FoodNavigator-USA.com. "Muller Quaker Dairy JV ends in
disappointment, but what went wrong?". FoodNavigator-USA.com.
^ Pyke, Jim (October 31, 2010). "
Cola Wars: Considering a Coke and
Pepsi Pairs Trade". Seeking Alpha. Retrieved December 15, 2010.
^ a b c d e f "2009 PepsiCo, Inc. SEC Form 10-K". Businessweek.
February 23, 2010. Retrieved December 12, 2010.
^ a b "
PepsiCo CEO Discusses Q3 2010 Results -Earnings Call
Transcript". The Street / Seeking Alpha. October 7, 2010. Archived
from the original (Transcript) on October 12, 2010. Retrieved December
^ a b c d "
PepsiCo Annual Report 2009" (PDF). PepsiCo, Inc.
p. 13. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-03-31. Retrieved
December 13, 2010.
^ a b c d e f g h "2015 Annual Report" (PDF). PepsiCo. Retrieved April
^ "Global Brands". PepsiCo. Retrieved April 3, 2016.
^ "Global Divisions". PepsiCo. Retrieved April 2, 2016.
PepsiCo SEC Filings". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
February 11, 2016. Retrieved April 2, 2016.
^ Gorham, Philip (October 8, 2009). "Pepsi's Beverage Business Flat in
and also made 10b of toys for children in Africa 3Q". Morningstar.
Archived from the original on July 14, 2011. Retrieved December 11,
^ a b c d "Profile: PepsiCo, Inc. (PEP)". Reuters. Retrieved December
Pepsi just revealed a new solution to declining sales". Business
Insider. Retrieved 2016-11-23.
Frito-Lay North America, Inc. Company Profile". Yahoo! Finance.
Archived from the original on February 28, 2003. Retrieved December
^ "PepsiCo, Inc. (NYSE:PEP) : Second Quarter 2010 Earnings
Preview". IStock Analyst. July 15, 2010. Archived from the original on
July 17, 2010. Retrieved December 11, 2010.
^ Bagh, Carl (May 21, 2010). "Key facts about PepsiCo". International
Business Times. Archived from the original on April 6, 2012. Retrieved
December 15, 2010.
^ Troester, Maura; Salamie, David (2002). "Company History: Quaker
Foods North America". International Directory of Company Histories.
Retrieved December 15, 2010. [dead link]
^ Gould, Jens Erik (July 13, 2010). "Pepsi's Mexico Chief Sees Sales
Climbing 4% This Year as Economy Recovers". Bloomberg L.P. Archived
from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved December 15,
^ Doherty, Jacqueline (November 30, 2009). "At Pepsi, the Glass Is
Half Full". Barron's. Retrieved December 15, 2010.
^ Flores, Clorinda (April 19, 2009). "Dueña de
fábrica Karinto". Correo Lima. Archived from the original on August
14, 2011. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
^ Breakmedia "
Pepsi now selling as 'Pécsi' in Mexico" "
selling as 'Pecsi' in Mexico" Accessed May 8, 2011.
Pepsi (o Pecsi) para todos - CNN Expansión, 24 de octubre de 2011
PepsiCo sign agreement for Ready-To-Drink coffee, energy
beverages in Latin America - Reuters, July 23, 2015
Pepsi Bottling Group to Invest $1 Billion In Russia 50
Years After Russians Had Their First Taste of Pepsi-Cola". PepsiCo.
July 6, 2009. Retrieved February 24, 2012.
PepsiCo to buy stake of Wimm-Bill-Dann for $3.8B". MSNBC /
Associated Press. December 2, 2010. Archived from the original on
December 4, 2010. Retrieved December 15, 2010.
^ "Is Myanmar a business opportunity bonanza?". Investvine.com.
January 15, 2013. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
^ Morris, Betsy (February 19, 2008). "The
Pepsi challenge". Fortune.
Retrieved December 12, 2010.
^ Shambora, Jessica; Kowitt, Beth (September 30, 2010). "50 Most
Powerful Women". Fortune. Retrieved December 10, 2010.
^ "The World's 100 Most Powerful Women". Forbes. 2010. Retrieved
December 10, 2010.
^ Henneman, Todd (October 12, 2004). "In Good Companies". The
Advocate. p. 44. Retrieved October 2, 2009.
PepsiCo President Zein Abdalla to retire" (Press release). Reuters.
November 6, 2014.
^ "Our 10 Most Beautiful Buildings." Westchester Magazine. November
17, 2010. Retrieved on February 1, 2011.
^ King, Seth S. "AMERICAN CAN CO. WILL LEAVE CITY; Plans to Go to
Greenwich Olin Mathieson Completes Arrangements to Move American Can
Co. Plans to Leave City." The New York Times. February 16, 1967.
Retrieved on February 2, 2011. "Pepsico. said last Friday that it
planned to move its international headquarters from the Pepsi-Cola
Building, 500 Park Avenue at 59th Street,[...]"
^ "$2,000,000 IS PAID FOR CITY BUILDING; 500 Park Ave. Auctioned to
Pepsi-Cola, Which Will Build a New Headquarters." The New York Times.
1956. Retrieved on February 2, 2011.
^ a b D. J. "The Bunshaft style." The New York Times. July 23, 1972.
Magazine SM12. Retrieved on February 2, 2011. "In 1960, the PepsiCo
(now Olivetti) Building went up at 500 Park Avenue, and a year after
that the imposing Chase
Manhattan Building went much farther up[...]"
^ Reeves, Richard. "Mayor Tried to Halt Move; CITY ATTEMPTED TO
DISSUADE PEPSI." The New York Times. February 11, 1967. Retrieved on
February 2, 2011.
^ Folsom, Merrill. "Pepsi-
Cola Planning to Leave City for Westchester;
New Use for Club Fought Pepsi-
Cola Plans Move From City." The New York
Times. February 11, 1967. Retrieved on February 2, 2011.
PepsiCo Foundation Announces Support for Sustainable Water
Initiatives". Philanthropy News Digest. January 23, 2008. Archived
from the original on May 16, 2010. Retrieved December 7, 2010.
^ Winston, Megan. "Irrigation project success in Mali". Columbia
Earth Institute Blog. Retrieved December 7, 2010.
PepsiCo Foundation". PepsiCo, Inc. Retrieved December 8,
^ Ferrell, O.C.; Ferrell, Linda. "PepsiCo's Journey Toward an Ethical
and Socially Responsible Culture" (PDF). Daniels Fund Business Ethics
Initiative, University of New Mexico. Retrieved December 13,
PepsiCo Join Forces to Promote a Healthier America".
Philanthropy News Digest. March 10, 2006. Archived from the original
on October 5, 2007. Retrieved December 12, 2010.
^ Grinton, Claire (February 17, 2010). "Pepsi's Refresh Everything Vs.
Coke's Live Positively: Which Soda Wins The War?". The Huffington
Post. Retrieved December 12, 2010.
^ Davis, Lucia (October 20, 2010). "PepsiCo's Bonin Bough on
performance with purpose". IMedia Connection. Archived from the
original on October 22, 2010. Retrieved December 13, 2010.
^ "Mich. school wins grant to build weight room". ABC News Affiliate
WTVG-TV [Toledo, OH]. July 9, 2010. Archived from the original on June
29, 2011. Retrieved December 15, 2010.
^ "Oil Spill Aid Is Small, but Some Companies Step Up". The New York
Times. August 2, 2010. Retrieved October 27, 2010.
^ Trigg, Delania (November 14, 2010). "Animal food bank puts Pepsi
grant to good use". Gainesville Daily Register. Retrieved December 14,
^ Marshall, Jack (September 8, 2010). "
Pepsi Re-Ups 'Refresh,' Extends
Project Overseas". ClickZ. Retrieved December 14, 2010.
^ a b c d "2009 Sustainability Report Overview" (PDF). PepsiCo, Inc.
2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-08-21. Retrieved
December 13, 2010.
^ 2006 Annual Report (PDF) (Report). PepsiCo, Inc. March 5, 2007.
pp. 2–3. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 2, 2009.
Retrieved December 9, 2010.
^ a b "
Pepsi gets a makeover". The Economist. March 25, 2010.
Retrieved December 3, 2010.
^ Clancy, Heather (May 19, 2010). "
PepsiCo practices performance with
purpose in sustainability push". Smart Planet. Archived from the
original on May 23, 2010. Retrieved December 15, 2010.
^ a b Warner, Melanie (April 29, 2010). "Good News! PepsiCo's Indra
Nooyi Solves the
Obesity Crisis". BNet. Retrieved December 4,
PepsiCo Palm Oil Commitments" (PDF). PepsiCo. Retrieved November
^ "All Eyes on PepsiCo: Will it Come Clean or Keep Trafficking
Conflict Palm Oil?". RAN.org. Rainforest Action Network. Retrieved
November 21, 2014.
^ Baertlein, Lisa; Gillam, Carey (August 16, 2012). "Prop 37:
California GMO Fight Pits Big Food Against Activists". Huffington
^ Behrsin, Pamela (August 22, 2012). CA Prop. 37 - GMO Labeling:
Funding Update - Monsanto ($4M), Dupont ($4M),
^ Rice, Dave (September 4, 2012). "Public Sparring Between Prop 37
Supporters, Opponents Begins". San Diego Reader.
PepsiCo 2009 Proxy Statement (PDF) (Report). PepsiCo. March 24,
^ a b Brady, Diane (May 31, 2007). "Pepsi: Repairing a Poisoned
Reputation in India". Businessweek Asia. Archived from the original on
June 2, 2007. Retrieved December 11, 2010.
^ Chadha, Sanjeev (April 27, 2010). "Why
PepsiCo is Building Dams in
India". Green Biz. Retrieved December 13, 2010.
^ Glennon, Robert Jerome (2009). Unquenchable: America's Water Crisis
and What To Do About It. Island Press. p. 25.
^ Wheatley, Thomas. "Tap water wears a bow tie when it's put in a
bottle and sold". Creative Loafing Atlanta. Retrieved December 7,
^ Gardner, Sarah (November 19, 2008). "
Pepsi conserves water with
Gatorade". Marketplace / Public Radio. Archived from the original on
July 27, 2011. Retrieved December 11, 2010.
PepsiCo to Recycle Potato Water". Environmental Leader. June 7,
2010. Retrieved December 2, 2010.
^ Confino, Jo (May 26, 2010). "The water margin". The Guardian (U.K.).
London. Retrieved December 2, 2010.
PepsiCo releases water report". International Business Times.
September 8, 2010. Archived from the original on September 11, 2010.
Retrieved December 15, 2010.
^ a b Gunther, Marc (April 25, 2007). "Bottled water: No longer
cool?". Fortune / CNN Money. Retrieved December 10, 2010.
^ Bremner, Brian (August 10, 2006). "India: Pesticide Claims Shake Up
Coke and Pepsi". Bloomberg Businessweek. Archived from the original on
August 20, 2006. Retrieved December 11, 2010.
^ Reeves, Philip (August 29, 2006). "Pesticide Scare Cripples Coke and
Pepsi in India". NPR. Retrieved December 12, 2010.
^ Bremner, Brian (August 24, 2006). "Behind the Coke-
Scare". Bloomberg Businessweek. Archived from the original on June 4,
2011. Retrieved December 11, 2010.
^ Majumder, Sanjoy (August 9, 2006). "Indian state bans
Coke". BBC News. Retrieved September 23, 2006.
^ Bhattacharjee, Ashok (September 22, 2006). "Coca-Cola,
Ruling Overturning India Ban". Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the
original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2010.
PepsiCo cheers verdict". Business Standard (Mumbai). November 19,
2010. Retrieved December 12, 2010.
^ Singh, Sanjay (November 19, 2010). "
Pepsi gets reprieve in pesticide
case". The Economic Times (India). Retrieved December 12, 2010.
^ "Ambassador Roemer Honors GE India and
PepsiCo India". Embassy of
the United States, New Delhi, India. December 13, 2010. Archived from
the original on July 22, 2011. Retrieved December 15, 2010.
PepsiCo praised for CSR in emerging markets". Warc. September
10, 2010. Retrieved December 13, 2010.
PepsiCo Uncaps Bottle
Starbucks Still Brewing".
GreenBiz. March 26, 2010. Retrieved December 9, 2010.
^ Nusca, Andrew (April 22, 2010). "
PepsiCo unveils smart 'Dream
Machine' recycling kiosks". SmartPlanet. Archived from the original on
April 25, 2010. Retrieved December 9, 2010.
PepsiCo to Roll Out
Recycling Kiosks". Supermarket News. April 22,
2010. Retrieved December 10, 2010.
^ "PepsiCo, Coca-
Cola Roll Out
Recycling Initiatives". Environmental
Leader. June 3, 2010. Retrieved December 9, 2010.
^ Schwartz, Ariel (July 10, 2009). "
Naked Juice Brings PET Bottles to
the Mainstream". Fast Company. Archived from the original on July 13,
2009. Retrieved December 12, 2010.
PepsiCo Develops World's First 100 Percent Plant-Based, Renewably
Sourced PET Bottle".
PepsiCo PRNewswire. March 15, 2011. Retrieved
June 18, 2012.
^ a b Geller, Martinne (March 30, 2009). "
PepsiCo tests "green"
vending machines". Reuters. Retrieved December 12, 2010.
^ Bruce, Bill (November 29, 2010). "Consumer goods industry
initiatives on climate protection". FoodBev. Retrieved December 13,
^ a b Martin, Andrew (January 21, 2009). "How Green Is My Orange?".
The New York Times. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
^ Mangalindan, JP (April 27, 2010). "
PepsiCo CEO: 'If all consumers
exercised...obesity wouldn't exist'". CNN Money / Fortune. Retrieved
December 12, 2010.
^ Moore, Angela (December 6, 2007). "Indra Nooyi's
MarketWatch. Retrieved December 14, 2010.
^ a b Confino, Jo (May 26, 2010). "PepsiCo's 'big hairy audacious
goals'". The Guardian. London. Retrieved December 14, 2010.
^ a b c Byrnes, Nanette (January 14, 2010). "
Pepsi Brings In the
Health Police". Bloomberg Businessweek. Archived from the original on
January 21, 2010. Retrieved December 13, 2010.
Pepsi unveils low-calorie
Gatorade 'G2'". CNN Money. September 7,
2007. Retrieved December 13, 2010.
^ Kastrenakes, Jacob. "Coca-
Pepsi removing controversial
'flame retardant' ingredient from all drinks". The Verge. Vox Media.
Retrieved 3 June 2017.
^ Hack, Greg (March 16, 2010). "
Pepsi to pull sugar-sweetened drinks
from schools". The Kansas City Star. Retrieved December 12,
PepsiCo yanking sugar from schools worldwide". Crains New York.
Associated Press. March 16, 2010. Retrieved December 14, 2010.
^ Fredrix, Emily (March 16, 2010). "
Pepsi Plans To Stop Selling Sugary
Drinks In Schools Worldwide". The Huffington Post. Archived from the
original on March 26, 2010. Retrieved December 14, 2010.
^ Gilbert, Sarah. "Is Pepsi's Removal of Sodas from Schools Just a
Publicity Stunt?". DailyFinance. Retrieved December 14, 2010.
^ Black, Jane (May 19, 2010). "Food firms take up first lady's
challenge". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette / The Washington Post. Retrieved
December 14, 2010.
Business data for PepsiCo, Inc: Google Finance
Indra Nooyi (
Chairman & CEO)
Robert Eugene Allen
Pepsi Max (North America and International versions)
Cola Made with Real Sugar
Mug Root Beer
7 Up (outside United States)
Ethos Water (under license)
Iced Tea) (under license)
No Fear (under license)
Ocean Spray (under license)
Frappuccino (under license)
Starbucks (under license)
Dole (under license)
Quaker Oats Company
Quaker Instant Oatmeal
Chewy Granola Bars
Scott's Porage Oats
Propel Fitness Water
Duke and Sons
Soft drink topics
List of brand name soft drinks products
List of soft drink flavors
List of soft drinks by country
Frozen carbonated beverage
Grape soft drink
Ice cream float
Orange soft drink
Sugary drinks tax
List of soft drink producers
Dr Pepper Snapple Group
ISNI: 0000 0000 8932 0174
Hudson Valley portal
New York City portal