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The Pazzi
Pazzi
were a noble Florentine family in the Middle Ages. In 1342 they gave up their titles of nobility so that members could be elected to public office.[citation needed] Their main trade during the 15th century was banking. In the aftermath of the Pazzi conspiracy
Pazzi conspiracy
in 1477, the family was banished from Florence and their property was confiscated; anyone named Pazzi
Pazzi
had to take a new name.

Contents

1 History of the family 2 Pazzi
Pazzi
Chapel 3 Palaces of the Pazzi family
Pazzi family
in Florence 4 The Pazzi
Pazzi
Conspiracy 5 Cultural depictions 6 References

History of the family[edit] The traditional story is that the family was founded by Pazzo di Ranieri, first man over the walls during the Siege of Jerusalem of 1099, during the First Crusade, who returned to Florence with flints supposedly from the Holy Sepulchre, which were kept at Santi Apostoli and used on Holy Saturday
Holy Saturday
to re-kindle fire in the city.[1][2]:131 The historical basis of this legend has been in question since the work of Luigi Passerini Orsini de' Rilli (it) in the mid-nineteenth century.[1] The first apparently historical figure in the family is the Jacopo de' Pazzi (it) who was a captain of the Florentine (Guelph) cavalry at the battle of Montaperti on 4 September 1260, and whose hand was treacherously severed by Bocca degli Abati (it), causing the standard to fall.[3] Andrea de' Pazzi
Pazzi
was the patron of the chapter-house for the Franciscan
Franciscan
community at the Basilica of Santa Croce, Florence
Basilica of Santa Croce, Florence
and commissioned construction of the Pazzi
Pazzi
Chapel. His son Jacopo de' Pazzi
Pazzi
became head of the family in 1464.[2]:131 Guglielmo de' Pazzi
Pazzi
married Bianca de' Medici, sister of Lorenzo de' Medici, in 1460.[3] Francesco de' Pazzi
Pazzi
was one of the instigators of the Pazzi
Pazzi
Conspiracy in 1477–78. He, Jacopo de' Pazzi
Pazzi
and Jacopo's brother Renato de' Pazzi
Pazzi
were executed after the plot failed.[2]:141 Maria Maddalena de' Pazzi
Maddalena de' Pazzi
(1566–1607) was a Carmelite
Carmelite
nun and mystic;[4]:218 she was canonised in 1669.[5]:149 Pazzi
Pazzi
Chapel[edit]

Interior of the Pazzi
Pazzi
Chapel

Main article: Pazzi
Pazzi
Chapel The Pazzi Chapel
Pazzi Chapel
was designed by Filippo Brunelleschi. Construction began in 1442 in a cloister of the Franciscan
Franciscan
church of Santa Croce. The High-Renaissance design is restrained and sober, using pietra serena and white plaster in geometric designs, generally unrelieved by colour, and capped with a hemispherical dome, completed after Brunelleschi's death according to his plans. Palaces of the Pazzi family
Pazzi family
in Florence[edit]

Palazzo Pazzi, showing the yellow-ochre sandstone pietra forte and stucco-surfaced architecture.

Palazzo Pazzi
Pazzi
(Palazzo Pazzi-Quaratesi): The main seat of the family, at canto Pazzi, where Borgo degli Albizi crosses via del Proconsolo, was commissioned by Jacopo de' Pazzi, and built circa 1462–72 to designs by Giuliano da Maiano. Above its traditionally rusticated ground floor of the yellow-ochre sandstone, it had a then-novel stuccoed first and second floor, with delicate designs in the windows influenced by Brunelleschi. The central court is surrounded on three sides by round-headed arcading, with circular bosses in the spandrels. Palazzo Pazzi
Pazzi
Ammannati (it): a smaller palace in the Borgo degli Albizi (it), between Palazzo Ramirez de Montalvo and the Palazzo Nonfinito. It houses a section of the Museum of Natural History of Florence, and hosts temporary exhibitions. The façade is attributed to Bartolomeo Ammannati.

The Pazzi
Pazzi
Conspiracy[edit] Main article: Pazzi
Pazzi
conspiracy Early in 1477 Francesco de' Pazzi, manager in Rome of the Pazzi
Pazzi
bank, plotted with Girolamo Riario, nephew and protegé of the pope, Sixtus IV, and with Francesco Salviati, whom Sixtus had made archbishop of Pisa, to assassinate Lorenzo de' Medici
Lorenzo de' Medici
and his brother Giuliano to oust the Medici family as rulers of Florence.[2]:131 Sixtus gave tacit support to the conspirators.[6]:254 The assassination attempt was made during mass in the Duomo of Florence
Duomo of Florence
on 26 April 1478. Giuliano was killed; Lorenzo was wounded but escaped.[6]:254–255 Salviati, with mercenaries from Perugia, tried but failed to take over the Palazzo della Signoria.[2]:138 Most of the conspirators were soon caught and summarily executed; five, including Francesco de' Pazzi, were hanged from the windows of the Palazzo della Signoria.[2]:140 Jacopo de' Pazzi, head of the family, escaped from Florence but was caught and brought back. He was tortured, then hanged from the Palazzo della Signoria next to the decomposing corpse of Salviati. He was buried at Santa Croce, but the body was dug up and thrown into a ditch. It was then dragged through the streets and propped up at the door of Palazzo Pazzi, where the rotting head was mockingly used as a door-knocker. From there it was thrown into the Arno; children fished it out and hung it from a willow tree, flogged it, and then threw it back into the river.[2]:141 The Pazzi
Pazzi
were banished from Florence, and their lands and property confiscated. Their name and their coat of arms were perpetually suppressed. The name was erased from public registers, and all buildings and streets carrying it were renamed. Their shield with its dolphins was obliterated. Anyone named Pazzi
Pazzi
had to take a new name; anyone married to a Pazzi
Pazzi
was barred from public office.[2]:142 Guglielmo de' Pazzi, husband of Lorenzo's sister Bianca, was merely placed under house arrest.[2]:141 After the overthrow of Piero de' Medici in 1494, the Pazzi
Pazzi
family, and many other political exiles, returned briefly to Florence to participate in the restored republic. Cultural depictions[edit] The conspiracy is the subject of La congiura de' Pazzi, a play by Vittorio Alfieri
Vittorio Alfieri
first performed in 1787 and published in 1789, and of a historical novel by Lorenzo Antonini from 1877 with the same title. The conspiracy is central to Ruggero Leoncavallo's opera I Medici, first performed on 9 November 1893.[7] References[edit]

^ a b Arnaldo D'Addario (1970). Pazzi
Pazzi
(in Italian). Enciclopedia Dantesca. Rome: Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana. Accessed October 2015. ^ a b c d e f g h i Christopher Hibbert (1979 [1974]). The Rise and Fall of the House of Medici. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin. ISBN 0140050906. ^ a b Claudia Tripodi (2015). Pazzi, Guglielmo de' (in Italian). Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, volume 82. Rome: Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana. Accessed October 2015. ^ Clare Copeland (2016). Maria Maddalena De' Pazzi: The Making of a Counter-Reformation Saint. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198785385. ^ Joseph Hammond (2012). An Old Altarpiece for a New Saint: The Canonization of Santa Maria Maddalena de' Pazzi
Maddalena de' Pazzi
and the Decoration of Santa Maria dei Carmini in Venice. Explorations in Renaissance Culture 38 (1-2): 149–169. doi:10.1163/23526963-90000431. ISSN 0098-2474. (subscription required). ^ a b Vincent Cronin (1992 [1967]). The Florentine Renaissance. London: Pimlico. ISBN 0712698744. ^ Michele Girardi. Medici, I. In: Stanley Sadie (ed.) The New Grove Dictionary of Opera. Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Accessed May 2015. (subscription required).

v t e

Banking families

Europe

Abravanel Bardi Benveniste Berenberg Bethmann Bischoffsheim Borgia Camondo Cerchi Chigi Etcheverría Ephrussi Fould Fugger Goldman–Sachs Goldschmidt Gondi Gossler (Berenberg-Gossler) Hambro Hochstetter Hottinguer Imhoff Königswarter Kronenberg Medici Mendelssohn Metzler Oppenheim Pazzi Pictet Pierleoni Péreire Peruzzi Rothschild Schröder Seyler Solaro Sozzini Speyer Stern Thurzó Wallenberg Warburg Welser Van Lanschot

United States

Barney Drexel Goldman–Sachs Lazard Lehman Mellon Morgan Rockefeller Seligman Warburg

United Kingdom

Baring Child Clifford Goldsmid Hope Mocatta Rothschild Sassoon Smith

Japan

Mitsui Sumitomo Yasuda

Middle East

Habib

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 67260

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