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Coordinates: 37°58′17″N 23°43′35″E / 37.9714°N 23.7265°E / 37.9714; 23.7265

Parthenon

Παρθενώνας

The Parthenon

General information

Type Temple

Architectural style Classical

Location Athens, Greece

Construction started 447 BC[1][2]

Completed 432 BC[1][2]

Destroyed Partially on 26 September 1687

Height 13.72 m (45.0 ft)[3]

Dimensions

Other dimensions Cella: 29.8 by 19.2 m (98 by 63 ft)

Technical details

Size 69.5 by 30.9 m (228 by 101 ft)

Design and construction

Architect Iktinos, Callicrates

Other designers Phidias
Phidias
(sculptor)

Reconstruction of the Acropolis
Acropolis
and Areus Pagus in Athens, Leo von Klenze, 1846

The Parthenon
Parthenon
(/ˈpɑːrθəˌnɒn, -nən/; Ancient Greek: Παρθενών; Greek: Παρθενώνας, Parthenónas) is a former temple,[4][5] on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens
Athens
considered their patron. Construction began in 447 BC when the Athenian Empire
Athenian Empire
was at the peak of its power. It was completed in 438 BC although decoration of the building continued until 432 BC. It is the most important surviving building of Classical Greece, generally considered the zenith of the Doric order. Its decorative sculptures are considered some of the high points of Greek art. The Parthenon
Parthenon
is regarded as an enduring symbol of Ancient Greece, Athenian democracy
Athenian democracy
and western civilization,[6] and one of the world's greatest cultural monuments. To the Athenians who built it, the Parthenon
Parthenon
and other Periclean monuments of the Acropolis, were seen fundamentally as a celebration of Hellenic victory over the Persian invaders and as a thanksgiving to the gods for that victory.[7] The Greek Ministry of Culture is currently carrying out a programme of selective restoration and reconstruction to ensure the stability of the partially ruined structure.[8] The Parthenon
Parthenon
itself replaced an older temple of Athena, which historians call the Pre- Parthenon
Parthenon
or Older Parthenon, that was destroyed in the Persian invasion of 480 BC. The temple is archaeoastronomically aligned to the Hyades.[9] Like most Greek temples, the Parthenon
Parthenon
served a practical purpose as the city treasury.[10][11] For a time, it served as the treasury of the Delian League, which later became the Athenian Empire. In the final decade of the sixth century AD, the Parthenon
Parthenon
was converted into a Christian church dedicated to the Virgin Mary. After the Ottoman conquest, it was turned into a mosque in the early 1460s. On 26 September 1687, an Ottoman ammunition dump inside the building was ignited by Venetian bombardment. The resulting explosion severely damaged the Parthenon
Parthenon
and its sculptures. From 1800 to 1803,[12] Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin
Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin
removed some of the surviving sculptures with the alleged permission of the Ottoman Empire.[citation needed] These sculptures, now known as the Elgin Marbles or the Parthenon
Parthenon
Marbles, were sold in 1816 to the British Museum in London, where they are now displayed. Since 1983 (on the initiative of Culture Minister Melina Mercouri), the Greek government has been committed to the return of the sculptures to Greece.[13]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Function

2.1 Older Parthenon 2.2 Present building

3 Architecture 4 Sculpture

4.1 Metopes 4.2 Frieze 4.3 Pediments

4.3.1 East pediment 4.3.2 West pediment

4.4 Athena
Athena
Parthenos

5 Later history

5.1 Late antiquity 5.2 Christian church 5.3 Islamic mosque 5.4 Destruction 5.5 Independent Greece 5.6 Dispute over the marbles

6 Restoration 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References

9.1 Printed sources 9.2 Online sources

10 Further reading 11 External links

11.1 Videos

Etymology[edit] The origin of the Parthenon's name is from the Greek word παρθενών (parthenon), which referred to the "unmarried women's apartments" in a house and in the Parthenon's case seems to have been used at first only for a particular room of the temple;[14] it is debated which room this is and how the room acquired its name. The Liddell–Scott–Jones Greek–English Lexicon states that this room was the western cella of the Parthenon, as does J. B. Bury.[7] Jamauri D. Green holds that the parthenon was the room in which the peplos presented to Athena
Athena
at the Panathenaic Festival
Panathenaic Festival
was woven by the arrephoroi, a group of four young girls chosen to serve Athena
Athena
each year.[15] Christopher Pelling asserts that Athena
Athena
Parthenos may have constituted a discrete cult of Athena, intimately connected with, but not identical to, that of Athena
Athena
Polias.[16] According to this theory, the name of the Parthenon
Parthenon
means the "temple of the virgin goddess" and refers to the cult of Athena
Athena
Parthenos that was associated with the temple.[17] The epithet parthénos (παρθένος) meant "maiden, girl", but also "virgin, unmarried woman"[18] and was especially used for Artemis, the goddess of wild animals, the hunt, and vegetation, and for Athena, the goddess of strategy and tactics, handicraft, and practical reason.[19] It has also been suggested that the name of the temple alludes to the maidens (parthenoi), whose supreme sacrifice guaranteed the safety of the city.[20] Parthénos has also been applied to the Virgin Mary, Parthénos Maria, and the Parthenon
Parthenon
had been converted to a Christian church dedicated to the Virgin Mary in the final decade of the sixth century.[21] The first instance in which Parthenon
Parthenon
definitely refers to the entire building is found in the writings of the 4th century BC orator Demosthenes. In 5th-century building accounts, the structure is simply called ho naos ("the temple"). The architects Iktinos
Iktinos
and Callicrates are said to have called the building Hekatompedos ("the hundred footer") in their lost treatise on Athenian architecture,[22] and, in the 4th century and later, the building was referred to as the Hekatompedos or the Hekatompedon as well as the Parthenon; the 1st-century-AD writer Plutarch
Plutarch
referred to the building as the Hekatompedos Parthenon.[23] Because the Parthenon
Parthenon
was dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena, it has sometimes been referred to as the Temple
Temple
of Minerva, the Roman name for Athena, particularly during the 19th century.[24] Function[edit]

The Doric order
Doric order
of the Parthenon

Although the Parthenon
Parthenon
is architecturally a temple and is usually called so, it is not really one in the conventional sense of the word.[25] A small shrine has been excavated within the building, on the site of an older sanctuary probably dedicated to Athena
Athena
as a way to get closer to the goddess,[25] but the Parthenon
Parthenon
never hosted the cult of Athena
Athena
Polias, patron of Athens: the cult image, which was bathed in the sea and to which was presented the peplos, was an olivewood xoanon, located at an older altar on the northern side of the Acropolis.[26] The colossal statue of Athena
Athena
by Phidias
Phidias
was not related to any cult[27] and is not known to have inspired any religious fervour.[26] It did not seem to have any priestess, altar or cult name.[28] According to Thucydides, Pericles
Pericles
once referred to the statue as a gold reserve, stressing that it "contained forty talents of pure gold and it was all removable".[29] The Athenian statesman thus implies that the metal, obtained from contemporary coinage,[30] could be used again without any impiety.[28] The Parthenon
Parthenon
should then be viewed as a grand setting for Phidias' votive statue rather than a cult site.[31] It is said[by whom?] in many writings of the Greeks that there were many treasures stored inside the temple, such as Persian swords and small statue figures made of precious metals. Archaeologist Joan Breton Connelly
Joan Breton Connelly
has recently argued for the coherency of the Parthenon’s sculptural programme in presenting a succession of genealogical narratives that track Athenian identity back through the ages: from the birth of Athena, through cosmic and epic battles, to the final great event of the Athenian Bronze Age, the war of Erechtheus and Eumolpos.[32][33] She argues a pedagogical function for the Parthenon’s sculptured decoration, one that establishes and perpetuates Athenian foundation myth, memory, values and identity.[34][35] While some classicists, including Mary Beard, Peter Green, and Garry Wills[36][37] have doubted or rejected Connelly's thesis, an increasing number of historians, archaeologists, and classical scholars support her work. They include: J.J. Pollitt,[38] Brunilde Ridgway,[39] Nigel Spivey,[40] Caroline Alexander,[41] A.E. Stallings.[42] Older Parthenon[edit] Main article: Older Parthenon The first endeavour to build a sanctuary for Athena
Athena
Parthenos on the site of the present Parthenon
Parthenon
was begun shortly after the Battle of Marathon (c. 490–488 BC) upon a solid limestone foundation that extended and levelled the southern part of the Acropolis
Acropolis
summit. This building replaced a hekatompedon (meaning "hundred-footer") and would have stood beside the archaic temple dedicated to Athena
Athena
Polias ("of the city"). The Older or Pre-Parthenon, as it is frequently referred to, was still under construction when the Persians sacked the city in 480 BC and razed the Acropolis.[8][43] The existence of both the proto- Parthenon
Parthenon
and its destruction were known from Herodotus,[44] and the drums of its columns were plainly visible built into the curtain wall north of the Erechtheon. Further physical evidence of this structure was revealed with the excavations of Panagiotis Kavvadias of 1885–90. The findings of this dig allowed Wilhelm Dörpfeld, then director of the German Archaeological Institute, to assert that there existed a distinct substructure to the original Parthenon, called Parthenon
Parthenon
I by Dörpfeld, not immediately below the present edifice as had been previously assumed.[45] Dörpfeld's observation was that the three steps of the first Parthenon
Parthenon
consisted of two steps of Poros limestone, the same as the foundations, and a top step of Karrha limestone that was covered by the lowest step of the Periclean Parthenon. This platform was smaller and slightly to the north of the final Parthenon, indicating that it was built for a wholly different building, now completely covered over. This picture was somewhat complicated by the publication of the final report on the 1885–90 excavations, indicating that the substructure was contemporary with the Kimonian walls, and implying a later date for the first temple.[46] If the original Parthenon
Parthenon
was indeed destroyed in 480, it invites the question of why the site was left a ruin for thirty-three years. One argument involves the oath sworn by the Greek allies before the Battle of Plataea in 479 BC[47] declaring that the sanctuaries destroyed by the Persians would not be rebuilt, an oath from which the Athenians were only absolved with the Peace of Callias in 450.[48] The mundane fact of the cost of reconstructing Athens
Athens
after the Persian sack is at least as likely a cause. However, the excavations of Bert Hodge Hill led him to propose the existence of a second Parthenon, begun in the period of Kimon after 468 BC.[49] Hill claimed that the Karrha limestone step Dörpfeld thought was the highest of Parthenon
Parthenon
I was in fact the lowest of the three steps of Parthenon
Parthenon
II, whose stylobate dimensions Hill calculated at 23.51 by 66.888 metres (77.13 ft × 219.45 ft). One difficulty in dating the proto- Parthenon
Parthenon
is that at the time of the 1885 excavation the archaeological method of seriation was not fully developed; the careless digging and refilling of the site led to a loss of much valuable information. An attempt to discuss and make sense of the potsherds found on the Acropolis
Acropolis
came with the two-volume study by Graef and Langlotz published in 1925–33.[50] This inspired American archaeologist William Bell Dinsmoor to attempt to supply limiting dates for the temple platform and the five walls hidden under the re-terracing of the Acropolis. Dinsmoor concluded that the latest possible date for Parthenon
Parthenon
I was no earlier than 495 BC, contradicting the early date given by Dörpfeld.[51] Further, Dinsmoor denied that there were two proto-Parthenons, and held that the only pre-Periclean temple was what Dörpfeld referred to as Parthenon
Parthenon
II. Dinsmoor and Dörpfeld exchanged views in the American Journal of Archaeology in 1935.[52] Present building[edit]

The Parthenon
Parthenon
at the acropolis of Athens
Athens
at night.

Parthenon
Parthenon
today and as it probably appeared in ancient times

In the mid-5th century BC, when the Athenian Acropolis
Acropolis
became the seat of the Delian League
Delian League
and Athens
Athens
was the greatest cultural centre of its time, Pericles
Pericles
initiated an ambitious building project that lasted the entire second half of the century. The most important buildings visible on the Acropolis
Acropolis
today — the Parthenon, the Propylaia, the Erechtheion
Erechtheion
and the temple of Athena
Athena
Nike — were erected during this period. The Parthenon
Parthenon
was built under the general supervision of the artist Phidias, who also had charge of the sculptural decoration. The architects Ictinos
Ictinos
and Callicrates
Callicrates
began their work in 447 BC, and the building was substantially completed by 432, but work on the decorations continued until at least 431. Architecture[edit]

Floor plan of the Parthenon

The Parthenon
Parthenon
is a peripteral octastyle Doric temple with Ionic architectural features. It stands on a platform or stylobate of three steps. In common with other Greek temples, it is of post and lintel construction and is surrounded by columns ("peripteral") carrying an entablature. There are eight columns at either end ("octastyle") and seventeen on the sides. There is a double row of columns at either end. The colonnade surrounds an inner masonry structure, the cella, which is divided into two compartments. At either end of the building the gable is finished with a triangular pediment originally occupied by sculpted figures. The columns are of the Doric order, with simple capitals, fluted shafts and no bases. Above the architrave of the entablature is a frieze of carved pictorial panels (metopes), separated by formal architectural triglyphs, typical of the Doric order. Around the cella and across the lintels of the inner columns runs a continuous sculptured frieze in low relief. This element of the architecture is Ionic in style rather than Doric.[53] Measured at the stylobate, the dimensions of the base of the Parthenon are 69.5 by 30.9 metres (228 by 101 ft). The cella was 29.8 metres long by 19.2 metres wide (97.8 × 63.0 ft). On the exterior, the Doric columns measure 1.9 metres (6.2 ft) in diameter and are 10.4 metres (34 ft) high. The corner columns are slightly larger in diameter. The Parthenon
Parthenon
had 46 outer columns and 23 inner columns in total, each column containing 20 flutes. (A flute is the concave shaft carved into the column form.) The roof was covered with large overlapping marble tiles known as imbrices and tegulae.[citation needed][54] The Parthenon
Parthenon
is regarded as the finest example of Greek architecture. The temple, wrote John Julius Cooper, "enjoys the reputation of being the most perfect Doric temple ever built. Even in antiquity, its architectural refinements were legendary, especially the subtle correspondence between the curvature of the stylobate, the taper of the naos walls and the entasis of the columns."[55] Entasis
Entasis
refers to the slight swelling, of 1/8 inch, in the centre of the columns to counteract the appearance of columns having a waist, as the swelling makes them look straight from a distance. The stylobate is the platform on which the columns stand. As in many other classical Greek temples,[56] it has a slight parabolic upward curvature intended to shed rainwater and reinforce the building against earthquakes. The columns might therefore be supposed to lean outwards, but they actually lean slightly inwards so that if they carried on, they would meet almost exactly a mile above the centre of the Parthenon; since they are all the same height, the curvature of the outer stylobate edge is transmitted to the architrave and roof above: "All follow the rule of being built to delicate curves", Gorham Stevens observed when pointing out that, in addition, the west front was built at a slightly higher level than that of the east front.[57] It is not universally agreed what the intended effect of these "optical refinements" was; they may serve as a sort of "reverse optical illusion".[58] As the Greeks may have been aware, two parallel lines appear to bow, or curve outward, when intersected by converging lines. In this case, the ceiling and floor of the temple may seem to bow in the presence of the surrounding angles of the building. Striving for perfection, the designers may have added these curves, compensating for the illusion by creating their own curves, thus negating this effect and allowing the temple to be seen as they intended. It is also suggested that it was to enliven what might have appeared an inert mass in the case of a building without curves, but the comparison ought to be, according to Smithsonian historian Evan Hadingham, with the Parthenon's more obviously curved predecessors than with a notional rectilinear temple.[59] Some studies of the Acropolis, including the Parthenon, conclude that many of its proportions approximate the golden ratio. The Parthenon's façade as well as elements of its façade and elsewhere can be circumscribed by golden rectangles.[60] This view that the golden ratio was employed in the design has been disputed in more recent studies.[61] Sculpture[edit]

Group from the east pediment, British Museum.

The cella of the Parthenon
Parthenon
housed the chryselephantine statue of Athena
Athena
Parthenos sculpted by Phidias
Phidias
and dedicated in 439 or 438 BC. The appearance of this is known from other images. The decorative stonework was originally highly coloured.[62] The temple was dedicated to Athena
Athena
at that time, though construction continued until almost the beginning of the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
in 432. By the year 438, the sculptural decoration of the Doric metopes on the frieze above the exterior colonnade, and of the Ionic frieze around the upper portion of the walls of the cella, had been completed. In the opisthodomus (the back room of the cella) were stored the monetary contributions of the Delian League, of which Athens
Athens
was the leading member. Only a very small number of the sculptures remain in situ; most of the surviving sculptures are today (controversially) in the British Museum in London
London
as the Elgin Marbles, and the Athens
Athens
Acropolis
Acropolis
Museum, but a few pieces are also in the Louvre, and museums in Rome, Vienna
Vienna
and Palermo.[63] Metopes[edit] Main article: Metopes of the Parthenon

Detail of the West metopes

The frieze of the Parthenon's entablature contained ninety-two metopes, fourteen each on the east and west sides, thirty-two each on the north and south sides. They were carved in high relief, a practice employed until then only in treasuries (buildings used to keep votive gifts to the gods).[citation needed] According to the building records, the metope sculptures date to the years 446–440 BC. The metopes of the east side of the Parthenon, above the main entrance, depict the Gigantomachy
Gigantomachy
(the mythical battle between the Olympian gods and the Giants). The metopes of the west end show the Amazonomachy
Amazonomachy
(the mythical battle of the Athenians against the Amazons). The metopes of the south side show the Thessalian Centauromachy
Centauromachy
(battle of the Lapiths
Lapiths
aided by Theseus
Theseus
against the half-man, half-horse Centaurs). Metopes 13–21 are missing, but drawings from 1674 attributed to Jaques Carrey indicate a series of humans; these have been variously interpreted as scenes from the Lapith
Lapith
wedding, scenes from the early history of Athens
Athens
and various myths.[64] On the north side of the Parthenon, the metopes are poorly preserved, but the subject seems to be the sack of Troy. The metopes present examples of the Severe Style
Severe Style
in the anatomy of the figures' heads, in the limitation of the corporal movements to the contours and not to the muscles, and in the presence of pronounced veins in the figures of the Centauromachy. Several of the metopes still remain on the building, but, with the exception of those on the northern side, they are severely damaged. Some of them are located at the Acropolis
Acropolis
Museum, others are in the British Museum, and one is at the Louvre
Louvre
museum.[citation needed][65] In March 2011, archaeologists announced that they had discovered five metopes of the Parthenon
Parthenon
in the south wall of the Acropolis, which had been extended when the Acropolis
Acropolis
was used as a fortress. According to Eleftherotypia daily, the archaeologists claimed the metopes had been placed there in the 18th century when the Acropolis
Acropolis
wall was being repaired. The experts discovered the metopes while processing 2,250 photos with modern photographic methods, as the white Pentelic marble they are made of differed from the other stone of the wall. It was previously presumed that the missing metopes were destroyed during the Morosini explosion of the Parthenon
Parthenon
in 1687.[66] Frieze[edit] Main article: Parthenon
Parthenon
Frieze

Phidias
Phidias
Showing the Frieze
Frieze
of the Parthenon
Parthenon
to his Friends, 1868 painting by Lawrence Alma-Tadema

The most characteristic feature in the architecture and decoration of the temple is the Ionic frieze running around the exterior walls of the cella, which is the inside structure of the Parthenon. The bas-relief frieze was carved in situ; it is dated to 442 BC-438 BC. One interpretation is that it depicts an idealized version of the Panathenaic procession from the Dipylon Gate in the Kerameikos
Kerameikos
to the Acropolis. In this procession held every year, with a special procession taking place every four years, Athenians and foreigners were participating to honour the goddess Athena, offering sacrifices and a new peplos (dress woven by selected noble Athenian girls called ergastines). Joan Breton Connelly
Joan Breton Connelly
offers a mythological interpretation for the frieze, one that is in harmony with the rest of the temple’s sculptural programme which shows Athenian genealogy through a series of succession myths set in the remote past. She identifies the central panel above the door of the Parthenon
Parthenon
as the pre-battle sacrifice of the daughter of King Erechtheus, a sacrifice that ensured Athenian victory over Eumolpos and his Thracian army. The great procession marching toward the east end of the Parthenon
Parthenon
shows the post-battle thanksgiving sacrifice of cattle and sheep, honey and water, followed by the triumphant army of Erechtheus returning from their victory. This represents the very first Panathenaia set in mythical times, the model on which historic Panathenaic processions was based.[67][68] Pediments[edit] Main article: Pediments of the Parthenon The traveller Pausanias, when he visited the Acropolis
Acropolis
at the end of the 2nd century AD, only mentioned briefly the sculptures of the pediments (gable ends) of the temple, reserving the majority of his description for the gold and ivory statue of the goddess inside. East pediment[edit]

Part of the east pediment still found on the Parthenon
Parthenon
(although part of it, like Dionysos, is a copy)

The figures on the corners of the pediment depict the passage of time over the course of a full day. Tethrippa of Helios
Helios
and Selene
Selene
are located on the left and right corners of the pediment respectively. The horses of Helios's chariot are shown with livid expressions as they ascend into the sky at the start of the day; whereas the Selene's horses struggle to stay on the pediment scene as the day comes to an end.[69][70] West pediment[edit] The supporters of Athena
Athena
are extensively illustrated at the back of the left chariot, while the defenders of Poseidon
Poseidon
are shown trailing behind the right chariot. It is believed that the corners of the pediment are filled by Athenian water deities, such as Kephisos river, Ilissos
Ilissos
river and nymph Callirhoe. This belief merges from the fluid character of the sculptures' body position which represents the effort of the artist to give the impression of a flowing river.,[71][72] Next to the left river god, there are the sculptures of the mythical king of Athens
Athens
(Kekrops) with his daughters (Aglauros, Pandrosos, Herse). The statue of Poseidon
Poseidon
was the largest sculpture in the pediment until it broke into pieces during Francesco Morosini's effort to remove it in 1688. The posterior piece of the torso was found by Lusieri in the groundwork of a Turkish house in 1801 and is currently held in British Museum. The anterior portion was revealed by Ross in 1835 and is now held in the Acropolis
Acropolis
Museum of Athens.[73] Every statue in the west pediment has a fully completed back, which would have been impossible to see when the sculpture was on the temple; this indicates that the sculptors put great effort into accurately portraying the human body.[72] Athena
Athena
Parthenos[edit] Main article: Athena
Athena
Parthenos The only piece of sculpture from the Parthenon
Parthenon
known to be from the hand of Phidias[74] was the statue of Athena
Athena
housed in the naos. This massive chryselephantine sculpture is now lost and known only from copies, vase painting, gems, literary descriptions and coins.[75] Later history[edit] Late antiquity[edit]

The Parthenon's position on the Acropolis
Acropolis
dominates the city skyline of Athens.

Image of Parthenon
Parthenon
at night

A major fire broke out in the Parthenon
Parthenon
shortly after the middle of the third century AD[76][77] which destroyed the Parthenon's roof and much of the sanctuary's interior.[78] Heruli
Heruli
pirates are also credited with sacking Athens
Athens
in 276, and destroying most of the public buildings there, including the Parthenon.[79] Repairs were made in the fourth century AD, possibly during the reign of Julian the Apostate.[80] A new wooden roof overlaid with clay tiles was installed to cover the sanctuary. It sloped at a greater incline than the original roof and left the building's wings exposed.[78] The Parthenon
Parthenon
survived as a temple dedicated to Athena
Athena
for nearly one thousand years until Theodosius II
Theodosius II
decreed in 435 AD that all pagan temples in the Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
be closed.[81] At some point in the fifth century, Athena's great cult image was looted by one of the emperors and taken to Constantinople, where it was later destroyed, possibly during the siege and sack of Constantinople
Constantinople
during the Fourth Crusade in 1204 AD.[82] Christian church[edit] The Parthenon
Parthenon
was converted into a Christian church in the final decade of the sixth century AD[21] to become the Church of the Parthenos Maria (Virgin Mary), or the Church of the Theotokos
Theotokos
(Mother of God). The orientation of the building was changed to face towards the east; the main entrance was placed at the building's western end, and the Christian altar and iconostasis were situated towards the building's eastern side adjacent to an apse built where the temple's pronaos was formerly located.[83][84][85] A large central portal with surrounding side-doors was made in the wall dividing the cella, which became the church's nave, from the rear chamber, the church's narthex.[83] The spaces between the columns of the opisthodomus and the peristyle were walled up, though a number of doorways still permitted access.[83] Icons
Icons
were painted on the walls and many Christian inscriptions were carved into the Parthenon's columns.[80] These renovations inevitably led to the removal and dispersal of some of the sculptures. Those depicting gods were either possibly re-interpreted according to a Christian theme, or removed and destroyed.[citation needed] The Parthenon
Parthenon
became the fourth most important Christian pilgrimage destination in the Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
after Constantinople, Ephesos, and Thessalonica.[86] In 1018, the emperor Basil II
Basil II
went on a pilgrimage to Athens
Athens
directly after his final victory over the Bulgarians for the sole purpose of worshipping at the Parthenon.[86] In medieval Greek accounts it is called the Temple
Temple
of Theotokos Atheniotissa and often indirectly referred to as famous without explaining exactly which temple they were referring to, thus establishing that it was indeed well known.[86] At the time of the Latin occupation, it became for about 250 years a Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
church of Our Lady. During this period a tower, used either as a watchtower or bell tower and containing a spiral staircase, was constructed at the southwest corner of the cella, and vaulted tombs were built beneath the Parthenon's floor.[87] Islamic mosque[edit]

Painting of the ruins of the Parthenon
Parthenon
and the Ottoman mosque built after 1715, in the early 1830s by Pierre Peytier.

In 1456, Ottoman Turkish forces invaded Athens
Athens
and laid siege to a Florentine army defending the Acropolis
Acropolis
until June 1458, when it surrendered to the Turks.[88] The Turks may have briefly restored the Parthenon
Parthenon
to the Greek Orthodox
Greek Orthodox
Christians for continued use as a church.[89] Some time before the close of the fifteenth century, the Parthenon
Parthenon
became a mosque.[90][91] The precise circumstances under which the Turks appropriated it for use as a mosque are unclear; one account states that Mehmed II
Mehmed II
ordered its conversion as punishment for an Athenian plot against Ottoman rule.[92] The apse became a mihrab,[93] the tower previously constructed during the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
occupation of the Parthenon
Parthenon
was extended upwards to become a minaret,[94] a minbar was installed,[83] the Christian altar and iconostasis were removed, and the walls were whitewashed to cover icons of Christian saints and other Christian imagery.[95] Despite the alterations accompanying the Parthenon's conversion into a church and subsequently a mosque, its structure had remained basically intact.[96] In 1667 the Turkish traveller Evliya Çelebi
Evliya Çelebi
expressed marvel at the Parthenon's sculptures and figuratively described the building as "like some impregnable fortress not made by human agency".[97] He composed a poetic supplication that it, as "a work less of human hands than of Heaven itself, should remain standing for all time".[98] The French artist Jacques Carrey
Jacques Carrey
in 1674 visited the Acropolis
Acropolis
and sketched the Parthenon's sculptural decorations.[99] Early in 1687, an engineer named Plantier sketched the Parthenon
Parthenon
for the Frenchman Graviers d’Ortières.[78] These depictions, particularly those made by Carrey, provide important, and sometimes the only, evidence of the condition of the Parthenon
Parthenon
and its various sculptures prior to the devastation it suffered in late 1687 and the subsequent looting of its art objects.[99] Destruction[edit]

Parthenon
Parthenon
illustration, published in 1688, depicting the structure in its entirety, by Vincenzo Coronelli

In 1687, the Parthenon
Parthenon
was extensively damaged in the greatest catastrophe to befall it in its long history.[80] As part of the Great Turkish War (1683–1699), the Venetians sent an expedition led by Francesco Morosini
Francesco Morosini
to attack Athens
Athens
and capture the Acropolis. The Ottoman Turks fortified the Acropolis
Acropolis
and used the Parthenon
Parthenon
as a gunpowder magazine – despite having been forewarned of the dangers of this use by the 1656 explosion that severely damaged the Propylaea – and as a shelter for members of the local Turkish community.[100] On 26 September a Venetian mortar round, fired from the Hill of Philopappus, blew up the magazine, and the building was partly destroyed.[101] The explosion blew out the building's central portion and caused the cella's walls to crumble into rubble.[96] Greek architect and archaeologist Kornilia Chatziaslani writes that "...three of the sanctuary’s four walls nearly collapsed and three-fifths of the sculptures from the frieze fell. Nothing of the roof apparently remained in place. Six columns from the south side fell, eight from the north, as well as whatever remained from eastern porch, except for one column. The columns brought down with them the enormous marble architraves, triglyphs and metopes."[78] About three hundred people were killed in the explosion, which showered marble fragments over nearby Turkish defenders[100] and caused large fires that burned until the following day and consumed many homes.[78]

Fragment of an exploded shell found on top of a wall in the Parthenon, thought to originate from the time of the Venetian siege

Accounts written at the time conflict over whether this destruction was deliberate or accidental; one such account, written by the German officer Sobievolski, states that a Turkish deserter revealed to Morosini the use to which the Turks had put the Parthenon; expecting that the Venetians would not target a building of such historic importance. Morosini was said to have responded by directing his artillery to aim at the Parthenon.[78][100] Subsequently, Morosini sought to loot sculptures from the ruin and caused further damage in the process. Sculptures of Poseidon
Poseidon
and Athena's horses fell to the ground and smashed as his soldiers tried to detach them from the building's west pediment.[84][102]

"View of the Parthenon
Parthenon
from the Propylea", Edward Dodwell, Views in Greece, London
London
1821, depicting buildings of the time within the Acropolis

The following year, the Venetians abandoned Athens
Athens
to avoid a confrontation with a large force the Turks had assembled at Chalcis; at that time, the Venetians had considered blowing up what remained of the Parthenon
Parthenon
along with the rest of the Acropolis
Acropolis
to deny its further use as a fortification to the Turks, but that idea was not pursued.[100] After the Turks had recaptured the Acropolis
Acropolis
they used some of the rubble produced by this explosion to erect a smaller mosque within the shell of the ruined Parthenon.[103] For the next century and a half, portions of the remaining structure were looted for building material and any remaining objects of value.[104] The 18th century was a period of Ottoman stagnation; as a result, many more Europeans found access to Athens, and the picturesque ruins of the Parthenon
Parthenon
were much drawn and painted, spurring a rise in philhellenism and helping to arouse sympathy in Britain and France for Greek independence. Amongst those early travellers and archaeologists were James Stuart and Nicholas Revett, who were commissioned by the Society of Dilettanti
Society of Dilettanti
to survey the ruins of classical Athens. What they produced was the first measured drawings of the Parthenon published in 1787 in the second volume of Antiquities of Athens Measured and Delineated. In 1801, the British Ambassador at Constantinople, the Earl of Elgin, obtained a questionable firman (edict) from the Sultan, whose existence or legitimacy has not been proved until today, to make casts and drawings of the antiquities on the Acropolis, to demolish recent buildings if this was necessary to view the antiquities, and to remove sculptures from them.[citation needed] Independent Greece[edit]

The first known photograph of the Parthenon
Parthenon
was taken by Joly de Lotbinière in October 1839. This is an engraving made after the original daguerreotype.

The southern side of the Parthenon, which sustained considerable damage in the 1687 explosion

When independent Greece
Greece
gained control of Athens
Athens
in 1832, the visible section of the minaret was demolished; only its base and spiral staircase up to the level of the architrave remain intact.[105] Soon all the medieval and Ottoman buildings on the Acropolis
Acropolis
were destroyed. However, the image of the small mosque within the Parthenon's cella has been preserved in Joly de Lotbinière's photograph, published in Lerebours's Excursions Daguerriennes in 1842: the first photograph of the Acropolis.[106] The area became a historical precinct controlled by the Greek government. Today it attracts millions of tourists every year, who travel up the path at the western end of the Acropolis, through the restored Propylaea, and up the Panathenaic Way to the Parthenon, which is surrounded by a low fence to prevent damage.[citation needed] Dispute over the marbles[edit] Main article: Elgin Marbles

Life-size pediment sculptures from the Parthenon
Parthenon
in the British Museum

The dispute centres around the Parthenon
Parthenon
Marbles removed by Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin, from 1801 to 1803, which are in the British Museum. A few sculptures from the Parthenon
Parthenon
are also in the Louvre
Louvre
in Paris, in Copenhagen, and elsewhere, but more than half are in the Acropolis
Acropolis
Museum in Athens.[17][107] A few can still be seen on the building itself. The Greek government has campaigned since 1983 for the British Museum
British Museum
to return the sculptures to Greece.[107] The British Museum
British Museum
has steadfastly refused to return the sculptures,[108] and successive British governments have been unwilling to force the Museum to do so (which would require legislation). Nevertheless, talks between senior representatives from Greek and British cultural ministries and their legal advisors took place in London
London
on 4 May 2007. These were the first serious negotiations for several years, and there were hopes that the two sides may move a step closer to a resolution.[109] Restoration[edit] In 1975, the Greek government began a concerted effort to restore the Parthenon
Parthenon
and other Acropolis
Acropolis
structures. After some delay, a Committee for the Conservation of the Acropolis
Acropolis
Monuments was established in 1983.[110] The project later attracted funding and technical assistance from the European Union. An archaeological committee thoroughly documented every artifact remaining on the site, and architects assisted with computer models to determine their original locations. Particularly important and fragile sculptures were transferred to the Acropolis
Acropolis
Museum. A crane was installed for moving marble blocks; the crane was designed to fold away beneath the roofline when not in use. In some cases, prior re-constructions were found to be incorrect. These were dismantled, and a careful process of restoration began.[111] Originally, various blocks were held together by elongated iron H pins that were completely coated in lead, which protected the iron from corrosion. Stabilizing pins added in the 19th century were not so coated, and corroded. Since the corrosion product (rust) is expansive, the expansion caused further damage by cracking the marble.[112]

Restoration works in 2002.

Work in progress in 2007.

A reconstructed architrave block.

Wide-scale restoration in 2010.

Western side works in 2014.

External video

Sculpture from the Parthenon's East Pediment, Smarthistory[113]

The Parthenon
Parthenon
from the south. In the foreground of the image, a reconstruction of the marble imbrices and tegulae (roof tiles) forming the roof is visible, resting on wooden supports.

See also[edit]

Palermo
Palermo
Fragment Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
architecture Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
temple List of Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
temples List of megalithic sites National Monument of Scotland, Edinburgh Walhalla temple
Walhalla temple
Regensburg
Regensburg
– Exterior modelled on the Parthenon, but interior is a hall of fame for distinguished Germans Parthenon, Nashville – Full-scale replica Temple
Temple
of Hephaestus

Notes[edit]

^ a b Parthenon. Academic.reed.edu. Retrieved on 4 September 2013. ^ a b The Parthenon. Ancientgreece.com. Retrieved on 4 September 2013. ^ Penprase, Bryan E. (2010). The Power of Stars: How Celestial Observations Have Shaped Civilization. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 221. ISBN 978-1-4419-6803-6. Retrieved 8 March 2017.  ^ Barletta, Barbara A. (2005). "The Architecture and Architects of the Classical Parthenon". In Jenifer Neils. The Parthenon: From Antiquity to the Present. Cambridge University Press. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-521-82093-6. Retrieved 8 March 2017. The Parthenon (Plate 1, Fig. 17) is probably the most celebrated of all Greek temples.  ^ Hambidge, Jay; Yale University. Rutherford Trowbridge Memorial Publication Fund (1924). The Parthenon
Parthenon
and other Greek temples: their dynamic symmetry. Yale university press.  ^ Beard, Mary (2010). The Parthenon. Profile Books. p. 118. ISBN 1-84765-063-5.  ^ a b Bury, J. B.; Meiggs, Russell (1956). A history of Greece
Greece
to the death of Alexander the Great, 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 367–369.  ^ a b Ioanna Venieri. " Acropolis
Acropolis
of Athens". Hellenic Ministry of Culture. Retrieved 4 May 2007.  ^ Boutsikas, Efrosyni; Hannah, Robert (2012). "Aitia, Astronomy and the timing of the Arrhēphoria". The Annual of the British School at Athens. 107: 233–245. doi:10.1017/S0068245411000141. ISSN 0068-2454.  ^ Robertson, Miriam (1981). A Shorter History of Greek Art. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-521-28084-6. Retrieved 10 September 2017.  ^ Davison, Claire Cullen; Lundgreen, Birte (2009). Pheidias:The Sculptures and Ancient Sources. 105. London, England: Institute of Classical Studies, University of London. p. 209. ISBN 9781905670215. Retrieved 10 September 2017.  ^ "Lord Elgin and the Parthenon
Parthenon
Sculptures". British Museum. Archived from the original on 3 February 2013.  ^ " Greece
Greece
urges Britain to return sculptures". UPI.com. 22 June 2009. Retrieved 29 June 2009.  ^ παρθενών, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library ^ Hurwit 200, pp. 161–163. ^ Research has revealed a shrine with altar pre-dating the Older Parthenon, respected by, incorporated and rebuilt in the north pteron of the Parthenon
Parthenon
(Pelling, Greek Tragedy and the Historian, 169). ^ a b "Parthenon". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ παρθένος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library ^ Frazer, The Golden Bough, 18 ^ Whitley, The Archaeology of Ancient Greece, 352 ^ a b Freely 2004, p. 69 "Some modern writers maintain that the Parthenon
Parthenon
was converted into a Christian sanctuary during the reign of Justinian
Justinian
(527–65)...But there is no evidence to support this in the ancient sources. The existing evidence suggests that the Parthenon
Parthenon
was converted into a Christian basilica in the last decade of the sixth century." ^ Harpocration.[full citation needed] ^ Plutarch, Pericles
Pericles
13.4. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 1878 ^ a b S. Deacy, Athena, Routledge, 2008, p.111. ^ a b Burkert, Greek Religion, Blackwell, 1985, p.143. ^ MC. Hellmann, L'Architecture grecque. Architecture religieuse et funéraire, Picard, 2006, p.118. ^ a b B. Nagy, "Athenian Officials on the Parthenon
Parthenon
Frieze", AJA, Vol.96, No.1 (January 1992), pp.55. ^ Thucydides
Thucydides
2.13.5. Retrieved 11 September 2008. ^ S. Eddy, "The Gold in the Athena
Athena
Parthenos", AJA, Vol.81, No.1 (Winter, 1977), pp.107–111. ^ B. Holtzmann and A. Pasquier, Histoire de l'art antique : l'art grec, École du Louvre, Réunion des musées nationaux and Documentation française, 1998, p.177. ^ Connelly, Joan Breton (2014-11-04). The Parthenon
Parthenon
Enigma: a New Understanding of the West's Most Iconic Building and the People Who Made It. New York: Vintage. ISBN 9780307476593.  ^ "Welcome to Joan Breton Connelly". Welcome to Joan Breton Connelly. Retrieved 2015-08-18.  ^ Joan Breton Connelly, The Parthenon
Parthenon
Enigma,"[1]" New York, Knopf, 2014, p. 35 ^ Daniel Mendelsohn, "Deep Frieze", The New Yorker, 14 April 2014 ^ Mary Beard, "The Latest Scheme for the Parthenon", The New York Review of Books, 6 March 2014 ^ Mary Beard, Peter Green, Garry Wills
Garry Wills
"‘The Parthenon Enigma’—An Exchange", The New York Review of Books, 22 May 2014 ^ "Decoding the Parthenon
Parthenon
by J. J. Pollitt – The New Criterion". www.newcriterion.com. Retrieved 2015-08-18.  ^ "Rethinking the West's Most Iconic Building – Bryn Mawr Alumnae Bulletin". bulletin.brynmawr.edu. Retrieved 2015-08-18.  ^ Spivey, Nigel (October 2014). "Art and Archaeology" (PDF). Greece & Rome. 61 (2): 287–290. doi:10.1017/S0017383514000138.  ^ Alexander, Caroline (2014-01-23). "'The Parthenon
Parthenon
Enigma,' by Joan Breton Connelly". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-08-18.  ^ "Deep Frieze
Frieze
Meaning". www.weeklystandard.com. Retrieved 2015-08-18.  ^ Hurwit 2005, p. 135 ^ Herodotus
Herodotus
Histories, 8.53 ^ W. Dörpfeld, "Der aeltere Parthenon", Ath. Mitteilungen, XVII, 1892, p. 158-89 and W. Dörpfeld, "Die Zeit des alteren Parthenon", AM 27, 1902, 379–416 ^ P. Kavvadis, G. Kawerau, Die Ausgabung der Acropolis
Acropolis
vom Jahre 1885 bis zum Jahre 1890, 1906 ^ NM Tod, A Selection of Greek Historical Inscriptions II, 1948, no. 204, lines 46–51, The authenticity of this is disputed, however; see also P. Siewert, Der Eid von Plataia (Munich 1972) 98–102 ^ Kerr, Minott (23 October 1995). "'The Sole Witness': The Periclean Parthenon". Reed College Portland, Oregon USA. Archived from the original on 8 June 2007.  ^ B. H. Hill, "The Older Parthenon", AJA', XVI, 1912, 535–58 ^ B. Graef, E. Langlotz, Die Antiken Vasen von der Akropolis zu Athen, Berlin 1925–33 ^ W. Dinsmoor, "The Date of the Older Parthenon", AJA, XXXVIII, 1934, 408–48 ^ W. Dörpfeld, " Parthenon
Parthenon
I, II, III", AJA, XXXIX, 1935, 497–507, and W. Dinsmoor, AJA, XXXIX, 1935, 508–9 ^ Banister Fletcher, History of architecture on the Comparative Method, pp 119–123 ^ "LacusCurtius • Roman Architecture — Roof Tiles (Smith's Dictionary, 1875)". penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2018-02-08.  ^ John Julius Norwich, Great Architecture of the World, 2001, p. 63 ^ And in the surviving foundations of the preceding Older Parthenon (Penrose, Principles of Athenian Architecture 2nd ed. ch. II.3, plate 9). ^ Penrose op. cit. pp 32–34, found the difference motivated by economies of labour; Gorham P. Stevens, "Concerning the Impressiveness of the Parthenon" American Journal of Archaeology 66.3 (July 1962:337–338). ^ Archeologists discuss similarly curved architecture and offer the theory. Nova, "Secrets of the Parthenon", PBS. http://video.yahoo.com/watch/1849622/6070405[permanent dead link] ^ Hadingham, Evan (February 2008), Unlocking Mysteries of the Parthenon, Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Magazine, p. 42  ^ Van Mersbergen, Audrey M., "Rhetorical Prototypes in Architecture: Measuring the Acropolis", Philosophical Polemic Communication Quarterly, Vol. 46, 1998. ^ See e.g. George Markowsky (January 1992). "Misconceptions about the Golden Ratio" (PDF). The College Mathematics Journal. 23 (1).  ^ "Tarbell, F.B. A History of Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Art. (online book)". Ellopos.net. Retrieved 18 April 2009.  ^ For comprehensive drawings showing the location of each piece today, see: "The Parthenon", in Strolling Through Athens, City of Athens, 2004, pp. 112–119. ^ Barringer, Judith M (2008). Art, myth, and ritual in classical Greece. Cambridge. p. 78. ISBN 0-521-64647-2.  ^ Tenth metope from the south façade of the Parthenon, retrieved 2018-01-30  ^ of Five Metopes ^ Connelly, Parthenon
Parthenon
and Parthenoi, 53–80. ^ Connelly, The Parthenon
Parthenon
Enigma, chapters 4,5, and 7. ^ "The Parthenon
Parthenon
Sculptures by Mark Cartwright 2014".  ^ "The British Museum: The Parthenon
Parthenon
sculptures".  ^ "ATHENIANS AND ELEUSINIANS IN THE WEST PEDIMENT OF THE PARTHENON" (PDF).  ^ a b "The Parthenon
Parthenon
Sculptures, The British Museum".  ^ "The Pediments of the Prthenon by Olga Palagia".  ^ Lapatin, Kenneth D. S. (2001). Chryselephantine Statuary in the Ancient Mediterranean World. Oxford: OUP. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-19-815311-5.  ^ N. Leipen, Athena
Athena
Parthenos: a huge reconstruction, 1972. ^ "Introduction to the Parthenon
Parthenon
Frieze". National Documentation Centre (Greek Ministry of Culture). Archived from the original on 28 October 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2012.  ^ Freely 2004, p. 69. "According to one authority, John Travlos, this occurred when Athens
Athens
was sacked by the Heruli
Heruli
in AD 267, at which time the two-tiered colonnade in the cella was destroyed." ^ a b c d e f Chatziaslani, Kornilia. "Morosini in Athens". Archaeology of the City of Athens. Retrieved 14 August 2012.  ^ O'Donovan, Connell. "Pirates, marauders, and homos, oh my!". Retrieved 10 December 2015.  ^ a b c "The Parthenon". Acropolis
Acropolis
Restoration Service. Retrieved 14 August 2012.  ^ Freely 2004, p. 69. ^ Cremin, Aedeen (2007). Archaeologica. Frances Lincoln Ltd. p. 170. ISBN 9780711228221.  ^ a b c d Freely 2004, p. 70. ^ a b Hollis 2009, p. 21. ^ Hurwit 2000, p. 293. ^ a b c Kaldellis, Anthony (2007). "A Heretical (Orthodox) History of the Parthenon" (PDF). University of Michigan. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 August 2009.  ^ Hurwit 2000, p. 295 ^ Babinger, Franz (1992). Mehmed the Conqueror and His Time. Princeton University Press. pp. 159–160. ISBN 9780691010786.  ^ Tomkinson, John L. "Ottoman Athens
Athens
I: Early Ottoman Athens (1456–1689)". Anagnosis Books. Retrieved 14 August 2012.  "In 1466 the Parthenon
Parthenon
was referred to as a church, so it seems likely that for some time at least, it continued to function as a cathedral, being restored to the use of the Greek archbishop." ^ Tomkinson, John L. "Ottoman Athens
Athens
I: Early Ottoman Athens (1456–1689)". Anagnosis Books. Retrieved 14 August 2012.  "Some time later – we do not know exactly when – the Parthenon
Parthenon
was itself converted into a mosque." ^ D'Ooge 1909, p. 317. "The conversion of the Parthenon
Parthenon
into a mosque is first mentioned by another anonymous writer, the Paris Anonymous, whose manuscript dating from the latter half of the fifteenth century was discovered in the library of Paris in 1862." ^ Miller, Walter (1893). "A History of the Akropolis of Athens". The American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts. Archaeological Institute of America. 8: 546–547.  ^ Hollis 2009, p. 33. ^ Bruno, Vincent J. (1974). The Parthenon. W.W. Norton & Company. p. 172. ISBN 9780393314403.  ^ D'Ooge 1909, p. 317. ^ a b Fichner-Rathus, Lois (2012). Understanding Art (10 ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 305. ISBN 9781111836955.  ^ Stoneman, Richard (2004). A Traveller's History of Athens. Interlink Books. p. 209. ISBN 9781566565332.  ^ Holt, Frank L. (November–December 2008). "I, Marble
Marble
Maiden". Saudi Aramco World. Saudi Aramco. 59 (6): 36–41.  ^ a b T. Bowie, D. Thimme, The Carrey Drawings of the Parthenon Sculptures, 1971 ^ a b c d Tomkinson, John L. "Venetian Athens: Venetian Interlude (1684–1689)". Anagnosis Books. Retrieved 14 August 2012.  ^ Theodor E. Mommsen, The Venetians in Athens
Athens
and the Destruction of the Parthenon
Parthenon
in 1687, American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 45, No. 4 (October – December 1941), pp. 544–556 ^ Palagia, Olga (1998). The Pediments of the Parthenon
Pediments of the Parthenon
(2 ed.). BRILL. ISBN 9789004111981. Retrieved 14 August 2012.  ^ Tomkinson, John L. "Ottoman Athens
Athens
II: Later Ottoman Athens (1689–1821)". Anagnosis Books. Retrieved 14 August 2012.  ^ Grafton, Anthony; Glenn W. Most; Salvatore Settis (2010). The Classical Tradition. Harvard University Press. p. 693. ISBN 9780674035720.  ^ Murray, John (1884). Handbook for travellers in Greece, Volume 2. Oxford University Press. p. 317.  ^ Neils, The Parthenon: From Antiquity to the Present, 336– the picture was taken in October 1839 ^ a b Greek Premier Says New Acropolis
Acropolis
Museum to Boost Bid for Parthenon
Parthenon
Sculptures, International Herald Tribune ^ "The Parthenon
Parthenon
Sculptures: The Position of the British Museum Truistees and Common Misconceptions". The British Museum. Retrieved 18 April 2009.  ^ Talks Due on Elgin Marbles
Elgin Marbles
Return, BBC News ^ Lina Lambrinou, "State of the Art: ‘ Parthenon
Parthenon
of Athens: A Challenge Throughout History" Archived 3 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine. (pdf file) with bibliography of interim conservation reports; ^ "The Surface Conservation Project"[permanent dead link] (pdf file). Once they had been conserved, the West Frieze
Frieze
blocks were moved to the museum, and copies cast in artificial stone were reinstalled in their places. ^ Hadingham, Evan (2008). "Unlocking the Mysteries of the Parthenon". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 22 February 2008.  ^ "Sculpture from the Parthenon's East Pediment". Smarthistory
Smarthistory
at Khan Academy. Retrieved 18 March 2013. 

References[edit] Printed sources[edit]

Burkert, Walter (1985). Greek Religion. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-36281-0.  Connelly, Joan Breton (1 January 1996). " Parthenon
Parthenon
and Parthenoi: A Mythological Interpretation of the Parthenon
Parthenon
Frieze". American Journal of Archaeology. 100 (1): 53–80. doi:10.2307/506297. JSTOR 506297.  Connelly, Joan Breton (2014). The Parthenon
Parthenon
Enigma: A New Understanding of the West's Most Iconic Building and the People who Made It. Random House. ISBN 0307476596. [1] D'Ooge, Martin Luther (1909). The Acropolis
Acropolis
of Athens. Macmillan.  Frazer, Sir James George (1998). "The King of the Woods". The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-283541-6.  Freely, John (2004). Strolling Through Athens: Fourteen Unforgettable Walks through Europe's Oldest City (2 ed.). Tauris Parke Paperbacks. ISBN 9781850435952.  Hollis, Edward (2009). The Secret Lives of Buildings: From the Ruins of the Parthenon
Parthenon
to the Vegas Strip in Thirteen Stories. Macmillan. ISBN 9780805087857.  Hurwit, Jeffrey M. (2000). The Athenian Acropolis: History, Mythology, and Archeology from the Neolithic Era to the Present. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42834-3.  Hurwit, Jeffrey M. (2005). "The Parthenon
Parthenon
and the Temple
Temple
of Zeus at Olympia". In Judith M. Barringer; Jeffrey M. Hurwit; Jerome Jordan Pollitt. Periklean Athens
Athens
and Its Legacy: Problems and Perspectives. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70622-7.  Neils, Jenifer (2005). The Parthenon: From Antiquity to the Present. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82093-6.  "Parthenon". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2002.  Pelling, Christopher (1997). "Tragedy and Religion: Constructs and Readings". Greek Tragedy and the Historian. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-814987-5.  Tarbell, F.B. A History of Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Art. online.  Whitley, James (2001). "The Archaeology of Democracy: Classical Athens". The Archaeology of Ancient Greece. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-62733-8. 

Online sources[edit]

"Greek Premier Says New Acropolis
Acropolis
Museum to Boost Bid for Parthenon Sculptures". International Herald Tribune. 9 October 2006. Retrieved 23 April 2007.  "Parthenon". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 5 May 2007.  Ioanna Venieri. " Acropolis
Acropolis
of Athens
Athens
– History". Acropolis
Acropolis
of Athens. Οδυσσεύς. Retrieved 4 May 2007.  Nova – PBS. "Secrets of the Parthenon
Parthenon
– History". Acropolis
Acropolis
of Athens. PBS. Retrieved 14 October 2010. 

Library resources about Parthenon

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Further reading[edit]

Beard, Mary. The Parthenon. Harvard University: 2003. ISBN 0-674-01085-X. Connelly, Joan Breton Connelly. "The Parthenon
Parthenon
Enigma: A New Understanding of the West's Most Iconic Building and the People Who Made It." Knopf: 2014. ISBN 0307476596. Cosmopoulos, Michael (editor). The Parthenon
Parthenon
and its Sculptures. Cambridge University: 2004. ISBN 0-521-83673-5. Holtzman, Bernard (2003). L'Acropole d'Athènes : Monuments, Cultes et Histoire du sanctuaire d'Athèna Polias (in French). Paris: Picard. ISBN 2-7084-0687-6.  King, Dorothy "The Elgin Marbles" Hutchinson / Random House, January 2006. ISBN 0-09-180013-7 Osada, T. (ed.) The Parthenon
Parthenon
Frieze. The Ritual Communication between the Goddess
Goddess
and the Polis. Parthenon
Parthenon
Project Japan 2011–2014 Phoibos Verlag, Wien 2016, ISBN 978-3-85161-124-3. Queyrel, François (2008). Le Parthénon: un monument dans l'histoire. Bartillat. ISBN 978-2-84100-435-5. . Papachatzis, Nikolaos D. Pausaniou Ellados Periegesis- Attika Athens, 1974. Tournikio, Panayotis. Parthenon. Abrams: 1996. ISBN 0-8109-6314-0. Traulos, Ioannis N. I Poleodomike ekselikses ton Athinon Athens, 1960 ISBN 960-7254-01-5 Woodford, Susan. The Parthenon. Cambridge University: 1981. ISBN 0-521-22629-5.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Parthenon.

Look up parthenon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Parthenon.

The Acropolis
Acropolis
of Athens: The Parthenon
Parthenon
(official site with a schedule of its opening hours, tickets and contact information) (Hellenic Ministry of Culture) The Acropolis
Acropolis
Restoration Project (Hellenic Ministry of Culture) The Parthenon
Parthenon
Frieze
Frieze
(in Greek) UNESCO World Heritage Centre – Acropolis, Athens Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County – The Parthenon The Athenian Acropolis
Acropolis
by Livio C. Stecchini (Takes the heterodox view of the date of the proto-Parthenon, but a useful summary of the scholarship.) The Friends of the Acropolis Illustrated Parthenon
Parthenon
Marbles – Dr. Janice Siegel, Department of Classics, Hampden–Sydney College, Virginia Parthenon:description, photo album

Videos[edit]

A Wikimedia video of the main sights of the Athenian Acropolis Secrets of the Parthenon
Parthenon
video by Public Broadcasting Service, on YouTube Parthenon
Parthenon
by Costas Gavras The history of Acropolis
Acropolis
and Parthenon
Parthenon
from the Greek tv show Η Μηχανή του Χρόνου (Time machine) (in Greek), on YouTube The Acropolis
Acropolis
of Athens
Athens
in ancient Greece
Greece
– Dimensions and proportions of Parthenon
Parthenon
on Youtube Institute for Advanced Study: The Parthenon
Parthenon
Sculptures

v t e

Acropolis
Acropolis
of Athens

Extant structures

Parthenon Erechtheion Propylaea Temple
Temple
of Athena
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Francesco Morosini Lord Elgin Giovanni Battista Lusieri Reverend Philip Hunt

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