Coordinates: 37°58′17″N 23°43′35″E / 37.9714°N
23.7265°E / 37.9714; 23.7265
Partially on 26 September 1687
13.72 m (45.0 ft)
Cella: 29.8 by 19.2 m (98 by 63 ft)
69.5 by 30.9 m (228 by 101 ft)
Design and construction
Reconstruction of the
Acropolis and Areus Pagus in Athens, Leo von
Parthenon (/ˈpɑːrθəˌnɒn, -nən/; Ancient Greek:
Παρθενών; Greek: Παρθενώνας, Parthenónas) is a
former temple, on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to
the goddess Athena, whom the people of
Athens considered their patron.
Construction began in 447 BC when the
Athenian Empire was at the
peak of its power. It was completed in 438 BC although decoration
of the building continued until 432 BC. It is the most important
surviving building of Classical Greece, generally considered the
zenith of the Doric order. Its decorative sculptures are considered
some of the high points of Greek art. The
Parthenon is regarded as an
enduring symbol of Ancient Greece,
Athenian democracy and western
civilization, and one of the world's greatest cultural monuments.
To the Athenians who built it, the
Parthenon and other Periclean
monuments of the Acropolis, were seen fundamentally as a celebration
of Hellenic victory over the Persian invaders and as a thanksgiving to
the gods for that victory. The Greek Ministry of Culture is
currently carrying out a programme of selective restoration and
reconstruction to ensure the stability of the partially ruined
Parthenon itself replaced an older temple of Athena, which
historians call the Pre-
Parthenon or Older Parthenon, that was
destroyed in the Persian invasion of 480 BC. The temple is
archaeoastronomically aligned to the Hyades. Like most Greek
Parthenon served a practical purpose as the city
treasury. For a time, it served as the treasury of the Delian
League, which later became the Athenian Empire. In the final decade of
the sixth century AD, the
Parthenon was converted into a Christian
church dedicated to the Virgin Mary.
After the Ottoman conquest, it was turned into a mosque in the early
1460s. On 26 September 1687, an Ottoman ammunition dump inside the
building was ignited by Venetian bombardment. The resulting explosion
severely damaged the
Parthenon and its sculptures. From 1800 to
Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin
Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin removed some of the
surviving sculptures with the alleged permission of the Ottoman
Empire. These sculptures, now known as the Elgin
Marbles or the
Parthenon Marbles, were sold in 1816 to the British
Museum in London, where they are now displayed. Since 1983 (on the
initiative of Culture Minister Melina Mercouri), the Greek government
has been committed to the return of the sculptures to Greece.
2.1 Older Parthenon
2.2 Present building
4.3.1 East pediment
4.3.2 West pediment
5 Later history
5.1 Late antiquity
5.2 Christian church
5.3 Islamic mosque
5.5 Independent Greece
5.6 Dispute over the marbles
7 See also
9.1 Printed sources
9.2 Online sources
10 Further reading
11 External links
The origin of the Parthenon's name is from the Greek word
παρθενών (parthenon), which referred to the "unmarried women's
apartments" in a house and in the Parthenon's case seems to have been
used at first only for a particular room of the temple; it is
debated which room this is and how the room acquired its name. The
Liddell–Scott–Jones Greek–English Lexicon states that this room
was the western cella of the Parthenon, as does J. B. Bury. Jamauri
D. Green holds that the parthenon was the room in which the peplos
Athena at the
Panathenaic Festival was woven by the
arrephoroi, a group of four young girls chosen to serve
year. Christopher Pelling asserts that
Athena Parthenos may have
constituted a discrete cult of Athena, intimately connected with, but
not identical to, that of
Athena Polias. According to this theory,
the name of the
Parthenon means the "temple of the virgin goddess" and
refers to the cult of
Athena Parthenos that was associated with the
temple. The epithet parthénos (παρθένος) meant "maiden,
girl", but also "virgin, unmarried woman" and was especially used
for Artemis, the goddess of wild animals, the hunt, and vegetation,
and for Athena, the goddess of strategy and tactics, handicraft, and
practical reason. It has also been suggested that the name of the
temple alludes to the maidens (parthenoi), whose supreme sacrifice
guaranteed the safety of the city. Parthénos has also been
applied to the Virgin Mary, Parthénos Maria, and the
been converted to a Christian church dedicated to the Virgin Mary in
the final decade of the sixth century.
The first instance in which
Parthenon definitely refers to the entire
building is found in the writings of the 4th century BC orator
Demosthenes. In 5th-century building accounts, the structure is simply
called ho naos ("the temple"). The architects
Iktinos and Callicrates
are said to have called the building Hekatompedos ("the hundred
footer") in their lost treatise on Athenian architecture, and, in
the 4th century and later, the building was referred to as the
Hekatompedos or the Hekatompedon as well as the Parthenon; the
Plutarch referred to the building as the
Parthenon was dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena, it
has sometimes been referred to as the
Temple of Minerva, the Roman
name for Athena, particularly during the 19th century.
Doric order of the Parthenon
Parthenon is architecturally a temple and is usually
called so, it is not really one in the conventional sense of the
word. A small shrine has been excavated within the building, on
the site of an older sanctuary probably dedicated to
Athena as a way
to get closer to the goddess, but the
Parthenon never hosted the
Athena Polias, patron of Athens: the cult image, which was
bathed in the sea and to which was presented the peplos, was an
olivewood xoanon, located at an older altar on the northern side of
The colossal statue of
Phidias was not related to any
cult and is not known to have inspired any religious fervour.
It did not seem to have any priestess, altar or cult name.
According to Thucydides,
Pericles once referred to the statue as a
gold reserve, stressing that it "contained forty talents of pure gold
and it was all removable". The Athenian statesman thus implies
that the metal, obtained from contemporary coinage, could be used
again without any impiety. The
Parthenon should then be viewed as
a grand setting for Phidias' votive statue rather than a cult
site. It is said[by whom?] in many writings of the Greeks that
there were many treasures stored inside the temple, such as Persian
swords and small statue figures made of precious metals.
Joan Breton Connelly
Joan Breton Connelly has recently argued for the
coherency of the Parthenon’s sculptural programme in presenting a
succession of genealogical narratives that track Athenian identity
back through the ages: from the birth of Athena, through cosmic and
epic battles, to the final great event of the Athenian Bronze Age, the
Erechtheus and Eumolpos. She argues a pedagogical
function for the Parthenon’s sculptured decoration, one that
establishes and perpetuates Athenian foundation myth, memory, values
and identity. While some classicists, including Mary Beard,
Peter Green, and Garry Wills have doubted or rejected
Connelly's thesis, an increasing number of historians, archaeologists,
and classical scholars support her work. They include: J.J.
Pollitt, Brunilde Ridgway, Nigel Spivey, Caroline
Alexander, A.E. Stallings.
Main article: Older Parthenon
The first endeavour to build a sanctuary for
Athena Parthenos on the
site of the present
Parthenon was begun shortly after the Battle of
Marathon (c. 490–488 BC) upon a solid limestone foundation that
extended and levelled the southern part of the
Acropolis summit. This
building replaced a hekatompedon (meaning "hundred-footer") and would
have stood beside the archaic temple dedicated to
Athena Polias ("of
the city"). The Older or Pre-Parthenon, as it is frequently referred
to, was still under construction when the Persians sacked the city in
480 BC and razed the Acropolis.
The existence of both the proto-
Parthenon and its destruction were
known from Herodotus, and the drums of its columns were plainly
visible built into the curtain wall north of the Erechtheon. Further
physical evidence of this structure was revealed with the excavations
of Panagiotis Kavvadias of 1885–90. The findings of this dig allowed
Wilhelm Dörpfeld, then director of the German Archaeological
Institute, to assert that there existed a distinct substructure to the
original Parthenon, called
Parthenon I by Dörpfeld, not immediately
below the present edifice as had been previously assumed.
Dörpfeld's observation was that the three steps of the first
Parthenon consisted of two steps of Poros limestone, the same as the
foundations, and a top step of Karrha limestone that was covered by
the lowest step of the Periclean Parthenon. This platform was smaller
and slightly to the north of the final Parthenon, indicating that it
was built for a wholly different building, now completely covered
over. This picture was somewhat complicated by the publication of the
final report on the 1885–90 excavations, indicating that the
substructure was contemporary with the Kimonian walls, and implying a
later date for the first temple.
If the original
Parthenon was indeed destroyed in 480, it invites the
question of why the site was left a ruin for thirty-three years. One
argument involves the oath sworn by the Greek allies before the Battle
of Plataea in 479 BC declaring that the sanctuaries destroyed
by the Persians would not be rebuilt, an oath from which the Athenians
were only absolved with the
Peace of Callias in 450. The mundane
fact of the cost of reconstructing
Athens after the Persian sack is at
least as likely a cause. However, the excavations of Bert Hodge Hill
led him to propose the existence of a second Parthenon, begun in the
period of Kimon after 468 BC. Hill claimed that the Karrha
limestone step Dörpfeld thought was the highest of
Parthenon I was in
fact the lowest of the three steps of
Parthenon II, whose stylobate
dimensions Hill calculated at 23.51 by 66.888 metres (77.13 ft
× 219.45 ft).
One difficulty in dating the proto-
Parthenon is that at the time of
the 1885 excavation the archaeological method of seriation was not
fully developed; the careless digging and refilling of the site led to
a loss of much valuable information. An attempt to discuss and make
sense of the potsherds found on the
Acropolis came with the two-volume
study by Graef and Langlotz published in 1925–33. This inspired
William Bell Dinsmoor to attempt to supply
limiting dates for the temple platform and the five walls hidden under
the re-terracing of the Acropolis. Dinsmoor concluded that the latest
possible date for
Parthenon I was no earlier than 495 BC,
contradicting the early date given by Dörpfeld. Further, Dinsmoor
denied that there were two proto-Parthenons, and held that the only
pre-Periclean temple was what Dörpfeld referred to as
Dinsmoor and Dörpfeld exchanged views in the American Journal of
Archaeology in 1935.
Parthenon at the acropolis of
Athens at night.
Parthenon today and as it probably appeared in ancient times
In the mid-5th century BC, when the Athenian
Acropolis became the seat
Delian League and
Athens was the greatest cultural centre of
Pericles initiated an ambitious building project that lasted
the entire second half of the century. The most important buildings
visible on the
Acropolis today — the Parthenon, the Propylaia, the
Erechtheion and the temple of
Athena Nike — were erected during this
Parthenon was built under the general supervision of the
artist Phidias, who also had charge of the sculptural decoration. The
Callicrates began their work in 447 BC,
and the building was substantially completed by 432, but work on the
decorations continued until at least 431.
Floor plan of the Parthenon
Parthenon is a peripteral octastyle Doric temple with Ionic
architectural features. It stands on a platform or stylobate of three
steps. In common with other Greek temples, it is of post and lintel
construction and is surrounded by columns ("peripteral") carrying an
entablature. There are eight columns at either end ("octastyle") and
seventeen on the sides. There is a double row of columns at either
end. The colonnade surrounds an inner masonry structure, the cella,
which is divided into two compartments. At either end of the building
the gable is finished with a triangular pediment originally occupied
by sculpted figures. The columns are of the Doric order, with simple
capitals, fluted shafts and no bases. Above the architrave of the
entablature is a frieze of carved pictorial panels (metopes),
separated by formal architectural triglyphs, typical of the Doric
order. Around the cella and across the lintels of the inner columns
runs a continuous sculptured frieze in low relief. This element of the
architecture is Ionic in style rather than Doric.
Measured at the stylobate, the dimensions of the base of the Parthenon
are 69.5 by 30.9 metres (228 by 101 ft). The cella was
29.8 metres long by 19.2 metres wide
(97.8 × 63.0 ft). On the exterior, the Doric columns
measure 1.9 metres (6.2 ft) in diameter and are 10.4 metres
(34 ft) high. The corner columns are slightly larger in diameter.
Parthenon had 46 outer columns and 23 inner columns in total, each
column containing 20 flutes. (A flute is the concave shaft carved into
the column form.) The roof was covered with large overlapping marble
tiles known as imbrices and tegulae.
Parthenon is regarded as the finest example of Greek architecture.
The temple, wrote John Julius Cooper, "enjoys the reputation of being
the most perfect Doric temple ever built. Even in antiquity, its
architectural refinements were legendary, especially the subtle
correspondence between the curvature of the stylobate, the taper of
the naos walls and the entasis of the columns."
Entasis refers to
the slight swelling, of 1/8 inch, in the centre of the columns to
counteract the appearance of columns having a waist, as the swelling
makes them look straight from a distance. The stylobate is the
platform on which the columns stand. As in many other classical Greek
temples, it has a slight parabolic upward curvature intended to
shed rainwater and reinforce the building against earthquakes. The
columns might therefore be supposed to lean outwards, but they
actually lean slightly inwards so that if they carried on, they would
meet almost exactly a mile above the centre of the Parthenon; since
they are all the same height, the curvature of the outer stylobate
edge is transmitted to the architrave and roof above: "All follow the
rule of being built to delicate curves", Gorham Stevens observed when
pointing out that, in addition, the west front was built at a slightly
higher level than that of the east front.
It is not universally agreed what the intended effect of these
"optical refinements" was; they may serve as a sort of "reverse
optical illusion". As the Greeks may have been aware, two parallel
lines appear to bow, or curve outward, when intersected by converging
lines. In this case, the ceiling and floor of the temple may seem to
bow in the presence of the surrounding angles of the building.
Striving for perfection, the designers may have added these curves,
compensating for the illusion by creating their own curves, thus
negating this effect and allowing the temple to be seen as they
intended. It is also suggested that it was to enliven what might have
appeared an inert mass in the case of a building without curves, but
the comparison ought to be, according to Smithsonian historian Evan
Hadingham, with the Parthenon's more obviously curved predecessors
than with a notional rectilinear temple.
Some studies of the Acropolis, including the Parthenon, conclude that
many of its proportions approximate the golden ratio. The Parthenon's
façade as well as elements of its façade and elsewhere can be
circumscribed by golden rectangles. This view that the golden
ratio was employed in the design has been disputed in more recent
Group from the east pediment, British Museum.
The cella of the
Parthenon housed the chryselephantine statue of
Athena Parthenos sculpted by
Phidias and dedicated in 439 or
438 BC. The appearance of this is known from other images. The
decorative stonework was originally highly coloured. The temple
was dedicated to
Athena at that time, though construction continued
until almost the beginning of the
Peloponnesian War in 432. By the
year 438, the sculptural decoration of the Doric metopes on the frieze
above the exterior colonnade, and of the Ionic frieze around the upper
portion of the walls of the cella, had been completed. In the
opisthodomus (the back room of the cella) were stored the monetary
contributions of the Delian League, of which
Athens was the leading
Only a very small number of the sculptures remain in situ; most of the
surviving sculptures are today (controversially) in the British Museum
London as the Elgin Marbles, and the
Acropolis Museum, but a
few pieces are also in the Louvre, and museums in Rome,
Main article: Metopes of the Parthenon
Detail of the West metopes
The frieze of the Parthenon's entablature contained ninety-two
metopes, fourteen each on the east and west sides, thirty-two each on
the north and south sides. They were carved in high relief, a practice
employed until then only in treasuries (buildings used to keep votive
gifts to the gods). According to the building
records, the metope sculptures date to the years 446–440 BC.
The metopes of the east side of the Parthenon, above the main
entrance, depict the
Gigantomachy (the mythical battle between the
Olympian gods and the Giants). The metopes of the west end show the
Amazonomachy (the mythical battle of the Athenians against the
Amazons). The metopes of the south side show the Thessalian
Centauromachy (battle of the
Lapiths aided by
Theseus against the
half-man, half-horse Centaurs). Metopes 13–21 are missing, but
drawings from 1674 attributed to Jaques Carrey indicate a series of
humans; these have been variously interpreted as scenes from the
Lapith wedding, scenes from the early history of
Athens and various
myths. On the north side of the Parthenon, the metopes are poorly
preserved, but the subject seems to be the sack of Troy.
The metopes present examples of the
Severe Style in the anatomy of the
figures' heads, in the limitation of the corporal movements to the
contours and not to the muscles, and in the presence of pronounced
veins in the figures of the Centauromachy. Several of the metopes
still remain on the building, but, with the exception of those on the
northern side, they are severely damaged. Some of them are located at
Acropolis Museum, others are in the British Museum, and one is at
Louvre museum.
In March 2011, archaeologists announced that they had discovered five
metopes of the
Parthenon in the south wall of the Acropolis, which had
been extended when the
Acropolis was used as a fortress. According to
Eleftherotypia daily, the archaeologists claimed the metopes had been
placed there in the 18th century when the
Acropolis wall was being
repaired. The experts discovered the metopes while processing 2,250
photos with modern photographic methods, as the white Pentelic marble
they are made of differed from the other stone of the wall. It was
previously presumed that the missing metopes were destroyed during the
Morosini explosion of the
Parthenon in 1687.
Phidias Showing the
Frieze of the
Parthenon to his Friends, 1868
painting by Lawrence Alma-Tadema
The most characteristic feature in the architecture and decoration of
the temple is the Ionic frieze running around the exterior walls of
the cella, which is the inside structure of the Parthenon. The
bas-relief frieze was carved in situ; it is dated to
442 BC-438 BC.
One interpretation is that it depicts an idealized version of the
Panathenaic procession from the Dipylon Gate in the
Kerameikos to the
Acropolis. In this procession held every year, with a special
procession taking place every four years, Athenians and foreigners
were participating to honour the goddess Athena, offering sacrifices
and a new peplos (dress woven by selected noble Athenian girls called
Joan Breton Connelly
Joan Breton Connelly offers a mythological interpretation for the
frieze, one that is in harmony with the rest of the temple’s
sculptural programme which shows Athenian genealogy through a series
of succession myths set in the remote past. She identifies the central
panel above the door of the
Parthenon as the pre-battle sacrifice of
the daughter of King Erechtheus, a sacrifice that ensured Athenian
Eumolpos and his Thracian army. The great procession
marching toward the east end of the
Parthenon shows the post-battle
thanksgiving sacrifice of cattle and sheep, honey and water, followed
by the triumphant army of
Erechtheus returning from their victory.
This represents the very first Panathenaia set in mythical times, the
model on which historic Panathenaic processions was based.
Main article: Pediments of the Parthenon
The traveller Pausanias, when he visited the
Acropolis at the end of
the 2nd century AD, only mentioned briefly the sculptures of the
pediments (gable ends) of the temple, reserving the majority of his
description for the gold and ivory statue of the goddess inside.
Part of the east pediment still found on the
Parthenon (although part
of it, like Dionysos, is a copy)
The figures on the corners of the pediment depict the passage of time
over the course of a full day. Tethrippa of
located on the left and right corners of the pediment respectively.
The horses of Helios's chariot are shown with livid expressions as
they ascend into the sky at the start of the day; whereas the Selene's
horses struggle to stay on the pediment scene as the day comes to an
The supporters of
Athena are extensively illustrated at the back of
the left chariot, while the defenders of
Poseidon are shown trailing
behind the right chariot. It is believed that the corners of the
pediment are filled by Athenian water deities, such as Kephisos river,
Ilissos river and nymph Callirhoe. This belief merges from the fluid
character of the sculptures' body position which represents the effort
of the artist to give the impression of a flowing river., Next
to the left river god, there are the sculptures of the mythical king
Athens (Kekrops) with his daughters (Aglauros, Pandrosos, Herse).
The statue of
Poseidon was the largest sculpture in the pediment until
it broke into pieces during Francesco Morosini's effort to remove it
in 1688. The posterior piece of the torso was found by Lusieri in the
groundwork of a Turkish house in 1801 and is currently held in British
Museum. The anterior portion was revealed by Ross in 1835 and is now
held in the
Acropolis Museum of Athens.
Every statue in the west pediment has a fully completed back, which
would have been impossible to see when the sculpture was on the
temple; this indicates that the sculptors put great effort into
accurately portraying the human body.
The only piece of sculpture from the
Parthenon known to be from the
hand of Phidias was the statue of
Athena housed in the naos. This
massive chryselephantine sculpture is now lost and known only from
copies, vase painting, gems, literary descriptions and coins.
The Parthenon's position on the
Acropolis dominates the city skyline
Parthenon at night
A major fire broke out in the
Parthenon shortly after the middle of
the third century AD which destroyed the Parthenon's roof and
much of the sanctuary's interior.
Heruli pirates are also credited
Athens in 276, and destroying most of the public
buildings there, including the Parthenon. Repairs were made in the
fourth century AD, possibly during the reign of Julian the
Apostate. A new wooden roof overlaid with clay tiles was installed
to cover the sanctuary. It sloped at a greater incline than the
original roof and left the building's wings exposed.
Parthenon survived as a temple dedicated to
Athena for nearly one
thousand years until
Theodosius II decreed in 435 AD that all pagan
temples in the
Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire be closed. At some point in
the fifth century, Athena's great cult image was looted by one of the
emperors and taken to Constantinople, where it was later destroyed,
possibly during the siege and sack of
Constantinople during the Fourth
Crusade in 1204 AD.
Parthenon was converted into a Christian church in the final
decade of the sixth century AD to become the Church of the
Parthenos Maria (Virgin Mary), or the Church of the
of God). The orientation of the building was changed to face towards
the east; the main entrance was placed at the building's western end,
and the Christian altar and iconostasis were situated towards the
building's eastern side adjacent to an apse built where the temple's
pronaos was formerly located. A large central portal with
surrounding side-doors was made in the wall dividing the cella, which
became the church's nave, from the rear chamber, the church's
narthex. The spaces between the columns of the opisthodomus and
the peristyle were walled up, though a number of doorways still
Icons were painted on the walls and many
Christian inscriptions were carved into the Parthenon's columns.
These renovations inevitably led to the removal and dispersal of some
of the sculptures. Those depicting gods were either possibly
re-interpreted according to a Christian theme, or removed and
Parthenon became the fourth most important Christian pilgrimage
destination in the
Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire after Constantinople, Ephesos,
and Thessalonica. In 1018, the emperor
Basil II went on a
Athens directly after his final victory over the
Bulgarians for the sole purpose of worshipping at the Parthenon.
In medieval Greek accounts it is called the
Temple of Theotokos
Atheniotissa and often indirectly referred to as famous without
explaining exactly which temple they were referring to, thus
establishing that it was indeed well known.
At the time of the Latin occupation, it became for about
250 years a
Roman Catholic church of Our Lady. During this period
a tower, used either as a watchtower or bell tower and containing a
spiral staircase, was constructed at the southwest corner of the
cella, and vaulted tombs were built beneath the Parthenon's floor.
Painting of the ruins of the
Parthenon and the Ottoman mosque built
after 1715, in the early 1830s by Pierre Peytier.
In 1456, Ottoman Turkish forces invaded
Athens and laid siege to a
Florentine army defending the
Acropolis until June 1458, when it
surrendered to the Turks. The Turks may have briefly restored the
Parthenon to the
Greek Orthodox Christians for continued use as a
church. Some time before the close of the fifteenth century, the
Parthenon became a mosque.
The precise circumstances under which the Turks appropriated it for
use as a mosque are unclear; one account states that
Mehmed II ordered
its conversion as punishment for an Athenian plot against Ottoman
rule. The apse became a mihrab, the tower previously
constructed during the
Roman Catholic occupation of the
extended upwards to become a minaret, a minbar was installed,
the Christian altar and iconostasis were removed, and the walls were
whitewashed to cover icons of Christian saints and other Christian
Despite the alterations accompanying the Parthenon's conversion into a
church and subsequently a mosque, its structure had remained basically
intact. In 1667 the Turkish traveller
Evliya Çelebi expressed
marvel at the Parthenon's sculptures and figuratively described the
building as "like some impregnable fortress not made by human
agency". He composed a poetic supplication that it, as "a work
less of human hands than of Heaven itself, should remain standing for
all time". The French artist
Jacques Carrey in 1674 visited the
Acropolis and sketched the Parthenon's sculptural decorations.
Early in 1687, an engineer named Plantier sketched the
the Frenchman Graviers d’Ortières. These depictions,
particularly those made by Carrey, provide important, and sometimes
the only, evidence of the condition of the
Parthenon and its various
sculptures prior to the devastation it suffered in late 1687 and the
subsequent looting of its art objects.
Parthenon illustration, published in 1688, depicting the structure in
its entirety, by Vincenzo Coronelli
In 1687, the
Parthenon was extensively damaged in the greatest
catastrophe to befall it in its long history. As part of the Great
Turkish War (1683–1699), the Venetians sent an expedition led by
Francesco Morosini to attack
Athens and capture the Acropolis. The
Ottoman Turks fortified the
Acropolis and used the
Parthenon as a
gunpowder magazine – despite having been forewarned of the dangers
of this use by the 1656 explosion that severely damaged the Propylaea
– and as a shelter for members of the local Turkish community.
On 26 September a Venetian mortar round, fired from the Hill of
Philopappus, blew up the magazine, and the building was partly
destroyed. The explosion blew out the building's central portion
and caused the cella's walls to crumble into rubble. Greek
architect and archaeologist Kornilia Chatziaslani writes that
"...three of the sanctuary’s four walls nearly collapsed and
three-fifths of the sculptures from the frieze fell. Nothing of the
roof apparently remained in place. Six columns from the south side
fell, eight from the north, as well as whatever remained from eastern
porch, except for one column. The columns brought down with them the
enormous marble architraves, triglyphs and metopes." About three
hundred people were killed in the explosion, which showered marble
fragments over nearby Turkish defenders and caused large fires
that burned until the following day and consumed many homes.
Fragment of an exploded shell found on top of a wall in the Parthenon,
thought to originate from the time of the Venetian siege
Accounts written at the time conflict over whether this destruction
was deliberate or accidental; one such account, written by the German
officer Sobievolski, states that a Turkish deserter revealed to
Morosini the use to which the Turks had put the Parthenon; expecting
that the Venetians would not target a building of such historic
importance. Morosini was said to have responded by directing his
artillery to aim at the Parthenon. Subsequently, Morosini
sought to loot sculptures from the ruin and caused further damage in
the process. Sculptures of
Poseidon and Athena's horses fell to the
ground and smashed as his soldiers tried to detach them from the
building's west pediment.
"View of the
Parthenon from the Propylea", Edward Dodwell, Views in
London 1821, depicting buildings of the time within the
The following year, the Venetians abandoned
Athens to avoid a
confrontation with a large force the Turks had assembled at Chalcis;
at that time, the Venetians had considered blowing up what remained of
Parthenon along with the rest of the
Acropolis to deny its further
use as a fortification to the Turks, but that idea was not
After the Turks had recaptured the
Acropolis they used some of the
rubble produced by this explosion to erect a smaller mosque within the
shell of the ruined Parthenon. For the next century and a half,
portions of the remaining structure were looted for building material
and any remaining objects of value.
The 18th century was a period of Ottoman stagnation; as a result, many
more Europeans found access to Athens, and the picturesque ruins of
Parthenon were much drawn and painted, spurring a rise in
philhellenism and helping to arouse sympathy in Britain and France for
Greek independence. Amongst those early travellers and archaeologists
were James Stuart and Nicholas Revett, who were commissioned by the
Society of Dilettanti
Society of Dilettanti to survey the ruins of classical Athens. What
they produced was the first measured drawings of the Parthenon
published in 1787 in the second volume of Antiquities of Athens
Measured and Delineated. In 1801, the British Ambassador at
Constantinople, the Earl of Elgin, obtained a questionable firman
(edict) from the Sultan, whose existence or legitimacy has not been
proved until today, to make casts and drawings of the antiquities on
the Acropolis, to demolish recent buildings if this was necessary to
view the antiquities, and to remove sculptures from them.[citation
The first known photograph of the
Parthenon was taken by Joly de
Lotbinière in October 1839. This is an engraving made after the
The southern side of the Parthenon, which sustained considerable
damage in the 1687 explosion
Greece gained control of
Athens in 1832, the visible
section of the minaret was demolished; only its base and spiral
staircase up to the level of the architrave remain intact. Soon
all the medieval and Ottoman buildings on the
destroyed. However, the image of the small mosque within the
Parthenon's cella has been preserved in Joly de Lotbinière's
photograph, published in Lerebours's Excursions Daguerriennes in 1842:
the first photograph of the Acropolis. The area became a
historical precinct controlled by the Greek government. Today it
attracts millions of tourists every year, who travel up the path at
the western end of the Acropolis, through the restored Propylaea, and
up the Panathenaic Way to the Parthenon, which is surrounded by a low
fence to prevent damage.
Dispute over the marbles
Main article: Elgin Marbles
Life-size pediment sculptures from the
Parthenon in the British Museum
The dispute centres around the
Parthenon Marbles removed by Thomas
Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin, from 1801 to 1803, which are in the British
Museum. A few sculptures from the
Parthenon are also in the
Paris, in Copenhagen, and elsewhere, but more than half are in the
Acropolis Museum in Athens. A few can still be seen on the
building itself. The Greek government has campaigned since 1983 for
British Museum to return the sculptures to Greece. The
British Museum has steadfastly refused to return the sculptures,
and successive British governments have been unwilling to force the
Museum to do so (which would require legislation). Nevertheless, talks
between senior representatives from Greek and British cultural
ministries and their legal advisors took place in
London on 4 May
2007. These were the first serious negotiations for several years, and
there were hopes that the two sides may move a step closer to a
In 1975, the Greek government began a concerted effort to restore the
Parthenon and other
Acropolis structures. After some delay, a
Committee for the Conservation of the
Acropolis Monuments was
established in 1983. The project later attracted funding and
technical assistance from the European Union. An archaeological
committee thoroughly documented every artifact remaining on the site,
and architects assisted with computer models to determine their
original locations. Particularly important and fragile sculptures were
transferred to the
Acropolis Museum. A crane was installed for moving
marble blocks; the crane was designed to fold away beneath the
roofline when not in use. In some cases, prior re-constructions were
found to be incorrect. These were dismantled, and a careful process of
restoration began. Originally, various blocks were held together
by elongated iron H pins that were completely coated in lead, which
protected the iron from corrosion. Stabilizing pins added in the 19th
century were not so coated, and corroded. Since the corrosion product
(rust) is expansive, the expansion caused further damage by cracking
Restoration works in 2002.
Work in progress in 2007.
A reconstructed architrave block.
Wide-scale restoration in 2010.
Western side works in 2014.
Sculpture from the Parthenon's East Pediment, Smarthistory
Parthenon from the south. In the foreground of the image, a
reconstruction of the marble imbrices and tegulae (roof tiles) forming
the roof is visible, resting on wooden supports.
Ancient Greek architecture
Ancient Greek temple
Ancient Greek temples
List of megalithic sites
National Monument of Scotland, Edinburgh
Regensburg – Exterior modelled on the Parthenon, but
interior is a hall of fame for distinguished Germans
Parthenon, Nashville – Full-scale replica
Temple of Hephaestus
^ a b Parthenon. Academic.reed.edu. Retrieved on 4 September 2013.
^ a b The Parthenon. Ancientgreece.com. Retrieved on 4 September 2013.
^ Penprase, Bryan E. (2010). The Power of Stars: How Celestial
Observations Have Shaped Civilization. Springer Science & Business
Media. p. 221. ISBN 978-1-4419-6803-6. Retrieved 8 March
^ Barletta, Barbara A. (2005). "The Architecture and Architects of the
Classical Parthenon". In Jenifer Neils. The Parthenon: From Antiquity
to the Present. Cambridge University Press. p. 67.
ISBN 978-0-521-82093-6. Retrieved 8 March 2017. The Parthenon
(Plate 1, Fig. 17) is probably the most celebrated of all Greek
^ Hambidge, Jay; Yale University. Rutherford Trowbridge Memorial
Publication Fund (1924). The
Parthenon and other Greek temples: their
dynamic symmetry. Yale university press.
^ Beard, Mary (2010). The Parthenon. Profile Books. p. 118.
^ a b Bury, J. B.; Meiggs, Russell (1956). A history of
Greece to the
death of Alexander the Great, 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
^ a b Ioanna Venieri. "
Acropolis of Athens". Hellenic Ministry of
Culture. Retrieved 4 May 2007.
^ Boutsikas, Efrosyni; Hannah, Robert (2012). "Aitia, Astronomy and
the timing of the Arrhēphoria". The Annual of the British School at
Athens. 107: 233–245. doi:10.1017/S0068245411000141.
^ Robertson, Miriam (1981). A Shorter History of Greek Art. Cambridge,
England: Cambridge University Press. p. 90.
ISBN 978-0-521-28084-6. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
^ Davison, Claire Cullen; Lundgreen, Birte (2009). Pheidias:The
Sculptures and Ancient Sources. 105. London, England: Institute of
Classical Studies, University of London. p. 209.
ISBN 9781905670215. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
^ "Lord Elgin and the
Parthenon Sculptures". British Museum. Archived
from the original on 3 February 2013.
Greece urges Britain to return sculptures". UPI.com. 22 June 2009.
Retrieved 29 June 2009.
^ παρθενών, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A
Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
^ Hurwit 200, pp. 161–163.
^ Research has revealed a shrine with altar pre-dating the Older
Parthenon, respected by, incorporated and rebuilt in the north pteron
Parthenon (Pelling, Greek Tragedy and the Historian, 169).
^ a b "Parthenon". Encyclopædia Britannica.
^ παρθένος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A
Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
^ Frazer, The Golden Bough, 18
^ Whitley, The Archaeology of Ancient Greece, 352
^ a b Freely 2004, p. 69 "Some modern writers maintain that the
Parthenon was converted into a Christian sanctuary during the reign of
Justinian (527–65)...But there is no evidence to support this in the
ancient sources. The existing evidence suggests that the
converted into a Christian basilica in the last decade of the sixth
^ Harpocration.[full citation needed]
^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 1878
^ a b S. Deacy, Athena, Routledge, 2008, p.111.
^ a b Burkert, Greek Religion, Blackwell, 1985, p.143.
^ MC. Hellmann, L'Architecture grecque. Architecture religieuse et
funéraire, Picard, 2006, p.118.
^ a b B. Nagy, "Athenian Officials on the
Parthenon Frieze", AJA,
Vol.96, No.1 (January 1992), pp.55.
Thucydides 2.13.5. Retrieved 11 September 2008.
^ S. Eddy, "The Gold in the
Athena Parthenos", AJA, Vol.81, No.1
(Winter, 1977), pp.107–111.
^ B. Holtzmann and A. Pasquier, Histoire de l'art antique : l'art
grec, École du Louvre, Réunion des musées nationaux and
Documentation française, 1998, p.177.
^ Connelly, Joan Breton (2014-11-04). The
Parthenon Enigma: a New
Understanding of the West's Most Iconic Building and the People Who
Made It. New York: Vintage. ISBN 9780307476593.
^ "Welcome to Joan Breton Connelly". Welcome to Joan Breton Connelly.
^ Joan Breton Connelly, The
Parthenon Enigma,"" New York, Knopf,
2014, p. 35
^ Daniel Mendelsohn, "Deep Frieze", The New Yorker, 14 April 2014
^ Mary Beard, "The Latest Scheme for the Parthenon", The New York
Review of Books, 6 March 2014
^ Mary Beard, Peter Green,
Garry Wills "‘The Parthenon
Enigma’—An Exchange", The New York Review of Books, 22 May 2014
^ "Decoding the
Parthenon by J. J. Pollitt – The New Criterion".
www.newcriterion.com. Retrieved 2015-08-18.
^ "Rethinking the West's Most Iconic Building – Bryn Mawr Alumnae
Bulletin". bulletin.brynmawr.edu. Retrieved 2015-08-18.
^ Spivey, Nigel (October 2014). "Art and Archaeology" (PDF). Greece
& Rome. 61 (2): 287–290. doi:10.1017/S0017383514000138.
^ Alexander, Caroline (2014-01-23). "'The
Parthenon Enigma,' by Joan
Breton Connelly". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved
Frieze Meaning". www.weeklystandard.com. Retrieved
^ Hurwit 2005, p. 135
Herodotus Histories, 8.53
^ W. Dörpfeld, "Der aeltere Parthenon", Ath. Mitteilungen, XVII,
1892, p. 158-89 and W. Dörpfeld, "Die Zeit des alteren Parthenon", AM
27, 1902, 379–416
^ P. Kavvadis, G. Kawerau, Die Ausgabung der
Acropolis vom Jahre 1885
bis zum Jahre 1890, 1906
^ NM Tod, A Selection of Greek Historical Inscriptions II, 1948, no.
204, lines 46–51, The authenticity of this is disputed, however; see
also P. Siewert, Der Eid von Plataia (Munich 1972) 98–102
^ Kerr, Minott (23 October 1995). "'The Sole Witness': The Periclean
Parthenon". Reed College Portland, Oregon USA. Archived from the
original on 8 June 2007.
^ B. H. Hill, "The Older Parthenon", AJA', XVI, 1912, 535–58
^ B. Graef, E. Langlotz, Die Antiken Vasen von der Akropolis zu Athen,
^ W. Dinsmoor, "The Date of the Older Parthenon", AJA, XXXVIII, 1934,
^ W. Dörpfeld, "
Parthenon I, II, III", AJA, XXXIX, 1935, 497–507,
and W. Dinsmoor, AJA, XXXIX, 1935, 508–9
^ Banister Fletcher, History of architecture on the Comparative
Method, pp 119–123
^ "LacusCurtius • Roman Architecture — Roof Tiles (Smith's
Dictionary, 1875)". penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2018-02-08.
^ John Julius Norwich, Great Architecture of the World, 2001, p. 63
^ And in the surviving foundations of the preceding Older Parthenon
(Penrose, Principles of Athenian Architecture 2nd ed. ch. II.3, plate
^ Penrose op. cit. pp 32–34, found the difference motivated by
economies of labour; Gorham P. Stevens, "Concerning the Impressiveness
of the Parthenon"
American Journal of Archaeology 66.3 (July
^ Archeologists discuss similarly curved architecture and offer the
theory. Nova, "Secrets of the Parthenon", PBS.
http://video.yahoo.com/watch/1849622/6070405[permanent dead link]
^ Hadingham, Evan (February 2008), Unlocking Mysteries of the
Parthenon, Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Magazine, p. 42
^ Van Mersbergen, Audrey M., "Rhetorical Prototypes in Architecture:
Measuring the Acropolis", Philosophical Polemic Communication
Quarterly, Vol. 46, 1998.
^ See e.g. George Markowsky (January 1992). "Misconceptions about the
Golden Ratio" (PDF). The College Mathematics Journal. 23 (1).
^ "Tarbell, F.B. A History of
Ancient Greek Art. (online book)".
Ellopos.net. Retrieved 18 April 2009.
^ For comprehensive drawings showing the location of each piece today,
see: "The Parthenon", in Strolling Through Athens, City of Athens,
2004, pp. 112–119.
^ Barringer, Judith M (2008). Art, myth, and ritual in classical
Greece. Cambridge. p. 78. ISBN 0-521-64647-2.
^ Tenth metope from the south façade of the Parthenon, retrieved
^ of Five Metopes
Parthenon and Parthenoi, 53–80.
^ Connelly, The
Parthenon Enigma, chapters 4,5, and 7.
Parthenon Sculptures by Mark Cartwright 2014".
^ "The British Museum: The
^ "ATHENIANS AND ELEUSINIANS IN THE WEST PEDIMENT OF THE PARTHENON"
^ a b "The
Parthenon Sculptures, The British Museum".
^ "The Pediments of the Prthenon by Olga Palagia".
^ Lapatin, Kenneth D. S. (2001). Chryselephantine Statuary in the
Ancient Mediterranean World. Oxford: OUP. p. 63.
^ N. Leipen,
Athena Parthenos: a huge reconstruction, 1972.
^ "Introduction to the
Parthenon Frieze". National Documentation
Centre (Greek Ministry of Culture). Archived from the original on 28
October 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
^ Freely 2004, p. 69. "According to one authority, John Travlos, this
Athens was sacked by the
Heruli in AD 267, at which time
the two-tiered colonnade in the cella was destroyed."
^ a b c d e f Chatziaslani, Kornilia. "Morosini in Athens".
Archaeology of the City of Athens. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
^ O'Donovan, Connell. "Pirates, marauders, and homos, oh my!".
Retrieved 10 December 2015.
^ a b c "The Parthenon".
Acropolis Restoration Service. Retrieved 14
^ Freely 2004, p. 69.
^ Cremin, Aedeen (2007). Archaeologica. Frances Lincoln Ltd.
p. 170. ISBN 9780711228221.
^ a b c d Freely 2004, p. 70.
^ a b Hollis 2009, p. 21.
^ Hurwit 2000, p. 293.
^ a b c Kaldellis, Anthony (2007). "A Heretical (Orthodox) History of
the Parthenon" (PDF). University of Michigan. p. 3. Archived from
the original (PDF) on 24 August 2009.
^ Hurwit 2000, p. 295
^ Babinger, Franz (1992). Mehmed the Conqueror and His Time. Princeton
University Press. pp. 159–160. ISBN 9780691010786.
^ Tomkinson, John L. "Ottoman
Athens I: Early Ottoman Athens
(1456–1689)". Anagnosis Books. Retrieved 14 August 2012. "In
Parthenon was referred to as a church, so it seems likely
that for some time at least, it continued to function as a cathedral,
being restored to the use of the Greek archbishop."
^ Tomkinson, John L. "Ottoman
Athens I: Early Ottoman Athens
(1456–1689)". Anagnosis Books. Retrieved 14 August 2012. "Some
time later – we do not know exactly when – the
itself converted into a mosque."
^ D'Ooge 1909, p. 317. "The conversion of the
Parthenon into a mosque
is first mentioned by another anonymous writer, the Paris Anonymous,
whose manuscript dating from the latter half of the fifteenth century
was discovered in the library of Paris in 1862."
^ Miller, Walter (1893). "A History of the Akropolis of Athens". The
American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts.
Archaeological Institute of America. 8: 546–547.
^ Hollis 2009, p. 33.
^ Bruno, Vincent J. (1974). The Parthenon. W.W. Norton & Company.
p. 172. ISBN 9780393314403.
^ D'Ooge 1909, p. 317.
^ a b Fichner-Rathus, Lois (2012). Understanding Art (10 ed.). Cengage
Learning. p. 305. ISBN 9781111836955.
^ Stoneman, Richard (2004). A Traveller's History of Athens. Interlink
Books. p. 209. ISBN 9781566565332.
^ Holt, Frank L. (November–December 2008). "I,
Marble Maiden". Saudi
Aramco World. Saudi Aramco. 59 (6): 36–41.
^ a b T. Bowie, D. Thimme, The Carrey Drawings of the Parthenon
^ a b c d Tomkinson, John L. "Venetian Athens: Venetian Interlude
(1684–1689)". Anagnosis Books. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
^ Theodor E. Mommsen, The Venetians in
Athens and the Destruction of
Parthenon in 1687, American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 45, No. 4
(October – December 1941), pp. 544–556
^ Palagia, Olga (1998). The
Pediments of the Parthenon
Pediments of the Parthenon (2 ed.). BRILL.
ISBN 9789004111981. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
^ Tomkinson, John L. "Ottoman
Athens II: Later Ottoman Athens
(1689–1821)". Anagnosis Books. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
^ Grafton, Anthony; Glenn W. Most; Salvatore Settis (2010). The
Classical Tradition. Harvard University Press. p. 693.
^ Murray, John (1884). Handbook for travellers in Greece, Volume 2.
Oxford University Press. p. 317.
^ Neils, The Parthenon: From Antiquity to the Present, 336– the
picture was taken in October 1839
^ a b Greek Premier Says New
Acropolis Museum to Boost Bid for
Parthenon Sculptures, International Herald Tribune
Parthenon Sculptures: The Position of the British Museum
Truistees and Common Misconceptions". The British Museum. Retrieved 18
^ Talks Due on
Elgin Marbles Return, BBC News
^ Lina Lambrinou, "State of the Art: ‘
Parthenon of Athens: A
Challenge Throughout History" Archived 3 October 2008 at the Wayback
Machine. (pdf file) with bibliography of interim conservation reports;
^ "The Surface Conservation Project"[permanent dead link] (pdf file).
Once they had been conserved, the West
Frieze blocks were moved to the
museum, and copies cast in artificial stone were reinstalled in their
^ Hadingham, Evan (2008). "Unlocking the Mysteries of the Parthenon".
Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 22 February 2008.
^ "Sculpture from the Parthenon's East Pediment".
Smarthistory at Khan
Academy. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
Burkert, Walter (1985). Greek Religion. Harvard University Press.
Connelly, Joan Breton (1 January 1996). "
Parthenon and Parthenoi: A
Mythological Interpretation of the
Parthenon Frieze". American Journal
of Archaeology. 100 (1): 53–80. doi:10.2307/506297.
Connelly, Joan Breton (2014). The
Parthenon Enigma: A New
Understanding of the West's Most Iconic Building and the People who
Made It. Random House. ISBN 0307476596. 
D'Ooge, Martin Luther (1909). The
Acropolis of Athens.
Frazer, Sir James George (1998). "The King of the Woods". The Golden
Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion. Oxford University Press.
Freely, John (2004). Strolling Through Athens: Fourteen Unforgettable
Walks through Europe's Oldest City (2 ed.). Tauris Parke Paperbacks.
Hollis, Edward (2009). The Secret Lives of Buildings: From the Ruins
Parthenon to the Vegas Strip in Thirteen Stories. Macmillan.
Hurwit, Jeffrey M. (2000). The Athenian Acropolis: History, Mythology,
and Archeology from the Neolithic Era to the Present. Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 0-521-42834-3.
Hurwit, Jeffrey M. (2005). "The
Parthenon and the
Temple of Zeus at
Olympia". In Judith M. Barringer; Jeffrey M. Hurwit; Jerome Jordan
Athens and Its Legacy: Problems and Perspectives.
University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70622-7.
Neils, Jenifer (2005). The Parthenon: From Antiquity to the Present.
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82093-6.
"Parthenon". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2002.
Pelling, Christopher (1997). "Tragedy and Religion: Constructs and
Readings". Greek Tragedy and the Historian. Oxford University Press.
Tarbell, F.B. A History of
Ancient Greek Art. online.
Whitley, James (2001). "The Archaeology of Democracy: Classical
Athens". The Archaeology of Ancient Greece. Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 0-521-62733-8.
"Greek Premier Says New
Acropolis Museum to Boost Bid for Parthenon
Sculptures". International Herald Tribune. 9 October 2006. Retrieved
23 April 2007.
"Parthenon". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 5 May 2007.
Ioanna Venieri. "
Athens – History".
Athens. Οδυσσεύς. Retrieved 4 May 2007.
Nova – PBS. "Secrets of the
Parthenon – History".
Athens. PBS. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
Library resources about
Resources in your library
Resources in other libraries
Beard, Mary. The Parthenon. Harvard University: 2003.
Connelly, Joan Breton Connelly. "The
Parthenon Enigma: A New
Understanding of the West's Most Iconic Building and the People Who
Made It." Knopf: 2014. ISBN 0307476596.
Cosmopoulos, Michael (editor). The
Parthenon and its Sculptures.
Cambridge University: 2004. ISBN 0-521-83673-5.
Holtzman, Bernard (2003). L'Acropole d'Athènes : Monuments,
Cultes et Histoire du sanctuaire d'Athèna Polias (in French). Paris:
Picard. ISBN 2-7084-0687-6.
King, Dorothy "The Elgin Marbles" Hutchinson / Random House, January
2006. ISBN 0-09-180013-7
Osada, T. (ed.) The
Parthenon Frieze. The Ritual Communication between
Goddess and the Polis.
Parthenon Project Japan 2011–2014 Phoibos
Verlag, Wien 2016, ISBN 978-3-85161-124-3.
Queyrel, François (2008). Le Parthénon: un monument dans l'histoire.
Bartillat. ISBN 978-2-84100-435-5. .
Papachatzis, Nikolaos D. Pausaniou Ellados Periegesis- Attika Athens,
Tournikio, Panayotis. Parthenon. Abrams: 1996.
Traulos, Ioannis N. I Poleodomike ekselikses ton Athinon Athens, 1960
Woodford, Susan. The Parthenon. Cambridge University: 1981.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Parthenon.
Look up parthenon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article
Acropolis of Athens: The
Parthenon (official site with a schedule
of its opening hours, tickets and contact information)
(Hellenic Ministry of Culture) The
Acropolis Restoration Project
(Hellenic Ministry of Culture) The
Frieze (in Greek)
UNESCO World Heritage Centre – Acropolis, Athens
Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County – The
Acropolis by Livio C. Stecchini (Takes the heterodox view
of the date of the proto-Parthenon, but a useful summary of the
The Friends of the Acropolis
Parthenon Marbles – Dr. Janice Siegel, Department of
Classics, Hampden–Sydney College, Virginia
Parthenon:description, photo album
A Wikimedia video of the main sights of the Athenian Acropolis
Secrets of the
Parthenon video by Public Broadcasting Service, on
Parthenon by Costas Gavras
The history of
Parthenon from the Greek tv show Η
Μηχανή του Χρόνου (Time machine) (in Greek), on YouTube
Athens in ancient
Greece – Dimensions and
Parthenon on Youtube
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