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Coordinates: 23°S 58°W / 23°S 58°W / -23; -58

Republic of Paraguay

República del Paraguay  (Spanish) Tetã Paraguái  (Guaraní)

Flag (obverse)

Seal [nb 1]

Motto: "Paz y justicia" (Spanish) "Peace and justice"

Anthem:  Paraguayos, República o Muerte  (Spanish) Paraguayans, Republic or Death

Location of  Paraguay  (dark green) in South America  (grey)

Capital and largest city Asunción 25°16′S 57°40′W / 25.267°S 57.667°W / -25.267; -57.667

Official languages

Spanish Guarani

Ethnic groups (2016[1])

95% Mestizo 5% other

Demonym Paraguayan Guaraní (colloquial)[2]

Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic

• President

Horacio Cartes

• Vice President

Juan Afara

Legislature Congress

• Upper house

Senate

• Lower house

Chamber of Deputies

Independence from Spain

• Declared

14 May 1811

• Recognized

25 November 1842

Area

• Total

406,752 km2 (157,048 sq mi) (59th)

• Water (%)

2.3

Population

• 2018 estimate

6,897,384[3] (104th)

• Density

16.95/km2 (43.9/sq mi) (210th)

GDP (PPP) 2018 estimate

• Total

$72.137 billion[4] (100th)

• Per capita

$10,227[4] (112th)

GDP (nominal) 2018 estimate

• Total

$30.556 billion[4] (101th)

• Per capita

$4,332[4] (111th)

Gini (2015)  48[5] high

HDI (2015)  0.693[6] medium · 110th

Currency Guaraní (PYG)

Time zone PYT (UTC–4)

• Summer (DST)

PYST (UTC–3)

Drives on the right

Calling code +595

ISO 3166 code PY

Internet TLD .py

Mixed European and Amerindian.

Paraguay
Paraguay
(/ˈpærəɡwaɪ/; Spanish pronunciation: [paɾaˈɣwaj]; Guarani: Paraguái, [paɾaˈɰwaj]), officially the Republic of Paraguay
Republic of Paraguay
(Spanish: República del Paraguay; Guarani: Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina
Argentina
to the south and southwest, Brazil
Brazil
to the east and northeast, and Bolivia
Bolivia
to the northwest. Paraguay
Paraguay
lies on both banks of the Paraguay
Paraguay
River, which runs through the center of the country from north to south. Due to its central location in South America, it is sometimes referred to as Corazón de Sudamérica ("Heart of South America").[9] Paraguay
Paraguay
is one of the two landlocked countries (the other is Bolivia) outside Afro-Eurasia, and is the smallest[10] landlocked country in the Americas. The indigenous Guaraní had been living in eastern Paraguay
Paraguay
for at least a millennium before the Spanish arrived in the 16th century. Western Paraguay, the Gran Chaco, was inhabited by nomads of whom the Guaycuru
Guaycuru
peoples were the most prominent. In the 17th century, Jesuit missions introduced Christianity
Christianity
and Spanish culture to the region. Paraguay
Paraguay
was a peripheral colony of the Spanish Empire, with few urban centers and settlers. Following independence from Spain
Spain
in 1811, Paraguay
Paraguay
was ruled by a series of dictators who generally implemented isolationist and protectionist policies. Following the disastrous Paraguayan War
Paraguayan War
(1864–1870), the country lost 60 to 70 percent of its population through war and disease, and about 140,000 square kilometers (54,000 sq mi), one quarter of its territory, to Argentina
Argentina
and Brazil. Through the 20th century, Paraguay
Paraguay
continued to endure a succession of authoritarian governments, culminating in the regime of Alfredo Stroessner, who led South America's longest-lived military dictatorship from 1954 to 1989. He was toppled in an internal military coup, and free multi-party elections (and the legalization of communist parties) were organized and held for the first time in 1993. A year later, Paraguay
Paraguay
joined Argentina, Brazil
Brazil
and Uruguay
Uruguay
to found Mercosur, a regional economic collaborative. As of 2016[update], Paraguay's population was estimated to be at around 6.7 million,[11] most of whom are concentrated in the southeast region of the country. The capital and largest city is Asunción, whose metropolitan area is home to nearly a third of Paraguay's population. In contrast to most Latin American nations, Paraguay's indigenous language and culture, Guaraní, remains highly influential. In each census, residents predominantly identify as mestizo, reflecting years of intermarriage among the different ethnic groups. Guaraní is recognized as an official language alongside Spanish, and both languages are widely spoken in the country.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Pre-Columbian Era 2.2 Colonization 2.3 Independence and rule of Francia 2.4 Rule of the López 2.5 Paraguayan War
Paraguayan War
(1864–1870) 2.6 20th century 2.7 Stroessner 2.8 Post-1989 2.9 From Lugo's 2008 election to his 2012 impeachment

3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Government and politics

4.1 Military 4.2 Administrative subdivisions

5 Economy

5.1 Industry and manufacturing 5.2 Social issues

5.2.1 Social issues of the indigenous

6 Demographics

6.1 Religion 6.2 Languages 6.3 Largest cities

7 Culture

7.1 Sports

8 Education 9 Health 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External links

Etymology[edit] The name of the country comes from the river of the same name. There is no consensus regarding the derivation or meaning of Paraguay, although many versions are similar and all of them in Paraguayan Guarani. The most widely believed is that it comes from Paraguay (compound of para 'sea', and the suffix -gua 'native to, coming from') and y (water, river), which can mean either "water that comes from the sea" or "the water of the people from the sea". Even though it most believed that it means the first, the second meaning is more possible from a linguistic point of view. Friar Antonio Ruiz de Montoya (1585–1652) wrote in his 1639 work Tesoro de la Lengua guaraní (Theasaurus of the Guarani Language) that it was a compound of Paraguay
Paraguay
(feather crown) and y, thus meaning "river of crowns" or "the river where men live and are ornate with crowns of verious feathers" The Spanish officer and scientist Félix de Azara
Félix de Azara
(1746–1821) suggests two derivations: the Payaguás (Pajagua y, "river of Payaguás"), referring to the indigenous tribe who lived along the river, or a great cacique named Paraguáio or Paraguájo. Although originally the word in Guarani was Paraguay, the country is called Paraguái and pronounced the same as in Spanish, with the close front unrounded vowel /i/ instead of /ɨ/. The word Paraguay
Paraguay
is just used to refer to the river and the capital city of Asunción. History[edit] Main article: History of Paraguay Pre-Columbian Era[edit] Indigenous peoples have inhabited this area for thousands of years. The Paraguay River
Paraguay River
was roughly the dividing line between the agricultural Guarani people
Guarani people
to the east and the nomadic and semi-nomadic people to the west in the Gran Chaco. The Guarcuru nomads were known for their warrior traditions and were not fully pacified until the late 19th century. These indigenous tribes belonged to five distinct language families, which were the bases of their major divisions. Differing language speaking groups were generally competitive over resources and territories. They were further divided into tribes by speaking languages in branches of these families. Today 17 separate ethnolinguistic groups remain. Colonization[edit] The first Europeans in the area were Spanish explorers in 1516.[12] The Spanish explorer Juan de Salazar de Espinosa
Juan de Salazar de Espinosa
founded the settlement of Asunción
Asunción
on 15 August 1537. The city eventually became the center of a Spanish colonial province of Paraguay. An attempt to create an autonomous Christian Indian nation [13] was undertaken by Jesuit missions and settlements in this part of South America in the eighteenth century, which included portions of Uruguay, Argentina, and Brazil. They developed Jesuit reductions to bring Guarani populations together at Spanish missions and protect them from virtual slavery by Spanish settlers and Portuguese slave raiders, the Bandeirantes. In addition to seeking their conversion to Christianity. Catholicism in Paraguay
Paraguay
was influenced by the indigenous peoples; the syncretic religion has absorbed native elements. The reducciones flourished in eastern Paraguay
Paraguay
for about 150 years, until the expulsion of the Jesuits by the Spanish Crown in 1767. The ruins of two 18th-century Jesuit Missions of La Santísima Trinidad de Paraná and Jesús de Tavarangue have been designated as World Heritage Sites by UNESCO.[13] In western Paraguay
Paraguay
Spanish settlement and Christianity
Christianity
were strongly resisted by the nomadic Guaycuru
Guaycuru
and other nomads from the 16th century onward. Most of these peoples were absorbed into the mestizo population in the 18th and 19th centuries. Independence and rule of Francia[edit] Main article: Independence of Paraguay

José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia, Paraguay's first dictator

Paraguay
Paraguay
overthrew the local Spanish administration on 14 May 1811. Paraguay's first dictator was José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia
José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia
who ruled Paraguay
Paraguay
from 1814 until his death in 1840, with very little outside contact or influence. He intended to create a utopian society based on the French theorist Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Social Contract.[14] Rodríguez de Francia established new laws that greatly reduced the powers of the Catholic church (Catholicism was then an established state religion) and the cabinet, forbade colonial citizens from marrying one another and allowed them to marry only blacks, mulattoes or natives, in order to break the power of colonial-era elites and to create a mixed-race or mestizo society.[15] He cut off relations between Paraguay
Paraguay
and the rest of South America. Because of Francia's restrictions of freedom, Fulgencio Yegros and several other Independence-era leaders in 1820 planned a coup d’état against Francia, who discovered the plot and had its leaders either executed or imprisoned for life. Rule of the López[edit] After Francia's death in 1840, Paraguay
Paraguay
was ruled by various military officers under a new junta, until Carlos Antonio López
Carlos Antonio López
(allegedly Rodríguez de Francia's nephew) came to power in 1841. López modernized Paraguay
Paraguay
and opened it to foreign commerce. He signed a non-aggression pact with Argentina
Argentina
and officially declared independence of Paraguay
Paraguay
in 1842. After López's death in 1862, power was transferred to his eldest son, Francisco Solano López. The regime of the López family was characterized by pervasive and rigid centralism in production and distribution. There was no distinction between the public and the private spheres, and the López family ruled the country as it would a large estate.[16] The government exerted control on all exports. The export of yerba mate and valuable wood products maintained the balance of trade between Paraguay
Paraguay
and the outside world.[17] The Paraguayan government was extremely protectionist, never accepted loans from abroad and levied high tariffs against imported foreign products. This protectionism made the society self-sufficient, and it also avoided the debt suffered by Argentina
Argentina
and Brazil. Slavery existed in Paraguay, although not in great numbers, until 1844, when it was legally abolished in the new Constitution.[18] Francisco Solano López, the son of Carlos Antonio López, replaced his father as the President-Dictator in 1862, and generally continued the political policies of his father. Both wanted to give an international image of Paraguay
Paraguay
as "democratic and republican", but in fact, the ruling family had almost total control of all public life in the country, including Church and colleges.[19] Militarily, Carlos Antonio López
Carlos Antonio López
modernized and expanded industry and the Paraguayan Army
Paraguayan Army
and greatly strengthened the strategic defences of Paraguay
Paraguay
by developing the Fortress of Humaitá.[20] The government hired more than 200 foreign technicians, who installed telegraph lines and railroads to aid the expanding steel, textile, paper and ink, naval construction, weapons and gunpowder industries. The Ybycuí foundry, completed in 1850, manufactured cannons, mortars and bullets of all calibers. River warships were built in the shipyards of Asunción. Fortifications were built, especially along the Apa River and in Gran Chaco.[21]:22 The work was continued by his son Francisco Solano.

Political map of the region, 1864

According to George Thompson, C.E., Lieutenant Colonel of Engineers in the Paraguayan Army
Paraguayan Army
prior to and during the war, López's government was comparatively a good one for Paraguay:

Probably in no other country in the world has life and property been so secure as all over Paraguay
Paraguay
during his (Antonio Lopez's) reign. Crime was almost unknown, and when committed, immediately detected and punished. The mass of the people was, perhaps, the happiest in existence. They had hardly to do any work to gain a livelihood. Each family had its house or hut in its own ground. They planted, in a few days, enough tobacco, maize and mandioca for their own consumption [...]. Having at every hut a grove of oranges [...] and also a few cows, they were almost throughout the year under little necessity [...]. The higher classes, of course, lived more in the European way... — George Thompson, C.E.[22]

Paraguayan War
Paraguayan War
(1864–1870)[edit] Main article: Paraguayan War Main article: Paraguayan War
Paraguayan War
casualties

Francisco Solano López

In 12 October 1864, despite Paraguayan ultimatums, the Brazilian Empire (sided with Argentina
Argentina
and the rebellious Gen. Venancio Flores) invaded the Republic of Uruguay
Uruguay
(which then was an ally of the Lopez's Government[citation needed]), thus starting the Paraguayan War.[23] The Paraguayans, led by the Marshal of the Republic Francisco Solano López, held a fierce resistance, but were ultimately defeated in 1870 after the Death of Solano López, who was killed in action.[24] The real causes of this war, which remains the bloodiest international conflict in Latin American history, are still highly debated.[25] About the disaster suffered by the Paraguayans at the outcome of the war, William D. Rubinstein wrote: "The normal estimate is that of a Paraguayan population of somewhere between 450,000 and 900,000, only 220,000 survived the war, of whom only 28,000 were adult males."[26] Paraguay
Paraguay
also suffered extensive territorial losses to Brazil
Brazil
and Argentina.

The Battle of Tuyutí, May 1866

During the pillaging of Asunción
Asunción
in 1869, the Imperial Brazilian Army packed up and transported the Paraguayan National Archives to Rio de Janeiro.[27][28] Brazil's records from the war have remained classified.[29] This has made Paraguayan history in the Colonial and early National periods difficult to research and study. 20th century[edit]

Gran Chaco was the site of the Chaco War
Chaco War
(1932–35), in which Bolivia lost most of the disputed territory to Paraguay.

Paraguayan recruits during the Chaco war

In 1904 the Liberal revolution against the rule of Colorados broke out. The Liberal rule started a period of great political instability. Between 1904 and 1954 Paraguay
Paraguay
had thirty-one presidents, most of whom were removed from office by force.[30] Conflicts between the factions of the ruling Liberal party led to the Paraguayan Civil War of 1922. The unresolved border conflict with Bolivia
Bolivia
over Chaco region finally erupted in early 1930s in the Chaco War. After great losses Paraguay defeated Bolivia
Bolivia
and established its sovereignty over most of the disputed Chaco region. After the war, military officers used popular dissatisfaction with the Liberal politicians to seize the power for themselves. On 17 February 1936, the February Revolution brought colonel Rafael Franco
Rafael Franco
to power. Between 1940 and 1948, the country was ruled by general Higinio Morínigo. Dissatisfaction with his rule resulted in the Paraguayan civil war of 1947.[31] In its aftermath Alfredo Stroessner
Alfredo Stroessner
began involvement in a string of plots, which resulted in his military coup d'état of 4 May 1954. Stroessner[edit] See also: El Stronato A series of unstable governments ensued until the establishment in 1954 of the regime of dictator Alfredo Stroessner, who remained in office for more than three decades until 1989. Paraguay
Paraguay
was modernized to some extent under Stroessner's regime, although his rule was marked by extensive human rights abuses.[32] Stroessner and the Colorado party ruled the country from 1954 to 1989. The dictator oversaw an era of economic expansion, but also had a poor human rights and environmental record (see "Political History"). Torture and death for political opponents was routine. After his overthrow, the Colorado continued to dominate national politics until 2008. The splits in the Colorado Party in the 1980s, and the prevailing conditions: Stroessner's advanced age, the character of the regime, the economic downturn, and international isolation, were catalysts for anti-regime demonstrations and statements by the opposition prior to the 1988 general elections.[citation needed] PLRA leader Domingo Laíno served as the focal point of the opposition in the second half of the 1980s. The government's effort to isolate Laino by exiling him in 1982 had backfired. On his sixth attempt to re-enter the country in 1986, Laino returned with three television crews from the U.S., a former United States
United States
ambassador to Paraguay, and a group of Uruguayan and Argentine congressmen. Despite the international contingent, the police violently barred Laino's return.[citation needed] The Stroessner regime relented in April 1987, and permitted Laino to return to Asunción. Laino took the lead in organizing demonstrations and reducing infighting among the opposition party. The opposition was unable to reach agreement on a common strategy regarding the elections, with some parties advocating abstention, and others calling for blank voting. The parties held numerous 'lightning demonstrations' (mítines relámpagos), especially in rural areas. Such demonstrations were gathered and quickly disbanded before the arrival of the police. In response to the upsurge in opposition activities, Stroessner condemned the Accord for advocating "sabotage of the general elections and disrespect of the law." He used national police and civilian vigilantes of the Colorado Party to break up demonstrations. A number of opposition leaders were imprisoned or otherwise harassed. Hermes Rafael Saguier, another key leader of the PLRA, was imprisoned for four months in 1987 on charges of sedition. In early February 1988, police arrested 200 people attending a National Coordinating Committee meeting in Coronel Oviedo. Laino and several other opposition figures were arrested before dawn on the day of the election, 14 February, and held for twelve hours. The government declared Stroessner's re-election with 89% of the vote.[33] The opposition attributed the results in part to the virtual Colorado monopoly on the mass media. They noted that 53% of those polled indicated that there was an "uneasiness" in Paraguayan society. 74% believed that the political situation needed changes, including 45% who wanted a substantial or total change. Finally, 31% stated that they planned to abstain from voting in the February elections.[citation needed] On 3 February 1989, Stroessner was overthrown in a military coup headed by General Andrés Rodríguez. As president, Rodríguez instituted political, legal, and economic reforms and initiated a rapprochement with the international community. Reflecting the deep hunger of the rural poor for land, hundreds immediately occupied thousands of acres of unused territories belonging to Stroessner and his associates; by mid-1990, 19,000 families occupied 340,000 acres (138,000 ha). At the time, 2.06 million people lived in rural areas, more than half of the 4.1 million total population, and most were landless.[34] Post-1989[edit] The June 1992 constitution established a democratic system of government and dramatically improved protection of fundamental human rights. In May 1993, Colorado Party candidate Juan Carlos Wasmosy
Juan Carlos Wasmosy
was elected as Paraguay's first civilian president in almost 40 years, in what international observers deemed fair and free elections. With support from the United States, the Organization of American States, and other countries in the region, the Paraguayan people rejected an April 1996 attempt by then Army
Army
Chief General Lino Oviedo to oust President Wasmosy. Oviedo was nominated as the Colorado candidate for president in the 1998 election, however, when the Supreme Court upheld in April his conviction on charges related to the 1996 coup attempt, he was not allowed to run and was detained in jail. His former running mate, Raúl Cubas, became the Colorado Party's candidate, and was elected in May in elections deemed by international observers to be free and fair. One of Cubas' first acts after taking office in August was to commute Oviedo's sentence and release him. In December 1998, Paraguay's Supreme Court declared these actions unconstitutional. In this tense atmosphere, the murder of Vice President and long-time Oviedo rival Luis María Argaña on 23 March 1999, led the Chamber of Deputies to impeach Cubas the next day.[citation needed] On 26 March, eight student anti-government demonstrators were murdered, widely believed to have been carried out by Oviedo supporters. This increased opposition to Cubas, who resigned on 28 March. Senate President Luis González Macchi, a Cubas opponent, was peacefully sworn in as president the same day. In 2003, Nicanor Duarte
Nicanor Duarte
Frutos was elected as president. For the 2008 general elections, the Colorado Party was favored in polls. Their candidate was Minister of Education Blanca Ovelar, the first woman to be nominated as a candidate for a major party in Paraguayan history. After sixty years of Colorado rule, voters chose Fernando Lugo, a former Roman Catholic Bishop and not a professional politician in civil government. He had long followed liberation theology, which was controversial in South American societies, but he was backed by the center-right Liberal Party, the Colorado Party's traditional opponents. From Lugo's 2008 election to his 2012 impeachment[edit] Lugo achieved a historic victory in Paraguay's presidential election, defeating the ruling party candidate, and ending 61 years of conservative rule. Lugo won with nearly 41% of the vote, compared to almost 31% for Blanca Ovelar
Blanca Ovelar
of the Colorado party.[35] Outgoing President Nicanor Duarte
Nicanor Duarte
Frutos hailed the moment as the first time in the history of the nation that a government had transferred power to opposition forces in a constitutional and peaceful fashion. Lugo was sworn in on 15 August 2008. The Paraguayan Congress continued to be dominated by right-wing elected officials. The Lugo administration set its two major priorities as the reduction of corruption and economic inequality.[36]

Inauguration of new President Horacio Cartes, 15 August 2013

Political instability following Lugo's election and disputes within his cabinet encouraged some renewal of popular support for the Colorado Party. Reports suggested that the businessman Horacio Cartes became the new political figure amid disputes. Despite the US Drug Enforcement Administration's strong accusations against Cartes related to drug trafficking, he continued to amass followers in the political arena. On 14 January 2011, the Colorado Party convention nominated Horacio Cartes as the presidential candidate for the party. However, the party's constitution didn't allow it.[clarification needed] On 21 June 2012, impeachment proceedings against President Lugo began in the country's lower house, which was controlled by his opponents. Lugo was given less than twenty-four hours to prepare for the proceedings and only two hours in which to mount a defense.[37] Impeachment was quickly approved and the resulting trial in Paraguay's Senate, also controlled by the opposition, ended with the removal of Lugo from office and Vice President Federico Franco
Federico Franco
assuming the duties of president.[38] Lugo's rivals blamed him for the deaths of 17 people – eight police officers and nine farmers – in armed clashes after police were ambushed by armed peasants when enforcing an eviction order against rural trespassers.[39] Lugo's supporters gathered outside Congress to protest the decision as a "politically motivated coup d'état".[38] Lugo's removal from office on 22 June 2012 is considered by UNASUR
UNASUR
and other neighboring countries, especially those currently governed by leftist leaders, as a coup d'état.[40] The Organization of American States, which sent a mission to Paraguay
Paraguay
to gather information, concluded that the impeachment process had been carried out in accordance with the Constitution of Paraguay. Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Paraguay

Paraguay
Paraguay
map of Köppen climate classification

Landscape in the Gran Chaco, Paraguay

Paraguay
Paraguay
is divided by the Río Paraguay
Río Paraguay
into two well differentiated geographic regions. The eastern region (Región Oriental); and the western region, officially called Western Paraguay
Paraguay
(Región Occidental) and also known as the Chaco, which is part of the Gran Chaco. The country lies between latitudes 19° and 28°S, and longitudes 54° and 63°W. The terrain consists mostly of grassy plains and wooded hills in the eastern region. To the west are mostly low, marshy plains. Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of Paraguay The overall climate is tropical to subtropical. Like most lands in the region, Paraguay
Paraguay
has only wet and dry periods. Winds play a major role in influencing Paraguay's weather: between October and March, warm winds blow from the Amazon Basin in the North, while the period between May and August brings cold winds from the Andes. The absence of mountain ranges to provide a natural barrier allows winds to develop speeds as high as 161 km/h (100 mph). This also leads to significant changes in temperature within a short span of time; between April and September, temperatures will sometimes drop below freezing. January is the hottest summer month, with an average daily temperature of 28.9 degrees Celsius (84 degrees F). Rainfall varies dramatically across the country, with substantial rainfall in the eastern portions, and semi-arid conditions in the far west. The far eastern forest belt receives an average of 170 centimeters (67 inches) of rain annually, while the western Chaco region typically averages no more than 50 cm (20 in) a year. The rains in the west tend to be irregular and evaporate quickly, contributing to the aridity of the area. Government and politics[edit] Main articles: Politics of Paraguay, Human rights in Paraguay, and Foreign relations of Paraguay Paraguay
Paraguay
is a representative democratic republic, with a multi-party system and separation of powers in three branches. Executive power is exercised solely by the President, who is head of state and head of government. Legislative power
Legislative power
is vested in the two chambers of the National Congress. The judiciary is vested on tribunals and Courts of Civil Law and a nine-member Supreme Court of Justice, all of them independent of the executive and the legislature. Military[edit] Main article: Military of Paraguay

Paraguayan marines at Ancon Marine Base

The military of Paraguay
Paraguay
consist of the Paraguayan army, navy (including naval aviation and marine corps) and air force. The constitution of Paraguay
Paraguay
(article 238) establishes the president of Paraguay
Paraguay
as the commander-in-chief.[41] Paraguay
Paraguay
has compulsory military service, and all 18-year-old males and 17-year-olds in the year of their 18th birthday are liable for one year of active duty. Although the 1992 constitution allows for conscientious objection, no enabling legislation has yet been approved. In July 2005, military aid in the form of U.S. Special Forces
Special Forces
began arriving at Paraguay's Mariscal Estigarribia
Mariscal Estigarribia
air base, a sprawling complex built in 1982.[42][43] Administrative subdivisions[edit] Main articles: Departments of Paraguay
Departments of Paraguay
and Districts of Paraguay Paraguay
Paraguay
consists of seventeen departments and one capital district (distrito capital). It is also divided into 2 regions: The "Occidental Region" or Chaco (Boquerón, Alto Paraguay
Alto Paraguay
and Presidente Hayes), and the "Oriental Region" (the other departments and the capital district). These are the departments, with their capitals, population, area and the number of districts:

Alto Paraguay Boquerón Presidente Hayes Amambay Concepción San Pedro Distrito Capital Guairá Caazapá Alto Paraná Caaguazú Canindeyú Itapúa Paraguarí Misiones Ñeembucú Cordillera Central Brazil Bolivia Argentina

ISO 3166-2:PY Departament Capital Population (2002 census) Area (km²) Districts

ASU Distrito Capital Asunción 512,112 117 6

1 Concepción Concepción 179,450 18,051 8

2 San Pedro San Pedro 318,698 20,002 20

3 Cordillera Caacupé 233,854 4,948 20

4 Guairá Villarrica 178,650 3,846 18

5 Caaguazú Coronel Oviedo 435,357 11,474 21

6 Caazapá Caazapá 139,517 9,496 10

7 Itapúa Encarnación 453,692 16,525 30

8 Misiones San Juan Bautista 101,783 9,556 10

9 Paraguarí Paraguarí 221,932 8,705 17

10 Alto Paraná Ciudad del Este 558,672 14,895 21

11 Central Areguá 1,362,893 2,465 19

12 Ñeembucú Pilar 76,348 12,147 16

13 Amambay Pedro Juan Caballero 114,917 12,933 4

14 Canindeyú Salto del Guairá 140,137 14,667 12

15 Presidente Hayes Villa Hayes 82,493 72,907 8

16 Alto Paraguay Fuerte Olimpo 11,587 82,349 4

17 Boquerón Filadelfia 41,106 91,669 3

– Paraguay Asunción 5,163,198 406,752 245

The departments are further divided into districts (distritos). Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Paraguay The macro-economy in Paraguay
Paraguay
has some unique characteristics. It is characterized by a historical low inflation rate – 5% average (in 2013, the inflation rate was 3.7%), international reserves 20% of GDP and twice the amount of the external national debt. On top of that, the country enjoys clean and renewable energy production of 8,700 MW (current domestic demand 2,300 MW).[44] Between 1970 and 2013, the country had the highest economic growth of South America,[citation needed] with an average rate of 7.2% per year.[citation needed] In 2010 and 2013, Paraguay
Paraguay
experienced the greatest economic expansion of South America, with a GDP growth rate of 14.5% and 13.6% respectively.[45]

Graphical depiction of Paraguay's product exports in 28 color-coded categories, 2012

Paraguay
Paraguay
is the sixth-largest soybean producer in the world,[46] second-largest producer of stevia, second-largest producer of tung oil, sixth-largest exporter of corn, tenth-largest exporter of wheat and 8th largest exporter of beef.[citation needed] The market economy is distinguished by a large informal sector, featuring re-export of imported consumer goods to neighboring countries, as well as the activities of thousands of microenterprises and urban street vendors. Nonetheless, over the last 10 years the Paraguayan economy diversified dramatically, with the energy, auto parts and clothing industries leading the way.[47] The country also boasts the third most important free commercial zone in the world: Ciudad del Este, trailing behind Miami
Miami
and Hong Kong.[48] A large percentage of the population, especially in rural areas, derives its living from agricultural activity, often on a subsistence basis. Because of the importance of the informal sector, accurate economic measures are difficult to obtain. The economy grew rapidly between 2003 and 2013 as growing world demand for commodities combined with high prices and favorable weather to support Paraguay's commodity-based export expansion. In 2012, Paraguay's government introduced the MERCOSUR(FOCEM) system in order to stimulate the economy and job growth through a partnership with both Brazil
Brazil
and Argentina.[49] Industry and manufacturing[edit]

BBVA Paraguay

The mineral industry of Paraguay
Paraguay
produces about 25% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) and employs about 31% of the labor force. Production of cement, iron ore, and steel occurs commonly throughout Paraguay's industrial sector. The growth of the industry was further fueled by the maquila industry, with large industrial complexes located in the eastern part of the country. Paraguay
Paraguay
put in place many incentives aimed to attract industries to the country. One of them is the so-called " Maquila
Maquila
law" by which companies can relocate to Paraguay, enjoying minimal tax rates.[50] In the pharmaceutical industry, Paraguayan companies now[when?] meet 70% of domestic consumption and have begun to export drugs. Paraguay is quickly[quantify] supplanting foreign suppliers in meeting the country's drug needs.[citation needed] Strong growth also is evident in the production of edible oils, garments, organic sugar, meat processing, and steel.[citation needed] In 2003 manufacturing made up 13.6% of the GDP, and the sector employed about 11% of the working population in 2000. Paraguay's primary manufacturing focus is on food and beverages. Wood products, paper products, hides and furs, and non-metallic mineral products also contribute to manufacturing totals. Steady growth in the manufacturing GDP during the 1990s (1.2% annually) laid the foundation for 2002 and 2003, when the annual growth rate rose to 2.5%.[51] Social issues[edit]

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (April 2014)

Various poverty estimates suggest that 30–50% of the population is poor.[52] In rural areas, 41.20% of the people lack a monthly income to cover basic necessities, whereas in urban centers this figure is 27.6%. The top 10% of the population holds 43.8% of the national income, while the lowest 10% has 0.5%. The economic recession has worsened income inequality, notably in the rural areas, where the Gini coefficient has risen from 0.56 in 1995 to 0.66 in 1999. More recent data (2009)[53] show that 35% of the Paraguayan population is poor, 19% of which live in extreme poverty. Moreover, 71% of the latter live in rural areas of the country. Similarly, land concentration in the Paraguayan countryside is one of the highest in the globe: 10% of the population controls 66% of the land, while 30% of the rural people are landless.[54] In the immediate aftermath of the 1989 overthrow of Stroessner, some 19,000 rural families occupied hundreds of thousands of acres of unused lands formerly held by the dictator and his associates by mid-1990, but many rural poor remained landless. This inequality has caused a great deal of tensions between the landless and land owners.[34] Social issues of the indigenous[edit] Literacy
Literacy
rates are extremely low among Paraguay's indigenous population, who have an illiteracy rate of 51% compared to the 7.1% rate of the general population.[55] Only 2.5% of Paraguay's indigenous population has access to clean drinking water and only 9.5% have electricity.[55] Demographics[edit]

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Main articles: Demographics of Paraguay
Demographics of Paraguay
and Immigration to Paraguay See also: List of most common surnames in Paraguay

Paraguay
Paraguay
population density (people per km2)

Paraguay's population is distributed unevenly through the country, with the vast majority of people living in the eastern region near the capital and largest city, Asunción, which accounts for 10% of the country's population. The Gran Chaco region, which includes the Alto Paraguay, Boquerón and Presidente Hayes
Presidente Hayes
Department, and accounts for about 60% of the territory, is home to less than 2% of the population. About 56% of Paraguayans live in urban areas, making Paraguay
Paraguay
one of the least urbanized nations in South America. For most of its history, Paraguay
Paraguay
has been a recipient of immigrants, owing to its low population density, especially after the demographic collapse that resulted from the Paraguayan War. Small groups of ethnic Italians, Germans, Russians, Japanese, Koreans, Chinese, Arabs, Ukrainians, Poles, Jews, Brazilians, and Argentines have also settled in Paraguay. Paraguay
Paraguay
has also been a haven for communities persecuted for the religious faith, like the Bruderhof who were forced to leave England in 1941 because of their pacifist beliefs.[56] [57]Many of these communities have retained their languages and culture, particularly the Brazilians, who represent the largest and most prominent immigrant group, at around 400,000.[58] Many Brazilian Paraguayans are of German, Italian and Polish descent.[59] There are an estimated 63,000 Afro-Paraguayans, comprising 1% of the population.[60][unreliable source?]

A gathering in Caacupé

There is no official data on the ethnic composition of the Paraguayan population, as the Department of Statistics, Surveys and Censuses[61] of Paraguay
Paraguay
does not ask about race and ethnicity in census surveys, although it does inquire about the indigenous population. According to the census of 2002, the indigenous people made up 1.7% of Paraguay's total population.[62] Traditionally, the majority of the Paraguayan population is considered mixed (mestizo in Spanish). HLA-DRB1 polymorphism studies have shown the genetic distances between Paraguayans and Spanish populations were closer than between Paraguayans and Guaranis. Altogether these results suggest the predominance of the Spanish genetic in the Paraguayan population.[63] According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects[11], Paraguay
Paraguay
has a population of 6,725,308, 95% of which are mestizo (mixed European and Amerindian) and 5% are labelled as "other", which includes members of indigenous tribal groups. They are divided into 17 distinct ethnolinguistic groupings, many of which are poorly documented. Paraguay
Paraguay
has one of the most prominent German communities in South America, with some 25,000 German-speaking Mennonites living in the Paraguayan Chaco.[64] German settlers founded several towns as Hohenau, Filadelfia, Neuland, Obligado
Obligado
and Nueva Germania. Several websites that promote German immigration to Paraguay claim that 5–7% of the population is of German ancestry,[dubious – discuss] including 150,000 people of German-Brazilian descent.[better source needed][65][66][67][68][69] Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Paraguay

Main Catholic Chapel in Concepción, Paraguay

Christianity, particularly Roman Catholicism, is the dominant religion in Paraguay.[70] According to the 2002 census, 89.9% of the population is Catholic, 6.2% is Evangelical Protestant, 1.1% identify with other Christian sects, and 0.6% practice indigenous religions. A U.S. State Department report on Religious Freedom names Roman Catholicism, evangelical Protestantism, mainline Protestantism, Judaism (Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform), Mormonism, and the Baha'i Faith
Baha'i Faith
as prominent religious groups. It also mentions a large Muslim community in Alto Paraná
Alto Paraná
(as a result of Middle-Eastern immigration, especially from Lebanon) and a prominent Mennonite
Mennonite
community in Boquerón.[71] Languages[edit] Main article: Languages of Paraguay Paraguay
Paraguay
is a bilingual nation. Both Spanish and Guaraní are official languages. The Guarani language
Guarani language
is a remarkable trace of the indigenous Guaraní culture that has endured in Paraguay, which is generally understood by 95% of the population. Guaraní claims its place as one of the last surviving and thriving of South American indigenous national languages. In 2015, Spanish was spoken by about 87% of the population, while Guaraní is spoken by more than 90%, or slightly more than 5.8 million speakers. 52% of rural Paraguayans are bilingual in Guaraní. While Guaraní is still widely spoken, Spanish is generally given a preferential treatment in government, business, media and education as one of South America's lingua francas.[72][73][74][75]

Languages of Paraguay

Languages

percent

Guaraní

90%

Spanish

87%

Largest cities[edit]

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Paraguay (2002 DGEEC census)[76]

Rank Name Department Pop. Rank Name Department Pop.

Asunción

Ciudad del Este 1 Asunción Capital District 512,112 11 Mariano Roque Alonso Central 65,229

San Lorenzo

Luque

2 Ciudad del Este Alto Paraná 222,274 12 Pedro Juan Caballero Amambay 64,592

3 San Lorenzo Central 204,356 13 Villa Elisa Central 53,166

4 Luque Central 170,986 14 Caaguazú Caaguazú 48,941

5 Capiatá Central 154,274 15 Coronel Oviedo Caaguazú 48,773

6 Lambaré Central 119,795 16 Hernandarias Alto Paraná 47,266

7 Fernando de la Mora Central 113,560 17 Presidente Franco Alto Paraná 47,246

8 Limpio Central 73,158 18 Itauguá Central 45,577

9 Ñemby Central 71,909 19 Concepción Concepción 44,070

10 Encarnación Itapúa 67,173 20 Villarrica Guairá 38,961

Culture[edit] Main articles: Music of Paraguay
Music of Paraguay
and Cinema of Paraguay Paraguay's cultural heritage can be traced to the extensive intermarriage between the original male Spanish settlers and indigenous Guaraní women. Their culture is highly influenced by various European countries, including Spain. Therefore, Paraguayan culture is a fusion of two cultures and traditions; one European, the other, Southern Guaraní. More than 93% of Paraguayans are mestizos, making Paraguay
Paraguay
one of the most homogeneous countries in Latin America. A characteristic of this cultural fusion is the extensive bilingualism present to this day: more than 80% of Paraguayans speak both Spanish and the indigenous language, Guaraní. Jopara, a mixture of Guaraní and Spanish, is also widely spoken.[citation needed]

Ovecha Ragué Festival

This cultural fusion is expressed in arts such as embroidery (ao po'í) and lace making (ñandutí). The music of Paraguay, which consists of lilting polkas, bouncy galopas, and languid guaranias is played on the native harp. Paraguay's culinary heritage is also deeply influenced by this cultural fusion. Several popular dishes contain manioc, a local staple crop similar to the yuca also known as Cassava root found in the Southwestern United States
Southwestern United States
and Mexico, as well as other indigenous ingredients. A popular dish is sopa paraguaya, similar to a thick corn bread. Another notable food is chipa, a bagel-like bread made from cornmeal, manioc, and cheese. Many other dishes consist of different kinds of cheeses, onions, bell peppers, cottage cheese, cornmeal, milk, seasonings, butter, eggs and fresh corn kernels. The 1950s and 1960s were the time of the flowering of a new generation of Paraguayan novelists and poets such as José Ricardo Mazó, Roque Vallejos, and Nobel Prize nominee Augusto Roa Bastos. Several Paraguayan films have been made. Inside the family, conservative values predominate. In lower classes, godparents have a special relationship to the family, since usually, they are chosen because of their favorable social position, in order to provide extra security for the children. Particular respect is owed them, in return for which the family can expect protection and patronage.[77] Sports[edit] Main article: Sport in Paraguay Education[edit] Main article: Education in Paraguay See also: List of universities in Paraguay and List of schools in Paraguay Literacy
Literacy
was about 93.6% and 87.7% of Paraguayans finish the 5th grade according to UNESCO's last Educational Development Index 2008. Literacy
Literacy
does not differ much by gender.[78] A more recent study[53] reveals that attendance at primary school by children between 6 and 12 years old is about 98%. Primary education is free and mandatory and takes nine years. Secondary education takes three years.[78] Paraguay's universities include:

National University of Asunción
Asunción
(public and founded in 1889)[79] Autonomous University of Asunción
Asunción
(private and founded in 1979)[80] Universidad Católica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción
Asunción
(private and run by the church).[81] Universidad Americana
Universidad Americana
(private). Universidad del Pacífico (private and founded in 1991).

The net primary enrollment rate was at 88% in 2005.[78] Public expenditure on education was about 4.3% of GDP in the early 2000s.[78] Health[edit] Main article: Health in Paraguay Average life expectancy in Paraguay
Paraguay
is rather high given its poverty: as of 2006[update], it was 75 years,[82] equivalent to far wealthier Argentina, and the 8th highest in the Americas
Americas
according to World Health Organization. Public expenditure on health is 2.6% of GDP, while private health expenditure is 5.1%.[78] Infant mortality was 20 per 1,000 births in 2005.[78] Maternal mortality was 150 per 100,000 live births in 2000.[78] The World Bank
World Bank
has helped the Paraguayan government reduce the country's maternal and infant mortality. The Mother and Child Basic Health Insurance Project aimed to contribute to reducing mortality by increasing the use of selected life-saving services included in the country's Mother and Child Basic Health Insurance Program (MCBI) by women of child-bearing age, and children under age six in selected areas. To this end, the project also targeted improving the quality and efficiency of the health service network within certain areas, in addition to increasing the Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare's (MSPBS) management.[83] See also[edit]

Paraguay
Paraguay
portal Latin America portal

Bibliography of Paraguay Index of Paraguay-related articles Outline of Paraguay

Notes[edit]

^ The reverse side of the National Seal of Paraguay:

References[edit]

^ Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
(2016). "Paraguay". The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 1 January 2017.  ^ Reed, Richard K. (1 May 1995). "Prophets of Agroforestry: Guaraní Communities and Commercial Gathering". University of Texas Press – via Google Books.  ^ [1]. Population of Paraguay
Paraguay
2018. ^ a b c d [2]. International Monetary Fund ^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 5 December 2017.  ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 25 March 2017.  ^ " Paraguay
Paraguay
– Constitution, Article 140 About Languages". International Constitutional Law Project. Retrieved 3 December 2007.  (see translator's note) ^ "8 LIZCANO" (PDF). Convergencia.uaemex.mx. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2012.  ^ "En el corazón de Sudamérica". ABC. Retrieved 12 December 2015.  ^ Schenoni, Luis (2017). "Subsystemic Unipolarities?". Strategic Analysis. 41 (1): 74–86. doi:10.1080/09700161.2016.1249179.  ^ a b "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.  ^ Sacks, Richard S. "Early explorers and conquistadors". In Hanratty & Meditz. ^ a b "Paraguariae Provinciae Soc. Jesu cum Adiacentibg. Novissima Descriptio" [A Current Description of the Province of the Society of Jesus in Paraguay
Paraguay
with Neighboring Areas]. World Digital Library (in Latin). 1732.  ^ War of The Triple Alliance, War of the Pacific. Retrieved 14 November 2010 ^ Romero, Simon. "In Paraguay, Indigenous Language With Unique Staying Power". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 October 2015.  ^ "Carlos Antonio López", Library of Congress Country Studies, December 1988. URL accessed 30 December 2005. ^ Stearns, Peter N (ed.). Encyclopedia of World History (6 ed.). The Houghton Mifflin Company/ Bartleby.com. Page 630  ^ Cunninghame Graham 1933, p. 39-40. ^ Cunninghame Graham 1933, p. 41-42. ^ Robert Cowley, The Reader's Encyclopedia to Military History. New York, New York: Houston Mifflin, 1996. Page 479. ^ Hooker, T.D., 2008, The Paraguayan War, Nottingham: Foundry Books, ISBN 1901543153 ^ Thompson 1869, p. 10. ^ Sir Richard Francis Burton: "Letters from the Battlefields of Paraguay", p.76 – Tinsley Brothers Editors – London (1870) – Burton, as a witness of the conflict, marks this date (12–16 October 1864) as the real beginning of the war. He writes (and it's the most logic account, considering the facts): The Brazilian Army
Army
invades the Banda Oriental, despite the protestations of President López, who declared that such invasion would be held a "casus belli". ^ Hooker, T.D., 2008, "The Paraguayan War". Nottingham: Foundry Books, pp. 105–108. ISBN 1901543153 ^ The classical view asserts that Francisco Solano López's expansionist and hegemonic views are the main reason for the outbreak of the conflict. The traditional Paraguayan view, held by the "lopistas" (supporters of Solano López, both in Paraguay
Paraguay
and worldwide), affirms that Paraguay
Paraguay
acted in self-defense and for the protection of the "Equilibrium of the Plate Basin". This view is usually contested by the "anti-lopistas" (also known in Paraguay
Paraguay
as "legionarios"), who favoured the "Triple Alliance". Revisionist views, both from right and left wing national-populists, put a great emphasis on the influence of the British Empire in the conflict, a view that is discarded by a majority of historians. ^ Rubinsein, W. D. (2004). Genocide: a history. Pearson Education. p. 94. ISBN 0-582-50601-8.  ^ Hipólito Sanchez Quell: "Los 50.000 Documentos Paraguayos Llevados al Brasil". Ediciones Comuneros, Asunción
Asunción
(2006). ^ Some of the documents taken by Brasil
Brasil
during the war, were returned to Paraguay
Paraguay
in the collection known as "Colección de Río Branco", nowadays in the National Archives of Asunción, Paraguay ^ Barbara Weinstein (28 January 2008). "Let the Sunshine In: Government Records and National Insecurities". Historians.org. Retrieved 5 October 2012.  ^ Hanratty, Dannin M.; Meditz, Sandra W. (1988). "Paraguay: A Country Study". Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress.  ^ " Paraguay
Paraguay
Civil War 1947". Onwar.com. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ Bernstein, Adam (17 August 2006). "Alfredo Stroessner; Paraguayan Dictator". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ "Paraguayan Wins His Eighth Term", The New York Times, 15 February 1988. ^ a b Nagel, Beverly Y.(1999) "'Unleashing the Fury': The Cultural Discourse of Rural Violence and Land Rights in Paraguay", in Comparative Studies in Society and History, 1999, Vol. 41, Issue 1: 148–181. Cambridge University Press. ^ Nickson, Andrew (2009). "The general election in Paraguay, April 2008". Journal of Electoral Studies. 28 (1): 145–9. doi:10.1016/j.electstud.2008.10.001.  ^ "Paraguay". State.gov. 15 March 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.  ^ Mark Weisbrot (22 June 2012). "What will Washington do about Fernando Lugo's ouster in Paraguay?". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 June 2012.  ^ a b Mariano Castillo (22 June 2012). "Paraguayan Senate removes president". CNN. Retrieved 22 June 2012.  ^ Daniela Desantis (21 June 2012). "Paraguay's president vows to face impeachment effort". Reuters US edition. Retrieved 21 June 2012.  ^ "COMUNICADO UNASUR
UNASUR
Asunción, 22 de Junio de 2012" (in Spanish). UNASUR. 22 June 2012. Archived from the original on 27 June 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2012.  ^ "Constitution of 1992". Retrieved 18 December 2017.  ^ "U.S. Military Moves in Paraguay
Paraguay
Rattle Regional Relations". International Relations Center. 14 December 2005. Archived from the original on 24 June 2007.  ^ US Marines put a foot in Paraguay, El Clarín, 9 September 2005 (in Spanish) ^ Focus. opportunitiesinparaguay.com ^ BCP – Banco Central del Paraguay. Bcp.gov.py. Retrieved on 18 June 2016. ^ "Paraguay". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 12 January 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017.  ^ " Paraguay
Paraguay
un milagro americano" (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 January 2015.  ^ "Paraguay". www.exportimportstatistics.com. Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ Subsecretaria De Estado De Economia – ¿Qué Es Focem?. Economia.gov.py. Retrieved on 18 June 2016. ^ ÂżQuĂŠ es Maquila? Ministerio de Industria y Comercio – Paraguay. Mic.gov.py. Retrieved on 18 June 2016. ^ "Paraguay" (PDF). Lcweb2.loc.gov. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ 2003 Census Bureau Household Survey ^ a b $ w.time . "En Paraguay, disminuyó la pobreza entre 2003 y 2009 – ABC Color". Abc.com.py. Retrieved 5 October 2012.  ^ Marió; et al. (2004). "Paraguay: Social Development Issues for Poverty Alleviation" (PDF). World Bank
World Bank
report. Retrieved 18 June 2007.  ^ a b "Paraguay." Pan-American Health Organization. (retrieved 12 July 2011) ^ "A Life of the Land, Cut Short". The American Conservative. Retrieved 2018-02-27.  ^ " Bruderhof Communities
Bruderhof Communities
- GAMEO". gameo.org. Retrieved 2018-02-27.  ^ Paraguay
Paraguay
Information and History. National Geographic. ^ San Alberto Journal: Awful Lot of Brazilians in Paraguay, Locals Say. The New York Times. 12 June 2001. ^ "Afro-Paraguayan". Joshua Project. U.S. Center for World Mission. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2008.  ^ "Dirección General de Estadísticas, Encuestas y Censos". Dgeec.gov.py. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ CAPÍTULO III. Características Socio-Culturales y étnicas, pp. 39ff in Paraguay. Situación de las mujeres rurales (2008) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ^ Benitez, O; Loiseau, P; Busson, M; Dehay, C; Hors, J; Calvo, F; Durand Mura, M; Charron, D (2002). "Hispano-Indian admixture in Paraguay
Paraguay
studied by analysis of HLA-DRB1 polymorphism". Pathologie-biologie. 50 (1): 25–9. doi:10.1016/s0369-8114(01)00263-2. PMID 11873625.  ^ Antonio De La Cova (28 December 1999). "Paraguay's Mennonites resent 'fast buck' outsiders". Latinamericanstudies.org. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ Jonathan Ross. "Allgemeines über Paraguay". PY: Magazin-paraguay.de. Retrieved 5 October 2012.  ^ "Information um und zu Paraguay
Paraguay
« Kategorie « Paraguay24 – Die Geschichte unserer Auswanderung". Paraguay24.de. 23 September 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.  ^ Miran Blanco (24 March 2007). " Paraguay
Paraguay
Auswandern Einwandern Immobilien Infos für Touristen, Auswanderer Asuncion Paraguay". Auswandern-paraguay.org. Retrieved 5 October 2012.  ^ " Paraguay
Paraguay
– Immobilien – Auswandern – Immobilienschnδppchen, Hδuser, und Grundstόcke um Villarrica". My-paraguay.com. Retrieved 5 October 2012.  ^ " Paraguay
Paraguay
– Auswandern – Immobilien – Reisen". PARAGUAY1.DE. Retrieved 19 October 2012.  ^ The Latin American Socio-Religious Studies Program / Programa Latinoamericano de Estudios Sociorreligiosos (PROLADES) PROLADES Religion in America by country ^ " Paraguay
Paraguay
religion". State.gov. 14 September 2007. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ Paraguayan Guaraní, Ethnologue ^ Paraguay. "The Languages spoken in Paraguay". Studycountry.com. Retrieved 21 April 2017.  ^ "Languages of Paraguay". VisitParaguay.net. Retrieved 21 April 2017.  ^ SIMON ROMERO (12 March 2012). "In Paraguay, Indigenous Language With Unique Staying Power - The New York Times". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 21 April 2017.  ^ "3218.0 - Censo de la DGEEC, 2002". DGEEC. 2002.  ^ " Paraguay
Paraguay
- Ritual Kinship". countrystudies.us. Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ a b c d e f g "Human Development Report 2009 – Paraguay". Hdrstats.undp.org. Archived from the original on 18 February 2010. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ "::Una::". Una.py. Retrieved 5 October 2012.  ^ "Universidad Autónoma de Asunción: Educación Superior en Paraguay". UAA. Retrieved 5 October 2012.  ^ "Campus de Asunción
Asunción
– Universidad Católica "Nuestra Señora de la Asunción"". Uca.edu.py. 25 September 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.  ^ "WHO Paraguay". Who.int. 1 October 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.  ^ " Paraguay
Paraguay
Mother & Child Basic Health Insurance" Archived 17 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. The World Bank.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Paraguay.

Wikinews has news related to: Paraguay

Government

Chief of State and Cabinet Members National Department of Tourism (in Spanish) Ministry of Finance with economic and Government information, available also in English (in Spanish) Paraguay
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General information

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Paraguay
from the Encyclopædia Britannica "Paraguay". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.  Paraguay
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at UCB Libraries GovPubs Paraguay
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profile from the BBC News Wikimedia Atlas of Paraguay Geographic data related to Paraguay
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at OpenStreetMap Key Development Forecasts for Paraguay
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from International Futures

News media

La Rueda – Weekly reviews (in Spanish) ABC Color (in Spanish) Última Hora (in Spanish) La Nación (in Spanish) Paraguay.com (in Spanish) Ñanduti (in Spanish)

Trade

World Bank
World Bank
Summary Trade Statistics Paraguay

Travel

Paraguay
Paraguay
Convention & Visitor's Bureau[permanent dead link] Paraguay.com: Tradition, Culture, Maps, Tourism Paraguay
Paraguay
travel guide from Wikivoyage Tourism in Paraguay, information, pictures and more. Turismo.com.py (in Spanish)

v t e

Paraguay articles

History

Guaraní people Governorate of New Andalusia Jesuit reduction José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia Paraguayan War First Civil War Chaco War Second Civil War Alfredo Stroessner

Geography

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Politics

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Congress

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Constitution Elections Foreign relations Human rights

LGBT

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Economy

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Culture

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Outline Index Bibliography

Category Portal

 Republic of Paraguay

Politics

v t e

Heads of state of Paraguay

Yegros Rodríguez de Francia Yegros Rodríguez de Francia Ortiz Medina Roque Alonzo C.A. López F.S. López Rivarola Machaín Rivarola Jovellanos Gill Uriarte Bareiro Saguier Caballero Escobar J.G. González M. Morínigo Egusquiza Aceval Carvallo Escurra Gaona Báez Ferreira González Navero Gondra Jara Rojas Peña González Navero Schaerer M. Franco Montero Gondra Eusebio Ayala Eligio Ayala Riart Eligio Ayala Guggiari Eusebio Ayala R. Franco Paiva Estigarribia H. Moríñigo Frutos J.N. González Rolón Molas Chávez Romero Stroessner Rodríguez Wasmosy Cubas González Macchi Duarte Lugo Franco Cartes

Italics indicate acting, interim or provisional role.

v t e

Divisions and cities of Paraguay

Administrative subdivisions

Departments (17)

Alto Paraguay Alto Paraná Amambay Boquerón Caaguazú Caazapá Canindeyú Central Concepción Cordillera Guairá Itapúa Misiones Ñeembucú Paraguarí Presidente Hayes San Pedro

Capital District (1)

Asunción

Largest cities

Asunción Ciudad del Este San Lorenzo Luque Capiatá Lambaré Fernando de la Mora Limpio Ñemby Encarnación Mariano Roque Alonso Pedro Juan Caballero Villa Elisa

Metropolitan areas

Gran Asunción Gran Ciudad del Este

v t e

Elections and referendums in Paraguay

Elections

1928 1943 1948 1950 1953 1954 1958 1960 1963 1967 1968 1973 1977 1978 1983 1988 1989 1991 1993 1998 2000 2003 2008 2013 2018

Referendums

1938 1940 2011

v t e

List of wars involving Paraguay

Wars

Paraguayan War
Paraguayan War
(1864–1870) Paraguayan Civil War (1922) Chaco War
Chaco War
(1932–1935) Paraguayan Civil War (1947)

Geographic locale

v t e

Countries and dependencies of South America

Sovereign states

Entire

Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela

In part

France

French Guiana

Dependencies

Falkland Islands / South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

UK

International membership

v t e

Andean Community of Nations

Members

Bolivia Colombia Ecuador Peru

Associate members

Argentina Brazil Chile Paraguay Uruguay Venezuela

Observers

Mexico Panama

v t e

Union of South American Nations

Member states

Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela Proposed: Trinidad and Tobago

Summits

2004 2008 2009 Ecuador 2009 Argentina 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

Topics

Cusco Declaration Constitutive Treaty President Pro Tempore Secretary General Bank of the South South American Parliament Initiative for Infrastructure Integration of South America Mercosur Andean Community

v t e

Mercosur
Mercosur
· Mercosul

(Southern Common Market)

Treaties

Treaty of Asunción Protocol of Ouro Preto

Members

Argentina Brazil Paraguay Uruguay Venezuela
Venezuela
(suspended)

Currencies

Argentine peso Brazilian real Paraguayan guaraní Uruguayan peso Venezuelan bolívar Gaucho

Associates

Bolivia Chile Colombia Ecuador Peru

Observers

Mexico New Zealand

Institutions

Parliament

v t e

Organization of American States
Organization of American States
(OAS)

Members

Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Barbados Brazil Belize Bahamas Bolivia Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines St. Kitts and Nevis Suriname Trinidad and Tobago United States Uruguay

Renounced

Venezuela

Organization

Secretariat for Political Affairs Secretariat for Multidimensional Security General Assembly Inter-American Commission of Women Inter-American Commission on Human Rights Inter-American Court of Human Rights Pan American Union Building

Politics

Charter Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man American Convention on Human Rights Pan-American Conference Summits of the Americas

Americas Pan American Sports Organization

Portals Access related topics

Paraguay
Paraguay
portal Latin America portal Geography portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 123715723 GND: 4044601-3 BNF: cb11941600k (data) HDS:

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