The PANZERKAMPFWAGEN IV (PZKPFW IV), commonly known as the PANZER IV,
was a German medium tank developed in the late 1930s and used
extensively during the Second World War . Its ordnance inventory
designation was SD.KFZ. 161.
Panzer IV was the most widely manufactured German tank of the
Second World War, with some 8,500 built. The
Panzer IV was used as the
base for many other fighting vehicles, including the Sturmgeschütz IV
Jagdpanzer IV tank destroyer , the Wirbelwind
self-propelled anti-aircraft gun , and the
Panzer IV saw service in all combat theaters involving Germany
and was the only German tank to remain in continuous production
throughout the war. Upgrades and design modifications, intended to
counter new threats, extended its service life. Generally, these
involved increasing the
Panzer IV's armor protection or upgrading its
weapons, although during the last months of the war, with Germany's
pressing need for rapid replacement of losses, design changes also
included simplifications to speed up the manufacturing process.
Panzer IV was partially succeeded by the Panther medium tank,
which was introduced to counter the Soviet
T-34 , although the Panzer
IV continued as a significant component of German armoured formations
to the end of the war. The
Panzer IV was the most widely exported tank
in German service, with around 300 sold to Finland, Romania, Spain and
Bulgaria. After the war,
Panzer IVs from France and
Czechoslovakia, which saw combat in the 1967
Six-Day War . 8,553
Panzer IVs of all versions were built during World War II, with only
StuG III assault-gun/tank destroyer's 10,086 vehicle production
run exceeding the
Panzer IV's total among Axis armored forces.
* 1 Development history
* 1.1 Origins
* 1.2 Ausf. A to Ausf. F1
* 1.3 Ausf. F2 to Ausf. J
* 2 Production
* 3 Export
* 4 Combat history
* 4.1 Western Front and North Africa (1939–1942)
* 4.2 Eastern Front (1941–1945)
* 4.3 Western Front (1944–45)
* 4.4 Other users
* 4.5 Captured
Panzer IVs in service
* 5 Variants
* 5.1 Production models
* 5.2 Variants based on chassis
* 6 See also
* 6.1 Tanks of comparable role, performance and era
* 7 Notes
* 8 References
* 9 External links
Panzer IV was the brainchild of the German general and innovative
armored warfare theorist
Heinz Guderian . In concept, it was intended
to be a support tank for use against enemy anti-tank guns and
fortifications . Ideally, each tank battalion in a panzer division
was to have three medium companies of
Panzer IIIs and one heavy
Panzer IVs. On 11 January 1934, the German army wrote the
specifications for a "medium tractor", and issued them to a number of
defense companies. To support the
Panzer III, which would be armed
with a 37-millimetre (1.46 in) anti-tank gun, the new vehicle would
have a short-barreled, howitzer -like 75-millimetre (2.95 in) as its
main gun , and was allotted a weight limit of 24 tonnes (26.46 short
tons). Development was carried out under the name Begleitwagen
("accompanying vehicle"), or BW, to disguise its actual purpose,
given that Germany was still theoretically bound by the Treaty of
Versailles ban on tanks. MAN ,
Krupp , and Rheinmetall-Borsig each
developed prototypes, with Krupp's being selected for further
The chassis had originally been designed with a six-wheeled
Schachtellaufwerk interleaved-roadwheel suspension (as German
half-tracks had already adopted), but the German Army amended this to
a torsion bar system. Permitting greater vertical deflection of the
roadwheels, this was intended to improve performance and crew comfort
both on- and off-road. However, due to the urgent requirement for
the new tank, neither proposal was adopted, and
Krupp instead equipped
it with a simple leaf spring double-bogie suspension, with eight
rubber-rimmed roadwheels per side.
The prototype required a crew of five men; the hull contained the
engine bay to the rear, with the driver and radio operator, who
doubled as the hull machine gunner, seated at the front-left and
front-right, respectively. In the turret , the tank commander sat
beneath his roof hatch, while the gunner was situated to the left of
the gun breech and the loader to the right. The turret was offset 66.5
mm (2.62 in) to the left of the chassis center line, while the engine
was moved 152.4 mm (6.00 in) to the right. This allowed the torque
shaft to clear the rotary base junction, which provided electrical
power to turn the turret, while connecting to the transmission box
mounted in the hull between the driver and radio operator. Due to the
asymmetric layout, the right side of the tank contained the bulk of
its stowage volume, which was taken up by ready-use ammunition
Accepted into service as the Versuchskraftfahrzeug 622 (Vs.Kfz. 622),
production began in 1936 at Fried.
Krupp Grusonwerk AG factory at
AUSF. A TO AUSF. F1
Panzer IV Ausf. C 1943
The first mass-produced version of the
Panzer IV was the Ausführung
A (abbreviated to Ausf. A, meaning "Variant A"), in 1936. It was
Maybach 's HL 108TR, producing 250 PS (183.87 kW), and used
the SGR 75 transmission with five forward gears and one reverse,
achieving a maximum road speed of 31 kilometres per hour (19.26 mph).
As main armament, the vehicle mounted the short-barreled, howitzer
-like 75 mm (2.95 in) Kampfwagenkanone 37 L/24 (
7.5 cm KwK 37 L/24)
tank gun, which was a low-velocity weapon mainly designed to fire
high-explosive shells. Against armored targets, firing the
Panzergranate (armor-piercing shell ) at 430 metres per second (1,410
ft/s) the KwK 37 could penetrate 43 millimetres (1.69 in), inclined at
30 degrees, at ranges of up to 700 metres (2,300 ft). A 7.92 mm (0.31
MG 34 machine gun was mounted coaxially with the main weapon in
the turret, while a second machine gun of the same type was mounted in
the front plate of the hull. The main weapon and coaxial machine gun
were sighted with a Turmzielfernrohr 5b optic while the hull machine
gun was sighted with a Kugelzielfernrohr 2 optic. The Ausf. A was
protected by 14.5 mm (0.57 in) of steel armor on the front plate of
the chassis, and 20 mm (0.79 in) on the turret. This was only capable
of stopping artillery fragments , small-arms fire, and light anti-tank
projectiles. The 300 horsepower
Maybach HL 120TRM engine used in
Panzer IV production models. PzKpfw IV Ausf. D
After manufacturing 35 tanks of the A version, in 1937 production
moved to the Ausf. B. Improvements included the replacement of the
original engine with the more powerful 300 PS (220.65 kW)
120TR, and the transmission with the new SSG 75 transmission, with six
forward gears and one reverse gear. Despite a weight increase to 16 t
(18 short tons), this improved the tank's speed to 42 kilometres per
hour (26.10 mph). The glacis plate was augmented to a maximum
thickness of 30 millimetres (1.18 in), while a new driver's visor was
installed on the straightened hull front plate, and the hull-mounted
machine gun was replaced by a covered pistol port and visor flap. The
superstructure width and ammunition stowage were reduced to save
weight. A new commander's cupola was introduced which was adopted
Panzer III Ausf. C. A Nebelkerzenabwurfvorrichtung (smoke
grenade discharger rack) was mounted on the rear of the hull starting
in July 1938 and was back fitted to earlier Ausf. A and Ausf. B
chassis starting in August 1938. Forty-two
Panzer IV Ausf. Bs were
manufactured before the introduction of the Ausf. C in 1938. This
saw the turret armor increased to 30 mm (1.18 in), which brought the
tank's weight to 18.14 t (20.00 short tons). After assembling 40
Ausf. Cs, starting with chassis number 80341, the engine was replaced
with the improved HL 120TRM. The last of the 140 Ausf. Cs was produced
in August 1939, and production changed to the Ausf. D; this variant,
of which 248 vehicles were produced, reintroduced the hull machine gun
and changed the turret's internal gun mantlet to a 35 mm (1.38 in)
thick external mantlet. Again, protection was upgraded, this time by
increasing side armor to 20 mm (0.79 in). As the German invasion of
Poland in September 1939 came to an end, it was decided to scale up
production of the
Panzer IV, which was adopted for general use on 27
September 1939 as the
Sonderkraftfahrzeug 161 (Sd.Kfz. 161).
In response to the difficulty of penetrating the armor of British
infantry tanks (Matilda and
Matilda II ) during the
Battle of France
Battle of France ,
the Germans had tested a 50 mm (1.97 in) gun—based on the 5 cm Pak
38 anti-tank gun—on a
Panzer IV Ausf. D. However, with the rapid
German victory in France, the original order of 80 tanks was canceled
before they entered production.
In October 1940, the Ausf. E was introduced. This had 30 millimetres
(1.18 in) of armor on the bow plate, while a 30-millimetre (1.18 in)
appliqué steel plate was added to the glacis as an interim measure. A
new driver's visor, adopted from the
Sturmgeschütz III was installed
on the hull front plate. A new commander's cupola, adopted from the
Panzer III Ausf. G, was relocated forward on the turret eliminating
the bulge underneath the cupola. Older model
Panzer IV tanks were
retrofitted with these features when returned to the manufacturer for
servicing. 206 Ausf. Es were produced between October 1940 and April
1941. The short-barreled
Panzer IV Ausf. F1.
In April 1941, production of the
Panzer IV Ausf. F started. It
featured 50 mm (1.97 in) single-plate armor on the turret and hull, as
opposed to the appliqué armor added to the Ausf. E, and a further
increase in side armor to 30 mm (1.18 in). The main engine exhaust
muffler was shortened and a compact auxiliary generator muffler was
mounted to its left. The weight of the vehicle was now 22.3 tonnes
(24.6 short tons), which required a corresponding modification of
track width from 380 to 400 mm (14.96 to 15.75 in) to reduce ground
pressure. The wider tracks also facilitated the fitting of track shoe
"ice sprags ", and the rear idler wheel and front sprocket were
modified. The designation Ausf. F was changed in the meantime to
Ausf. F1, after the distinct new model, the Ausf. F2, appeared. A
total of 471 Ausf. F (later temporarily called F1) tanks were produced
from April 1941 to March 1942.
AUSF. F2 TO AUSF. J
On 26 May 1941, mere weeks before
Operation Barbarossa , during a
conference with Hitler, it was decided to improve the
Panzer IV's main
Krupp was awarded the contract to integrate again the 50 mm
Pak 38 L/60 gun into the turret. The first prototype was to
be delivered by 15 November 1941. Within months, the shock of
encountering the Soviet
T-34 medium and KV-1 heavy tanks necessitated
a new, much more powerful tank gun. In November 1941, the decision to
Panzer IV to the 50-millimetre (1.97 in) gun was dropped,
Krupp was contracted in a joint development to modify
Rheinmetall 's pending 75 mm (2.95 in) anti-tank gun design, later
7.5 cm Pak 40 L/46.
Because the recoil length was too great for the tank's turret, the
recoil mechanism and chamber were shortened. This resulted in the
75-millimetre (2.95 in)
KwK 40 L/43. When the new
KwK 40 was loaded
with the Pzgr. 39 armor-piercing shell, the new gun fired the AP shell
at some 750 m/s (2,460 ft/s), a substantial 74% increase over the 430
m/s (1,410 ft/s) over the howitzer-like KwK 37 L/24 gun's muzzle
velocity. Initially, the
KwK 40 gun was mounted with a
single-chamber, ball-shaped muzzle brake , which provided just under
50% of the recoil system's braking ability. Firing the Panzergranate
KwK 40 L/43 could penetrate 77 mm (3.03 in) of steel armor at
a range of 1,830 m (6,000 ft).
The longer 7.5 cm guns were a mixed blessing. In spite of the
designers' efforts to conserve weight, the new weapon made the vehicle
nose-heavy to such an extent that the forward suspension springs were
under constant compression. This resulted in the tank tending to sway
even when no steering was being applied, an effect compounded by the
introduction of the Ausführung H in March 1943. The 1942 Panzer
IV Ausf. F2 was an upgrade of the Ausf. F, fitted with the
KwK 40 L/43
anti-tank gun to counter Soviet
T-34 medium and KV heavy tanks.
The Ausf. F tanks that received the new, longer,
KwK 40 L/43 gun were
temporary named Ausf. F2 (with the designation Sd.Kfz. 161/1). The
tank increased in weight to 23.6 tonnes (26.0 short tons). Differences
between the Ausf. F1 and the Ausf. F2 were mainly associated with the
change in armament, including an altered gun mantlet, internal travel
lock for the main weapon, new gun cradle, new Turmzielfernrohr 5f
optic for the L/43 weapon, modified ammunition stowage, and
discontinuing of the Nebelkerzenabwurfvorrichtung in favor of turret
mounted Nebelwurfgeraet . Three months after beginning production,
Panzer IV Ausf. F2 was renamed Ausf. G.
During its production run from March 1942 to June 1943, the
Ausf. G went through further modifications, including another armor
upgrade which consisted of a 30-millimetre (1.18 in) face-hardened
appliqué steel plate welded (later bolted) to the glacis—in total,
frontal armor was now 80 mm (3.15 in) thick. This decision to
increase frontal armor was favorably received according to troop
reports on 8 November 1942, despite technical problems of the driving
system due to added weight. At this point, it was decided that 50% of
Panzer IV production would be fitted with 30 mm (1.18 in) thick
additional armor plates. On 5 January 1943,
Hitler decided that all
Panzer IV should have 80 mm (3.15 in) frontal armor. To simplify
production, the vision ports on either side of the turret and the
loader's forward vision port in the turret front were removed, while a
rack for two spare road wheels was installed on the track guard on the
left side of the hull. Complementing this, brackets for seven spare
track links were added to the glacis plate.
For operation in high temperatures, the engine's ventilation was
improved by creating slits over the engine deck to the rear of the
chassis, and cold weather performance was boosted by adding a device
to heat the engine's coolant, as well as a starter fluid injector. A
new light replaced the original headlight and the signal port on the
turret was removed. On 19 March 1943, the first
Panzer IV with
Schürzen skirts on its sides and turret was exhibited. The double
hatch for the commander's cupola was replaced by a single round hatch
from very late model Ausf. G. and the cupola was up-armored from 50 mm
(1.97 in) to 95 mm (3.74 in). In April 1943, the
KwK 40 L/43 was
replaced by the longer 75-millimetre (2.95 in)
KwK 40 L/48 gun, with a
redesigned multi-baffle muzzle brake with improved recoil efficiency.
The longer L/48 resulted in the introduction of the Turmzielfernrohr
5f/1 optic. A
Panzer IV Ausf H at the
Musée des Blindés in
Saumur, France, with its distinctive
Zimmerit anti-magnetic mine
coating, turret skirts, and wire-mesh side-skirts.
The next version, the Ausf. H, began production in June 1943 and
received the designation Sd. Kfz. 161/2. The integrity of the glacis
armor was improved by manufacturing it as a single 80-millimetre (3.15
in) plate. A reinforced final drive with higher gear ratios was
introduced. To prevent adhesion of magnetic anti-tank mines, which
the Germans feared would be used in large numbers by the Allies,
Zimmerit paste was added to all the vertical surfaces of the tank's
armor. The turret roof was reinforced from 10-millimetre (0.39 in) to
16-millimetre (0.63 in) and 25-millimetre (0.98 in) segments. The
vehicle's side and turret were further protected by the addition of
5-millimetre (0.20 in) hull skirts and 8-millimetre (0.31 in) turret
skirts. This resulted in the elimination of the vision ports located
on the hull side, as the skirts obstructed their view. During the
Ausf. H's production run, its rubber-tired return rollers were
replaced with cast steel, a lighter cast front sprocket and rear idler
wheel gradually replaced the previous components, the hull was fitted
with triangular supports for the easily damaged side skirts, the
Nebelwurfgeraet was discontinued, and a mount in the turret roof,
designed for the
Nahverteidigungswaffe , was plugged by a circular
armored plate due to initial production shortages of this weapon.
These modifications meant that the tank's weight increased to 25
tonnes (27.56 short tons). In spite of a new six-speed SSG 77
transmission adopted from the
Panzer III, top speed dropped to as low
as 16 km/h (10 mph) on cross country terrain. An experimental version
of the Ausf H was fitted with a hydrostatic transmission but was not
put into production. The Ausf. J was the final production model,
and was greatly simplified compared to earlier variants to speed
construction. This shows an exported Finnish model.
Despite addressing the mobility problems introduced by the previous
model, the final production version of the
Panzer IV—the Ausf.
J—was considered a retrograde from the Ausf. H. Born of necessity,
to replace heavy losses, it was greatly simplified to speed
production. The electric generator that powered the tank's turret
traverse was removed, so the turret had to be rotated manually. The
turret traversing mechanism was modified and fitted with a second gear
which made hand-operation easier when the vehicle was on sloping
terrain. On reasonably level ground, hand operation at 4 seconds to
traverse to 12.5° and 29.5 seconds to traverse to 120° was achieved.
The resulting space was later used for the installation of an
auxiliary 200-litre (53 US gal) fuel tank; road range was thereby
increased to 320 km (200 mi), The remaining pistol and vision ports
on the turret side hatches were removed, and the engine's radiator
housing was simplified by changing the slanted sides to straight
sides. Three sockets with screw threads for mounting a 2-ton jib boom
crane were welded on the turret roof while the hull roof was thickened
from 11-millimetre (0.43 in) to 16-millimetre (0.63 in). In addition,
the cylindrical muffler was replaced by two flame-suppressing
mufflers. On June 1944 Wa Prüf 6 had decided that because bomb damage
Krupp in Essen had seriously jeopardized tank
production, all plates which should have been face-hardened for the
Panzer IV were instead made with rolled homogeneous armour plate. By
Zimmerit was no longer being applied to German armored
vehicles, and the
Panzer IV's side-skirts had been replaced by wire
mesh, while the gunner's forward vision port in the turret front was
eliminated and the number of return rollers was reduced from four to
three to further speed-up production.
In a bid to augment the
Panzer IV's firepower, an attempt was made to
mate a Schmalturm turret — carrying the longer 75 mm (2.95 in) L/70
tank gun from the developing Panther Ausf. F tank design, and partly
Rheinmetall from early 1944 onwards — to a
hull. This failed and confirmed that the chassis had reached the limit
of its adaptability in both weight and available volume.
Panzer IV production by year
NUMBER OF VEHICLES
A – D
Panzer IV was originally intended to be used only on a limited
scale, so initially
Krupp was its sole manufacturer. Prior to the
Polish campaign, only 217
Panzer IVs had been produced: 35 Ausf. A; 42
Ausf. B; and 140 Ausf. C; in 1941, production was extended to
Vogtländische Maschinenfabrik("VOMAG") (located in the city of Plauen
) and the Nibelungenwerke in the Austrian city of St. Valentin.
In 1941, an average of 39 tanks per month were built; this rose to 83
in 1942, 252 in 1943, and 300 in 1944. However, in December 1943,
Krupp's factory was diverted to manufacture the
Sturmgeschütz IV and,
in the spring of 1944, the Vomag factory began production of the
Jagdpanzer IV , leaving the Nibelungenwerke as the only plant still
Panzer IV. With the slow collapse of German industry
under pressure from Allied air and ground offensives—in October 1944
the Nibelungenwerke factory was severely damaged during a bombing
raid—by March and April 1945, production had fallen to pre-1942
levels, with only around 55 tanks per month coming off the assembly
Panzer IV was the most exported German tank of the Second World
War. In 1942, Germany delivered 11 tanks to
Romania and 32 to
Hungary, many of which were lost on the Eastern Front between the
final months of 1942 and the beginning of 1943 during the battles
Romania received approximately 120
Panzer IV tanks
of different models throughout the entire war. To arm
Germany supplied 46 or 91
Panzer IVs, and offered Italy 12 tanks to
form the nucleus of a new armored division. These were used to train
Italian crews while the Italian dictator
Benito Mussolini was deposed,
but were retaken by Germany during its occupation of Italy in
mid-1943. The Spanish government petitioned for 100
Panzer IVs in
March 1943, but only 20 were ever delivered, by December. Finland
bought 30, but only received 15 in 1944, and the same year a second
batch of 62 or 72 was sent to Hungary (although 20 of these were
diverted to replace German losses). In total, 297
Panzer IVs of all
models were delivered to Germany's allies.
Panzer IV Ausf. E showing signs of weapon impacts on the
turret and the edge of the gun barrel.
Panzer IV was the only German tank to remain in both production
and combat throughout World War II, and measured over the entire war
it comprised 30% of the
Wehrmacht 's total tank strength. Although in
service by early 1939, in time for the occupation of
at the start of the war the majority of German armor was made up of
Panzer Is and
Panzer IIs . The
Panzer I in particular had
already proved inferior to Soviet tanks, such as the
T-26 , during the
Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War .
WESTERN FRONT AND NORTH AFRICA (1939–1942)
When Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, its armored corps
was composed of 1,445
Panzer Is, 1,223
Panzer IIs, 98
Panzer IIIs and
Panzer IVs; the more modern vehicles amounted to less than 10% of
Germany's armored strength. The 1st
Panzer Division had a roughly
equal balance of types, with 17
Panzer Is, 18
Panzer IIs, 28 Panzer
IIIs, and 14
Panzer IVs per battalion. The remaining panzer divisions
were heavy with obsolete models, equipped as they were with 34 Panzer
Panzer IIs, 5
Panzer IIIs, and 6
Panzer IVs per battalion.
Although the Polish Army possessed less than 200 tanks capable of
penetrating the German light tanks, Polish anti-tank guns proved more
of a threat, reinforcing German faith in the value of the
Panzer IV. A British
Crusader tank passing a
Panzer IV during
Operation Crusader , late 1941.
Despite increased production of the medium
Panzer IIIs and IVs prior
to the German invasion of France on 10 May 1940, the majority of
German tanks were still light types. According to Heinz Guderian, the
Wehrmacht invaded France with 523
Panzer Is, 955
Panzer IIs, 349
Panzer IIIs, 278
Panzer IVs, 106
Panzer 35(t)s and 228
Panzer 38(t)s .
Through the use of tactical radios and superior tactics, the Germans
were able to outmaneuver and defeat French and British armor.
Panzer IVs armed with the KwK 37 L/24 75-millimetre (2.95 in)
tank gun found it difficult to engage French tanks such as Somua S35
Char B1 . The
Somua S35 had a maximum armor thickness of 55 mm
(2.17 in), while the KwK 37 L/24 could only penetrate 43 mm (1.69 in)
at a range of 700 m (2,296.59 ft). The British
Matilda II was also
heavily armored, with at least 70 mm (2.76 in) of steel on the front
and turret, and a minimum of 65 mm on the sides. but were few in
Panzer IV was deployed to north Africa with the German
Afrika Korps , until the longer gun variant began production, the tank
was outperformed by the
Panzer III with respect to armor penetration.
Panzer III and IV had difficulty in penetrating the British
Matilda II's thick armor, while the Matilda's 40-mm QF 2 pounder gun
could knock out either German tank; its major disadvantage was its low
speed. By August 1942, Rommel had only received 27
Panzer IV Ausf.
F2s, armed with the L/43 gun, which he deployed to spearhead his
armored offensives. The longer gun could penetrate all American and
British tanks in theater at ranges of up to 1,500 m (4,900 ft), by
that time the most heavily armored of which was the M3 Grant .
Although more of these tanks arrived in North Africa between August
and October 1942, their numbers were insignificant compared to the
amount of matériel shipped to British forces.
Panzer IV also took part in the invasion of Yugoslavia and the
invasion of Greece in early 1941.
EASTERN FRONT (1941–1945)
A PzKpfw IV Ausf. H of the 12th
Panzer Division carrying
Schürzen skirting operating on the Eastern Front in the
USSR , 1944.
With the launching of
Operation Barbarossa on 22 June 1941, the
unanticipated appearance of the KV-1 and
T-34 tanks prompted an
upgrade of the
Panzer IV's 75 mm (2.95 in) gun to a longer,
high-velocity 75 mm gun suitable for anti-tank use. This meant that it
could now penetrate the
T-34 at ranges of up to 1,200 m (3,900 ft) at
any angle. The 75 mm
KwK 40 L/43 gun on the
Panzer IV could penetrate
T-34 at a variety of impact angles beyond 1,000 m (3,300 ft) range
and up to 1,600 m (5,200 ft). Shipment of the first model to mount
the new gun, the Ausf. F2, began in spring 1942, and by the summer
offensive there were around 135
Panzer IVs with the L/43 tank gun
available. At the time, these were the only German tanks that could
T-34 or KV-1 with sheer firepower. They played a crucial role
in the events that unfolded between June 1942 and March 1943, and the
Panzer IV became the mainstay of the German panzer divisions.
Although in service by late September 1942, the
Tiger I was not yet
numerous enough to make an impact and suffered from serious teething
problems, while the Panther was not delivered to German units in the
Soviet Union until May 1943. The extent of German reliance on the
Panzer IV during this period is reflected by their losses; 502 were
destroyed on the Eastern Front in 1942.
Panzer IV continued to play an important role during operations
in 1943, including at the
Battle of Kursk . Newer types, such as the
Panther, were still experiencing crippling reliability problems that
restricted their combat efficiency, so much of the effort fell to the
Panzer IVs that took part in the battle. Throughout 1943, the
German army lost 2,352
Panzer IVs on the Eastern Front; some
divisions were reduced to 12–18 tanks by the end of the year. In
1944, a further 2,643
Panzer IVs were destroyed, and such losses were
becoming increasingly difficult to replace. Nevertheless, due to a
shortage of replacement Panther tanks, the
Panzer IV continued to form
the core of Germany's armored divisions, including elite units such as
II SS Panzer Corps , through 1944.
In January 1945, 287
Panzer IVs were lost on the Eastern Front. It is
estimated that combat against Soviet forces accounted for 6,153 Panzer
IVs, or about 75% of all
Panzer IV losses during the war.
WESTERN FRONT (1944–45)
Panzer IV Ausf. G of the 1st SS
Panzer Division "Leibstandarte
Hitler " near the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, 1942.
Panzer IVs comprised around half of the available German tank
strength on the Western Front prior to the Allied invasion of Normandy
on 6 June 1944. Most of the 11 panzer divisions that saw action in
Normandy initially contained an armored regiment of one battalion of
Panzer IVs and another of Panthers, for a total of around 160 tanks,
Waffen-SS panzer divisions were generally larger and better
equipped than their Heer counterparts. Regular upgrades to the
Panzer IV had helped to maintain its reputation as a formidable
opponent. The bocage countryside in Normandy favored defense, and
German tanks and anti-tank guns inflicted very heavy casualties on
Allied armor during the Normandy campaign , despite the overwhelming
Allied air superiority. German counter-attacks were blunted in the
face of Allied artillery, infantry-held anti-tank weapons , tank
destroyers and anti-tank guns , as well as the ubiquitous fighter
bomber aircraft . The rugged terrain caused the side-skirt armor used
to predetonate shaped charge anti-tank weapons, such as the British
PIAT , to be pulled away. German tankers in all theaters were
"frustrated by the way these skirts were easily torn off when going
through dense brush". Pz.Kpfw-IV in
Belgrade Military Museum ,
The Allies had also been developing lethality improvement programs of
their own; the widely used American-designed
M4 Sherman medium tank,
while mechanically reliable, suffered from thin armor and an
inadequate gun. Against earlier-model
Panzer IVs, it could hold its
own, but with its 75 mm M3 gun , struggled against the late-model
Panzer IV (and was unable to penetrate the frontal armor of Panther
and Tiger tanks at virtually any range). The late-model
80 mm (3.15 in) frontal hull armor could easily withstand hits from
the 75 mm (2.95 in) weapon on the Sherman at normal combat ranges,
though the turret remained vulnerable.
The British up-gunned the Sherman with their highly effective QF 17
pounder anti-tank gun , resulting in the Firefly ; although this was
the only Allied tank capable of dealing with all current German tanks
at normal combat ranges, few (342) were available in time for the
Normandy invasion. From D-Day to the end of the Normandy campaign, a
further 550 Fireflies were built. A second British tank equipped with
the 17pdr gun , the
Cruiser Mk VIII Challenger , could not participate
in the initial landings having to wait for port facilities to be ready
to land. It was not until July 1944 that American Shermans, fitted
with the 76-mm (3-inch) M1 tank gun , achieved a parity in firepower
However, despite the general superiority of its armored vehicles, by
29 August 1944, as the last surviving German troops of Fifth Panzer
Army and Seventh Army began retreating towards Germany, the twin
cataclysms of the
Falaise Pocket and the
Seine crossing had cost the
Wehrmacht dearly. Of the 2,300 tanks and assault guns it had committed
to Normandy (including around 750
Panzer IVs ), over 2,200 had been
Walter Model reported to
Hitler that his panzer
divisions had remaining, on average, five or six tanks each.
During the winter of 1944–45, the
Panzer IV was one of the most
widely used tanks in the Ardennes offensive , where further heavy
losses—as often due to fuel shortages as to enemy action—impaired
major German armored operations in the West thereafter. The Panzer
IVs that took part were survivors of the battles in France between
June and September 1944, with around 260 additional
Panzer IV Ausf. Js
issued as reinforcements.
The Finns bought 15 new
Panzer IV Ausf J in 1944, for 5,000,000
Finnish markkas each (about twice the production price). The
remainder of an order for 40 tanks and some StuG were not delivered
and neither were German instructors provided. The tanks arrived too
late to see action against the Soviets, but were instead used against
the Germans during their withdrawal through Lapland . After the war,
they served as training tanks, and one portrayed a Soviet KV-1 tank in
the movie The Unknown Soldier in 1955.
The additional weight, going from the 18.4 tons (Ausf A) to about 25
tons(Ausf J), of these modifications strained the chassis. The
overloaded and primitive leaf-spring suspension gave its crew a shaky
ride, earning the
Panzer IV the nickname "ravistin" ("shaker") in
Finnish Service. This not only affected crew comfort, but also
hampered the accurate aiming of the main gun. What exactly caused this
vibration that gave the PzKw IVJ such a bad name among Finnish tank
crews remains somewhat unclear, but suspension seems to be the most
Bulgaria incorporated its surviving
Panzer IVs into
defensive bunkers as gunpoints on the border with
Turkey , along with
T-34 turrets. This defensive line known as the "
Krali Marko Line",
remained in use until the fall of communism in 1989.
Panzer IV Ausf Hs and ten
StuG III Ausf Gs were supplied to
Spain in December 1943, a small fraction of what Spain had originally
asked for. The
Panzer IV represented the best tank in Spanish service
between 1944 and 1954, and was deployed along with T-26s and Panzer
Is. Spain sold 17
Panzer IVs to
Syria in 1967; the remaining three are
conserved. These can be found at Madrid, Burgos and Santovenia de
Most of the tanks
Romania had received were lost during combat in
1944 and 1945. These tanks, designated T4 in the army inventory, were
used by the 2nd Armored Regiment.
On 9 May 1945, only two
Panzer IVs were left.
Panzer IV tanks from the
Red Army after the end of the war.
These tanks were of different models and were in very poor shape
—many of them were missing parts and the side skirts. The T4 tanks
remained in service until 1950, when the Army decided to use only
Soviet equipment. By 1954, all German tanks had been scrapped. A
captured German PzKpfw IV G used for anti-tank weapon tests by British
Eighth Army, Italy 1943
While their numbers remain uncertain,
Syria received around 60
Panzers that were refurbished in France during 1950-1952, followed by
50 others purchased from
Czechoslovakia in 1954. A Soviet DShK
machine gun on an anti-aircraft mount was retrofitted on the cupola.
These were used to shell Israeli settlements below the
Golan Heights ,
and were fired upon in 1965 during the Water War by Israeli Centurion
Syria received 17
Panzer IVs from Spain; these saw combat
Six-Day War in 1967.
Turkey was a buyer, with 35
Panzer IV received until 4
May 1944 in exchange for some chromium. Delivery began with the Ausf G
and probably went on with Ausf H versions.
CAPTURED PANZER IVS IN SERVICE
The Soviet Army captured large numbers of German armored vehicles,
Panzer IVs (Russian designation T-4). Some of them were
pressed into temporary service and some others were used for training.
Sometimes, captured tanks were used in different temporary units or as
single tanks. While captured Tigers and Panthers were only permitted
to be used until they broke down, the simplicity of the
Panzer IV and
the large number of captured parts allowed for repair and continued
At least one captured
Panzer IV Ausf. H was used by the Warsaw Tank
Brigade of the Polish 2nd Corps in Italy during 1944.
The 1st GMR (Groupement Mobile de Reconnaissance) of the FFI (French
Forces of the Interior), later called 'escadron autonome de chars
Besnier', was equipped in December 1944 with at least one
Jagdpanzer IV tank destroyer, based on the
Panzer IV chassis,
mounting the 75 mm Pak L/48 anti-tank gun. A Sturmpanzer IV
infantry-support gun (Casemate MG variant (flexible mount)).
Wirbelwind self-propelled anti-aircraft gun.
In keeping with the wartime German design philosophy of mounting an
existing anti-tank gun on a convenient chassis to give mobility,
several tank destroyers and infantry support guns were built around
Panzer IV hull. Both the
Jagdpanzer IV , initially armed with the
75-millimetre (2.95 in) L/48 tank gun, and the Krupp-manufactured
Sturmgeschütz IV , which was the casemate of the Sturmgeschütz III
mounted on the body of the
Panzer IV, proved highly effective in
defense. Cheaper and faster to construct than tanks, but with the
disadvantage of a very limited gun traverse, around 1,980 Jagdpanzer
IVs and 1,140 Sturmgeschütz IVs were produced. Another tank
Panzer IV/70, used the same basic 75 millimeter L/70
gun that was mounted on the Panther.
Another variant of the
Panzer IV was the Panzerbefehlswagen IV (Pz.
Bef. Wg. IV) command tank. This conversion entailed the installation
of additional radio sets, mounting racks, transformers, junction
boxes, wiring, antennas and an auxiliary electrical generator. To make
room for the new equipment, ammunition stowage was reduced from 87 to
72 rounds. The vehicle could coordinate with nearby armor, infantry or
even aircraft. Seventeen Panzerbefehlswagen were built on Ausf. J
chassis in August and September 1944, while another 88 were based on
The Panzerbeobachtungswagen IV (Pz. Beob. Wg. IV) was an artillery
observation vehicle built on the
Panzer IV chassis. This, too,
received new radio equipment and an electrical generator, installed in
the left rear corner of the fighting compartment.
Panzerbeobachtungswagens worked in cooperation with
Wespe and Hummel
self-propelled artillery batteries.
Also based on the
Panzer IV chassis was the Sturmpanzer IV
150-millimetre (5.91 in) infantry-support self-propelled gun. These
vehicles were primarily issued to four Sturmpanzer units (Numbers 216,
217, 218 and 219) and used during the battle of Kursk and in Italy in
1943. Two separate versions of the
Sturmpanzer IV existed, one without
a machine gun in the mantlet and one with a machine gun mounted on the
mantlet of the casemate. Furthermore, a 105-millimetre (4.13 in)
artillery gun was mounted in an experimental demountable turret on a
Panzer IV chassis. This variant was called the Heuschrecke
("Grasshopper"). Another 105 mm artillery/anti-tank prototype was the
10.5 cm K (gp.Sfl.) nicknamed Dicker Max.
Four different self-propelled anti-aircraft vehicles were built on
Panzer IV hull. The
Möbelwagen was armed with a
37-millimetre (1.46 in) anti-aircraft cannon; 240 were built between
1944 and 1945. In late 1944 a new Flakpanzer, the Wirbelwind
("Whirlwind"), was designed, with enough armor to protect the gun's
crew and a rotating turret, armed with the quadruple 20 mm
Flakvierling anti-aircraft cannon system; at least 100 were
manufactured. Sixty-five similar vehicles were built, named Ostwind
("East wind"), but with a single 37-millimetre (1.46 in) anti-aircraft
cannon instead. This vehicle was designed to replace the Wirbelwind.
The final model was the
Kugelblitz , of which only five
pilot vehicles were built. This vehicle featured an enclosed turret
armed with twin 30-millimetre (1.18 in) Rheinmetall-Borsig MK 103
aircraft autocannon .
Although not a direct modification of the
Panzer IV, some of its
components, in conjunction with parts from the
Panzer III, were
utilized to make one of the most widely used self-propelled artillery
chassis of the war—the Geschützwagen III/IV. This chassis was the
basis of the Hummel artillery piece, of which 666 were built, and also
the 88 millimetres (3.46 in) gun armed
Nashorn tank destroyer, with
473 manufactured. To resupply self-propelled howitzers in the field,
150 ammunition carriers were manufactured on the Geschützwagen III/IV
Another rare variant was the Bergepanzer IV armored recovery vehicle
. Some were believed to have been converted locally, 21 were
converted from hulls returned for repair between October 1944 and
January 1945. The conversion involved removing the turret and adding a
wooden plank cover with an access hatch over the turret ring and the
addition of a 2-ton jib crane and rigid towing bars.
List of Panzer IV variants
List of Panzer IV variants
* Ausf.A, 1/BW (SD.KFZ.161)
35 produced by Krupp-Gruson, between November 1937 and June 1938.
* Ausf.B, 2/BW
42 produced by Krupp-Gruson, from May to October 1938.
* Ausf.C, 3/BW
140 produced by Krupp-Gruson, from October 1938 to August 1939.
* Ausf.D, 4/BW + 5/BW
200 + 48 produced by Krupp-Gruson, from October 1939 to October
* Ausf.E, 6/BW
206 produced by Krupp-Gruson, from October 1940 to April 1941.
* Ausf.F, 7/BW
471 produced by Krupp-Gruson, Vomag and Nibelungenwerke from April
1941 to March 1942.
* Ausf.F2, 7/BW (SD.KFZ.161/1)
Temporary designation for Ausf F chassis built with long 7.5cm KwK40
L/43 main gun, later renamed into Auf. G and 8/BW.
* Ausf.G, 8/BW
1,927 produced by Krupp-Gruson, Vomag and Nibelungenwerke from March
1942 to June 1943.
* Ausf.H, 9/BW (SD.KFZ.161/2)
~2,324 produced by Krupp-Gruson, Vomag and Nibelungenwerke from June
1943 to February 1944.
* Ausf.J, 10/BW
~3,160 produced by Vomag Nibelungenwerke from February 1944 to April
VARIANTS BASED ON CHASSIS
* Tauchpanzer IV: :42 converted from July 1940 as submersible medium
* Panzerbefehlswagen: command tank with additional radio equipment,
17 built on Ausf. J and further 88 on rebuilt chassis
* Panzerbeobachtungswagen IV: artillery spotter tank with special
radio equipment, 133 converted from Ausf. J
Sturmpanzer IV : Heavy
Assault gun armed with 150 mm Infantry gun
Sturmgeschütz IV : Assault gun, similar to StuG III, armed with
7.5 cm gun
Jagdpanzer IV and
Panzer IV/70: tank destroyer armed with 7.5 cm
Nashorn : Heavy Panzerjäger armed with 8.8 cm Anti-tank gun
* Hummel :
Self-propelled artillery armed with 150 mm Howitzer
Flakpanzer IV , multiple variants of
Panzer IV chassis armed with
various Flak guns
* Brückenleger IV b+c: 20+4 bridge layer tanks built by
Magirus, on Ausf.C and Ausf.D chassis, from February to May 1940
* Brückenleger IV s (Sturmstegpanzer): 4 assault bridge carriers
converted from Ausf.C chassis in 1940
* Bergepanzer IV: 21 armoured recovery vehicles converted from Pz IV
chassis from October to December 1944
* List of military vehicles of
World War II
World War II
* List of
World War II
World War II military vehicles of Germany
List of SdKfz designations
TANKS OF COMPARABLE ROLE, PERFORMANCE AND ERA
* Australia Sentinel
* British Cromwell
* Canadian Ram II
* Hungarian Turán III
Carro Armato P 40
Type 3 Chi-Nu
* United States
* ^ Ginat, Rami (6 Dec 2006). The
Soviet Union and the Syrian
Ba\'th regime: from hesitation to rapprochement. Middle Eastern
Studies. p. 9.
* ^ Zetterling, Niklas (2000). Kursk 1943: A Statistical Analysis.
London: Frank Cass. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-7146-5052-4 .
* ^ A B C D E F G Thomas L. Jentz and Hilary Louis Doyle (2011).
Panzer Tracts No.23 -
Panzer Production from 1933 to 1945. Panzer
Tracts. pp. 50–59.
* ^ A B Spielberger, Walter (2011). Panzerkampfwagen IV and its
variants 1935 - 1945 Book 2. Schiffer. p. 203.
* ^ Conners, Chris (4 December 2002). "Panzerkampfwagen IV
Ausfuehrung H". The AFV Database. Retrieved 15 December 2010.
* ^ Spielberger (1972), p. 69
* ^ Caballero Caballero & Molina (2006), p. 6
* ^ Caballero & Molina (2006), p. 6
* ^ A B Caballero & Molina (2006), p. 7
* ^ A B Doyle Caballero Doyle, Hilary Louis (1997).
No. 4: Panzerkampfwagen IV Grosstraktor to Panzerbefehlswagen IV.
Darlington (MD), p. 14: Darlington Productions.
* ^ A B C D Perrett (1999), p. 6
* ^ Jentz, Thomas L.; Doyle, Hilary Louis (1997).
Panzer Tracts No.
4: Panzerkampfwagen IV Grosstraktor to Panzerbefehlswagen IV.
Darlington (MD), p. 30: Darlington Productions.
* ^ Doyle Doyle, Hilary Louis (1997).
Panzer Tracts No. 4:
Panzerkampfwagen IV Grosstraktor to Panzerbefehlswagen IV. Darlington
(MD), p. 40: Darlington Productions.
* ^ Jentz, Thomas L.; Doyle, Hilary Louis (1997).
Panzer Tracts No.
4: Panzerkampfwagen IV Grosstraktor to Panzerbefehlswagen IV.
Darlington (MD), p. 34: Darlington Productions.
* ^ Caballero ">
* ^ Perrett (1999), p.7
* ^ Doyle & Jentz (2001), pp. 6–7
* ^ Doyle Laurier, Jim (1999). Panzerkampfwagen IV Medium Tank
1936-45. Osprey. p. 8. ISBN 1855328437 .
* ^ Jentz, Thomas L.; Doyle, Hilary Louis (1997).
Panzer Tracts No.
4: Panzerkampfwagen IV Grosstraktor to Panzerbefehlswagen IV.
Darlington (MD), p. 44: Darlington Productions.
* ^ Doyle & Jentz (2001), p. 8
* ^ Caballero & Molina (2006), p. 38
* ^ Spielberger (1993), p. 59
* ^ Doyle & Jentz (2001), pp. 11–12
* ^ Walter J. Spielberger (1993), P63
* ^ Doyle Doyle, Hilary Louis (2001). Encyclopedia Of German Tanks
Of World War Two. London, p. 255: Arms & Armour Press.
* ^ A B C D Jentz, Thomas L.; Doyle, Hilary Louis (1997). Panzer
Tracts No. 4: Panzerkampfwagen IV Grosstraktor to Panzerbefehlswagen
IV. Darlington (MD), p. 50: Darlington Productions.
* ^ Caballero & Molina (2006), p. 44
* ^ Perrett (1999), p. 8
* ^ Doyle & Jentz (2001), p. 13
* ^ A B Doyle & Jentz (2001), p. 14
* ^ A B Perrett (1999), p. 9
* ^ A B Doyle & Friedli (2016), p. 56
* ^ Caballero & Molina (2006), pp. 53–54
* ^ A B Doyle & Friedli (2016), p. 57
* ^ Doyle & Friedli (2016), p. 58
* ^ Doyle & Jentz (2001), p. 15
* ^ Spielberger (1972), p. 72
* ^ Doyle & Jentz (2001), p. 16
* ^ Caballero & Molina (2006), p. 63
* ^ Caballero & Molina (2006), pp. 63–66
* ^ A B Scafes and Serbanescu 2005, p.78
* ^ A B C Caballero & Molina (2006), p. 66
* ^ A B C Doyle Perrett (1999), p. 44, claims
Bulgaria received 88
* ^ Caballero & Molina (2006), pp. 76–82
* ^ Caballero & Molina (2006), p. 67
* ^ McCarthy & Syron (2002), p. 36
* ^ Caballero & Molina (2006), p. 4
* ^ Caballero & Molina (2006), p. 3
* ^ A B Spielberger (1972), p. 82
* ^ McCarthy & Syron (2002), p. 51
* ^ McCarthy & Syron (2002), p. 34
* ^ Perrett (1999), p. 24
* ^ Perrett (1998), p. 37
* ^ Perrett (1999), p. 33
* ^ Guderian (1996), p. 472
* ^ McCarthy & Syron (2002), p. 72
* ^ McCarthy & Syron (2002), p. 73
* ^ Doyle & Jentz (2001), pp. 4–5
* ^ Crawford (2000), p. 4
* ^ Crawford (2000), p. 50
* ^ Perrett (1999), p. 34
* ^ A B Ormeño (2007), p. 48
* ^ Doyle & Jentz (2001), p. 21
* ^ Doyle & Jentz (2001), p. 23
* ^ Perrett (1999), pp. 34–35
* ^ Jentz (1996), p. 243
* ^ Bird & Livingston (2001), p. 25
* ^ Doyle & Jentz (2001), p. 33
* ^ Doyle & Jentz (2001), p. 35–36
* ^ A B Spielberger (1972), p. 87
* ^ Caballero & Molina (2006), p. 42
* ^ Caballero & Molina (2006), p. 39
* ^ Perrett (1999), p. 39
* ^ Caballero & Molina (2006), p. 47
* ^ Caballero & Molina (2006), p. 48
* ^ Caballero & Molina (2006), p. 51
* ^ Reynolds (2002), p. 5
* ^ Caballero & Molina (2006), pp. 59–62
* ^ A B C Hastings (1999), p. 133
* ^ Hastings (1999), p. 413
* ^ Forty (2000), p. 88
* ^ Perrett (1999), p. 43
* ^ A B Hastings (1999), p. 225
* ^ Hastings (1999), pp. 225–227
* ^ Jentz & Doyle (2001), p. 176
* ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 5–8
* ^ Hart, Stephen (2007).
Sherman Firefly vs Tiger. Osprey
* ^ Fletcher (2008), p. 43
* ^ Hastings (1999), p. 221
* ^ A B Forty (2000), p. 92
* ^ A B Wilmott (1997), p. 434
* ^ A B Perrett (1999), p. 44
* ^ "
Panzer IV". www.legionsgames.com. Legions Hobbies and Games.
Retrieved 11 August 2011.
* ^ "KV-1 AND PzKw IVJ TANKS". JAEGER PLATOON: FINNISH ARMY 1918 -
* ^ Naud, Phillipe (2011), "Les Blindes de Damas 1948-1967", in
Steel Masters nº105, May–June, 2011
* ^ de Mazarrasa (1994), p. 50
* ^ Official document in Turkish Republic Archive, BCA: 10.52.344.9
* ^ Scheibert (1991), p. 38
* ^ Scheibert (1991), p. 37
* ^ Parada, George. "Jagdpanzer IV". achtungpanzer.com. Retrieved
* ^ Parada, George. "
Sturmgeschütz III / IV". achtungpanzer.com.
* ^ Scheibert (1991), p. 44
* ^ Jentz, Thomas L.; Doyle, Hilary Louis (1997).
Panzer Tracts No.
9: Jagdpanzer, Jagdpanzer 38 to Jagdtiger. Darlington (MD): Darlington
* ^ Doyle & Jentz (2001), pp. 41–42
* ^ Doyle & Jentz (2001), pp. 42–43
* ^ Scheibert (1991), pp. 32–33
* ^ Scheibert (1991). p. 43
* ^ Scheibert (1991), pp. 37–42
* ^ Spielberger (1972), pp. 81–82
* ^ New Vanguard 28, Panzerkampfwagon IV Medium
Tank 1936-45, Bryan
Perrett, Osprey Publishing 1999
* ^ "Trumpeter 00389 German Bergepanzer IV".
* Bird, Lorrin R.; Robert Livingston (2001). World War II
Ballistics: Armor and Gunnery. Albany, NY: Overmatch Press.
* Caballero, Carlos; Molina, Lucas (October 2006).
Panzer IV: El
puño de la
Wehrmacht (in Spanish). Valladolid, Spain: AFEditores.
ISBN 84-96016-81-1 .
* Crawford, Steve (11 November 2000). Tanks of World War II. Zenith
Press. ISBN 0-7603-0936-1 .
* de Mazarrasa, Javier (1994). Blindados en España 2ª Parte: La
Dificil Postguerra 1939-1960 (in Spanish). Valladolid, Spain: Quiron
Ediciones. ISBN 84-87314-10-4 .
* Doyle, Hilary; Tom Jentz (2001). Panzerkampfwagen IV Ausf. G, H
and J 1942-45. Oxford, United Kingdom: Osprey. ISBN 1-84176-183-4 .
* Doyle, Hilary; Lukas Friedli (2016).
Panzer Tracts 4-3:
Panzerkampfwagen IV Ausf. H - Ausf. J, 1943 to 1945. Boyds, Maryland:
* Fletcher, David (2008). Sherman Firefly. Oxford, United Kingdom:
Osprey. ISBN 978-1-84603-277-6 .
* Forty, George (2000). The Reich's Last Gamble: The Ardennes
Offensive, December 1944. London, United Kingdom: Cassell & Co. ISBN
* Guderian, Heinz
Panzer Leader New York Da Capo Press Reissue
* Hastings, Max (1999). Overlord: D-Day and the Battle for Normandy
1944. London, United Kingdom: Pan Books. ISBN 0-330-39012-0 .
* Jentz, Thomas (1996). Panzertruppen: The Complete Guide to the
Creation & Combat Employment of Germany's
Tank Force 1933-1942.
Atglen, PA: Schiffer Military History . ISBN 0-88740-915-6 .
* Jentz, Thomas; Hilary Doyle (1997).
Panzer Tracts 4:
Panzerkampfwagen IV - Grosstraktor to Panzerbefehlswagen IV.
Darlington, MD: Darlington Productions.
* Jentz, Thomas; Hilary Doyle (2001). Germany's Panzers in World War
II: From Pz.Kpfw.I to Tiger II. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Military History.
ISBN 0-7643-1425-4 .
* Liddell Hart, B.H. The German Generals Talk. New York, NY: Morrow,
* McCarthy, Peter; Mike Syryon (2002). Panzerkieg: The Rise and Fall
Tank Divisions. New York City, NY: Carroll & Graf. ISBN
* Ormeño, Javier (1 January 2007). "Panzerkampfwagen III: El
pequeño veterano de la Werhmacht". SERGA. Madrid, Spain: Almena (45).
* Perrett, Bryan (1998). German Light Panzers 1932-42. Oxford,
United Kingdom: Osprey. ISBN 1-85532-844-5 .
* Perrett, Bryan (1999). Panzerkampfwagen IV medium tank : 1936 -
1945. Oxford, United Kingdom: Osprey. ISBN 978-1-85532-843-3 .
* Reynolds, Michael (2002). The Sons of the Reich: II SS Panzer
Corps. Havertown, PA: Casemate. ISBN 0-9711709-3-2 .
* Scheibert, Horst (1991). The
Panzer IV Family. West Chester, PA:
Schiffer Military History. ISBN 0-88740-359-X .
* Simpkin, Richard E. (1979).
Tank Warfare: An analysis of Soviet
and NATO tank philosophy. London, United Kingdom: Brassey's. ISBN
* Spielberger, Walter (April 1972). PanzerKampfwagen IV. Berkshire,
United Kingdom: Profile Publications Ltd.
* Spielberger, Walter (1993).
Panzer IV and its variants. Atglen,
PA, USA: Schiffer Military History. ISBN 0-88740-515-0 .
* Spielberger, Walter (2011). Panzerkampfwagen IV and its variants
1935 - 1945 Book 2. Atglen, PA, USA: Schiffer Military History. ISBN
* Wilmot, Chester (1997). The Struggle for Europe. Ware, Herts.:
Wordsworth Editions Ltd. ISBN 1-85326-677-9 .
* Scafes, Cornel I; Scafes, Ioan I; Serbanescu, Horia Vl (2005).
Trupele Blindate din Armata Romana 1919-1947. Bucuresti: Editura Oscar
* The Restoration of a panzer IV in running condition to the Tank
Museum of SAUMUR "FRANCE"