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Palestinian nationalism
Palestinian nationalism
is the national movement of the Palestinian people for self-determination in and sovereignty over Palestine.[1] Originally formed in opposition to Zionism, Palestinian nationalism later internationalized and attached itself to other ideologies.[2] Thus it has rejected the historic occupation of the Palestinian territories by Israel[3] and the non-domestic Arab
Arab
rule by Egypt
Egypt
over the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
and Jordan
Jordan
over the West Bank.

Contents

1 Background 2 History 3 Palestinian nationalist groups

3.1 Notables 3.2 British Mandate period 3.3 After 1948–1964 3.4 The emergence of PLO 3.5 Palestinian National Authority

4 Goals

4.1 Palestinian statehood 4.2 From the river to the sea

5 Competing national, political and religious loyalties

5.1 Pan-Arabism 5.2 Pan-Islamism

6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography

Background

A 1930 protest in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
against the British Mandate by Palestinian women. The sign reads "No dialogue, no negotiations until termination [of the Mandate]"

Before the development of modern nationalism, loyalty tended to focus on a city or a particular leader. The term "Nationalismus", translated as nationalism, was coined by Johann Gottfried Herder
Johann Gottfried Herder
in the late 1770s. Palestinian nationalism
Palestinian nationalism
has been compared to other nationalist movements, such as Pan-Arabism
Pan-Arabism
and Zionism. Some nationalists (primordialists) argue that "the nation was always there, indeed it is part of the natural order, even when it was submerged in the hearts of its members."[4] In keeping with this philosophy, Al-Quds University states that although "Palestine was conquered in times past by ancient Egyptians, Hittites, Philistines, Israelites, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Romans, Muslim
Muslim
Arabs, Mamlukes, Ottomans, the British, the Zionists … the population remained constant—and is now still Palestinian."[5] Zachary J. Foster argued in a 2015 Foreign Affairs
Foreign Affairs
article that "based on hundreds of manuscripts, Islamic court records, books, magazines, and newspapers from the Ottoman period (1516–1918), it seems that the first Arab
Arab
to use the term “Palestinian” was Farid Georges Kassab, a Beirut-based Orthodox Christian." He explained further that Kassab’s 1909 book Palestine, Hellenism, and Clericalism noted in passing that “the Orthodox Palestinian Ottomans call themselves Arabs, and are in fact Arabs,” despite describing the Arabic speakers of Palestine as Palestinians
Palestinians
throughout the rest of the book."[6]

Khalil Beidas's 1898 use of the word "Palestinians" in the preface to his translation of Akim Olesnitsky's A Description of the Holy Land[7]

Foster later revised his view in a 2016 piece published in Palestine Square, arguing that already in 1898 Khalil Beidas
Khalil Beidas
used the term “Palestinian” to describe the region’s Arab
Arab
inhabitants in the his preface to a book he translated from Russian to Arabic. In the book, Akim Olesnitsky's A Description of the Holy Land, Beidas explained that the summer agricultural work in Palestine began in May with the wheat and barley harvest. After enduring the entire summer with no rain at all—leaving the water cisterns depleted and the rivers and springs dry—”the Palestinian peasant waits impatiently for winter to come, for the season’s rain to moisten his fossilized fields.” Foster explained that this is the first instance in modern history where the term ‘Palestinian’ or ‘Filastini’ appears in Arabic. He added, though, that the term Palestinian had already been used decades earlier in Western languages by the British James Finn, the German Ludwig Schneller, and the American James Wells.[7] In his 1997 book, Palestinian Identity: The Construction of Modern National Consciousness, historian Rashid Khalidi
Rashid Khalidi
notes that the archaeological strata that denote the history of Palestine—encompassing the Biblical, Roman, Byzantine, Umayyad, Fatimid, Crusader, Ayyubid, Mamluk and Ottoman periods—form part of the identity of the modern-day Palestinian people, as they have come to understand it over the last century,[8] but derides the efforts of some Palestinian nationalists to attempt to "anachronistically" read back into history a nationalist consciousness that is in fact "relatively modern."[9] Khalidi stresses that Palestinian identity has never been an exclusive one, with "Arabism, religion, and local loyalties" playing an important role.[10] He argues that the modern national identity of Palestinians
Palestinians
has its roots in nationalist discourses that emerged among the peoples of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in the late 19th century which sharpened following the demarcation of modern nation-state boundaries in the Middle East
Middle East
after World War I.[10] He acknowledges that Zionism
Zionism
played a role in shaping this identity, though "it is a serious mistake to suggest that Palestinian identity emerged mainly as a response to Zionism."[10] Khalidi describes the Arab
Arab
population of British Mandatory Palestine
Mandatory Palestine
as having "overlapping identities," with some or many expressing loyalties to villages, regions, a projected nation of Palestine, an alternative of inclusion in a Greater Syria, an Arab
Arab
national project, as well as to Islam.[11] He writes that,"local patriotism could not yet be described as nation-state nationalism."[12] Israeli historian Haim Gerber, a professor of Islamic History at Hebrew University of Jerusalem, traces Arab
Arab
nationalism back to a 17th-century religious leader, Mufti Khayr al-Din al-Ramli (1585–1671)[13] who lived in Ramla. He claims that Khayr al-Din al-Ramli's religious edicts (fatwa, plural fatawa), collected into final form in 1670 under the name al-Fatawa al-Khayriyah, attest to territorial awareness: "These fatawa are a contemporary record of the time, and also give a complex view of agrarian relations." Mufti Khayr al-Din al-Ramli's 1670 collection entitled al-Fatawa al-Khayriyah mentions the concepts Filastin, biladuna (our country), al-Sham (Syria), Misr (Egypt), and diyar (country), in senses that appear to go beyond objective geography. Gerber describes this as "embryonic territorial awareness, though the reference is to social awareness rather than to a political one."[14] Baruch Kimmerling and Joel Migdal consider the 1834 Arab
Arab
revolt in Palestine as the first formative event of the Palestinian people,[15] whereas Benny Morris
Benny Morris
attests that the Arabs in Palestine remained part of a larger Pan-Islamist or Pan-Arab
Pan-Arab
national movement.[16] In his book The Israel–Palestine Conflict: One Hundred Years of War, James L. Gelvin states that " Palestinian nationalism
Palestinian nationalism
emerged during the interwar period in response to Zionist immigration and settlement."[17] However, this does not make Palestinian identity any less legitimate: "The fact that Palestinian nationalism
Palestinian nationalism
developed later than Zionism
Zionism
and indeed in response to it does not in any way diminish the legitimacy of Palestinian nationalism
Palestinian nationalism
or make it less valid than Zionism. All nationalisms arise in opposition to some "other." Why else would there be the need to specify who you are? And all nationalisms are defined by what they oppose."[17] Bernard Lewis
Bernard Lewis
argues it was not as a Palestinian nation that the Palestinian Arabs of the Ottoman empire objected to Zionists, since the very concept of such a nation was unknown to the Arabs of the area at the time and did not come into being until later. Even the concept of Arab
Arab
nationalism in the Arab
Arab
provinces of the Ottoman Empire, "had not reached significant proportions before the outbreak of World War I."[18] Daniel Pipes
Daniel Pipes
asserts that "No 'Palestinian Arab
Arab
people' existed at the start of 1920 but by December it took shape in a form recognizably similar to today's." Pipes argues that with the carving of the British Mandate of Palestine out of Greater Syria
Greater Syria
the Arabs of the new Mandate were forced to make the best they could of their situation, and therefore began to define themselves as Palestinian.[19] History Further information: History of Palestinian nationality The collapse of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
was accompanied by an increasing sense of Arab
Arab
identity in the Empire's Arab
Arab
provinces, most notably Syria, considered to include both northern Palestine and Lebanon. This development is often seen as connected to the wider reformist trend known as al-Nahda ("awakening", sometimes called "the Arab renaissance"), which in the late 19th century brought about a redefinition of Arab
Arab
cultural and political identities with the unifying feature of Arabic.[20] Under the Ottomans, Palestine's Arab
Arab
population mostly saw themselves as Ottoman subjects. In the 1830s however, Palestine was occupied by the Egyptian vassal of the Ottomans, Muhammad Ali and his son Ibrahim Pasha. The Palestinian Arab
Arab
revolt was precipitated by popular resistance against heavy demands for conscripts, as peasants were well aware that conscription was little more than a death sentence. Starting in May 1834 the rebels took many cities, among them Jerusalem, Hebron
Hebron
and Nablus. In response, Ibrahim Pasha sent in an army, finally defeating the last rebels on 4 August in Hebron.[15]

The flag of the Arab
Arab
Revolt against the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
is a prominent symbol of Arab
Arab
nationalism. Its design and colors are the basis of many of the Arab
Arab
states' flags.

While Arab
Arab
nationalism, at least in an early form, and Syrian nationalism were the dominant tendencies along with continuing loyalty to the Ottoman state, Palestinian politics were marked by a reaction to foreign predominance and the growth of foreign immigration, particularly Zionist.[21] The Egyptian occupation of Palestine in the 1830s resulted in the destruction of Acre
Acre
and thus, the political importance of Nablus increased. The Ottomans wrested back control of Palestine from the Egyptians in 1840-41. As a result, the Abd al-Hadi clan, who originated in Arrabah in the Sahl Arraba region in northern Samaria, rose to prominence. Loyal allies of Jezzar Pasha and the Tuqans, they gained the governorship of Jabal Nablus
Nablus
and other sanjaqs.[22] In 1887 the mutassariflik of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was constituted as part of an Ottoman government policy dividing the vilayet of Greater Syria
Greater Syria
into smaller administrative units. The administration of the mutassariflik took on a distinctly local appearance.[23] Michelle Compos records that "Later, after the founding of Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
in 1909, conflicts over land grew in the direction of explicit national rivalry."[24] Zionist ambitions were increasingly identified as a threat by Palestinian leaders, while cases of purchase of lands by Zionist settlers and the subsequent eviction of Palestinian peasants aggravated the issue. The programmes of four Palestinian nationalist societies jamyyat al-Ikha’ wal-‘Afaf (Brotherhood and Purity), al-jam’iyya al-Khayriyya al-Islamiyya, Shirkat al-Iqtissad alFalastini al-Arabi and Shirkat al-Tijara al-Wataniyya al-Iqtisadiyya were reported in the newspaper Falastin in June 1914 by letter from R. Abu al-Sal’ud. The four societies has similarities in function and ideals; the promotion of patriotism, educational aspirations and support for national industries.[25] Palestinian nationalist groups Notables Palestinian Arab
Arab
A’ayan ("Notables") were a group of urban elites at the apex of the Palestinian socio-economic pyramid where the combination of economic and political power dominated Palestinian Arab politics throughout the British mandate period. The dominance of the A’ayan had been encouraged and utilised during the Ottoman period and later, by the British during the Mandate period, to act as intermediaries between the authority and the people to administer the local affairs of Palestine. The al-Husayni family were a major force in rebelling against Muhammad Ali who governed Egypt
Egypt
and Palestine in defiance of the Ottoman Empire. This solidified a cooperative relationship with the returning Ottoman authority. The family took part in fighting the Qaisi family in an alliance with a rural lord of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
area Mustafa Abu Ghosh, who clashed with the tribe frequently. The feuds gradually occurred in the city between the clan and the Khalidis that led the Qaisis, however these conflicts dealt with city positions and not Qaisi-Yamani rivalry.[26] The Husaynis later led resistance and propaganda movements against the Young Turks
Young Turks
who controlled the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and more so against the British Mandate government and early Zionist immigration.[26] Jamal al-Husayni was the founder and chairman of the Palestine Arab
Arab
Party (PAP) in 1935. Emil Ghoury was elected as General Secretary, a post he held until the end of the British Mandate in 1948. In 1948, after Jordan
Jordan
had occupied Jerusalem, King Abdullah of Jordan
Jordan
removed Hajj Amīn al-Husayni from the post of Grand Mufti of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and banned him from entering Jerusalem. The Nashashibi
Nashashibi
family had particularly strong influence in Palestine during the British Mandate Period from 1920 until 1948.[27] Throughout this period, they competed with the Husaynis, for dominance of the Palestinian Arab
Arab
political scene.[28] As with other A’ayan their lack of identification with the Palestinian Arab
Arab
population allowed them to rise as leaders but not as representatives of the Palestinian Arab
Arab
community.[29] The Nashashibi
Nashashibi
family was led by Raghib Nashashibi, who was appointed as Mayor of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 1920.[30] Raghib was an influential political figure throughout the British Mandate period, and helped form the National Defence Party in 1934.[31] He also served as a minister in the Jordanian government, governor of the West Bank, member of the Jordanian Senate, and the first military governor in Palestine. The Tuqan family, originally from northern Syria, was led by Hajj Salih Pasha Tuqan in the early eighteenth century and were the competitors of the Nimr family in the Jabal Nablus
Nablus
(the sub-district of Nablus
Nablus
and Jenin). Members of the Tuqan family held the post of mutasallim (sub-district governor) longer than did any other family in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.The rivalry between the Tuqans and Nimr family continued until the 1820s.[32] Awni Abd al-Hadi
Awni Abd al-Hadi
of the ‘Abd al Hadi family. The Abd al-Hadis were a leading landowning family in the Palestinian districts of Afula, Baysan, Jenin, and Nablus. Awni established the Hizb al-Istiqlal ( Independence
Independence
Party) as a branch of the pan- Arab
Arab
party. Rushdi Abd al-Hadi joined the British administrative service in 1921. Amin Abd al-Hadi joined the SMC in 1929, and Tahsin Abd al-Hadi was mayor of Jenin. Some family members secretly sold their shares of Zirʿin village to the Jewish National Fund in July 1930 despite nationalist opposition to such land sales. Tarab ‘Abd al Hadi feminist and activist was the wife of Awni ‘Abd al Hadi, Abd al-Hadi Palace
Abd al-Hadi Palace
built by Mahmud ‘Abd al Hadi in Nablus
Nablus
stands testament to the power and prestige of the family. Other A’ayan were the Khalidi family, al-Dajjani family, and the al-Shanti family. The views of the A’ayan and their allies largely shaped the divergent political stances of Palestinian Arabs at the time. British Mandate period In 1918, as the Palestinian Arab
Arab
national movements gained strength in Jerusalem, Jaffa, Haifa, Acre
Acre
and Nablus, Aref al-Aref joined Hajj Amīn, his brother Fakhri Al Husseini, Ishaaq Darweesh, Ibrahim Daeweesh, Jamal al-Husayni, Kamel Al Budeiri, and Sheikh Hassan Abu Al-So’oud in establishing the Arab
Arab
Club. Following the arrival of the British a number of Muslim-Christian Associations were established in all the major towns. In 1919 they joined together to hold the first Palestine Arab
Arab
Congress in Jerusalem. Its main platforms were a call for representative government and opposition to the Balfour Declaration. The Faisal-Weizmann Agreement
Faisal-Weizmann Agreement
led the Palestinian Arab
Arab
population to reject the Syrian-Arab-Nationalist movement led by Faisal (in which many previously placed their hopes) and instead to agitate for Palestine to become a separate state, with an Arab
Arab
majority. To further that objective, they demanded an elected assembly.[33] In 1919, in response to Palestinian Arab
Arab
fears of the inclusion of the Balfour declaration to process the secret society al-Kaff al-Sawada’ (the Black-hand, its name soon changed to al-Fida’iyya, The Self-Sacrificers) was founded, it later played an important role in clandestine anti-British and anti-Zionist activities. The society was run by the al-Dajjani and al-Shanti families, with Ibrahim Hammani in charge of training and ‘Isa al-Sifri developed a secret code for correspondence. The society was initially based in Jaffa
Jaffa
but moved its headquarters to Nablus, the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
branch was run by Mahmud Aziz al-Khalidi.[34]

The Times report of the riots, Apr 08, 1920

After the April riots an event took place that turned the traditional rivalry between the Husayni and Nashashibi
Nashashibi
clans into a serious rift,[35] with long-term consequences for al-Husayni and Palestinian nationalism. According to Sir Louis Bols, great pressure was brought to bear on the military administration from Zionist leaders and officials such as David Yellin, to have the Mayor of Jerusalem, Mousa Kazzim al-Husayni, dismissed, given his presence in the Nabi Musa riots of the previous March. Colonel Storrs, the Military Governor of Jerusalem, removed him without further inquiry, replacing him with Raghib. This, according to the Palin report, 'had a profound effect on his co-religionists, definitely confirming the conviction they had already formed from other evidence that the Civil Administration was the mere puppet of the Zionist Organization.'[36] The High Commissioner of Palestine, Herbert Samuel, as a counterbalance the Nashashibis gaining the position of Mayor of Jerusalem, pardoned Hajj Amīn and Aref al-Aref and established a Supreme Muslim
Muslim
Sharia
Sharia
Council (SMC) on 20 December 1921.[37] The SMC was to have authority over all the Muslim
Muslim
Waqfs (religious endowments) and Sharia
Sharia
(religious law) Courts in Palestine. The members of the Council were to be elected by an electoral college and appointed Hajj Amīn as president of the Council with the powers of employment over all Muslim
Muslim
officials throughout Palestine.[38] The Anglo American committee termed it a powerful political machine.[39] The Hajj Amin rarely delegated authority, consequently most of the council's executive work was carried out by Hajj Amīn.[39] Nepotism and favoritism played a central part to Hajj Amīn's tenure as president of the SMC, Amīn al-Tamīmī was appointed as acting president when the Hajj Amīn was abroad, The secretaries appointed were ‘Abdallah Shafĩq and Muhammad al’Afĩfĩ and from 1928-1930 the secretary was Hajj Amīn's relative Jamāl al-Husaynī, Sa’d al Dīn al-Khaţīb and later another of the Hajj Amīn's relatives ‘Alī al-Husaynī and ‘Ajaj Nuwayhid, a Druze
Druze
was an adviser.[39] It was during the British mandate period that politicisation of the Wailing Wall occurred.[40] The disturbances at the Wailing wall in 1928 were repeated in 1929, however the violence in the riots that followed, that left 116 Palestinian Arabs, 133 Jews dead and 339 wounded, were surprising in their intensity and was the first instance that indigenous Sephardi and Mizrahi had been killed.[41] Izz ad-Din al-Qassam
Izz ad-Din al-Qassam
established the Black hand gang in 1935. Izz ad-Din died in a shoot out against the British forces.[42][43] He has been popularised in Palestinian nationalist folklore for his fight against Zionism.[44] The Nashashibis broke with the Arab
Arab
High Committee and Hajj Amīn shortly after the contents of the Palestine Royal Commission report were released announcing a Partition plan.[45] The Great revolt 1936-1939 was an uprising by Palestinian Arabs in the British Mandate of Palestine
British Mandate of Palestine
in protest against mass Jewish Immigration. Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni
Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni
member of the Palestine Arab Party he served as its Secretary-General and became editor-in-chief of the party's paper Al-Liwa’[46] and other newspapers, including Al-Jami’a Al-Islamiyya.[47] In 1938, Abd al-Qadir was exiled and in 1939 fled to Iraq
Iraq
where he took part in the Rashid Ali al-Gaylani coup. al-Hawari who had started his career as a devoted follower of Hajj Amin, broke with the influential Husayni family in the early 1940s.[48] The British had estimated the al-Najjada para military scout movement, led by Muhammad Nimr al-Hawari, strength as 8,000 prior to 1947.[49] The revolt of 1936-39 led to an imbalance of power between the Jewish community and the Palestinian Arab
Arab
community, as the latter had been substantially disarmed.[45] al-Qadir moved to Egypt
Egypt
in 1946, but secretly returned to Palestine to lead the Army of the Holy War
Army of the Holy War
(AHW) in January 1948, and was killed during hand-to-hand fighting against Haganah; where AHW captured Qastal Hill on the Tel Aviv- Jerusalem
Jerusalem
road, on 8 April 1948.[50] al-Qadir's death was a factor in the loss of morale among his forces, Ghuri, who had no experience of military command was appointed as commander of the AHW. Fawzi al-Qawuqji, at the head of the Arab Liberation Army remained as the only prominent military commander.[51] The split in the ranks of the Arab
Arab
High Committee (this was nothing more than a group of "traditional Notables") between rejectionists and pro Partitionists led to Hajj Amin taking control of the AHC and with the support of the Arab
Arab
League, rejected the plan, however many Palestinians, principally Nashashibi
Nashashibi
clan and the Arab
Arab
Palestinian Communist Party, accepted the plan.[52] After 1948–1964

Haj Amin al-Husseini meeting with Gamal Abdel Nasser, the future Egyptian president in 1948

In September 1948, the All-Palestine Government
All-Palestine Government
was proclaimed in Egyptian-controlled Gaza Strip, and immediately won the support of Arab
Arab
League members except Jordan. Though jurisdiction of the Government was declared to cover the whole of the former Mandatory Palestine, its effective jurisdiction was limited to the Gaza Strip.[53] The Prime Minister of the Gaza-seated administration was named Ahmed Hilmi Pasha, and the President was named Hajj Amin al-Husseini,[54] former chairman of the Arab
Arab
Higher Committee. The All-Palestine Government
All-Palestine Government
however lacked any significant authority and was in fact seated in Cairo. In 1959 it was officially merged into the United Arab
Arab
Republic by the decree of Nasser, crippling any Palestinian hope for self governance. With the establishment in 1948 of the State of Israel, along with the migration of the Palestinian exodus, the common experience of the Palestinian refugee
Palestinian refugee
Arabs was mirrored in a fading of Palestinian identity.[55] The institutions of a Palestinian nationality emerged slowly in the Palestinian refugee diaspora. In 1950 Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
founded Ittihad Talabat Filastin.[56] After the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, most of the Husseini clan relocated to Jordan
Jordan
and the Gulf States. Many family heads that remained in the Old City and the northern neighborhoods of East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
fled due to hostility with the Jordanian government, which controlled that part of the city; King Abdullah's assassin was a member of an underground Palestinian organization led by Daoud al-Husayni.[57] The Fatah
Fatah
movement, which espoused a Palestinian nationalist ideology in which Palestinians
Palestinians
would be liberated by the actions of Palestinian Arabs, was founded in 1954 by members of the Palestinian diaspora—principally professionals working in the Gulf States who had been refugees in Gaza and had gone on to study in Cairo
Cairo
or Beirut. The founders included Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
who was head of the General Union of Palestinian Students (GUPS) (1952–56) in Cairo
Cairo
University, Salah Khalaf, Khalil al-Wazir, Khaled Yashruti was head of the GUPS in Beirut
Beirut
(1958–62).[58] The emergence of PLO The Palestine Liberation Organisation
Palestine Liberation Organisation
was founded by a meeting of 422 Palestinian national figures in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in May 1964, following an earlier decision of the Arab
Arab
League, its goal was the liberation of Palestine through armed struggle.[59] The original PLO Charter (issued on 28 May 1964[60]) stated that "Palestine with its boundaries that existed at the time of the British mandate is an integral regional unit" and sought to "prohibit... the existence and activity" of Zionism.[61] The charter also called for a right of return and self-determination for Palestinians. Defeat suffered by the Arab
Arab
states in the June 1967 Six-day War, brought the West Bank, East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
and the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
under Israeli military control. Yasser Arafat, claimed the Battle of Karameh
Battle of Karameh
as a victory (in Arabic, "karameh" means "dignity") and quickly became a Palestinian national hero; portrayed as one who dared to confront Israel. Masses of young Arabs joined the ranks of his group Fatah. Under pressure, Ahmad Shukeiri resigned from the PLO leadership and in July 1969, Fatah joined and soon controlled the PLO. The fierce Palestinian guerrilla fighting and the Jordanian Artillery bombardment forced the IDF withdrawal and gave the Palestinian Arabs an important morale boost. Israel was calling their army the indomitable army but this was the first chance for Arabs to claim victory after defeat in 1948, '53, and '67. After the battle, Fatah
Fatah
began to engage in communal projects to achieve popular affiliation.[62] After the Battle of Karameh
Battle of Karameh
there was a subsequent increase in the PLO's strength.[63][64] In 1974 the PLO called for an independent state in the territory of Mandate Palestine.[65] The group used guerilla tactics to attack Israel from their bases in Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria, as well as from within the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
and West Bank.[66] In 1988, the PLO officially endorsed a two-state solution, with Israel and Palestine living side by side contingent on specific terms such as making East Jerusalem capital of the Palestinian state and giving Palestinians
Palestinians
the right of return to land occupied by Palestinians
Palestinians
prior to the 1948 and 1967 wars with Israel.[67] The First Intifada
First Intifada
(1987–93) would prove another watershed in Palestinian nationalism, as it brought the Palestinians
Palestinians
of the West Bank and Gaza to the forefront of the struggle. The Unified National Leadership of the Uprising (UNLU) (al-Qiyada al Muwhhada) mobilised grassroots support for the uprising. In 1987 The Intifada caught the (PLO) by surprise, the leadership abroad could only indirectly influence the events.,[68] A new local leadership emerged; the UNLU comprising many leading Palestinian factions. The disturbances initially spontaneous soon came under local leadership from groups and organizations loyal to the PLO that operated within the Occupied Territories; Fatah, the Popular Front, the Democratic Front and the Palestine Communist Party.[69] The UNLU was the focus of the social cohesion that sustained the persistent disturbances.[70] After King Hussein of Jordan
Jordan
proclaimed the administrative and legal separation of the West Bank
West Bank
from Jordan
Jordan
in 1988,[71] the UNLU organised to fill the political vacuum.[72] During the intifada Hamas
Hamas
replaced the monopoly of the PLO as sole representative of the Palestinian people.[73] Some Israelis had become tired of the constant violence of the First Intifada, and many were willing to take risks for peace.[74] Some wanted to realize the economic benefits in the new global economy. The Gulf War
Gulf War
(1990–1991) did much to persuade Israelis that the defensive value of territory had been overstated, and that the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait
Iraqi invasion of Kuwait
psychologically reduced their sense of security.[75]

Yitzhak Rabin, Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
and Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
at the signing of the Oslo Accords, September 13, 1993.

A renewal of the Israeli-Palestinian quest for peace began at the end of the Cold War
Cold War
as the United States took the lead in international affairs. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Western observers were optimistic, as Francis Fukuyama
Francis Fukuyama
wrote in an article, titled "The End of History". The hope was that the end of the Cold War
Cold War
heralded the beginning of a new international order. President George H. W. Bush, in a speech on 11 September 1990, spoke of a "rare opportunity" to move toward a "New world order" in which "the nations of the world, east and west, north and south, can prosper and live in harmony," adding that "today the new world is struggling to be born".[76] The demands of these populations were somewhat differing from those of the Palestinian diaspora, which had constituted the main base of the PLO until then, in that they were primarily interested in independence, rather than refugee return. The resulting 1993 Oslo Agreement cemented the belief in a two-state solution in the mainstream Palestinian movement, as opposed to the PLO's original goal, a one-state solution which entailed the destruction of Israel and its replacement with a secular, democratic Palestinian state. The idea had first been seriously discussed in the 1970s, and gradually become the unofficial negotiating stance of the PLO leadership under Arafat, but it had still remained a taboo subject for most, until Arafat officially recognized Israel in 1988, under strong pressure from the United States. However, the belief in the ultimate necessity of Israel's destruction and/or its Zionist foundation (i.e. its existence as specifically Jewish state) is still advocated by many, such as the religiously motivated Hamas
Hamas
movement, although no longer by the PLO leadership. Palestinian National Authority In 1993, with the transfer of increased control of Muslim
Muslim
holy sites in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
from Israel to the Palestinians, PLO chairman Yasser Arafat appointed Sulaiman Ja'abari as Grand Mufti. When he died in 1994, Arafat appointed Ekrima Sa'id Sabri. Sabri was removed in 2006 by Palestinian National Authority
Palestinian National Authority
president Mahmoud Abbas, who was concerned that Sabri was involved too heavily in political matters. Abbas appointed Muhammad Ahmad Hussein, who was perceived as a political moderate. Goals Palestinian statehood Main article: Proposals for a Palestinian state Proposals for a Palestinian state
Proposals for a Palestinian state
refer to the proposed establishment of an independent state for the Palestinian people
Palestinian people
in Palestine on land that was occupied by Israel since the Six-Day War
Six-Day War
of 1967 and prior to that year by Egypt
Egypt
(Gaza) and by Jordan
Jordan
(West Bank). The proposals include the Gaza Strip, which is controlled by the Hamas faction of the Palestinian National Authority, the West Bank, which is administered by the Fatah
Fatah
faction of the Palestinian National Authority, and East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
which is controlled by Israel under a claim of sovereignty.[77] From the river to the sea

Hamas
Hamas
mural in the West Bank

"Palestine from the river to the sea" was claimed as Palestine by the PLO[65] from its establishment in 1964 until the signing of the Oslo Accords.[78] The PLO claim was originally set on areas, controlled by the State of Israel
State of Israel
prior to 1967 War, meaning the combined Coastal Plain, Galilee, Yizrael Valley, Arava Valley and Negev Desert, but excluding West Bank
West Bank
(controlled then by Jordan) and Gaza Strip (occupied between 1959 and 1967 by Egypt). In a slightly different fashion "Palestine from the river to the sea" is still claimed by Hamas,[79] referring to all areas of former Mandatory Palestine. From the River to the Sea (Arabic: min al-nahr ila al-bahr ) is, and forms part of, a popular political slogan used by Palestinian nationalists. It contains the notion that the land which lies between the River Jordan
Jordan
and the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
be entirely placed under Arab
Arab
rule at the cost of the State of Israel, excluding the contested Golan Heights, conquered from Syria
Syria
in 1967 and unilaterally annexed in 1981.[80] It has been used frequently by Arab
Arab
leaders[81][82] and is often chanted at anti-Israel demonstrations.[83] The slogan is versatile with numerous variations including "From the river to the sea, Palestine will be free,"[84] "Palestine is ours from the river to the sea," "Palestine is Islamic from the river to the sea,"[85] Islamic scholars also claim the Mahdi
Mahdi
will also declare the slogan in the following format: " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is Arab
Arab
Muslim, and Palestine — all of it, from the river to the sea — is Arab Muslim."[86] Competing national, political and religious loyalties Pan-Arabism

A PFLP patrol in Jordan, 1969

Some groups within the PLO hold a more pan-Arabist view than Fatah, and Fatah
Fatah
itself has never renounced Arab
Arab
nationalism in favour of a strictly Palestinian nationalist ideology. Some of the pan-Arabist members justifying their views by claiming that the Palestinian struggle must be the spearhead of a wider, pan- Arab
Arab
movement. For example, the Marxist PFLP viewed the "Palestinian revolution" as the first step to Arab
Arab
unity as well as inseparable from a global anti-Imperialist struggle. This said, however, there seems to be a general consensus among the main Palestinian factions that national liberation takes precedence over other loyalties, including Pan-Arabism, Islamism
Islamism
and proletarian internationalism. Source? Pan-Islamism

The Hamas
Hamas
flag

In a later repetition of these developments, the pan-Islamic sentiments embodied by the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
and other religious movements, would similarly provoke conflict with Palestinian nationalism. About 90% of Palestinians
Palestinians
are Sunni Muslims, and while never absent from the rhetoric and thinking of the secularist PLO factions, Islamic political doctrines, or Islamism, didn't become a large part of the Palestinian movement until the 1980s rise of Hamas. By early Islamic thinkers, nationalism had been viewed as an ungodly ideology, substituting "the nation" for God
God
as an object of worship and reverence. The struggle for Palestine was viewed exclusively through a religious prism, as a struggle to retrieve Muslim
Muslim
land and the holy places of Jerusalem. However, later developments, not least as a result of Muslim
Muslim
sympathy with the Palestinian struggle, led to many Islamic movements accepting nationalism as a legitimate ideology. In the case of Hamas, the Palestinian offshoot of the Muslim Brotherhood, Palestinian nationalism
Palestinian nationalism
has almost completely fused with the ideologically pan-Islamic sentiments originally held by the Islamists. See also

Palestine portal Politics portal

Concepts and events:

1936–39 Arab
Arab
revolt in Palestine History of Palestine Palestinian government Palestinian political violence State of Palestine Timeline of the name "Palestine" Views of Palestinian statehood

Individuals:

Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Khalil al-Sakakini Musa al-Husayni Yousef al-Khalidi Zuheir Mohsen

References

^ de Waart, 1994, p. 223. Referencing Article 9 of The Palestinian National Charter of 1968. The Avalon Project has a copy here [1] ^ Joffe, Alex. " Palestinians
Palestinians
and Internationalization: Means and Ends." Begin–Sadat Center for Strategic Studies. 26 November 2017. 28 November 2017. ^ "No UN Vote Can Deny the Palestinian People Their Right to Self Determination". The Huffington Post UK.  ^ Smith, Anthony D. "Gastronomy or geology? The role of nationalism in the reconstruction of nations." Nations and Nationalism
Nationalism
1, no. 1 (1994): 3–23. p. 18 ^ Jerusalem, the Old City: An Introduction, Al-Quds University homepage [2] accessed on Mar 17, 2009 ^ Zachary Foster, "What's a Palestinian, Foreign Affairs,' 11 March 2015. ^ a b Zachary Foster, "Who Was The First Palestinian in Modern History" Archived 2016-02-29 at the Wayback Machine. The Palestine Square 18 February 2016 ^ Khalidi, 1997, p. 18. ^ Khalidi, 1997, p. 149. ^ a b c Khalidi, 1997, p. 19–21. ^ Provence, Michael (2005) The Great Syrian Revolt and the Rise of Arab
Arab
Nationalism, University of Texas Press, ISBN 0-292-70680-4 p. 158 ^ Rashid Khalidi
Rashid Khalidi
(1997) Palestinian Identity: The Construction of Modern National Consciousness, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-10515-0 p. 32 ^ Khayr al-Din al-Ramli ^ "JSTOR". jstor.org.  ^ a b Kimmerling, Baruch and Migdal, Joel S, (2003) The Palestinian People: A History, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-01131-7 pp. 6–11 ^ Benny Morris, Righteous Victims, pp. 40–42 in the French edition. ^ a b Gelvin, 2005, pp. 92–93. ^ Bernard Lewis
Bernard Lewis
(1999). Semites and Anti-Semites, An Inquiry into Conflict and Prejudice. W.W. Norton and Company. p. 169. ISBN 0-393-31839-7.  ^ "The Year the Arabs Discovered Palestine", by Daniel Pipes, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post, September 13, 2000 [3] ^ Gudrun Krämer and Graham Harman (2008) A history of Palestine: from the Ottoman conquest to the founding of the state of Israel Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-11897-3 p 123 ^ Foreign predominance and the rise of Palestinian nationalism

Gelvin, James L. "The Israel-Palestine Conflict: One ..." Google Book Search. 5 February 2009. Palestine: a study of Jewish, Arab, and British policies By Esco Foundation for Palestine, inc

Published by Yale university press, 1947 p 1058 ^ Doumani, 1995, Chapter: Egyptian rule, 1831-1840. ^ Jacob Lassner, Selwyn Ilan Troen (2007) Jews and Muslims in the Arab world: haunted by pasts real and imagined Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0-7425-5842-8 P 70 ^ Sandra Marlene Sufian and Mark LeVine (2007) Reapproaching borders: new perspectives on the study of Israel-Palestine Rowman & Littlefield,-Remembering Jewish- Arab
Arab
Contact and Conflict by Michelle Compos ISBN 0-7425-4639-X p 48 ^ Kayyālī, ʻAbd al-Wahhāb (1978) Palestine: a modern history Routledge, ISBN 0-85664-635-0 p 33 ^ a b "WebHost4Life". jerusalemquarterly.org.  ^ Jerusalemites Archived 2008-09-22 at the Wayback Machine. Families of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and Palestine ^ Don Peretz (1994) The Middle East
Middle East
today Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-275-94576-6 p 290 ^ Ilan Pappé (2004) A history of modern Palestine: one land, two peoples Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-55632-5 p 103 ^ Meron Benvenisti (1998) City of Stone: The Hidden History of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-20768-8 p 119 ^ Issa Khalaf, Issa (1991) Politics in Palestine: Arab
Arab
factionalism and social disintegration, 1939-1948, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-7914-0708-X p 79 ^ "Rediscovering Palestine". escholarship.org.  ^ Porath, chapter 2 ^ Eliezer Tauber, The Formation of Modern Iraq
Iraq
and Syria, Routledge, London 1994 pp.105-109 ^ Eliezer Tauber, The Formation of Modern Iraq
Iraq
and Syria, Routledge, London 1994 p.102 ^ Palin Report, pp. 29-33. Cited Huneidi p.37. ^ Cleveland, William L.(2000) A history of the modern Middle East Westview Press, ISBN 978-0-8133-3489-9 ^ UN Doc Archived 2008-12-20 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c Kupferschmidt, Uri M. (1987) The Supreme Muslim
Muslim
Council: Islam Under the British Mandate for Palestine
British Mandate for Palestine
ISBN 90-04-07929-7 pp 66-67 ^ Jerusalemite Institute of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Studies: Heritage, Nationalism and the Shifting Symbolism of the Wailing Wall by Simone Ricca ^ 1929 Palestine riots

Sandra Marlene Sufian and Mark LeVine (2007) -Remembering Jewish-Arab Contact and Conflict by Michelle Compos p 54 San Francisco Chronicle, Aug. 9, 2005, "A Time of Change; Israelis, Palestinians
Palestinians
and the Disengagement" NA 59/8/353/84/867n, 404 Wailing Wall/279 and 280, Archdale Diary and Palestinian Police records.

^ Fereydoun Hoveyda, National Committee on American Foreign Policy (2002) The broken crescent: the "threat" of militant Islamic fundamentalism Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-275-97902-4 p 11 ^ Sylvain Cypel (2006) p 340 ^ Abdallah Frangi (1983) p 87 ^ a b Ted Swedenburg. (1988) ^ Levenberg, 1993, p. 6. ^ Kabahā, Muṣṭafá (2007) The Palestinian Press as Shaper of Public Opinion 1929-39: Writing Up a Storm Vallentine Mitchell, ISBN 0-85303-672-1 p 71 ^ Benny Morris
Benny Morris
(2008) 1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War. Yale University Press ISBN 978-0-300-12696-9 pp. 88-89. ^ Khalaf, 1991, p 143. ^ al-Qadir dies at Qastal

Morris, (2003), pp. 234-235. New York Times, 'Arabs Win Kastel But Chief is Slain; Kader el-Husseini, a Cousin of Mufti, Falls as His Men Recapture Key Village' by Dana Adams Schmidt, 9 April 1948. Benveniśtî, (2002), p.111.

^ Gelber, Yoav (2001) pp 89-90 ^ Morris, Benny. The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited (Cambridge, 2004), p. 588. qtd. by Susser.

Quigley, John. "Israel and the Palestinians: An Exchange." The New York Review of Books. 7 March 1991. 17 March 2009. Haaretz
Haaretz
The real Nakba By Shlomo Avineri 09 May 2008 Shlaim, Avi (reprint 2004) The Politics of Partition; King Abdullah, the Zionists and Palestine 1921-1951 Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-829459-X p 104 Morris, Benny, (second edition 2004 third printing 2006) The Birth Of The Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-00967-7 p 23 The divide between the Husseinis and the Opposition had relatively clear geographical as well as familial-clan demarcations, both reflecting and intensifying the regionalism that had characterised Palestinian society and politics for centuries, Husseini strength lay in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and its surrounding villages, rural Samaria
Samaria
and Gaza; the Opposition was strong in Hebron, the Galilee, Tiberias
Tiberias
and Beisan, Nablus, Jenin
Jenin
and Haifa.

^ Gelber, Y. Palestine, 1948. Pp. 177-78 ^ "Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, The: A Political, Social, and ..." google.co.il.  ^ Rashid Khalidi
Rashid Khalidi
(1998) Palestinian Identity: The Construction of Modern National Consciousness. Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-10515-0 p 178 ^ Khalidi (1998) p 180 ^ " Arab
Arab
Hebronites who came to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
after 1948 dominate Jerusalem Arab
Arab
society today" Archived 2007-09-26 at the Wayback Machine. Danny Rubenstein, Haaretz; 6 June 2001 ^ Aburish, Said K. (1998) Arafat, From Defender to Dictator. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing, pp.41–90. ISBN 1-58234-049-8. ^ Articles 1, 2 and 3 of the Palestinian National Covenant ^ Helena Cobban,The Palestinian Liberation Organisation(Cambridge University Press, 1984) p.30 ^ Articles 2 and 23 of the Palestinian National Covenant ^ Kurz (2006), p. 55 ^ "1968: Karameh and the Palestinian revolt". Telegraph. 2002-05-16. Retrieved 2008-09-03.  ^ Pollack (2002), p. 335 ^ a b The PNC Program of 1974, June 8, 1974. On the site of MidEastWeb for Coexistence R.A. - Middle East
Middle East
Resources. Page includes commentary. Retrieved 5 December 2006. ^ Arab-Israeli Conflict Archived 2009-10-31 at WebCite, Encarta ^ William L. Cleveland, A History of the Modern Middle East, Westview Press (2004). ISBN 0-8133-4048-9. ^ Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
obituary Archived 2017-01-11 at the Wayback Machine., socialistworld.net (Committee for a Worker’s International). ^ Zachary Lockman, Joel Beinin (1989) Intifada: The Palestinian Uprising Against Israeli Occupation South End Press, ISBN 0-89608-363-2 p 39 ^ Joel Beinin, Joe Stork, Middle East
Middle East
Report (1997) Political Islam: essays from Middle East
Middle East
Report I.B.Tauris, ISBN 1-86064-098-2 p 194 ^ King Hussein, Address to the Nation, Amman, Jordan, July 31, 1988. The Royal Hashemit Court's tribute to King Hussein ^ Suha Sabbagh (1998) Palestinian women of Gaza and the West Bank Indiana University Press, ISBN 0-253-33377-6 p 48 ^ Mishal, Shaul and Sela, Avraham (2000) The Palestinian Hamas: vision, violence, and coexistence, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-11675-6 p 1 ^ The Israel-Palestine Conflict, James L. Gelvin ^ the gulf conflict 1990-1991: Diplomacy and war in the new world order, Lawrence Freedman
Lawrence Freedman
and Efraim Karsh ^ President Bush's speech to Congress Archived 2011-05-31 at the Wayback Machine. al-bab.com ^ "Olmert: Israel must quit East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
and Golan". Retrieved 24 October 2014.  ^ Israel-PLO Recognition – Exchange of Letters between PM Rabin and Chairman Arafat – 9–1 Sept, 993 Archived 2015-05-04 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "The Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas)". MidEast Web. August 18, 1988.  ^ David Patterson (18 October 2010). A Genealogy of Evil: Anti-Semitism from Nazism to Islamic Jihad. Cambridge University Press. p. 249. ISBN 978-1-139-49243-0. ...except the boundary indicated in their slogan "From the river to the sea," which stipulated the obliteration of the Jewish state.  ^ Ron Rosenbaum (18 December 2007). Those Who Forget the Past: The Question of Anti-Semitism. Random House Publishing Group. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-307-43281-0. Only two years ago he [Saddam Hussein] declared on Iraqi television: "Palestine is Arab
Arab
and must be liberated from the river to the sea and all the Zionists who emigrated to the land of Palestine must leave."  ^ Alan Dowty (2008). Israel/Palestine. Polity. p. 160. ISBN 978-0-7456-4243-7. One exception was Faysal al- Husayni, who stated in his 2001 Beirut
Beirut
speech: "We may lose or win [tactically] but our eyes will continue to aspire to the strategic goal, namely, to Palestine from the river to the sea."  ^ Barry Rubin (25 May 2010). The Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood: The Organization and Policies of a Global Islamist Movement. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-230-10687-1. Thus, the MAB slogan "Palestine must be free, from the river to the sea" is now ubiquitous in anti-Israeli demonstrations in the UK...  ^ Melanie Phillips (2007). Londonistan. Encounter Books. p. 116. ISBN 978-1-59403-197-7. The crowd chanted: "From the river to the sea, Palestine will be free."  ^ Anne Marie Oliver Research Scholar in Global and International Studies UC Santa Barbara; Paul F. Steinberg Research Scholar in Global and International Studies UC Santa Barbara (1 February 2005). The Road to Martyrs' Square : A Journey into the World of the Suicide Bomber: A Journey into the World of the Suicide Bomber. Oxford University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-19-802756-0. …a message reminiscent of the popular intifada slogan "Palestine is ours from the river to the sea," which in the hands of the Islamists became "Palestine is Islamic from the river to the sea."  ^ David Cook (1 August 2008). Contemporary Muslim
Muslim
Apocalyptic Literature. Syracuse University Press. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-8156-3195-8. Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is Arab
Arab
Muslim, and Palestine — all of it, from the river to the sea — is Arab
Arab
Muslim, and there is no place in it for any who depart from peace or from Islam, other than those who submit to those standing under the rule of Islam 

Bibliography

Antonius, George (1938) The Arab
Arab
Awakening. The Story of the Arab National Movement. Hamish Hamilton. (1945 edition) Benvenisti, Meron (1998) City of Stone: The Hidden History of Jerusalem, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-20768-8 Cypel, Sylvain (2006) Walled: Israeli Society at an Impasse, Other Press, ISBN 1-59051-210-3 Frangi, Abdallah (1983) The PLO and Palestine Zed Books, ISBN 0-86232-195-6 Hoveyda, Fereydoun of National Committee on American Foreign Policy (2002) The broken crescent: the "threat" of militant Islamic fundamentalism, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-275-97902-4 Khalaf, Issa (1991) Politics in Palestine: Arab
Arab
Factionalism and Social Disintegration, 1939-1948 SUNY Press ISBN 0-7914-0707-1 Khalidi, Rashid (1997) Palestinian Identity: The Construction of Modern National Consciousness, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-10515-0 Kimmerling, Baruch and Migdal, Joel S, (2003) The Palestinian People: A History, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-01131-7 Kupferschmidt, Uri M. (1987) The Supreme Muslim
Muslim
Council: Islam
Islam
Under the British Mandate for Palestine
British Mandate for Palestine
ISBN 90-04-07929-7 Kurz, Anat N. (2006-01-30). Fatah
Fatah
and the Politics of Violence: The Institutionalization of a Popular Struggle. Sussex Academic Press. p. 228. ISBN 1-84519-032-7 Lassner, Jacob (2000) The Middle East
Middle East
remembered: forged identities, competing narratives, contested spaces, University of Michigan Press, ISBN 0-472-11083-7 Levenberg, Haim (1993). Military Preparations of the Arab
Arab
Community in Palestine: 1945-1948. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-7146-3439-5 Mishal, Shaul and Sela, Avraham (2000) The Palestinian Hamas: vision, violence, and coexistence, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-11675-6 Morris, Benny (2008) 1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War. Yale University Press ISBN 978-0-300-12696-9 Morris, Benny, (second edition 2004 third printing 2006) The Birth Of The Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-00967-7 Sufian, Sandra Marlene, and LeVine, Mark (2007) Reapproaching borders: new perspectives on the study of Israel-Palestine, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0-7425-4639-X Swedenburg, Ted (1988) The Role of the Palestinian Peasantry in the Great Revolt 1936 - 1939. in Islam, Politics, and Social Movements, edited by Edmund Burke III and Ira Lapidus. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-06868-8 pp 189–194 & Marvin E. Gettleman, Stuart Schaar (2003) The Middle East
Middle East
and Islamic world reader, Grove Press, ISBN 0-8021-3936-1 pp 177–181 Pappé Ilan (2004) A history of modern Palestine: one land, two peoples, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-55632-5 Peretz, Don (1994) The Middle East
Middle East
today, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-275-94576-6 Provence, Michael (2005) The Great Syrian Revolt and the Rise of Arab Nationalism, University of Texas Press, ISBN 0-292-70680-4 Shlaim, Avi (reprint 2004) The Politics of Partition; King Abdullah, the Zionists and Palestine, 1921-1951 Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-829459-X Winter, Dave (1999) Israel handbook: with the Palestinian Authority areas, Footprint Travel Guides, ISBN 1-900949-48-2

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