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The Ring of Fire
Ring of Fire
is a major area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur. In a 40,000 km (25,000 mi) horseshoe shape, it is associated with a nearly continuous series of oceanic trenches, volcanic arcs, and volcanic belts and plate movements. It has 452 volcanoes (more than 75% of the world's active and dormant volcanoes).[1] The Ring of Fire is sometimes called the circum-Pacific belt. About 90%[2] of the world's earthquakes and 81%[3] of the world's largest earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire. The next most seismically active region (5–6% of earthquakes and 17% of the world's largest earthquakes) is the Alpide belt, which extends from Java
Java
to the northern Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
via the Himalayas
Himalayas
and southern Europe.[4][5] All but three of the world's 25 largest volcanic eruptions of the last 11,700 years occurred at volcanoes in the Ring of Fire.[6] The Ring of Fire
Ring of Fire
is a direct result of plate tectonics: the movement and collisions of lithospheric plates.[7] The eastern section of the ring is the result of the Nazca Plate
Nazca Plate
and the Cocos Plate
Cocos Plate
being subducted beneath the westward-moving South American Plate. The Cocos Plate is being subducted beneath the Caribbean Plate, in Central America. A portion of the Pacific Plate
Pacific Plate
and the small Juan de Fuca Plate are being subducted beneath the North American Plate. Along the northern portion, the northwestward-moving Pacific plate is being subducted beneath the Aleutian Islands
Aleutian Islands
arc. Farther west, the Pacific plate is being subducted along the Kamchatka Peninsula
Kamchatka Peninsula
arcs on south past Japan. The southern portion is more complex, with a number of smaller tectonic plates in collision with the Pacific plate from the Mariana Islands, the Philippines, Bougainville, Tonga, and New Zealand; this portion excludes Australia, since it lies in the center of its tectonic plate. Indonesia
Indonesia
lies between the Ring of Fire
Ring of Fire
along the northeastern islands adjacent to and including New Guinea
New Guinea
and the Alpide belt
Alpide belt
along the south and west from Sumatra, Java, Bali, Flores, and Timor. The famous and very active San Andreas Fault
San Andreas Fault
zone of California
California
is a transform fault which offsets a portion of the East Pacific Rise under southwestern United States
United States
and Mexico. The motion of the fault generates numerous small earthquakes, at multiple times a day, most of which are too small to be felt.[8][9] The active Queen Charlotte Fault on the west coast of the Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, has generated three large earthquakes during the 20th century: a magnitude 7 event in 1929; a magnitude 8.1 in 1949 (Canada's largest recorded earthquake); and a magnitude 7.4 in 1970.[10]

Contents

1 History 2 Andes

2.1 Bolivia 2.2 Chile 2.3 Ecuador 2.4 Peru

3 Central America

3.1 Costa Rica 3.2 Guatemala

4 North American Cordillera

4.1 Mexico 4.2 United States 4.3 Canada

5 Russia 6 Japan 7 Philippines 8 Indonesia 9 New Zealand 10 Antarctica 11 Land areas 12 See also 13 References 14 External links

History[edit] The presence of a belt of volcanic activity surrounding the Pacific Ocean
Ocean
was observed in the 19th century. "They [the Japanese Islands] are in the line of that immense circle of volcanic development which surrounds the shores of the Pacific from Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego
around to the Moluccas." (Matthew Perry, Narrative of the Expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan, 1852-54, Introduction, Section I, "Name, Extent, and Geography") Andes[edit] Further information: Andean Volcanic Belt Bolivia[edit] Main article: List of volcanoes in Bolivia Bolivia
Bolivia
hosts numerous active and extinct volcanoes across its territory. The active volcanoes are located in western Bolivia
Bolivia
where they make up the Cordillera Occidental, the western limit of the Altiplano
Altiplano
plateau. Many of the active volcanoes are international mountains shared with Chile. All Cenozoic
Cenozoic
volcanoes of Bolivia
Bolivia
are part of the Central Volcanic Zone
Central Volcanic Zone
(CVZ) of the Andean Volcanic Belt that results due to processes involved in the subduction of the Nazca Plate under the South American Plate. The Central Volcanic Zone
Central Volcanic Zone
is a major upper Cenozoic
Cenozoic
volcanic province.[11] Apart from Andean volcanoes, the geology of Bolivia
Bolivia
hosts the remnants of ancient volcanoes around the Precambrian
Precambrian
Guaporé Shield in the eastern part of the country. Chile[edit]

Llaima's 2008 eruption

Main articles: List of volcanoes in Chile
Chile
and Volcanology of Chile The volcanoes in Chile
Chile
are monitored by the National Geology and Mining Service (SERNAGEOMIN)[12][13] Earthquake
Earthquake
activity in Chile
Chile
is related to subduction of the Nazca Plate to the east. Chile
Chile
notably holds the record for the largest earthquake ever recorded, the 1960 Valdivia earthquake. Villarrica, one of Chile's most active volcanoes, rises above Villarrica Lake
Villarrica Lake
and the town of Villarrica. It is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes that trend perpendicular to the Andean chain. A 6-km-wide caldera formed during the late Pleistocene, more than 0.9 million years ago. A 2-km-wide postglacial caldera is located at the base of the presently active, dominantly basaltic-to-andesitic cone at the northwest margin of the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
caldera. About 25 scoria cones dot Villarica's flanks. Plinian eruptions and pyroclastic flows have been produced during the Holocene from this dominantly basaltic volcano, but historical eruptions have consisted of largely mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion. Lahars from the glacier-covered volcanoes have damaged towns on its flanks. The Llaima
Llaima
Volcano
Volcano
is one of the largest and most active volcanoes in Chile. It is situated 82 km northeast of Temuco and 663 km southeast of Santiago, within the borders of Conguillío National Park. Llaima’s activity has been documented since the 17th century, and consists of several separate episodes of moderate explosive eruptions with occasional lava flows. The last major eruption occurred in 1994.[14]

Lascar erupting in 2006

Chile
Chile
has experienced numerous volcanic eruptions from 60 volcanoes, including Llaima
Llaima
Volcano
Volcano
and the Chaitén Volcano. More recently, a magnitude-8.8 earthquake struck central Chile
Chile
on February 27, 2010, the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcano erupted in 2011, and a M8.2 earthquake struck northern Chile
Chile
on April 1, 2014. The main shock was preceded by a number of moderate to large shocks and was followed by a large number of moderate to very large aftershocks, including a magnitude-7.6 event on 2 April.[15] Lascar is a stratovolcano, is the most active volcano of the northern Chilean Andes. The largest eruption of Lascar took place about 26,500 years ago, and following the eruption of the Tumbres scoria flow about 9,000 years ago, activity shifted back to the eastern edifice, where three overlapping craters were formed. Frequent small-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded from Lascar in historical time since the mid-19th century, along with periodic larger eruptions that produced ash and tephra fall up to hundreds of kilometers away from the volcano.[16] The largest eruption of Lascar in recent history took place in 1993, producing pyroclastic flows as far as 8.5 km (5 mi) northwest of the summit and ash fall in Buenos Aires, Argentina,[16] more than 1,600 km (994 mi) to the southeast. The latest series of eruptions began on 18 April 2006 and was continuing as of 2011. Chiliques
Chiliques
is a stratovolcano located in the Antofagasta Region
Antofagasta Region
of Chile, immediately north of Cerro Miscanti. Laguna Lejía
Laguna Lejía
lies to the north of the volcano and has been dormant for at least 10,000 years, but is now showing signs of life. A January 6, 2002, nighttime thermal infrared image from ASTER revealed a hot spot in the summit crater, as well as several others along the upper flanks of the volcano’s edifice, indicating new volcanic activity. Examination of an earlier nighttime thermal infrared image from May 24, 2000, showed no such hot spots.[17] Calbuco is a stratovolcano in southern Chile, located southeast of Llanquihue Lake
Llanquihue Lake
and northwest of Chapo Lake, in Los Lagos Region. The volcano and the surrounding area are protected within Llanquihue National Reserve. It is a very explosive andesite volcano that underwent edifice collapse in the late Pleistocene, producing a volcanic debris avalanche that reached the lake. At least nine eruptions occurred since 1837, with the latest one in 1972. One of the largest historical eruptions in southern Chile
Chile
took place there in 1893–1894. Violent eruptions ejected 30-cm bombs to distances of 8 km from the crater, accompanied by voluminous hot lahars. Strong explosions occurred in April 1917, and a lava dome formed in the crater accompanied by hot lahars. Another short explosive eruption in January 1929 also included an apparent pyroclastic flow and a lava flow. The last major eruption of Calbuco, in 1961, sent ash columns 12–15 km high and produced plumes that dispersed mainly to the southeast and two lava flows were also emitted. A minor, four-hour eruption happened on August 26, 1972. Strong fumarolic emission from the main crater was observed on August 12, 1996. Lonquimay is a stratovolocano of late- Pleistocene
Pleistocene
to dominantly Holocene age, with the shape of a truncated cone. The cone is largely andesitic, though basaltic and dacitic rocks are present.[18] It is located in La Araucanía Region
La Araucanía Region
of Chile, immediately southeast of Tolhuaca volcano. Sierra Nevada and Llaima
Llaima
are their neighbors to the south. The snow-capped volcano lies within the protected area Malalcahuello-Nalcas. The volcano last erupted in 1988, ending in 1990. The VEI was 3. The eruption was from a flank vent and involved lava flows and explosive eruptions. Some fatalities occurred.[19] Antuco Volcano
Volcano
is a stratovolocano located in the Bío Bío Region
Bío Bío Region
of Chile, near Sierra Velluda
Sierra Velluda
and on the shore of Laguna del Laja, with its last eruption in 1869. Villarrica is one of Chile's most active volcanoes, rising above the lake and town of the same name. The volcano is also known as Rucapillán, a Mapuche word meaning "House of the Pillán". It is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes that trend perpendicular to the Andes
Andes
along the Gastre Fault. Villarrica, along with Quetrupillán and the Chilean portion of Lanín, are protected within Villarrica National Park. Ascents of the volcano are popular with several guided ascents reaching the top during summer. Villarrica, with its lava of basaltic-andesitic composition, is one of only five volcanoes worldwide known to have an active lava lake within its crater. The volcano usually generates strombolian eruptions, with ejection of incandescent pyroclasts and lava flows. Melting of snow and glacier ice, as well as rainfall, often causes massive lahars, such as during the eruptions of 1964 and 1971.[20] Ecuador[edit] Main article: List of volcanoes in Ecuador

Tungurahua
Tungurahua
spews hot lava and ash at night (1999).

In Ecuador, EPN monitors the volcanic activity in this andean nation. Cotopaxi
Cotopaxi
is a stratovolcano in the Andes, located about 50 km (31 mi) south of Quito, Ecuador, South America.[21] It is the second-highest summit in the country, reaching a height of 5,897 m (19,347 ft). Some consider it the world's highest active volcano,[22] and it is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Since 1738, Cotopaxi
Cotopaxi
has erupted more than 50 times, resulting in the creation of numerous valleys formed by mudflows around the volcano. In October 1999, Pichincha Volcano
Volcano
erupted in Quito
Quito
and covered the city with several inches of ash. Prior to that, the last major eruptions were in 1553[23] and in 1660, when about 30 cm of ash fell on the city.[24] At 5,230 m, Sangay
Sangay
Volcano[25]) is an active stratovolcano in central Ecuador, and is one of the highest active volcanoes in the world and one of Ecuador's most active ones, erupting three times in recorded history. It exhibits mostly strombolian activity; the most recent eruption, which started in 1934, is still going on. Geologically, Sangay
Sangay
marks the southern bound of the Northern Volcanic Zone, and its position straddling two major pieces of crust accounts for its high level of activity. Sangay's roughly 500,000-year history is one of instability; two previous versions of the mountain were destroyed in massive flank collapses, evidence of which still litters its surroundings today. Sangay
Sangay
is one of two active volcanoes located within the namesake Sangay
Sangay
National Park, the other being Tungurahua to the north. As such, it has been listed as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site since 1983. Reventador
Reventador
is an active stratovolcano which lies in the eastern Andes of Ecuador. Since 1541, it has erupted over 25 times, with its most recent eruption in 2009,[26] but the largest historical eruption occurred in 2002. During that eruption, the plume from the volcano reached a height of 17 km, and pyroclastic flows went up to 7 km from the cone. On March 30, 2007, the mountain spewed ash again. The ash reached a height of about two miles (3 km, 11,000 ft). Cotopaxi, outside of Quito, started activity in April 2015. A large increase in earthquakes (including harmonic tremors) and SO2 emissions began. IGPEN reported slight deformation of the edifice, suggesting an intrusion of magma under the volcano. As of 25 July, the unrest continued, and the most recent major eruption was an ash and steam eruption that occurred on August 14 and 15, 2015.[27][28][29][30][31] Peru[edit] Main article: List of volcanoes in Peru Volcanoes in Peru
Peru
are monitored by the Peruvian Geophysical Institute.[32] Sabancaya
Sabancaya
is an active 5,976-metre (19,606 ft) stratovolcano in the Andes
Andes
of southern Peru, about 100 kilometres (62 mi) northwest of Arequipa. It is the most active volcano in Peru, with an ongoing eruption that started in August 2014. Ubinas
Ubinas
is another active volcano 5,672-metre (18,609 ft) in southern Peru
Peru
with an ongoing eruption.[33][34] Until 2006, this stratovolcano had not erupted for about 40 years. On April 23, 2006, Peru
Peru
declared a state of emergency in towns near the volcano. On April 28, 2014, despite a recent decline in earthquakes, Ubinas
Ubinas
Volcano erupted an ash plume on April 28, 2014.[35][36] Central America[edit] Costa Rica[edit] Main article: List of volcanoes in Costa Rica The Volcanological and Seismological Observatory of Costa Rica (OVSICORI) at the National University of Costa Rica, in Spanish Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica (OVSICORI)[37] have a dedicated team in charge of researching and monitoring the volcanoes, earthquakes, and other tectonic processes in the Central America
Central America
Volcanic Arc. In 1984, the OVSICORI-A initiated the operation of a seismographic network designed to monitor seismic and volcanic activity throughout the national territory. Currently, the seismographic network has an analog and a digital registration system. The latter enables online analysis of seismic signals, allowing to expedite the analysis of signals and the study using modern computerized methods. Poás Volcano
Volcano
is an active 2,708-metre (8,885 ft) stratovolcano located in central Costa Rica; it has erupted 39 times since 1828. On February 25, 2014, a webcam from the OVSICORI captured the moment a dark cloud exploded about 1,000 feet (300 m) in the air from a massive crater of the Poás Volcano.[38][39][40] Guatemala[edit] Main article: List of volcanoes in Guatemala In 1902, the Santa Maria Volcano
Volcano
erupted violently in Guatemala, with the largest explosions occurring over two days, ejecting an estimated 5.5 km3 (1.3 mi3) of magma. The eruption was one of the largest of the 20th century, only slightly less in magnitude to that of Mount Pinatubo
Mount Pinatubo
in 1991. The eruption had a volcanic explosivity index of 6. Today Santiaguito is one of the world's most active volcanoes.[1] [2]

Santiaguito Volcano, 2003 eruption in Guatemala

North American Cordillera[edit] Mexico[edit] Main article: List of volcanoes in Mexico

The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt

Volcanoes of Mexico
Mexico
are related to subduction of the Cocos and Rivera plates to the east, which has produced large, explosive eruptions. Most active volcanoes in Mexico
Mexico
occur in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, which extends 900 kilometres (559 mi) from west to east across central-southern Mexico. A few other active volcanoes in northern Mexico
Mexico
are related to extensional tectonics of the Basin and Range Province, which splits the Baja California
California
peninsula from the mainland.[41] Popocatépetl, lying in the eastern half of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, is the second-highest peak in Mexico after the Pico de Orizaba. It is one of the most active volcanoes in Mexico, having had more than 20 major eruptions since the arrival of the Spanish in 1519. The 1982 eruption of El Chichón, which killed about 2,000 people who lived near the volcano, created a 1-km-wide caldera that filled with an acidic crater lake. Prior to 2000, this relatively unknown volcano was heavily forested and of no greater height than adjacent nonvolcanic peaks.[41] United States[edit] Main article: List of volcanoes in the United States

Area of the Cascadia subduction zone, including the Cascade Volcanic Arc (red triangles)

The United States Geological Survey
United States Geological Survey
and the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) are located on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, Colorado. Both monitor volcanos in the United States; in the western United States
United States
lies the Cascade Volcanic Arc. It includes nearly 20 major volcanoes, among a total of over 4,000 separate volcanic vents including numerous stratovolcanoes, shield volcanoes, lava domes, and cinder cones, along with a few isolated examples of rarer volcanic forms such as tuyas. Volcanism in the arc began about 37 million years ago, but most of the present-day Cascade volcanoes are less than 2,000,000 years old, and the highest peaks are less than 100,000 years old. The arc formed by the subduction of the Gorda and Juan de Fuca plates at the Cascadia subduction zone. This is a 680-mi-long fault, running 50 mi (80 km) off the coast of the Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
from northern California
California
to Vancouver Island, British Columbia. The plates move at a relative rate over 0.4 in (10 mm) per year at a somewhat oblique angle to the subduction zone. Because of the very large fault area, the Cascadia subduction zone
Cascadia subduction zone
can produce very large earthquakes, magnitude 9.0 or greater, if rupture occurred over its whole area. When the "locked" zone stores energy for an earthquake, the "transition" zone, although somewhat plastic, can rupture. Thermal and deformation studies indicate that the locked zone is fully locked for 60 km (about 40 mi) down-dip from the deformation front. Further down-dip, a transition from fully locked to aseismic sliding occurs.

American Cascade Range
Cascade Range
volcano eruptions in the last 4000 years

Unlike most subduction zones worldwide, no oceanic trench is present along the continental margin in Cascadia. Instead, terranes and the accretionary wedge have been lifted up to form a series of coast ranges and exotic mountains. A high rate of sedimentation from the outflow of the three major rivers (Fraser River, Columbia River, and Klamath River) which cross the Cascade Range
Cascade Range
contributes to further obscuring the presence of a trench. However, in common with most other subduction zones, the outer margin is slowly being compressed, similar to a giant spring. When the stored energy is suddenly released by slippage across the fault at irregular intervals, the Cascadia subduction zone can create very large earthquakes such as the magnitude-9 Cascadia earthquake of 1700. Geological evidence indicates that great earthquakes may have occurred at least seven times in the last 3,500 years, suggesting a return time of 400 to 600 years. Also, evidence of accompanying tsunamis with every earthquake is seen, as the prime reason these earthquakes are known is through "scars" the tsunami left on the coast, and through Japanese records (tsunami waves can travel across the Pacific). The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens
1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens
was the most significant to occur in the contiguous 48 U.S. states in recorded history (VEI = 5, 0.3 cu mi, 1.2 km3 of material erupted), exceeding the destructive power and volume of material released by the 1915 eruption of California's Lassen Peak. The eruption was preceded by a two-month series of earthquakes and steam-venting episodes caused by an injection of magma at shallow depth below the mountain that created a huge bulge and a fracture system on Mount St. Helens' north slope. An earthquake at 8:32 am on May 18, 1980, caused the entire weakened north face to slide away, suddenly exposing the partly molten, gas- and steam-rich rock in the volcano to lower pressure. The rock responded by exploding into a very hot mix of pulverized lava and older rock that sped toward Spirit Lake so fast that it quickly passed the avalanching north face. Alaska
Alaska
is known for its seismic and volcanic activity, holding the record for the second-largest earthquake in the world, the Good Friday earthquake, and having more than 50 volcanoes which have erupted since about 1760.[42] Volcanoes can be found not only in the mainland, but also in the Aleutian Islands. The most recent activity in the American portion of the Ring of Fire occurred in early 2009 when Mount Redoubt
Mount Redoubt
in Alaska
Alaska
became active and finally erupted late in the evening of March 22. The eruption ended in May 2009. Canada[edit]

Map of young volcanoes in Western Canada

See also: Volcanism in Canada The Public Safety Geo-science Program at the Natural Resources Canada undertakes research to support risk reduction from the effects of space weather, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes, and landslides.[43] British Columbia
British Columbia
and Yukon
Yukon
are home to a vast region of volcanoes and volcanic activity in the Pacific Ring of Fire.[44] Several mountains that many British Columbians look at every day are dormant volcanoes. Most of them erupted during the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
and Holocene. Although none of Canada's volcanoes are currently erupting, several volcanoes, volcanic fields, and volcanic centers are considered potentially active.[45] Hot springs are at some volcanoes, while 10 volcanoes in British Columbia
British Columbia
appear related to seismic activity since 1975, including: the Silverthrone Caldera, Mount Meager
Mount Meager
massif, Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field, Mount Garibaldi, Mount Cayley, Castle Rock, The Volcano, Mount Edziza, Hoodoo Mountain, Crow Lagoon, and Nazko Cone.[46] The volcanoes are grouped into five volcanic belts with different tectonic settings. The Northern Cordilleran Volcanic Province
Northern Cordilleran Volcanic Province
(sometimes known as the Stikine Volcanic Belt) is the most active volcanic region in Canada. It formed due to extensional cracking, faulting, and rifting of the North American Plate, as the Pacific Plate
Pacific Plate
grinds and slides past the Queen Charlotte Fault, unlike subduction that produces the volcanoes in Japan, the Philippines, and Indonesia. The region has Canada's largest volcanoes,[44] much larger than the minor stratovolcanoes found in the Canadian portion of the Cascade Volcanic Arc.[44] Several eruptions are known to have occurred within the last 400 years. Mount Edziza is a huge volcanic complex that erupted several times in the past several thousand years and has formed several cinder cones and lava flows. The complex comprises the Mount Edziza
Mount Edziza
Plateau, a large volcanic plateau (65 km long and 20 km wide) made of predominantly basaltic lava flows with four large stratovolcanoes built on top of the plateau. The associated lava domes and satellite cones were constructed over the past 7.5 million years during five magmatic cycles beginning with eruption of alkali basalts and ending with felsic and basaltic eruptions as late as 1,340 years ago. The blocky lava flows still maintain their original forms. Hoodoo Mountain is a tuya in northwestern British Columbia, which has had several periods of subglacial eruptions. The oldest eruptions occurred about 100,000 years ago and the most recent about 7000 years ago. Hoodoo Mountain is also considered active, so could erupt in the future. The nearby Tseax Cone
Tseax Cone
and The Volcano
Volcano
produced some of Canada's youngest lava flows, about 150 years old.

Mount Edziza, a large shield volcano in northwestern British Columbia

Canada's worst known geophysical disaster came from the Tseax Cone during the 18th century at the southernmost end of the volcanic belt. The eruption produced a 22.5-km-long lava flow, destroying the Nisga'a villages and the death of at least 2000 Nisga'a
Nisga'a
people by volcanic gases and poisonous smoke. The Nass River
Nass River
valley was inundated by the lava flows and contains abundant tree molds and lava tubes. The event happened at the same time as the arrival of the first European explorers to penetrate the uncharted coastal waters of northern British Columbia. Today, the basaltic lava deposits are a draw to tourists and are part of the Nisga'a
Nisga'a
Memorial Lava Beds Provincial Park. The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt
Garibaldi Volcanic Belt
in southwestern British Columbia
British Columbia
is the northern extension of the Cascade Volcanic Arc
Cascade Volcanic Arc
in the United States (which includes Mount Baker
Mount Baker
and Mount St. Helens) and contains the most explosive young volcanoes in Canada.[47] It formed as a result of subduction of the Juan de Fuca Plate
Juan de Fuca Plate
(a remnant of the much larger Farallon Plate) under the North American Plate
North American Plate
along the Cascadia subduction zone.[47] The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt
Garibaldi Volcanic Belt
includes the Bridge River Cones, Mount Cayley, Mount Fee, Mount Garibaldi, Mount Price, Mount Meager
Mount Meager
massif, the Squamish Volcanic Field, and more smaller volcanoes. The eruption styles in the belt range from effusive to explosive, with compositions from basalt to rhyolite. Morphologically, centers include calderas, cinder cones, stratovolcanoes and small isolated lava masses. Due to repeated continental and alpine glaciations, many of the volcanic deposits in the belt reflect complex interactions between magma composition, topography, and changing ice configurations. The most recent major catastrophic eruption in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt
Garibaldi Volcanic Belt
was an explosive eruption of the Mount Meager massif about 2,350 years ago. It was similar to the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens,[47] sending an ash column about 20 km into the stratosphere.[48]

The Mount Meager massif
Mount Meager massif
as seen from the east near Pemberton, BC: Summits left to right are Capricorn Mountain, Mount Meager, and Plinth Peak.

The Chilcotin Group
Chilcotin Group
is a north-south range of volcanoes in southern British Columbia
British Columbia
running parallel to the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt. The majority of the eruptions in this belt happened either 6–10 million years ago (Miocene) or 2–3 million years ago (Pliocene), although with some slightly more recent eruptions (in the Pleistocene).[49] It is thought to have formed as a result of back-arc extension behind the Cascadia subduction zone.[49] Volcanoes in this belt include Mount Noel, the Clisbako Caldera
Caldera
Complex, Lightning Peak, Black Dome Mountain, and many lava flows. The Anahim Volcanic Belt
Anahim Volcanic Belt
is a line of volcanoes stretching from just north of Vancouver Island
Vancouver Island
to near Quesnel, British Columbia. These volcanoes were formed 8 to 1 million years ago, and the Nazko Cone last erupted only 7,200 years ago.[50] The volcanoes generally get younger moving from the coast to the interior. These volcanoes are thought to have formed as a result of the North American Plate
North American Plate
sliding westward over a small hotspot, called the Anahim hotspot.[50] The hotspot is considered similar to the one feeding the Hawaiian Islands.[50] The belt is defined by three large shield volcanoes (Rainbow, Ilgachuz and the Itcha Ranges) and 37 Quaternary
Quaternary
basalt centers. Eruptions of basaltic to rhyolitic volcanoes and hypabyssal rocks of the Alert Bay Volcanic Belt
Alert Bay Volcanic Belt
in northern Vancouver Island
Vancouver Island
are probably linked with the subducted margin flanked by the Explorer and Juan de Fuca Plates at the Cascadia subduction zone. It appears to have been active during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. However, no Holocene eruptions are known, and volcanic activity in the belt has likely ceased. Russia[edit] Main article: List of volcanoes in Russia

Avachinsky, an active volcano on the Kamchatka Peninsula.

The Kamchatka Peninsula
Kamchatka Peninsula
in the Russian Far East
Russian Far East
is one of the most various and active volcanic areas in the world,[51] with an area of 472,300 km2. It lies between the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
to the east and the Okhotsk Sea
Okhotsk Sea
to the west. Immediately offshore along the Pacific coast of the peninsula runs the 10,500-m-deep Kuril-Kamchatka Trench, where rapid subduction of the Pacific Plate
Pacific Plate
fuels the intense volcanism. Almost all types of volcanic activity are present, from stratovolcanoes and shield volcanoes to Hawaiian-style fissure eruptions.[51] Over 30 active volcanoes and hundreds of dormant and extinct volcanoes are in two major volcanic belts. The most recent activity takes place in the eastern belt,[51] starting in the north at the Shiveluch volcanic complex, which lies at the junction of the Aleutian and Kamchatka volcanic arcs. Just to the south is the famous Klyuchi volcanic group, comprising the twin volcanic cones of Kliuchevskoi
Kliuchevskoi
and Kamen, the huge volcanic complexes of Tolbachik
Tolbachik
and Ushkovsky, and a number of other large stratovolcanoes. The only active volcano in the central belt is found west of here, the huge remote Ichinsky. Farther south, the eastern belt continues to the southern slope of Kamchatka, topped by loads of stratovolcanoes, continuing onto the Kuril Islands, and southwards into Japan.

Japan[edit] Main article: List of volcanoes in Japan About 10% of the world's active volcanoes are found in Japan, which lies in a zone of extreme crustal instability. They are formed by subduction of the Pacific Plate
Pacific Plate
and the Philippine Sea
Philippine Sea
Plate. As many as 1,500 earthquakes are recorded yearly, and magnitudes of 4 to 6 are not uncommon. Minor tremors occur almost daily in one part of the country or another, causing some slight shaking of buildings. Major earthquakes occur infrequently; the most famous in the 20th century were: the Great Kantō earthquake
Great Kantō earthquake
of 1923, in which 130,000 people died; and the Great Hanshin earthquake
Great Hanshin earthquake
of 17 January 1995, in which 6,434 people died. On March 11, 2011 a magnitude 9.0 earthquake hit Japan, the country's biggest ever and the fifth largest on record, according to US Geological Survey data.[52] Undersea earthquakes also expose the Japanese coastline to danger from tsunamis.

Mount Fuji
Mount Fuji
at sunrise from Lake Kawaguchi

Mount Bandai, one of Japan's most noted volcanoes, rises above the north shore of Lake Inawashiro. Mount Bandai
Mount Bandai
is formed of several overlapping stratovolcanoes, the largest of which is O-Bandai forming a complex volcano. O-Bandai volcano was constructed within a horseshoe-shaped caldera that formed about 40,000 years when an earlier volcano collapsed, forming the Okinajima debris avalanche, which traveled to the southwest and was accompanied by a plinian eruption. Four major phreatic eruptions have occurred during the past 5,000 years, two of them in historical time, in 806 and 1888. Seen from the south, Bandai presents a conical profile, but much of the north side of the volcano is missing as a result of the collapse of Ko-Bandai volcano during the 1888 eruption, in which a debris avalanche buried several villages and formed several large lakes. Nearly a century ago, the north flank of Mount Bandai
Mount Bandai
collapsed during an eruption quite similar to the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens. After a week of seismic activity, a large earthquake on July 15, 1888, was followed by a tremendous noise and a large explosion. Eyewitnesses heard about 15 to 20 additional explosions and observed that the last one was projected almost horizontally to the north. Mount Fuji
Mount Fuji
is Japan's highest and most noted volcano. The modern postglacial stratovolcano is constructed above a group of overlapping volcanoes, remnants of which form irregularities on Fuji's profile. Growth of the younger Mount Fuji
Mount Fuji
began with a period of voluminous lava flows from 11,000 to 8,000 years ago, accounting for four-fifths of the volume of the younger Mount Fuji. Minor explosive eruptions dominated activity from 8,000 to 4,500 years ago, with another period of major lava flows occurring from 4,500 to 3,000 years ago. Subsequently, intermittent major explosive eruptions occurred, with subordinate lava flows and small pyroclastic flows. Summit eruptions dominated from 3,000 to 2,000 years ago, after which flank vents were active. The extensive basaltic lava flows from the summit and some of the more than 100 flank cones and vents blocked drainage against the Tertiary Misaka Mountains on the north side of the volcano, forming the Fuji Five Lakes. The last eruption of this dominantly basaltic volcano in 1707 ejected andesitic pumice and formed a large new crater on the east flank. Some minor volcanic activity may occur in the next few years. Philippines[edit] Main article: List of volcanoes in the Philippines

Map showing major volcanoes of the Philippines

The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo
Mount Pinatubo
is the world's second-largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century. Successful predictions of the onset of the climactic eruption led to the evacuation of tens of thousands of people from the surrounding areas, saving many lives, but as the surrounding areas were severely damaged by pyroclastic flows, ash deposits, and later, lahars caused by rainwater remobilising earlier volcanic deposits, thousands of houses were destroyed.

Mayon Volcano
Volcano
overlooks a pastoral scene about five months before the volcano's violent eruption in September 1984.

Mayon Volcano
Volcano
is the Philippines' most active volcano. It has steep upper slopes that average 35–40° and is capped by a small summit crater. The historical eruptions of this basaltic-andesitic volcano date back to 1616 and range from Strombolian to basaltic Plinian eruptions. Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks. Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the roughly 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often devastated populated lowland areas. Taal Volcano
Volcano
has had 33 recorded eruptions since 1572. A devastating eruption occurred in 1911, which claimed more than a thousand lives. The deposits of that eruption consist of a yellowish, fairly decomposed (nonjuvenile) tephra with a high sulfur content. The most recent period of activity lasted from 1965 to 1977, and was characterized by the interaction of magma with the lake water, which produced violent phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions. Although the volcano has been dormant since 1977, it has shown signs of unrest since 1991, with strong seismic activity and ground-fracturing events, as well as the formation of small mud geysers on parts of the island. Kanlaon Volcano, the most active volcano in the central Philippines, has erupted 25 times since 1866. Eruptions are typically phreatic explosions of small-to-moderate size that produce minor ash falls near the volcano. On August 10, 1996, Kanlaon erupted without warning, killing British student Julian Green and Filipinos Noel Tragico and Neil Perez, who were among 24 mountain climbers who were trapped near the summit. Indonesia[edit] See also: List of volcanoes in Indonesia
Indonesia
and 2010 eruptions of Mount Merapi

Mount Merapi
Mount Merapi
in Central Java

Major volcanoes in Indonesia

The volcanoes in Indonesia
Indonesia
are among the most active of the Pacific Ring of Fire. They are formed due to subduction zones of three main active tectonic plates namely the Eurasian Plate, Pacific Plate, and Indo-Australian Plate.[53] Some of the volcanoes are notable for their eruptions, for instance, Krakatau
Krakatau
for its global effects in 1883, Lake Toba for its supervolcanic eruption estimated to have occurred 74,000 BP, which was responsible for six years of volcanic winter, and Mount Tambora, for the most violent eruption in recorded history in 1815. The eruption of Mount Tambora
Mount Tambora
caused widespread harvest failures in Northern Europe, the Northeastern United States, and eastern Canada
Canada
in 1816, which was known as the Year Without a Summer. The most active volcanoes are Kelud
Kelud
and Mount Merapi
Mount Merapi
on Java
Java
island, which have been responsible for thousands of deaths in the region. Since AD 1000, Kelud
Kelud
has erupted more than 30 times, of which the largest eruption was at scale 5 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index, while Merapi has erupted more than 80 times. The International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior has named Merapi as a Decade Volcano
Volcano
since 1995 because of its high volcanic activity. Another active volcano is Sinabung
Sinabung
which erupted since 2013 until now. New Zealand[edit] See also: List of earthquakes in New Zealand
New Zealand
and Volcanism in New Zealand

Major volcanoes of New Zealand

View of Mount Taranaki
Mount Taranaki
from Stratford.

GNS Science was known as the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences from 1992 to 2005. GNS Science was partially commercialised, and now operates as a government-owned company rather than as a government department. Originally part of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR), it was established as an independent organisation when the Crown Research Institutes were created in 1992. As well as undertaking basic research, and operating the national geological hazards monitoring network,[54] GNS Science is employed, both in New Zealand
New Zealand
and overseas, by various private groups (notably energy companies), as well as central and local government agencies, to provide scientific advice and information.[55] GNS Science is based in Avalon, Lower Hutt, with facilities in Dunedin and Wairakei. New Zealand
New Zealand
contains the world's strongest concentration of youthful rhyolitic volcanoes, and voluminous sheets blanket much of the North Island. The earliest historically-dated eruption was at Whakaari/White Island in 1826,[56] followed in 1886 by the country's largest historical eruption at Mount Tarawera. Much of the region north of New Zealand's North Island
North Island
is made up of seamounts and small islands, including 16 submarine volcanoes. In the last 1.6 million years, most of New Zealand's volcanism is from the Taupo Volcanic Zone.[57] Mount Ruapehu, at the southern end of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, is one of the most active volcanoes.[58] It began erupting at least 250,000 years ago. In recorded history, major eruptions have been about 50 years apart,[58] in 1895, 1945, and 1995–1996. Minor eruptions are frequent, with at least 60 since 1945. Some of the minor eruptions in the 1970s generated small ash falls and lahars that damaged ski fields.[59] Between major eruptions, a warm acidic crater lake forms, fed by melting snow. Major eruptions may completely expel the lake water. Where a major eruption has deposited a tephra dam across the lake's outlet, the dam may collapse after the lake has refilled and risen above the level of its normal outlet, the outrush of water causing a large lahar. The most notable lahar caused the Tangiwai disaster on December 24, 1953, when 151 people aboard a Wellington to Auckland express train were killed after the lahar destroyed the Tangiwai rail bridge just moments before the train was due. In 2000, the ERLAWS
ERLAWS
system was installed on the mountain to detect such a collapse and alert the relevant authorities. The Auckland volcanic field
Auckland volcanic field
on the North Island
North Island
of New Zealand
New Zealand
has produced a diverse array of explosive craters, scoria cones, and lava flows. Currently dormant, the field is likely to erupt again with the next "hundreds to thousands of years", a very short timeframe in geologic terms.[60] The field contains at least 40 volcanoes, most recently active about 600 years ago at Rangitoto Island, erupting 2.3 km3 of lava. Antarctica[edit] Main article: List of volcanoes in Antarctica

Mount Erebus, 1972

The Pacific Ring of Fire
Ring of Fire
is completed in the south by the continent of Antarctica,[61] which includes many large volcanoes. The makeup and structure of the volcanoes in Antarctica
Antarctica
change largely from the other places around the ring. In contrast, the Antarctic Plate
Antarctic Plate
is almost completely surrounded by extensional zones, with several mid-ocean ridges which encircle it, with only a small subduction zone at the tip of the Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula, reaching eastward to the remote South Sandwich Islands.[61] The most well known volcano in Antarctica
Antarctica
is Mount Erebus, which is also the world's southernmost active volcano.[61] In many respects the geology of the Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula is an extension of the Andes, hence the name sometimes used by geologists: "Antarctandes". At the opposite side of the continent, the volcanoes of Victoria Land
Victoria Land
may be seen as the 'other end' of the Antarctandes, thus completing the Pacific Ring of Fire
Ring of Fire
and continuing up through the Balleny Islands
Balleny Islands
to New Zealand. Mount Erebus
Mount Erebus
is the second-highest volcano in Antarctica
Antarctica
(after Mount Sidley) and the southernmost active volcano on earth. It is the sixth-highest ultra mountain on an island.[16] With a summit elevation of 3,794 m (12,448 ft), it is located on Ross Island, which is also home to three inactive volcanoes, Mount Terror, Mount Bird, and Mount Terra Nova. The volcano has been observed to be continuously active[citation needed] since 1972 and is the site of the Mount Erebus
Mount Erebus
Volcano Observatory run by the New Mexico
Mexico
Institute of Mining and Technology.[62] Mount Erebus
Mount Erebus
is currently the most active volcano in Antarctica
Antarctica
and is the current eruptive zone of the Erebus hotspot. The volcanoes of the Victoria Land
Victoria Land
area are the most well known in Antarctica,[61] most likely because they are the most accessible. Much of Victoria Land
Victoria Land
is mountainous, developing the eastern section of the Transantarctic Mountains, and the several scattered volcanoes include Mount Overlord
Mount Overlord
and Mount Melbourne
Mount Melbourne
in the northern part.[61] Farther south are two more well-known volcanoes, Mount Discovery
Mount Discovery
and Mount Morning, which are on the coast across from Mount Erebus
Mount Erebus
and Mount Terror on Ross Island. The volcanism in this area is caused by rifting along a number of rift zones increasing mainly north-south similar to the coast.[61] Marie Byrd Land
Marie Byrd Land
contains the largest volcanic region in Antarctica, covering a length of almost 600 mi (970 km) along the Pacific coast.[61] The volcanism is the result of rifting along the vast West Antarctic
Antarctic
Rift, which extends from the base of the Antarctic Peninsula to the surrounding area of Ross Island, and the volcanoes are found along the northern edge of the rift.[61] Protruding up through the ice are a large number of major shield volcanoes, including Mount Sidley, which is the highest volcano in Antarctica.[61] Although a number of the volcanoes are relatively young and are potentially active (Mount Berlin, Mount Takahe, Mount Waesche, and Mount Siple), others such as Mount Andrus
Mount Andrus
and Mount Hampton are over 10 million years old, yet maintain uneroded constructional forms.[61] The desert-like surroundings of the Antarctic
Antarctic
interior, along with a very thick and stable ice sheet which encloses and protects the bases of the volcanoes, which decreases the speed of erosion by an issue of perhaps a thousand relative to volcanoes in moist temperate or tropical climates. Land areas[edit]

Papua New Guinea
New Guinea
and tectonic plates: Pacific Plate, Australian Plate, Caroline Plate, Banda Sea Plate
Banda Sea Plate
(as "Mer de Banda"), Woodlark Plate, Bird's Head Plate, Maoke Plate, Solomon Sea
Solomon Sea
Plate, North Bismarck Plate, South Bismarck Plate
South Bismarck Plate
and Manus Plate
Manus Plate
(in French)

Puysegur Trench
Puysegur Trench
and Macquarie Ridge Taupo Volcanic Zone Kermadec Islands Tonga
Tonga
Islands Fiji
Fiji
Islands Bougainville and Solomon Islands New Hebrides
New Hebrides
Arc Bismarck Volcanic Arc, junction Tanimbar and Kai Islands Lesser Sunda Islands Sunda Arc Andaman and Nicobar Islands Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc

Mariana Islands Bonin Islands Izu Islands

Philippine Mobile Belt Taiwan Ryukyu Islands Japan, Boso Triple Junction Kuril Islands Kamchatka Peninsula

American Cordillera

North American Cordillera

Aleutian Arc

Aleutian Islands Aleutian Range

Eastern Alaska, U.S. Northern Cordilleran Volcanic Province Cascade Volcanic Arc
Cascade Volcanic Arc
and Rio Grande rift Sierra Nevada (U.S.) Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt

Central America
Central America
Volcanic Arc Andes

North Volcanic Zone Central Volcanic Zone South Volcanic Zone Austral Volcanic Zone

Scotia Arc

South Sandwich Islands

Antarctica

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula Victoria Land

See also[edit]

Earthquakes portal Volcanoes portal

2004 Indian Ocean
Ocean
earthquake and tsunami            2010 Chile
Chile
earthquake 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami

Andesite
Andesite
line Geology of the Pacific Northwest Katsuhiko Ishibashi Pacific Rim

References[edit]

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Ring of Fire
– Pacific Ring of Fire". Geography.about.com. 2010-06-14. Retrieved 2010-11-01.  ^ "Ring of Fire". USGS. 2012-07-24. Retrieved 2013-06-13.  ^ "Where do earthquakes occur?". USGS. 2013-05-13. Archived from the original on 2014-08-05. Retrieved 2013-06-13.  ^ "Earthquakes FAQ". U.S. Geological Survey. Archived from the original on 2006-01-17.  ^ "Earthquakes Visual Glossary". U.S. Geological Survey.  ^ Oppenheimer, Clive (2011). "Appendix A". Eruptions that Shook the World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 355–363. ISBN 978-0-521-64112-8.  ^ "Moving slabs". This Dynamic Earth. USGS.  ^ "Latest Earthquakes in the USA". USGS.  ^ Schulz, Sandra S.; Wallace, Robert E. "The San Andreas Fault". USGS.  ^ "Earthquakes in the Queen Charlotte Islands Region
Islands Region
1984–1996". Archived from the original on 2006-04-18. Retrieved 2007-10-03. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Baker, M.C.W.; Francis, P.W. (1978). "Upper Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Volcanism in the Central Andes
Andes
– Ages and Volumes". Earth
Earth
and Planetary Science Letters. 41 (2): 175–187. Bibcode:1978E&PSL..41..175B. doi:10.1016/0012-821X(78)90008-0.  ^ "Red de vigilancia volcánica – Sernageomin". sernageomin.cl. Archived from the original on 2016-11-28.  ^ USGS. "VDAP Responses at Chaitén in Chile". usgs.gov. Archived from the original on 2014-12-10.  ^ " Chile
Chile
volcano forces evacuations". BBC. January 2, 2008.  ^ "Magnitude 8.8 – OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE". February 27, 2010. Archived from the original on 2010-04-10. Retrieved February 28, 2010.  ^ a b c "Mount Erebus". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2008-12-29.  ^ " Chiliques
Chiliques
Volcano, Chile". Visible Earth. NASA. Retrieved 2007-03-24.  ^ " Global Volcanism Program
Global Volcanism Program
– Lonquimay". si.edu.  ^ " Global Volcanism Program
Global Volcanism Program
– Lonquimay". si.edu.  ^ La erupción de 1971, Villarrica Volcano
Volcano
Visual Observation Project. 2008. ^ "Distance from Quito
Quito
to Cotopaxi". distancecalculator.globefeed.com.  ^ "Cotopaxi". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ Climate and Weather, Kington, J. Collins London, (2010) ^ "Ecuadoreans Wait Uneasily On Volcanoes". Associated Press. 28 November 1999 – via The New York Times.  ^ "Sangay: Synonyms and subfeatures". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 5 February 2012.  ^ " Reventador
Reventador
volcano spews lava near Ecuador
Ecuador
capital". Associated Press.  ^ "A Restless Volcano
Volcano
Puts Ecuador
Ecuador
on Edge Once More". WIRED. 17 June 2015.  ^ http://www.igepn.edu.ec/cotopaxi National Polytechnic School Geophysics Institute is constantly monitoring Cotopaxi ^ " Ecuador
Ecuador
declares state of emergency over volcano". BBC.com.  ^ " Cotopaxi
Cotopaxi
volcano (Ecuador): increased seismic activity, volcanic unrest". volcanodiscovery.com.  ^ "15 sitios seguros en el Distrito Metropolitano de Quito
Quito
por el Cotopaxi". El Comercio.  ^ "Official Web Site of the Peruvian Geophysical Institute".  ^ "Ubinas". Smithsonian Institution.  ^ "Ubinas". volcanodiscovery.com.  ^ "Fresh Lava Arrives at Ubinas
Ubinas
Volcano : Natural Hazards". NASA.  ^ " Peru
Peru
evacuates Ubinas
Ubinas
volcano area after ash cloud". BBC.  ^ "Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica (OVSICORI)". National University of Costa Rica.  ^ "Poás Volcano
Volcano
Erupts in Central Costa Rica". New York Daily News.  ^ " Volcano
Volcano
tourists enjoy the phreatic eruption of the Poás Volcano".  ^ "Despite Record Breaking Eruptions at Poas Volcano
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Mexico
Volcanoes and Volcanics". USGS. Archived from the original on 2005-03-09. Retrieved 2007-10-14.  ^ " Alaska
Alaska
Volcano
Volcano
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and Beyond: Alaska
Alaska
and Northwest Canada". Retrieved 2007-07-31.  ^ "Canadian volcanoes". CAT.INIST. Retrieved 2007-07-31.  ^ "Volcanoes of Canada" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-05-28. Retrieved 2007-06-24.  ^ a b c "Garibaldi Volcanic Belt". Calalogue of Canadian volcanoes. Archived from the original on 2006-02-19. Retrieved 2007-07-31.  ^ "Mount Meager". Catalogue of Canadian volcanoes. Archived from the original on 2006-02-19. Retrieved 2007-07-31.  ^ a b "Chilcotin Plateau basalts". Catalogue of Canadian volcanoes. Archived from the original on 2008-03-15. Retrieved 2007-07-31.  ^ a b c "Anahim Volcanic Belt". Catalogue of Canadian volcanoes. Archived from the original on 2006-02-19. Retrieved 2007-07-31.  ^ a b c Skiing the Pacific Ring of Fire
Ring of Fire
and Beyond: Kamchatka & Kuril Islands
Kuril Islands
Retrieved on 2007-08-01 ^ "LIST: Japan
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Volcanoes and Volcanics". USGS CVO. Archived from the original on 2005-12-23. Retrieved 2007-10-15.  ^ "GeoNet". New Zealand.  ^ a b New Zealand
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Department of Conservation. "Crater Lake Climb". Retrieved 2006-10-23.  ^ New Zealand
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Department of Conservation. "Central North Island Volcanoes". Retrieved 2006-10-23.  ^ "Contingency Plan for the Auckland Volcanic Field" (PDF). Auckland Regional Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-01-16.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Skiing the Pacific Ring of Fire
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Mount Erebus
Volcano
Volcano
Observatory". New Mexico
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Tech. Archived from the original on 2007-07-02. Retrieved 2008-12-29. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Maps of the Pacific Ring of Fire.

Historic Earthquakes & Earthquake
Earthquake
Statistics at the United States Geological Survey DESCRIPTION: "Ring of Fire", Plate Tectonics, Sea-Floor Spreading, Subduction
Subduction
Zones, "Hot Spots" at the USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory, Vancouver, Washington Web site. Map of the Ring of Fire Ring of Fire, tectonic activity The Ring of Fire
Ring of Fire
at work Physical World Map 2004-04-01 CIA World Factbook; Robinson Projection; standard parallels 38°N and 38°S

v t e

Regions of the world

v t e

Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift
Rift
Valley Gregory Rift Rift
Rift
Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean
Ocean
islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

v t e

Regions of Asia

Central

Greater Middle East Aral Sea

Aralkum Desert Caspian Sea Dead Sea Sea of Galilee

Transoxiana

Turan

Greater Khorasan Ariana Khwarezm Sistan Kazakhstania Eurasian Steppe

Asian Steppe Kazakh Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe

Mongolian-Manchurian grassland Wild Fields

Yedisan Muravsky Trail

Ural

Ural Mountains

Volga region Idel-Ural Kolyma Transbaikal Pryazovia Bjarmaland Kuban Zalesye Ingria Novorossiya Gornaya Shoriya Tulgas Iranian Plateau Altai Mountains Pamir Mountains Tian Shan Badakhshan Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Mount Imeon Mongolian Plateau Western Regions Taklamakan Desert Karakoram

Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract

Siachen Glacier

North

Inner Asia Northeast Far East

Russian Far East Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

Extreme North Siberia

Baikalia
Baikalia
(Lake Baikal) Transbaikal Khatanga Gulf Baraba steppe

Kamchatka Peninsula Amur Basin Yenisei Gulf Yenisei Basin Beringia Sikhote-Alin

East

Japanese archipelago

Northeastern Japan
Japan
Arc Sakhalin Island Arc

Korean Peninsula Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Greater Khingan Mongolian Plateau Inner Asia Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia China proper Manchuria

Outer Manchuria Inner Manchuria Northeast China Plain Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

North China Plain

Yan Mountains

Kunlun Mountains Liaodong Peninsula Himalayas Tibetan Plateau

Tibet

Tarim Basin Northern Silk Road Hexi Corridor Nanzhong Lingnan Liangguang Jiangnan Jianghuai Guanzhong Huizhou Wu Jiaozhou Zhongyuan Shaannan Ordos Loop

Loess Plateau Shaanbei

Hamgyong Mountains Central Mountain Range Japanese Alps Suzuka Mountains Leizhou Peninsula Gulf of Tonkin Yangtze River Delta Pearl River Delta Yenisei Basin Altai Mountains Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass

West

Greater Middle East

MENA MENASA Middle East

Red Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Zagros Mountains Persian Gulf

Pirate Coast Strait of Hormuz Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Al-Faw Peninsula Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Aden Balochistan Arabian Peninsula

Najd Hejaz Tihamah Eastern Arabia South Arabia

Hadhramaut Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

Tigris–Euphrates Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia

Canaan Aram Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant

Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan Rift
Rift
Valley

Israel Levantine Sea Golan Heights Hula Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti-Lebanon Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Palestine Iranian Plateau Armenian Highlands Caucasus

Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains

Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus

North Caucasus South Caucasus

Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula

Anatolia Cilicia Cappadocia Alpide belt

South

Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu Kush Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Kashmir

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Indus Valley Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern coastal plains Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan

Baltistan Shigar Valley

Karakoram

Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt

Southeast

Mainland

Indochina Malay Peninsula

Maritime

Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

v t e

Regions of Europe

North

Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands

East

Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia

Central

Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group

West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

v t e

Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon
Oregon
Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River
Columbia River
Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska
Alaska
Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California
California
Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
(archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

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Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

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Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali
Bali
Sea Bay of Bengal Flores
Flores
Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java
Java
Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

  Book   Category

Related subjects and articles

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Countries of the Pacific Ring of Fire

Belize
Belize
Bolivia
Bolivia
Brazil
Brazil
Canada
Canada
Colombia
Colombia
Chile
Chile
• Costa Rica • Ecuador
Ecuador
• East  Timor
Timor
• El Salvador • Micronesia
Micronesia
Fiji
Fiji
Guatemala
Guatemala
Honduras
Honduras
Indonesia
Indonesia
Japan
Japan
Kiribati
Kiribati
Mexico
Mexico
• New Zealand • Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Palau
Palau
• Papua New Guinea • Panama
Panama
Peru
Peru
Philippines
Philippines
Russia
Russia
Samoa
Samoa
• Solomon Islands • Tonga • Tuvalu
Tuvalu
• United States

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Oceanic Trenches of the Pacific Ring of Fire

Aleutian Trench • Bougainville Trench • Kermadec Trench • Izu Bonin Trench • Japan Trench • Kurile Trench • Mariana Trench • Middle America Trench • Peru–Chile Trench • Philippine Trench • Ryukyu Trench • Tonga Trench • Yap Trench

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Tectonic Plates of the Pacific Ring of Fire

Antarctic Plate • Australian Plate • Caribbean Plate • Cocos Plate • Eurasian Plate • Explorer Plate • Gorda Plate • Juan de Fuca Plate • Nazca Plate • North American Plate • Pacific Plate • Philippine Sea Plate • Rivera Plate • South American Plate

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Volcanoes of the Pacific Ring of Fire

Baker • Bulusan • Cold Bay • Concepción • Fuego • Fuji • Galeras
Galeras
• Hood • Mount Erebus
Mount Erebus
Krakatoa
Krakatoa
• Mayon • Cascade Volcanoes
Cascade Volcanoes
• Merapi • Momotombo
Momotombo
Novarupta
Novarupta
Parícutin
Parícutin
• Pico de Orizaba • Pinatubo • Popocatépetl
Popocatépetl
• Shasta • Rainier • Ruapehu • Nevado del Ruiz • Saint Helens • Tambora • Taranaki • Tungurahua
Tungurahua
• Usu • Hoodoo • Edziza • Tseax • The Volcano
Volcano
• Meager • Garibaldi • Cayley • Silverthrone • Volcano
Volcano
Mountain

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Other Notable Geographic Features of the Pacific Ring of Fire

Alaska
Alaska
• Aleutian Islands • American cordillera • Andes
Andes
Antarctica
Antarctica
Bali
Bali
Borneo
Borneo
• Bougainville • British Columbia • California
California
• Cascade Range • Challenger Deep • Coast Mountains • Fais Island • Flores
Flores
Guam
Guam
Honshū
Honshū
• Insular Mountains • Java
Java
• Kamchatka • Kurile Islands • Luzon
Luzon
• Mariana Islands • Melanesia
Melanesia
Micronesia
Micronesia
Mindanao
Mindanao
• New Guinea • North Island (NZL) • Northern Mariana Islands • Oregon
Oregon
• Pacific Coast Range • Pacific Ocean • Polynesia
Polynesia
Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
• San Andreas Fault • Queen Charlotte Fault
Queen Charlotte Fault
• Sierra Madre (PHL) • Sierra Madre (USA) • Sierra Madre del Sur • Sierra Madre Occidental • Sierra Madre Oriental • South Island (NZL) • Sulawesi
Sulawesi
Timor
Timor
• Washington • Yap
Yap
• Yuk

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