PAC-MAN (Japanese : パックマン, Hepburn : Pakkuman), stylized as
PAC-MAN, is an arcade game developed by
Namco and first released in
Japan in May 1980. It was created by Japanese video game designer
Toru Iwatani . It was licensed for distribution in the United States
Midway Games and released in October 1980. Immensely popular from
its original release to the present day,
Pac-Man is considered one of
the classics of the medium, and an icon of 1980s popular culture .
Upon its release, the game—and, subsequently,
—became a social phenomenon that yielded high sales of merchandise
and inspired a legacy in other media, such as the
television series and the top-ten
Buckner and Garcia hit single
Pac-Man Fever" .
Pac-Man was popular in the 1980s and 1990s and is
still played in the 2010s.
Pac-Man was released, the most popular arcade video games were
space shooters , in particular,
Space Invaders and Asteroids . The
most visible minority were sports games that were mostly derivatives
Pac-Man succeeded by creating a new genre.
Pac-Man is often
credited with being a landmark in video game history and is among the
most famous arcade games of all time. It is also one of the
highest-grossing video games of all time, having generated more than
$2.5 billion in quarters by the 1990s.
The character has appeared in more than 30 officially licensed game
spin-offs, as well as in numerous unauthorized clones and bootlegs.
According to the Davie-Brown Index ,
Pac-Man has the highest brand
awareness of any video game character among American consumers,
recognized by 94 percent of them.
Pac-Man is one of the longest
running video game franchises from the golden age of video arcade
games . It is part of the collection of the
Smithsonian Institution in
Washington, D.C. and New York's Museum of Modern Art .
* 1 Gameplay
* 1.1 Enemies
* 1.3 Perfect play
* 2 Development
* 3 Reception
* 3.1 Impact
* 3.2 Legacy
* 4 Merchandise
* 4.1 TV and Film
* 4.2 Music
* 4.3 Other gaming media
* 5 Remakes and sequels
* 5.1 Film
* 6 References
* 7 Further reading
* 8 External links
Screenshot of the play area.
The player controls
Pac-Man through a maze of various dots, known as
Pac-Dots, as well as four multi-colored ghosts: Blinky, Pinky, Inky,
and Clyde. The goal of the game is to consume all the Pac-Dots in a
stage in order to proceed to the next one. Between some stages, one of
three intermission animations plays. The four ghosts roam the maze,
trying to catch Pac-Man. If any of the ghosts touch Pac-Man, he loses
a life; when all lives have been lost, the game ends.
awarded a single bonus life at 10,000 points by default—DIP switches
inside the machine can change the required points to 15,000 or 20,000
,or disable the bonus life altogether. The number of lives can be set
to 1 life only or up to five lives maximum. High score cannot exceed
999,990 points; players may exceed that score, but game keeps last 6
Near the corners of the maze are four larger, flashing dots known as
Power Pellets that provide
Pac-Man with the temporary ability to
consume the ghosts and earn bonus points. The enemies turn deep blue,
reverse direction and usually move more slowly. When an enemy is
eaten, its eyes remain and return to the center box where it is
regenerated in its normal color. Blue enemies flash white to signal
that they are about to become dangerous again and the length of time
for which the enemies remain vulnerable varies from one stage to the
next, generally becoming shorter as the game progresses. In later
stages, the enemies go straight to flashing, bypassing blue, which
means that they can only be eaten for a short amount of time, although
they still reverse direction when a Power Pellet is eaten; starting at
stage 19, the ghosts do not become edible (i.e., they do not change
color and still make
Pac-Man lose a life on contact), but they still
reverse direction. There are also fruits, located directly below the
centre box, that appear twice per level; eating it will result in
bonus points (100-5,000). North American
Pac-Man title screen,
showing the official enemy names
The enemies in
Pac-Man are known variously as "monsters" and
"ghosts". Despite the seemingly random nature of the enemies, their
movements are strictly deterministic, which players have used to their
advantage. In an interview, creator
Toru Iwatani stated that he had
designed each enemy with its own distinct personality in order to keep
the game from becoming impossibly difficult or boring to play. More
recently, Iwatani described the enemy behaviors in more detail at the
2011 Game Developers Conference. He stated that the red enemy chases
Pac-Man, and the pink enemy aims for a position in front of Pac-Man's
mouth. The blue enemy is "fickle" and sometimes heads towards
Pac-Man, and other times away. Although he claimed that the orange
enemy's behavior is random, in actuality it alternates from behaving
like the red enemy when at some distance from
Pac-Man and aiming
towards the lower-left corner of the maze whenever it gets too close
Although Midway's 1980 flyer for
Pac-Man used both the terms
"monsters" and "ghost monsters", the term "ghosts" started to become
more popular after technical limitations in the
Atari 2600 version
caused the antagonists to flicker and seem ghostlike, leading them to
be referred to in the manual as "ghosts", and they have most
frequently been referred to as ghosts in English ever since.
PAC MAN (ORIGINAL)
PAC-MAN (ENGLISH VERSION)
Level 256, unplayable under normal circumstances due to an integer
overflow in the game's code. Since this is an
8-bit game, the maximum
integer value is 28 - 1, or 255.
Pac-Man was designed to have no ending – as long as at least one
life was left, the game should be able to go on indefinitely. However,
a bug keeps this from happening: Normally, no more than seven fruit
are displayed on the HUD at the bottom of the screen at any given
time. But when the internal level counter, which is stored in a single
byte, or eight bits, reaches 255, the subroutine that draws the fruit
erroneously "rolls over " this number to zero when it is determining
the number of fruit to draw, using fruit counter = internal level
counter + 1. Normally, when the fruit counter is below eight, the
drawing subroutine draws one fruit for each level, decrementing the
fruit counter until it reaches zero. When the fruit counter has
overflowed to zero, the first decrement sets the fruit counter back to
255, causing the subroutine to draw a total of 256 fruit instead of
the maximum of seven.
This corrupts the bottom of the screen and the entire right half of
the maze with seemingly random symbols and tiles, overwriting the
values of edible dots which makes it impossible to eat enough dots to
beat the level. Because this effectively ends the game, this
"split-screen" level is often referred to as the "kill screen ". There
are 114 dots on the left half of the screen, nine dots on the right,
and one bonus key, totaling 6,310 points. When all of the dots have
been cleared, nothing happens. The game does not consider a level to
be completed until 244 dots have been eaten. Each time a life is lost,
the nine dots on the right half of the screen get reset and can be
eaten again, resulting in an additional 90 points per extra man. In
the best-case scenario (five extra men), 6,760 points will be the
maximum score possible, but only 168 dots can be harvested, and that
is not enough to change levels. Four of the nine dots on the right
half of the screen are invisible, but can be heard when eaten. Some
dots are invisible but the rest can be seen, although some are a
different color from normal. One method for safely clearing this round
is to trap the ghosts. To trap the three important ghosts, the player
must begin by going right until Pac-man reaches a blue letter 'N', and
then he goes down. He keeps going down until he reaches a blue letter
'F', and then he goes right. He keeps going right until he reaches a
yellow 'B', and then he goes down again. When executed properly,
Pac-Man will hit an invisible wall almost immediately after the last
turn is made. Eventually, the red ghost will get stuck. The pink ghost
follows a few seconds later. The blue ghost will continue to move
freely for several moments until the next scatter mode occurs. At that
point, it will try to reach some location near the right edge of the
screen and get stuck with the pink and red ghost instead. The orange
ghost is the only one still on the loose, but he is no real threat
since he runs to his corner whenever
Pac-Man gets close so that it is
easy to eat all the dots. :ch5 Emulators and code analysis have
revealed what would happen if this 256th level is cleared: the fruit
and intermissions would restart at level 1 conditions, but the enemies
would retain their higher speed and invulnerability to power pellets
from the higher stages. Billy Mitchell and Pac-Man, Fairfield
Pac-Man game occurs when the player achieves the maximum
possible score on the first 255 levels (by eating every possible dot,
power pellet, fruit, and enemy) without losing a single life, and
using all extra lives to score as many points as possible on Level
The first person to achieve this score is Billy Mitchell of
Hollywood, Florida , who performed the feat in about six hours.
Since then, over 20 other players have attained the maximum score in
increasingly faster times. As of 2016 , the world record, according to
Twin Galaxies , is held by David Race, who in 2013 attained the
maximum possible score of 3,333,360 points in 3 hours, 28 minutes, and
In December 1982, an eight-year-old boy, Jeffrey R. Yee, received a
letter from U.S. President
Ronald Reagan congratulating him on a
worldwide record of 6,131,940 points, a score only possible if he had
passed the unbeatable Split-Screen Level. In September 1983, Walter
Day , chief scorekeeper at Twin Galaxies, took the US National Video
Game Team on a tour of the East Coast to visit video game players who
claimed they could get through the Split-Screen Level. No video game
player could demonstrate this ability. In 1999, Billy Mitchell offered
$100,000 to anyone who could pass through the Split-Screen Level
before January 1, 2000. The prize was never claimed.
The North American
Pac-Man cabinet design (left) differs
significantly from the Japanese Puck Man design (right).
Up into the early 1970s,
Namco primarily specialized in kiddie rides
for Japanese department stores. Masaya Nakamura , the founder of
Namco, saw the potential value of video games, and started to direct
the company toward arcade games, starting with electromechanical ones
such as F-1 (1976). He later hired a number of software engineers to
develop their own video games as to compete with companies like Atari,
Pac-Man was one of the first games developed by this new department
within Namco. The game was developed primarily by a young employee
Toru Iwatani over the course of 1 year, beginning in April 1979,
employing a nine-man team. It was based on the concept of eating, and
the original Japanese title is Pakkuman (パックマン), inspired by
the Japanese onomatopoeic phrase paku-paku taberu
(パクパク食べる), where paku-paku describes (the sound of)
the mouth movement when widely opened and then closed in succession.
Although Iwatani has repeatedly stated that the character's shape was
inspired by a pizza missing a slice, he admitted in a 1986 interview
that this was a half-truth and the character design also came from
simplifying and rounding out the Japanese character for mouth, kuchi
(口). Iwatani attempted to appeal to a wider audience—beyond the
typical demographics of young boys and teenagers. His intention was to
attract girls to arcades because he found there were very few games
that were played by women at the time. This led him to add elements
of a maze, as well as cute ghost-like enemy characters. Eating to gain
power, Iwatani has said, was a concept he borrowed from
Popeye . The
result was a game he named Puck Man as a reference to the main
character's hockey puck shape. Later in 1980, the game was picked up
for manufacture in the United States by Bally division Midway , which
changed the game's name from Puck Man to
Pac-Man in an effort to avoid
vandalism from people changing the letter 'P' into an 'F' to form the
word fuck . The cabinet artwork was also changed and the pace and
level of difficulty increased to appeal to western audiences.
When first launched in
Namco in 1980, the game received a
lukewarm response, as
Space Invaders and other similar games were more
popular at the time. However, Pac-Man's success in
North America in
the same year took competitors and distributors completely by
surprise. A frequently repeated story claims marketing executives who
Pac-Man at a trade show prior to release completely overlooked the
game (along with the now-classic Defender ), while they looked to a
racing car game called
Rally-X as the game to outdo that year,
however, industry reporting from the era indicates that it was Namco
itself which was heavily promoting
Rally-X at the 1980 AMOA (Amusement
it quickly became far more popular than anything seen in the game
industry up to that point.
Pac-Man outstripped Asteroids as the
best-selling arcade game in North America, grossing over $1 billion
in quarters within a year, by the end of 1980, surpassing the
revenues grossed by the then highest-grossing film Star Wars . 60% of
players were women according to one estimate, because of its lack of
violence, while 90% of those playing space shoot-em-up
Omega Race were
More than 350,000
Pac-Man arcade cabinets were sold worldwide
(retailing at around $2400 each) for $1 billion within 18 months of
release (inflation adjusted: $2.4 billion in 2011). By 1982, the
game had sold 400,000 arcade machines worldwide and an estimated 7
billion coins had been inserted into
Pac-Man machines. In addition,
United States revenues from
Pac-Man licensed products (games,
T-shirts, pop songs, wastepaper baskets, etc.) exceeded $1 billion
(inflation adjusted: $2.33 billion in 2011). The game was estimated
to have had 30 million active players across the United States in
1982. Nakamura said in a 1983 interview that though he did expect
Pac-Man to be successful, "I never thought it would be this big".
Toward the end of the 20th century, the arcade game's total gross
consumer revenue had been estimated by
Twin Galaxies at more than 10
billion quarters ($2.5 billion), making it the highest-grossing
video game of all time. In 2016,
USgamer calculated that the
machines' inflation-adjusted takings were equivalent to $7.68 billion.
In January 1982, the game won the overall Best Commercial Arcade Game
award at the 1981 Arcade Awards . In 2001,
Pac-Man was voted the
greatest video game of all time by a Dixons poll in the UK. The
Killer List of Videogames name
Pac-Man as the No. 1 video
game on its "Top 10 Most Popular Video games" list, the staff name it
as No. 18 on its "Top 100 Video Games" list, and
Ms. Pac-Man is given
Pac-Man intermission cutscene . It
exaggerates the effect of the power pellet power-up , showing a
comically large Pac-Man.
The game is regarded as one of the most influential video games of
all time, for a number of reasons: its titular character was the
first original gaming mascot , the game established the maze chase
game genre, it demonstrated the potential of characters in video games
, it opened gaming to female audiences, and it was gaming's first
licensing success. In addition, it was the first video game to
feature power-ups , and the individual ghosts had deterministic
artificial intelligence which react to player actions. It is also
frequently credited as the first game to feature cut scenes , in the
form of brief comical interludes about
Pac-Man and Blinky chasing each
other around during those interludes, :2 though
Space Invaders Part II
employed a similar technique that same year.
Pac-Man is also credited
for laying the foundations for the stealth game genre, as it
emphasized avoiding enemies rather than fighting them, and had an
influence on the early stealth game
Metal Gear , where guards chase
Solid Snake in a similar manner to
Pac-Man when he is spotted.
Pac-Man has also influenced many other games, ranging from the
Grand Theft Auto (where the player runs over pedestrians
and gets chased by police in a similar manner) to early first-person
shooters such as MIDI
Maze (which had similar maze-based gameplay and
character designs). :5 Game designer
John Romero credited
the game that had the biggest influence on his career; Wolfenstein 3D
was similar in level design and featured a
Pac-Man level from a
first-person perspective, while Doom had a similar emphasis on
mazes, power-ups, killing monsters, and reaching the next level.
Pac-Man also influenced the use of power-ups in later games such as
Arkanoid , and the game's artificial intelligence inspired
programmers who later worked for companies such as Bethesda .
Guinness World Records
Guinness World Records has awarded the
Pac-Man series eight records
in Guinness World Records: Gamer's Edition 2008, including First
Pac-Man Game for Billy Mitchell 's July 3, 1999 score and
"Most Successful Coin-Operated Game". On June 3, 2010, at the NLGD
Festival of Games, the game's creator
Toru Iwatani officially received
the certificate from
Guinness World Records
Guinness World Records for
Pac-Man having had the
most "coin-operated arcade machines" installed worldwide: 293,822. The
record was set and recognized in 2005 and mentioned in the Guinness
World Records: Gamer's Edition 2008, but finally actually awarded in
2010. Students' Spring Days in
Tartu : runners in Pac-Man
The game has inspired various real-life recreations, involving either
real people or robots. One event called
Pac-Manhattan set a Guinness
World Record for "Largest
Pac-Man Game" in 2004. The business term
Pac-Man defense " in mergers and acquisitions refers to a hostile
takeover target that attempts to reverse the situation and take over
its would-be acquirer instead, a reference to Pac-Man's power pellets.
The game's popularity has led to "Pac-Man" being adopted as a
nickname, most notably by boxer
Manny Pacquiao , as well as the
American football player Adam Jones .
On August 21, 2016, in the
2016 Summer Olympics closing ceremony ,
during a video which showcased Tokyo as the host of the 2020 Summer
Olympics , a small segment shows
Pac-Man and the ghosts racing against
each other eating pac-dots on a running track .
Pac-Man character and game series became an icon of video game
culture during the 1980s, and a wide variety of
has been marketed with the character's image, from t-shirts and toys
to hand-held video game imitations and even specially shaped pasta.
General Mills manufactured a cereal by the
Pac-Man name in 1983. Over
the cereal's lifespan, characters from sequels
Super Pac-Man and Ms.
Pac-Man were also added.
TV AND FILM
Pac-Man animated TV series produced by
Hanna–Barbera aired on
ABC from 1982 to 1983. At one time, a feature film based on the game
was also in development. In 2010, a computer-generated animated
Pac-Man and the Ghostly Adventures
Pac-Man and the Ghostly Adventures was reported to be in
the works. The show was released on
Disney XD in June 2013.
In music, the
Buckner & Garcia song "
Pac-Man Fever " (1981) went to
No. 9 on the
Billboard Hot 100
Billboard Hot 100 charts, and received a Gold
certification with over a million records sold by 1982, and a total
of 2.5 million copies sold as of 2008. Their
Pac-Man Fever album
(1982) also received a Gold certification for selling over a million
records. In 1982
"Weird Al" Yankovic recorded a song titled
"Pac-Man", which is a parody of "
Taxman " by the Beatles . The song
was played on the radio but was not released on a record at the time
due to a cease and desist letter sent by the attorneys representing
the Beatles. The song is set to be released in 2017 as part of the
15-album box set Squeeze Box: The Complete Works of "Weird Al"
Yankovic . In 1992, Power-Pill (an Alias of
Aphex Twin ) released
Pac-Man — a techno tune which apart from a
Breakbeat and a few
vocals, consists entirely of samples from Pac-Man.
OTHER GAMING MEDIA
Milton Bradley released a board game based on Pac-Man. In
this game, players move up to four
Pac-Man characters (traditional
yellow plus red, green and blue) plus two ghosts as per the throws of
a pair of dice. Each
Pac-Man is assigned to a player while the ghosts
are neutral and controlled by all players. Each player moves their
Pac-Man the number of spaces on either die and a ghost the number of
spaces on the other die, the
Pac-Man consuming any white marbles (the
equivalent of dots) and yellow marbles (the equivalent of power
pellets) in its path. Players can move a ghost onto a
claim two white marbles from its player. They can also move a Pac-Man
with a yellow marble inside it onto a ghost and claim two white
marbles from any other player (following which the yellow marble is
placed back in the maze. The game ends when all white marbles have
been cleared from the board and the player with the largest number of
white marbles is then declared the winner.
Sticker manufacturer Fleer included
Pac-Man Rub Off Game cards with
Pac-Man stickers. The card packages contain a
Pac-Man style maze
with all points along the path covered with opaque coverings. Starting
from the lower board
Pac-Man starting position, the player moves
around the maze while scratching off the coverings to score points. A
white dot scores one point, a blue monster scores ten points, and a
cherry scores 50 points. Uncovering a red, orange, or pink monster
scores no points but the game ends when a third such monster is
Ms. Pac-Man version of the game also includes pretzels
(100 points) and bananas (200 points).
Nelsonic Industries produced a
LCD wristwatch game. This
follows essentially the same rules as the video version, though with a
A pinball version titled Mr. "> Play media The
Atari 2600 version
Pac-Man only somewhat resembles the original and alternately
redraws each ghost on the screen, creating a flicker effect.
One of the first ports to be released was the much-maligned port for
Atari 2600 , which only somewhat resembles the original and was
widely criticized for its flickering ghosts, due to the 2600's limited
memory and hardware compared to the arcade machine, and several
design and implementation choices. Despite the criticism, this version
Pac-Man sold seven million units at $37.95 per copy, and became
the best-selling game of all time on the
Atari 2600 console. While
enjoying initial sales success, Atari had overestimated demand by
producing 12 million cartridges, of which 5 million went unsold.
The port's poor quality damaged the company's reputation among
consumers and retailers, which would eventually become one of the
contributing factors to Atari 's decline and the North American video
game crash of 1983 , alongside Atari's E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial .
Coleco 's tabletop Mini-Arcade versions of the game
yielded 1.5 million units sold in 1982.
II Computing listed it tenth on the magazine's list of top Apple II
series games as of late 1985, based on sales and market-share data,
and in December 1987 alone
Mindscape 's IBM PC version of
over 100,000 copies. The game was also released for Atari's 5200 and
8-bit computers ,
Intellivision , the
Commodore 64 and VIC-20 , and
Nintendo Entertainment System
Nintendo Entertainment System . For handheld game consoles , it
was released on the
Game Boy ,
Sega Game Gear ,
Game Boy Color , and
Neo Geo Pocket Color .
Pac-Man has been featured in Namco's long-running
Namco Museum video
game compilations. Downloads of the game have been made available on
game services such as
Xbox Live Arcade
Xbox Live Arcade ,
GameTap , and Virtual Console
Namco has released mobile versions of
Pac-Man for BREW , Java , and
iOS , as well as Palm PDAs and
Windows Mobile -based devices. A port
Pac-Man for Android can be controlled not only through an Android
phone's trackball but through touch gestures or its on-board
accelerometer. As of 2010 ,
Namco had sold more than 30 million paid
Pac-Man on BREW in the United States alone.
A version of
Pac-Man and Mrs.
Pac-Man was released on the Galaxy
Games multi-game cocktail table unit in 1998. The game differed from
the original in that players controlled Pac-Man's movement with a
trackball instead of a normal arcade joystick.
Microsoft Return of Arcade in 1996 and Microsoft
Return of Arcade: Anniversary Edition in 2000, and includes
one of its bundled arcade games.
Namco has repeatedly re-released the game to arcades. In 2001, Namco
released a Ms. Pac-Man/
Galaga "Class of 1981 Reunion Edition" cabinet
Pac-Man available for play as a hidden game. To commemorate
Pac-Man's 25th anniversary in 2005,
Namco released a revision that
officially featured all three games.
Namco Networks sold a downloadable Windows PC version of
2009 which also includes an "Enhanced" mode which replaces all of the
original sprites with the sprites from
Pac-Man Championship Edition .
Namco Networks made a downloadable bundle which includes their PC
Pac-Man and their port of
Dig Dug called
Dig Dug .
Namco Bandai announced the release of the game on Windows
Phone 7 as an Xbox Live game.
Pac-Man has numerous sequels and spin-offs , including only one of
which was designed by Tōru Iwatani. Some of the follow-ups were not
Namco either —including the most significant, Ms.
Pac-Man , released in the United States in 1981. Originally called
Crazy Otto, this unauthorized hack of
Pac-Man was created by General
Computer Corporation and sold to Midway without Namco's permission.
The game features several changes from the original Pac-Man, including
faster gameplay, more mazes, new intermissions, and moving bonus
items. Some consider
Ms. Pac-Man to be superior to the original or
even the best in the entire series. Stan Jarocki of Midway stated
Ms. Pac-Man was conceived in response to the original Pac-Man
being "the first commercial video game to involve large numbers of
women as players" and that it is "our way of thanking all those lady
arcaders who have played and enjoyed Pac-Man."
Namco sued Midway for
exceeding their license. Eventually, Bally Midway struck a deal with
Namco to officially license
Ms. Pac-Man as a sequel.
Ms. Pac-Man in its other releases.
Following Ms. Pac-Man, Bally Midway released several other
unauthorized spin-offs, such as
Pac-Man Plus ,
Jr. Pac-Man , Baby
Professor Pac-Man , resulting in
Namco severing business
relations with Midway.
Pac-Man Championship Edition (2007),
commemorating the first World Championship The initial
configuration of Google's
Various platform games based on the series have also been released by
Namco, such as 1984's
Pac-Land and the
Pac-Man World series, which
Pac-Man in a 3-D world . More modern versions of the original
game have also been developed, such as the multiplayer
Pac-Man Vs. for
Nintendo GameCube .
On June 5, 2007, the first
Pac-Man World Championship was held in New
York City, which brought together ten competitors from eight countries
to play the new
Pac-Man Championship Edition developed by Tōru
Iwatani. Its sequel was released November 2010.
For the weekend of May 21–23, 2010,
Google changed the
on its homepage to a
Google Doodle of a fully playable version of the
game in recognition of the 30th anniversary of the game's release.
The game featured the ability to play both
Pac-Man and Ms. Pac-Man
simultaneously. After finishing the game, the website automatically
redirected the user to a search of
Pac-Man 30th Anniversary.
Companies across the world experienced slight drops in productivity
due to the game, estimated to be valued at the time as $120,000,000
(approximately €95,400,000; £83,000,000). However, The Official
ASTD Blog noted that the total loss, "spread out across the entire
world isn't a huge loss, comparatively speaking". In total, the game
devoured around 4.8 million hours of work productivity that day. Some
organizations even temporarily blocked Google's website from workplace
computers the Friday it was uploaded, particularly where it violated
regulations against recreational games. Because of the popularity
Google later allowed access to the game through
a separate web page. On March 31, 2015,
Google Maps added an option
Pac-Man style game to be played using streets on the map as
Namco sent a
DMCA notice to the team that made the
programming language Scratch saying that a programmer had infringed
copyright by making a
Pac-Man game using the language and uploading it
to Scratch's official website.
In April 2011, Soap Creative published World\'s Biggest Pac-Man
working together with
Microsoft and Namco-Bandai to celebrate
Pac-Man's 30th anniversary. It is a multiplayer browser-based game
with user-created, interlocking mazes.
In 2016 an in-app version of
Pac-Man was introduced in Facebook
Messenger . This allows users to play the game against their friends
while talking over Facebook.
On June 10, 2014,
Pac-Man was confirmed to appear as a playable
character in the game
Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS and Wii U .
The 3DS version also has a stage based on the original arcade game,
called Pac-Maze. A
Amiibo figurine was also released by
Nintendo on May 29, 2015.
Pac-Man character appears in the film Pixels (2015), with Denis
Akiyama playing series creator
Toru Iwatani . Iwatani himself makes
a cameo at the beginning of the film as an arcade technician. Pac-Man
also has a small cameo in the film
Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 .
The main protagonist,
Star Lord , turns into the character to defeat
the main antagonist Ego.
* ^ Date shown in January 1982 article "Midway celebrates Pac-Man".
* ^ A B
Namco Bandai Games Inc. (June 2, 2005). "Bandai
release for 25th Anniversary Edition" (in Japanese).
bandainamcogames.co.jp/. Archived from the original on December 30,
2007. Retrieved October 10, 2007.
Pac-Man celebrates his 25th anniversary on May 22, 2005", seen in
* ^ A B Long, Tony (October 10, 2007). "Oct. 10, 1979: Pac-Man
Brings Gaming Into Pleistocene Era". Wired. Archived from the original
on September 11, 2014. Retrieved October 10, 2007. puts the date at
May 22, 1980 and is planning an official 25th anniversary celebration
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