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_PAC-MAN_ (Japanese : パックマン, Hepburn : _Pakkuman_), stylized as PAC-MAN, is an arcade game developed by Namco and first released in Japan
Japan
in May 1980. It was created by Japanese video game designer Toru Iwatani . It was licensed for distribution in the United States by Midway Games and released in October 1980. Immensely popular from its original release to the present day, _Pac-Man_ is considered one of the classics of the medium, and an icon of 1980s popular culture . Upon its release, the game—and, subsequently, _Pac-Man_ derivatives —became a social phenomenon that yielded high sales of merchandise and inspired a legacy in other media, such as the _Pac-Man_ animated television series and the top-ten Buckner and Garcia hit single " Pac-Man
Pac-Man
Fever" . Pac-Man
Pac-Man
was popular in the 1980s and 1990s and is still played in the 2010s.

When _Pac-Man_ was released, the most popular arcade video games were space shooters ; in particular, _ Space Invaders _ and _Asteroids _. The most visible minority were sports games that were mostly derivatives of _ Pong _. _Pac-Man_ succeeded by creating a new genre. _Pac-Man_ is often credited with being a landmark in video game history and is among the most famous arcade games of all time. It is also one of the highest-grossing video games of all time, having generated more than $2.5 billion in quarters by the 1990s.

The character has appeared in more than 30 officially licensed game spin-offs, as well as in numerous unauthorized clones and bootlegs. According to the Davie-Brown Index , Pac-Man
Pac-Man
has the highest brand awareness of any video game character among American consumers, recognized by 94 percent of them. _Pac-Man_ is one of the longest running video game franchises from the golden age of video arcade games . It is part of the collection of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. and New York's Museum of Modern Art .

CONTENTS

* 1 Gameplay

* 1.1 Enemies * 1.2 Kill screen * 1.3 Perfect play

* 2 Development

* 3 Reception

* 3.1 Impact * 3.2 Legacy

* 4 Merchandise

* 4.1 TV and Film * 4.2 Music * 4.3 Other gaming media

* 5 Remakes and sequels

* 5.1 Film

* 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links

GAMEPLAY

Screenshot of the play area.

The player controls Pac-Man
Pac-Man
through a maze of various dots, known as Pac-Dots, as well as four multi-colored ghosts: Blinky, Pinky, Inky, and Clyde. The goal of the game is to consume all the Pac-Dots in a stage in order to proceed to the next one. Between some stages, one of three intermission animations plays. The four ghosts roam the maze, trying to catch Pac-Man. If any of the ghosts touch Pac-Man, he loses a life; when all lives have been lost, the game ends. Pac-Man
Pac-Man
is awarded a single bonus life at 10,000 points by default—DIP switches inside the machine can change the required points to 15,000 or 20,000 ,or disable the bonus life altogether. The number of lives can be set to 1 life only or up to five lives maximum. High score cannot exceed 999,990 points; players may exceed that score, but game keeps last 6 digits.

Near the corners of the maze are four larger, flashing dots known as Power Pellets that provide Pac-Man
Pac-Man
with the temporary ability to consume the ghosts and earn bonus points. The enemies turn deep blue, reverse direction and usually move more slowly. When an enemy is eaten, its eyes remain and return to the center box where it is regenerated in its normal color. Blue enemies flash white to signal that they are about to become dangerous again and the length of time for which the enemies remain vulnerable varies from one stage to the next, generally becoming shorter as the game progresses. In later stages, the enemies go straight to flashing, bypassing blue, which means that they can only be eaten for a short amount of time, although they still reverse direction when a Power Pellet is eaten; starting at stage 19, the ghosts do not become edible (i.e., they do not change color and still make Pac-Man
Pac-Man
lose a life on contact), but they still reverse direction. There are also fruits, located directly below the centre box, that appear twice per level; eating it will result in bonus points (100-5,000). _ North American Pac-Man_ title screen, showing the official enemy names

ENEMIES

Main article: Ghosts (Pac-Man)

The enemies in _Pac-Man_ are known variously as "monsters" and "ghosts". Despite the seemingly random nature of the enemies, their movements are strictly deterministic, which players have used to their advantage. In an interview, creator Toru Iwatani stated that he had designed each enemy with its own distinct personality in order to keep the game from becoming impossibly difficult or boring to play. More recently, Iwatani described the enemy behaviors in more detail at the 2011 Game Developers Conference. He stated that the red enemy chases Pac-Man, and the pink enemy aims for a position in front of Pac-Man's mouth. The blue enemy is "fickle" and sometimes heads towards Pac-Man, and other times away. Although he claimed that the orange enemy's behavior is random, in actuality it alternates from behaving like the red enemy when at some distance from Pac-Man
Pac-Man
and aiming towards the lower-left corner of the maze whenever it gets too close to him.

Although Midway's 1980 flyer for _Pac-Man_ used both the terms "monsters" and "ghost monsters", the term "ghosts" started to become more popular after technical limitations in the Atari 2600 version caused the antagonists to flicker and seem ghostlike, leading them to be referred to in the manual as "ghosts", and they have most frequently been referred to as ghosts in English ever since.

COLOR _PAC MAN_ (ORIGINAL) _PAC-MAN_ (ENGLISH VERSION)

Character (Personality) TRANSLATION NICKNAME TRANSLATION Alternate Character Alternate Nickname Character (Personality) NICKNAME

RED Oikake (追いかけ) Chaser Akabei (赤ベイ) Red guy Urchin Macky Shadow Blinky

PINK Machibuse (待ち伏せ) Ambusher Pinky (ピンキー) Pink guy Romp Micky Speedy Pinky

CYAN Kimagure (気まぐれ) Fickle Aosuke (青助) Blue guy Stylist Mucky Bashful Inky

ORANGE Otoboke (お惚け) Feigned Ignorance Guzuta (愚図た) Slow guy Crybaby Mocky Pokey Clyde

KILL SCREEN

Level 256, unplayable under normal circumstances due to an integer overflow in the game's code. Since this is an 8-bit game, the maximum integer value is 28 - 1, or 255.

_Pac-Man_ was designed to have no ending – as long as at least one life was left, the game should be able to go on indefinitely. However, a bug keeps this from happening: Normally, no more than seven fruit are displayed on the HUD at the bottom of the screen at any given time. But when the internal level counter, which is stored in a single byte, or eight bits, reaches 255, the subroutine that draws the fruit erroneously "rolls over " this number to zero when it is determining the number of fruit to draw, using fruit counter = internal level counter + 1. Normally, when the fruit counter is below eight, the drawing subroutine draws one fruit for each level, decrementing the fruit counter until it reaches zero. When the fruit counter has overflowed to zero, the first decrement sets the fruit counter back to 255, causing the subroutine to draw a total of 256 fruit instead of the maximum of seven.

This corrupts the bottom of the screen and the entire right half of the maze with seemingly random symbols and tiles, overwriting the values of edible dots which makes it impossible to eat enough dots to beat the level. Because this effectively ends the game, this "split-screen" level is often referred to as the "kill screen ". There are 114 dots on the left half of the screen, nine dots on the right, and one bonus key, totaling 6,310 points. When all of the dots have been cleared, nothing happens. The game does not consider a level to be completed until 244 dots have been eaten. Each time a life is lost, the nine dots on the right half of the screen get reset and can be eaten again, resulting in an additional 90 points per extra man. In the best-case scenario (five extra men), 6,760 points will be the maximum score possible, but only 168 dots can be harvested, and that is not enough to change levels. Four of the nine dots on the right half of the screen are invisible, but can be heard when eaten. Some dots are invisible but the rest can be seen, although some are a different color from normal. One method for safely clearing this round is to trap the ghosts. To trap the three important ghosts, the player must begin by going right until Pac-man reaches a blue letter 'N', and then he goes down. He keeps going down until he reaches a blue letter 'F', and then he goes right. He keeps going right until he reaches a yellow 'B', and then he goes down again. When executed properly, Pac-Man
Pac-Man
will hit an invisible wall almost immediately after the last turn is made. Eventually, the red ghost will get stuck. The pink ghost follows a few seconds later. The blue ghost will continue to move freely for several moments until the next scatter mode occurs. At that point, it will try to reach some location near the right edge of the screen and get stuck with the pink and red ghost instead. The orange ghost is the only one still on the loose, but he is no real threat since he runs to his corner whenever Pac-Man
Pac-Man
gets close so that it is easy to eat all the dots. :ch5 Emulators and code analysis have revealed what would happen if this 256th level is cleared: the fruit and intermissions would restart at level 1 conditions, but the enemies would retain their higher speed and invulnerability to power pellets from the higher stages. Billy Mitchell and Pac-Man, Fairfield Iowa 2014

PERFECT PLAY

A perfect _Pac-Man_ game occurs when the player achieves the maximum possible score on the first 255 levels (by eating every possible dot, power pellet, fruit, and enemy) without losing a single life, and using all extra lives to score as many points as possible on Level 256.

The first person to achieve this score is Billy Mitchell of Hollywood, Florida , who performed the feat in about six hours. Since then, over 20 other players have attained the maximum score in increasingly faster times. As of 2016 , the world record, according to Twin Galaxies , is held by David Race, who in 2013 attained the maximum possible score of 3,333,360 points in 3 hours, 28 minutes, and 49 seconds.

In December 1982, an eight-year-old boy, Jeffrey R. Yee, received a letter from U.S. President Ronald Reagan congratulating him on a worldwide record of 6,131,940 points, a score only possible if he had passed the unbeatable Split-Screen Level. In September 1983, Walter Day , chief scorekeeper at Twin Galaxies, took the US National Video Game Team on a tour of the East Coast to visit video game players who claimed they could get through the Split-Screen Level. No video game player could demonstrate this ability. In 1999, Billy Mitchell offered $100,000 to anyone who could pass through the Split-Screen Level before January 1, 2000. The prize was never claimed.

DEVELOPMENT

_ The North American Pac-Man_ cabinet design (left) differs significantly from the Japanese _Puck Man_ design (right).

Up into the early 1970s, Namco primarily specialized in kiddie rides for Japanese department stores. Masaya Nakamura , the founder of Namco, saw the potential value of video games, and started to direct the company toward arcade games, starting with electromechanical ones such as _F-1 _ (1976). He later hired a number of software engineers to develop their own video games as to compete with companies like Atari, Inc. .

_Pac-Man_ was one of the first games developed by this new department within Namco. The game was developed primarily by a young employee named Toru Iwatani over the course of 1 year, beginning in April 1979, employing a nine-man team. It was based on the concept of eating, and the original Japanese title is _Pakkuman_ (パックマン), inspired by the Japanese onomatopoeic phrase _paku-paku taberu_ (パクパク食べる), where _paku-paku_ describes (the sound of) the mouth movement when widely opened and then closed in succession.

Although Iwatani has repeatedly stated that the character's shape was inspired by a pizza missing a slice, he admitted in a 1986 interview that this was a half-truth and the character design also came from simplifying and rounding out the Japanese character for mouth, _kuchi_ (口). Iwatani attempted to appeal to a wider audience—beyond the typical demographics of young boys and teenagers. His intention was to attract girls to arcades because he found there were very few games that were played by women at the time. This led him to add elements of a maze, as well as cute ghost-like enemy characters. Eating to gain power, Iwatani has said, was a concept he borrowed from Popeye . The result was a game he named _Puck Man_ as a reference to the main character's hockey puck shape. Later in 1980, the game was picked up for manufacture in the United States by Bally division Midway , which changed the game's name from _Puck Man_ to _Pac-Man_ in an effort to avoid vandalism from people changing the letter 'P' into an 'F' to form the word fuck . The cabinet artwork was also changed and the pace and level of difficulty increased to appeal to western audiences.

RECEPTION

When first launched in Japan
Japan
by Namco in 1980, the game received a lukewarm response, as _ Space Invaders _ and other similar games were more popular at the time. However, _Pac-Man_'s success in North America in the same year took competitors and distributors completely by surprise. A frequently repeated story claims marketing executives who saw _Pac-Man_ at a trade show prior to release completely overlooked the game (along with the now-classic _Defender _), while they looked to a racing car game called _ Rally-X _ as the game to outdo that year, however, industry reporting from the era indicates that it was Namco itself which was heavily promoting Rally-X at the 1980 AMOA (Amusement it quickly became far more popular than anything seen in the game industry up to that point. _Pac-Man_ outstripped _Asteroids _ as the best-selling arcade game in North America, grossing over $1 billion in quarters within a year, by the end of 1980, surpassing the revenues grossed by the then highest-grossing film _Star Wars _. 60% of players were women according to one estimate, because of its lack of violence, while 90% of those playing space shoot-em-up _ Omega Race _ were men.

More than 350,000 _Pac-Man_ arcade cabinets were sold worldwide (retailing at around $2400 each) for $1 billion within 18 months of release (inflation adjusted: $2.4 billion in 2011). By 1982, the game had sold 400,000 arcade machines worldwide and an estimated 7 billion coins had been inserted into _Pac-Man_ machines. In addition, United States revenues from _Pac-Man_ licensed products (games, T-shirts, pop songs, wastepaper baskets, etc.) exceeded $1 billion (inflation adjusted: $2.33 billion in 2011). The game was estimated to have had 30 million active players across the United States in 1982. Nakamura said in a 1983 interview that though he did expect _Pac-Man_ to be successful, "I never thought it would be this big".

Toward the end of the 20th century, the arcade game's total gross consumer revenue had been estimated by Twin Galaxies at more than 10 billion quarters ($2.5 billion), making it the highest-grossing video game of all time. In 2016, _ USgamer _ calculated that the machines' inflation-adjusted takings were equivalent to $7.68 billion. In January 1982, the game won the overall Best Commercial Arcade Game award at the 1981 Arcade Awards . In 2001, _Pac-Man_ was voted the greatest video game of all time by a Dixons poll in the UK. The readers of _ Killer List of Videogames _ name _Pac-Man_ as the No. 1 video game on its "Top 10 Most Popular Video games" list, the staff name it as No. 18 on its "Top 100 Video Games" list, and _Ms. Pac-Man_ is given similar recognition. _ Pac-Man_ intermission cutscene . It exaggerates the effect of the power pellet power-up , showing a comically large Pac-Man.

IMPACT

The game is regarded as one of the most influential video games of all time, for a number of reasons: its titular character was the first original gaming mascot , the game established the maze chase game genre, it demonstrated the potential of characters in video games , it opened gaming to female audiences, and it was gaming's first licensing success. In addition, it was the first video game to feature power-ups , and the individual ghosts had deterministic artificial intelligence which react to player actions. It is also frequently credited as the first game to feature cut scenes , in the form of brief comical interludes about Pac-Man
Pac-Man
and Blinky chasing each other around during those interludes, :2 though _ Space Invaders Part II _ employed a similar technique that same year. _Pac-Man_ is also credited for laying the foundations for the stealth game genre, as it emphasized avoiding enemies rather than fighting them, and had an influence on the early stealth game _ Metal Gear _, where guards chase Solid Snake in a similar manner to _Pac-Man_ when he is spotted.

_Pac-Man_ has also influenced many other games, ranging from the sandbox game _ Grand Theft Auto _ (where the player runs over pedestrians and gets chased by police in a similar manner) to early first-person shooters such as _MIDI Maze _ (which had similar maze-based gameplay and character designs). :5 Game designer John Romero credited _Pac-Man_ as the game that had the biggest influence on his career; _ Wolfenstein 3D _ was similar in level design and featured a _Pac-Man_ level from a first-person perspective, while _Doom _ had a similar emphasis on mazes, power-ups, killing monsters, and reaching the next level. _Pac-Man_ also influenced the use of power-ups in later games such as _ Arkanoid _, and the game's artificial intelligence inspired programmers who later worked for companies such as Bethesda .

LEGACY

Guinness World Records has awarded the _Pac-Man_ series eight records in _Guinness World Records: Gamer's Edition 2008_, including First Perfect Pac-Man
Pac-Man
Game for Billy Mitchell 's July 3, 1999 score and "Most Successful Coin-Operated Game". On June 3, 2010, at the NLGD Festival of Games, the game's creator Toru Iwatani officially received the certificate from Guinness World Records for Pac-Man
Pac-Man
having had the most "coin-operated arcade machines" installed worldwide: 293,822. The record was set and recognized in 2005 and mentioned in the _Guinness World Records: Gamer's Edition 2008_, but finally actually awarded in 2010. Students' Spring Days in Tartu
Tartu
: runners in Pac-Man costume.

The game has inspired various real-life recreations, involving either real people or robots. One event called Pac-Manhattan set a Guinness World Record for "Largest Pac-Man
Pac-Man
Game" in 2004. The business term " Pac-Man defense " in mergers and acquisitions refers to a hostile takeover target that attempts to reverse the situation and take over its would-be acquirer instead, a reference to _Pac-Man_'s power pellets. The game's popularity has led to "Pac-Man" being adopted as a nickname, most notably by boxer Manny Pacquiao , as well as the American football player Adam Jones .

On August 21, 2016, in the 2016 Summer Olympics closing ceremony , during a video which showcased Tokyo as the host of the 2020 Summer Olympics , a small segment shows Pac-Man
Pac-Man
and the ghosts racing against each other eating pac-dots on a running track .

MERCHANDISE

The Pac-Man
Pac-Man
character and game series became an icon of video game culture during the 1980s, and a wide variety of _Pac-Man_ merchandise has been marketed with the character's image, from t-shirts and toys to hand-held video game imitations and even specially shaped pasta.

General Mills manufactured a cereal by the Pac-Man
Pac-Man
name in 1983. Over the cereal's lifespan, characters from sequels _Super Pac-Man_ and _Ms. Pac-Man_ were also added.

TV AND FILM

The _ Pac-Man
Pac-Man
_ animated TV series produced by Hanna–Barbera aired on ABC from 1982 to 1983. At one time, a feature film based on the game was also in development. In 2010, a computer-generated animated series titled _ Pac-Man and the Ghostly Adventures _ was reported to be in the works. The show was released on Disney XD in June 2013.

MUSIC

In music, the Buckner & Garcia song " Pac-Man
Pac-Man
Fever " (1981) went to No. 9 on the Billboard Hot 100 charts, and received a Gold certification with over a million records sold by 1982, and a total of 2.5 million copies sold as of 2008. Their _ Pac-Man
Pac-Man
Fever _ album (1982) also received a Gold certification for selling over a million records. In 1982 "Weird Al" Yankovic recorded a song titled "Pac-Man", which is a parody of " Taxman " by the Beatles . The song was played on the radio but was not released on a record at the time due to a cease and desist letter sent by the attorneys representing the Beatles. The song is set to be released in 2017 as part of the 15-album box set _Squeeze Box: The Complete Works of "Weird Al" Yankovic _. In 1992, Power-Pill (an Alias of Aphex Twin ) released _ Pac-Man
Pac-Man
_ — a techno tune which apart from a Breakbeat and a few vocals, consists entirely of samples from Pac-Man.

OTHER GAMING MEDIA

In 1982, Milton Bradley released a board game based on _Pac-Man_. In this game, players move up to four Pac-Man
Pac-Man
characters (traditional yellow plus red, green and blue) plus two ghosts as per the throws of a pair of dice. Each Pac-Man
Pac-Man
is assigned to a player while the ghosts are neutral and controlled by all players. Each player moves their Pac-Man
Pac-Man
the number of spaces on either die and a ghost the number of spaces on the other die, the Pac-Man
Pac-Man
consuming any white marbles (the equivalent of dots) and yellow marbles (the equivalent of power pellets) in its path. Players can move a ghost onto a Pac-Man
Pac-Man
and claim two white marbles from its player. They can also move a Pac-Man with a yellow marble inside it onto a ghost and claim two white marbles from any other player (following which the yellow marble is placed back in the maze. The game ends when all white marbles have been cleared from the board and the player with the largest number of white marbles is then declared the winner.

Sticker manufacturer Fleer included _Pac-Man_ Rub Off Game cards with their _Pac-Man_ stickers. The card packages contain a _Pac-Man_ style maze with all points along the path covered with opaque coverings. Starting from the lower board _Pac-Man_ starting position, the player moves around the maze while scratching off the coverings to score points. A white dot scores one point, a blue monster scores ten points, and a cherry scores 50 points. Uncovering a red, orange, or pink monster scores no points but the game ends when a third such monster is uncovered. A _Ms. Pac-Man_ version of the game also includes pretzels (100 points) and bananas (200 points).

Nelsonic Industries produced a _Pac-Man_ LCD
LCD
wristwatch game. This follows essentially the same rules as the video version, though with a simplified maze.

A pinball version titled _Mr. "> _Play media The Atari 2600 version of Pac-Man_ only somewhat resembles the original and alternately redraws each ghost on the screen, creating a flicker effect.

One of the first ports to be released was the much-maligned port for the Atari 2600 , which only somewhat resembles the original and was widely criticized for its flickering ghosts, due to the 2600's limited memory and hardware compared to the arcade machine, and several design and implementation choices. Despite the criticism, this version of _Pac-Man_ sold seven million units at $37.95 per copy, and became the best-selling game of all time on the Atari 2600 console. While enjoying initial sales success, Atari had overestimated demand by producing 12 million cartridges, of which 5 million went unsold. The port's poor quality damaged the company's reputation among consumers and retailers, which would eventually become one of the contributing factors to Atari 's decline and the North American video game crash of 1983 , alongside Atari's _E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial _.

Meanwhile, Coleco 's tabletop Mini-Arcade versions of the game yielded 1.5 million units sold in 1982.

_II Computing_ listed it tenth on the magazine's list of top Apple II series games as of late 1985, based on sales and market-share data, and in December 1987 alone Mindscape 's IBM PC version of _Pac-Man_ sold over 100,000 copies. The game was also released for Atari's 5200 and 8-bit computers , Intellivision , the Commodore 64 and VIC-20 , and the Nintendo Entertainment System . For handheld game consoles , it was released on the Game Boy , Sega Game Gear , Game Boy Color , and the Neo Geo Pocket Color .

_Pac-Man_ has been featured in Namco's long-running _ Namco Museum _ video game compilations. Downloads of the game have been made available on game services such as Xbox Live Arcade , GameTap , and Virtual Console . Namco has released mobile versions of Pac-Man
Pac-Man
for BREW , Java , and iOS , as well as Palm PDAs and Windows Mobile -based devices. A port of _Pac-Man_ for Android can be controlled not only through an Android phone's trackball but through touch gestures or its on-board accelerometer. As of 2010 , Namco had sold more than 30 million paid downloads of _Pac-Man_ on BREW in the United States alone.

A version of _Pac-Man_ and _Mrs. Pac-Man_ was released on the Galaxy Games multi-game cocktail table unit in 1998. The game differed from the original in that players controlled Pac-Man's movement with a trackball instead of a normal arcade joystick.

Microsoft released _ Microsoft Return of Arcade _ in 1996 and _ Microsoft Return of Arcade: Anniversary Edition_ in 2000, and includes _Pac-Man_ as one of its bundled arcade games.

Namco has repeatedly re-released the game to arcades. In 2001, Namco released a _Ms. Pac-Man_/_ Galaga _ "Class of 1981 Reunion Edition" cabinet with _Pac-Man_ available for play as a hidden game. To commemorate _Pac-Man_'s 25th anniversary in 2005, Namco released a revision that officially featured all three games.

Namco Networks sold a downloadable Windows PC version of _Pac-Man_ in 2009 which also includes an "Enhanced" mode which replaces all of the original sprites with the sprites from _ Pac-Man
Pac-Man
Championship Edition _. Namco Networks made a downloadable bundle which includes their PC version of _Pac-Man_ and their port of _ Dig Dug _ called _Namco All-Stars: Pac-Man
Pac-Man
and Dig Dug _.

In 2010, Namco Bandai announced the release of the game on Windows Phone 7 as an Xbox Live game.

_Pac-Man_ has numerous sequels and spin-offs , including only one of which was designed by Tōru Iwatani. Some of the follow-ups were not developed by Namco either —including the most significant, _Ms. Pac-Man
Pac-Man
_, released in the United States in 1981. Originally called _Crazy Otto_, this unauthorized hack of _Pac-Man_ was created by General Computer Corporation and sold to Midway without Namco's permission. The game features several changes from the original _Pac-Man_, including faster gameplay, more mazes, new intermissions, and moving bonus items. Some consider _Ms. Pac-Man_ to be superior to the original or even the best in the entire series. Stan Jarocki of Midway stated that _Ms. Pac-Man_ was conceived in response to the original _Pac-Man_ being "the first commercial video game to involve large numbers of women as players" and that it is "our way of thanking all those lady arcaders who have played and enjoyed _Pac-Man_." Namco sued Midway for exceeding their license. Eventually, Bally Midway struck a deal with Namco to officially license _Ms. Pac-Man_ as a sequel. Namco today officially owns Ms. Pac-Man in its other releases.

Following _Ms. Pac-Man_, Bally Midway released several other unauthorized spin-offs, such as _ Pac-Man Plus _, _ Jr. Pac-Man _, _Baby Pac-Man
Pac-Man
_ and _ Professor Pac-Man _, resulting in Namco severing business relations with Midway. _ Pac-Man Championship Edition _ (2007), commemorating the first World Championship _ The initial configuration of Google's Pac-Man_ banner

Various platform games based on the series have also been released by Namco, such as 1984's _ Pac-Land _ and the _ Pac-Man World _ series, which features Pac-Man
Pac-Man
in a 3-D world . More modern versions of the original game have also been developed, such as the multiplayer _ Pac-Man Vs. _ for the Nintendo GameCube .

On June 5, 2007, the first Pac-Man World Championship was held in New York City, which brought together ten competitors from eight countries to play the new _ Pac-Man Championship Edition _ developed by Tōru Iwatani. Its sequel was released November 2010.

For the weekend of May 21–23, 2010, Google changed the Google logo on its homepage to a Google Doodle of a fully playable version of the game in recognition of the 30th anniversary of the game's release. The game featured the ability to play both Pac-Man
Pac-Man
and Ms. Pac-Man simultaneously. After finishing the game, the website automatically redirected the user to a search of _ Pac-Man
Pac-Man
30th Anniversary_. Companies across the world experienced slight drops in productivity due to the game, estimated to be valued at the time as $120,000,000 (approximately €95,400,000; £83,000,000). However, _The Official ASTD Blog_ noted that the total loss, "spread out across the entire world isn't a huge loss, comparatively speaking". In total, the game devoured around 4.8 million hours of work productivity that day. Some organizations even temporarily blocked Google's website from workplace computers the Friday it was uploaded, particularly where it violated regulations against recreational games. Because of the popularity of the _Pac-Man_ doodle, Google later allowed access to the game through a separate web page. On March 31, 2015, Google Maps added an option allowing a _Pac-Man_ style game to be played using streets on the map as the maze.

In 2011, Namco sent a DMCA notice to the team that made the programming language Scratch saying that a programmer had infringed copyright by making a _Pac-Man_ game using the language and uploading it to Scratch's official website.

In April 2011, Soap Creative published World\'s Biggest Pac-Man working together with Microsoft and Namco-Bandai to celebrate _Pac-Man_'s 30th anniversary. It is a multiplayer browser-based game with user-created, interlocking mazes.

In 2016 an in-app version of Pac-Man
Pac-Man
was introduced in Facebook Messenger . This allows users to play the game against their friends while talking over Facebook.

On June 10, 2014, Pac-Man
Pac-Man
was confirmed to appear as a playable character in the game _Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS_ and _Wii U_ . The 3DS version also has a stage based on the original arcade game, called _Pac-Maze_. A Pac-Man
Pac-Man
Amiibo figurine was also released by Nintendo on May 29, 2015.

FILM

The Pac-Man
Pac-Man
character appears in the film _Pixels _ (2015), with Denis Akiyama playing series creator Toru Iwatani . Iwatani himself makes a cameo at the beginning of the film as an arcade technician. Pac-Man
Pac-Man
also has a small cameo in the film _Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 _. The main protagonist, Star Lord , turns into the character to defeat the main antagonist Ego.

REFERENCES

* ^ Date shown in January 1982 article "Midway celebrates Pac-Man". * ^ _A_ _B_ Namco Bandai Games Inc. (June 2, 2005). "Bandai Namco press release for 25th Anniversary Edition" (in Japanese). bandainamcogames.co.jp/. Archived from the original on December 30, 2007. Retrieved October 10, 2007. 2005年5月22日で生誕25周年を迎えた『パックマン』。 (" Pac-Man
Pac-Man
celebrates his 25th anniversary on May 22, 2005", seen in image caption) * ^ _A_ _B_ Long, Tony (October 10, 2007). "Oct. 10, 1979: Pac-Man Brings Gaming Into Pleistocene Era". _Wired_. Archived from the original on September 11, 2014. Retrieved October 10, 2007. puts the date at May 22, 1980 and is planning an official 25th anniversary celebration next year. * ^ "Game Board Schematic". _Midway Pac-Man
Pac-Man
Parts and Operating Manual_ (PDF). Chicago, Illinois: Midway Games . December 1980. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 23, 2015. Retrieved July 20, 2009. * ^ Nitsche, Michael (March 31, 2009). "Games and Rules". _Video Game Spaces: Image, Play, and Structure in 3D Worlds_. Cambridge, Massachusetts : MIT Press . p. 26. ISBN 0-262-14101-9 . they would not realize the fundamental logical difference between a version of Pac-Man
Pac-Man
(Iwatani 1980) running on the original Z80 * ^ " Pac-Man
Pac-Man
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FURTHER READING

* Trueman, Doug (November 10, 1999). "The History of Pac-Man". _ GameSpot _. Archived from the original on June 26, 2009. Comprehensive coverage on the history of the entire series up through 1999. * Müller, Martijn (June 3, 2010). "Tōru Iwatani on how Pac-Man came to be". _ NG-Gamer _. * Morris, Chris (May 10, 2005). "Pac Man Turns 25". _ CNN Money _. * Vargas, Jose Antonio (June 22, 2005). "Still Love at First Bite: At 25, Pac-Man
Pac-Man
Remains a Hot Pursuit". _ The Washington Post _. * Hirschfeld, Tom. _How to Master the Video Games_, Bantam Books, 1981. ISBN 0-553-20164-6 Arcade strategy guide to several games including incarnations of Pac-Man. Includes hand drawings of some of the common patterns for use in the arcade Pac-Man. 1982 edition ISBN 0-553-20195-6 covers home versions.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* _ Japan
Japan
portal * 1980s portal * Video games portal

* Pac-Man_ at the Killer List of Videogames * _Pac-Man_ at the Arcade History database * Pac-man 30th Anniversary

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