Ricardo Eliécer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto (12 July 1904 – 23
September 1973), better known by his pen name and, later, legal name
Pablo Neruda (/nəˈruːdə/; Spanish: [ˈpaβlo neˈɾuða]),
was a Chilean poet-diplomat and politician. Neruda became known as a
poet when he was 10 years old, and wrote in a variety of styles,
including surrealist poems, historical epics, overtly political
manifestos, a prose autobiography, and passionate love poems such as
the ones in his collection Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair
(1924). He won the
Nobel Prize for Literature
Nobel Prize for Literature in 1971.
Neruda occupied many diplomatic positions in various countries during
his lifetime and served a term as a Senator for the Chilean Communist
Party. When President
Gabriel González Videla
Gabriel González Videla outlawed communism in
Chile in 1948, a warrant was issued for Neruda's arrest. Friends hid
him for months in the basement of a house in the port city of
Valparaíso; Neruda escaped through a mountain pass near Maihue Lake
into Argentina. Years later, Neruda was a close advisor to Chile's
socialist President Salvador Allende. When Neruda returned to Chile
Nobel Prize acceptance speech, Allende invited him to read
at the Estadio Nacional before 70,000 people.
Neruda was hospitalised with cancer at the time of the coup d'état
Augusto Pinochet that overthrew Allende's government, but
returned home after a few days when he suspected a doctor of injecting
him with an unknown substance for the purpose of murdering him on
Pinochet's orders. Neruda died in his house in Isla Negra on 23
September 1973, just hours after leaving the hospital. Although it was
long reported that he died of heart failure, the Interior Ministry of
the Chilean government issued a statement in 2015 acknowledging a
Ministry document indicating the government's official position that
"it was clearly possible and highly likely" that Neruda was killed as
a result of "the intervention of third parties". Pinochet, backed
by elements of the armed forces, denied permission for Neruda's
funeral to be made a public event, but thousands of grieving Chileans
disobeyed the curfew and crowded the streets.
Neruda is often considered the national poet of Chile, and his works
have been popular and influential worldwide. The Colombian novelist
Gabriel García Márquez
Gabriel García Márquez once called him "the greatest poet of the
20th century in any language", and
Harold Bloom included Neruda as
one of the 26 writers central to the Western tradition in his book The
1 Early life
1.1 Literary career
2 Diplomatic career
2.1 Spanish Civil War
2.2 Mexican appointment
2.3 Return to Chile
3.1 Second return to Chile
4 Last years and death
4.1 Rumored murder and exhumation
5.1 In popular culture
6 List of works
6.1 English translations
7 See also
8.1 Other sources
9 Further reading
10 External links
Neruda as a young man
Pablo Neruda was born Ricardo Eliécer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto on 12
July 1904, in Parral, Chile, a city in
Linares Province in the Maule
Region, some 350 km south of Santiago, to José del Carmen
Reyes Morales, a railway employee, and Rosa Basoalto, a schoolteacher
who died two months after he was born. Soon after her death, Reyes
moved to Temuco, where he married a woman with whom he had had another
child nine years earlier, a boy named Rodolfo. Neruda grew up in
Temuco with Rodolfo and a half-sister, Laura, one of his father's
children by another woman. He composed his first poems in the winter
of 1914. Neruda was an atheist.
something started in my soul,
fever or forgotten wings,
and I made my own way,
and wrote the first faint line,
faint without substance, pure
of someone who knows nothing,
and suddenly I saw
From "Poetry", Memorial de Isla Negra (1964).
Trans. AlName="Tarn14">Tarn (1975) p. 14</ref>
Neruda's father opposed his son's interest in writing and literature,
but he received encouragement from others, including the future Nobel
Prize winner Gabriela Mistral, who headed the local school. On July
18, 1917, at the age of thirteen, he published his first work, an
essay titled "Entusiasmo y perseverancia" ("Enthusiasm and
Perseverance") in the local daily newspaper La Mañana, and signed it
Neftalí Reyes. From 1918 to mid-1920, he published numerous
poems, such as "Mis ojos" ("My eyes"), and essays in local magazines
as Neftalí Reyes. In 1919, he participated in the literary contest
Juegos Florales del Maule and won third place for his poem "Comunión
ideal" or "Nocturno ideal". By mid-1920, when he adopted the pseudonym
Pablo Neruda, he was a published author of poems, prose, and
journalism. He is thought to have derived his pen name from the Czech
poet Jan Neruda. The young poet's intention in publishing under a
pseudonym was to avoid his father's disapproval of his poems.
In 1921, at the age of 16, Neruda moved to Santiago to study
French at the Universidad de Chile, with the intention of becoming a
teacher. However, he was soon devoting all his time to writing poems
and with the help of well-known writer Eduardo Barrios, he managed
to meet and impress Don Carlos George Nascimento, the most important
Chile at the time. In 1923, his first volume of verse,
Crepusculario (Book of Twilights), was published by Editorial
Nascimento, followed the next year by Veinte poemas de amor y una
canción desesperada (Twenty Love Poems and A Desperate Song), a
collection of love poems that was controversial for its eroticism,
especially considering its author's young age. Both works were
critically acclaimed and have been translated into many languages.
Over the decades, Veinte poemas sold millions of copies and became
Neruda's best-known work, though a second edition did not appear until
1932. Almost one hundred years later, Veinte Poemas still retains its
place as the best-selling poetry book in the Spanish language. By
the age of 20, Neruda had established an international reputation as a
poet, but faced poverty.
In 1926, he published the collection Tentativa del hombre infinito
(The Attempt of the Infinite Man) and the novel El habitante y su
esperanza (The Inhabitant and His Hope). In 1927, out of financial
desperation, he took an honorary consulship in Rangoon, the capital of
the British colony of Burma, then administered from
New Delhi as a
province of British India. Rangoon was a place he had never heard of
before. Later, mired in isolation and loneliness, he worked in
Colombo (Ceylon), Batavia (Java), and Singapore. In Java the
following year he met and married his first wife, a Dutch bank
employee named Maryka Antonieta Hagenaar Vogelzang. While he was in
the diplomatic service, Neruda read large amounts of verse,
experimented with many different poetic forms, and wrote the first two
volumes of Residencia en la Tierra, which includes many surrealist
Spanish Civil War
After returning to Chile, Neruda was given diplomatic posts in Buenos
Aires and then Barcelona, Spain. He later succeeded Gabriela
Mistral as consul in Madrid, where he became the center of a lively
literary circle, befriending such writers as Rafael Alberti, Federico
García Lorca, and the Peruvian poet César Vallejo. A daughter,
Malva Marina (Trinidad) Reyes, was born in
Madrid in 1934; she was
plagued with health problems, especially hydrocephalus, during her
short life. During this period, Neruda slowly became estranged
from his wife and began a relationship with Delia del
Carril (es), an Argentine twenty years his senior.
Grave of Malva Marina, daughter of Pablo Neruda
As Spain became engulfed in civil war, Neruda became intensely
politicised for the first time. His experiences during the Spanish
Civil War and its aftermath moved him away from privately focused work
in the direction of collective obligation. Neruda became an ardent
Communist for the rest of his life. The radical leftist politics of
his literary friends, as well as that of del Carril, were contributing
factors, but the most important catalyst was the execution of García
Lorca by forces loyal to the dictator Francisco Franco. By means
of his speeches and writings, Neruda threw his support behind the
Spanish Republic, publishing the collection España en el corazón
(Spain in Our Hearts, 1938). He lost his post as consul due to his
Neruda's marriage to Vogelzang broke down and the couple divorced in
1936. His ex-wife moved to
Monte Carlo and then to the Netherlands
with their only child, and he never saw either of them again.
After leaving his wife, Neruda lived with Delia del Carril in France.
Following the election of Pedro Aguirre Cerda, whom Neruda supported,
as President of
Chile in 1938, Neruda was appointed special consul for
Spanish emigrants in Paris. There he was responsible for what he
called "the noblest mission I have ever undertaken": transporting
2,000 Spanish refugees who had been housed by the French in squalid
Chile on an old ship called the Winnipeg. Neruda is
sometimes charged with having selected only fellow Communists for
emigration, to the exclusion of others who had fought on the side of
the Republic. Many of these Republicans and Anarchists were killed
during the German invasion and occupation. Others deny these
accusations, pointing out that Neruda chose only a few hundred of the
2,000 refugees personally; the rest were selected by the Service for
the Evacuation of Spanish Refugees set up by Juan Negrín, President
of the Spanish Republican Government in Exile.
Neruda's next diplomatic post was as Consul General in Mexico City
from 1940 to 1943. While he was there, he married del Carril, and
learned that his daughter Malva had died, aged eight, in the
In 1940, after the failure of an assassination attempt against Leon
Trotsky, Neruda arranged a Chilean visa for the Mexican painter David
Alfaro Siqueiros, who was accused of having been one of the
conspirators in the assassination. Neruda later said that he did
it at the request of the Mexican President, Manuel Ávila Camacho.
This enabled Siqueiros, then jailed, to leave Mexico for Chile, where
he stayed in Neruda's private residence. In exchange for Neruda's
assistance, Siqueiros spent over a year painting a mural in a school
in Chillán. Neruda's relationship with Siqueiros attracted criticism,
but Neruda dismissed the allegation that his intent had been to help
an assassin as "sensationalist politico-literary harassment".
Return to Chile
In 1943, after his return to Chile, Neruda made a tour of Peru, where
he visited Machu Picchu, an experience that later inspired Alturas
de Macchu Picchu, a book-length poem in twelve parts that he completed
in 1945 and which expressed his growing awareness of, and interest in,
the ancient civilizations of the Americas. He explored this theme
Canto General (1950). In Alturas, Neruda celebrated the
achievement of Machu Picchu, but also condemned the slavery that had
made it possible. In Canto XII, he called upon the dead of many
centuries to be born again and to speak through him. Martín Espada,
poet and professor of creative writing at the University of
Massachusetts Amherst, has hailed the work as a masterpiece, declaring
that "there is no greater political poem".
Bolstered by his experiences in the Spanish Civil War, Neruda, like
many left-leaning intellectuals of his generation, came to admire the
Soviet Union of Joseph Stalin, partly for the role it played in
Nazi Germany and partly because of an idealist
Marxist doctrine. This is echoed in poems such
as "Canto a Stalingrado" (1942) and "Nuevo canto de amor a
Stalingrado" (1943). In 1953, Neruda was awarded the Stalin Peace
Prize. Upon Stalin's death that same year, Neruda wrote an ode to him,
as he also wrote poems in praise of Fulgencio Batista, "Saludo a
Batista" ("Salute to Batista"), and later to Fidel Castro. His fervent
Stalinism eventually drove a wedge between Neruda and his long-time
friend Octavio Paz, who commented that "Neruda became more and more
Stalinist, while I became less and less enchanted with Stalin."
Their differences came to a head after the Nazi-Soviet
Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact of 1939, when they almost came to blows in an
argument over Stalin. Although Paz still considered Neruda "The
greatest poet of his generation", in an essay on Aleksandr
Solzhenitsyn he wrote that when he thinks of "Neruda and other famous
Stalinist writers and poets, I feel the gooseflesh that I get from
reading certain passages of the Inferno. No doubt they began in good
faith [...] but insensibly, commitment by commitment, they saw
themselves becoming entangled in a mesh of lies, falsehoods, deceits
and perjuries, until they lost their souls." On July 15, 1945, at
Pacaembu Stadium in São Paulo, Brazil, Neruda read to 100,000 people
in honor of the Communist revolutionary leader Luís Carlos
Neruda also called
Vladimir Lenin the "great genius of this century",
and in a speech he gave on June 5, 1946, he paid tribute to the late
Soviet leader Mikhail Kalinin, who for Neruda was "man of noble life",
"the great constructor of the future", and "a comrade in arms of Lenin
Neruda later came to rue his seduction by the personality cult,
explaining that "in those days, Stalin seemed to us the conqueror who
had crushed Hitler's armies." Of a subsequent visit to
1957, Neruda wrote: "What has estranged me from the Chinese
revolutionary process has not been Mao Tse-tung but Mao Tse-tungism."
He dubbed this Mao Tse-Stalinism: "the repetition of a cult of a
Socialist deity." Despite his disillusionment with Stalin, Neruda
never lost his essential faith in Communist theory and remained loyal
to "the Party". Anxious not to give ammunition to his ideological
enemies, he would later refuse publicly to condemn the Soviet
repression of dissident writers like
Boris Pasternak and Joseph
Brodsky, an attitude with which even some of his staunchest admirers
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On March 4, 1945, Neruda was elected a Communist Senator for the
northern provinces of Antofagasta and Tarapacá in the Atacama
Desert. He officially joined the Communist Party of
months later. In 1946, the Radical Party's presidential candidate,
Gabriel González Videla, asked Neruda to act as his campaign manager.
González Videla was supported by a coalition of left-wing parties and
Neruda fervently campaigned on his behalf. Once in office, however,
González Videla turned against the Communist Party and issued the Ley
de Defensa Permanente de la Democracia (Law of Permanent Defense of
the Democracy). The breaking point for Senator Neruda was the violent
repression of a Communist-led miners' strike in Lota in October 1947,
when striking workers were herded into island military prisons and a
concentration camp in the town of Pisagua. Neruda's criticism of
González Videla culminated in a dramatic speech in the Chilean senate
on January 6, 1948, which became known as "Yo acuso" ("I accuse"), in
the course of which he read out the names of the miners and their
families who were imprisoned at the concentration camp.
During the late 1960s, Argentine writer
Jorge Luis Borges
Jorge Luis Borges was asked
for his opinion of Pablo Neruda. Borges stated, "I think of him as a
very fine poet, a very fine poet. I don't admire him as a man, I think
of him as a very mean man." He said that Neruda had not spoken out
against Argentine President
Juan Perón because he was afraid to risk
his reputation, noting "I was an Argentine poet, he was a Chilean
poet, he's on the side of the Communists, I'm against them. So I felt
he was behaving very wisely in avoiding a meeting that would have been
quite uncomfortable for both of us."
Neruda with his wife and
Erich Honecker in 1951
A few weeks later in 1948, finding himself threatened with arrest,
Neruda went into hiding and he and his wife were smuggled from house
to house hidden by supporters and admirers for the next thirteen
months. While in hiding, Senator Neruda was removed from office
and, in September 1948, the Communist Party was banned altogether
under the Ley de Defensa Permanente de la Democracia, called by
critics the Ley Maldita (Accursed Law), which eliminated over 26,000
people from the electoral registers, thus stripping them of their
right to vote. Neruda later moved to Valdivia, in southern Chile. From
Valdivia he moved to Fundo Huishue, a forestry estate in the vicinity
of Huishue Lake. Neruda's life underground ended in March 1949 when he
fled over the
Lilpela Pass in the
Andes Mountains to
horseback. He would dramatically recount his escape from
Chile in his
Nobel Prize lecture.
Once out of Chile, he spent the next three years in exile. In
Buenos Aires, Neruda took advantage of the slight resemblance between
him and his friend, the future Nobel Prize-winning novelist and
cultural attaché to the Guatemalan embassy Miguel Ángel Asturias, to
travel to Europe using Asturias' passport.
Pablo Picasso arranged
his entrance into
Paris and Neruda made a surprise appearance there to
a stunned World Congress of Peace Forces[clarification needed], while
the Chilean government denied that the poet could have escaped the
country. Neruda spent those three years traveling extensively
throughout Europe as well as taking trips to India, China, Sri Lanka
and the Soviet Union. His trip to Mexico in late 1949 was lengthened
due to a serious bout of phlebitis. A Chilean singer named Matilde
Urrutia was hired to care for him and they began an affair that would,
years later, culminate in marriage. During his exile, Urrutia
would travel from country to country shadowing him and they would
arrange meetings whenever they could.
Matilde Urrutia was the muse for
Los versos del capitán, a book of poetry which Neruda later published
anonymously in 1952.
from "Full Woman, Fleshly Apple, Hot Moon"
Full woman, fleshly apple, hot moon,
thick smell of seaweed, crushed mud and light,
what obscure brilliance opens between your columns?
What ancient night does a man touch with his senses?
Loving is a journey with water and with stars,
with smothered air and abrupt storms of flour:
loving is a clash of lightning-bolts
and two bodies defeated by a single drop of honey.
From "Full Woman, Fleshly Apple, Hot Moon",
Selected Poems translated by Stephen Mitchell (1997) 
While in Mexico, Neruda also published his lengthy epic poem Canto
General, a Whitmanesque catalog of the history, geography, and flora
and fauna of South America, accompanied by Neruda's observations and
experiences. Many of them dealt with his time underground in Chile,
which is when he composed much of the poem. In fact, he had carried
the manuscript with him during his escape on horseback. A month later,
a different edition of five thousand copies was boldly published in
Chile by the outlawed Communist Party based on a manuscript Neruda had
left behind. In Mexico, he was granted honorary Mexican
citizenship. Neruda's 1952 stay in a villa owned by Italian
Edwin Cerio on the island of
Capri was fictionalized in
Antonio Skarmeta's 1985 novel Ardiente Paciencia (Ardent Patience,
later known as El cartero de Neruda, or Neruda's Postman), which
inspired the popular film
Il Postino (1994).
Second return to Chile
Neruda recording his poetry at the U.S.
Library of Congress
Library of Congress in 1966
By 1952, the González Videla government was on its last legs,
weakened by corruption scandals. The Chilean Socialist Party was in
the process of nominating
Salvador Allende as its candidate for the
September 1952 presidential elections and was keen to have the
presence of Neruda, by now Chile's most prominent left-wing literary
figure, to support the campaign. Neruda returned to
August of that year and rejoined Delia del Carril, who had traveled
ahead of him some months earlier, but the marriage was crumbling. Del
Carril eventually learned of his affair with
Matilde Urrutia and he
sent her back to
Chile in 1955. She convinced the Chilean officials to
lift his arrest, allowing Urrutia and Neruda to go to Capri, Italy.
Now united with Urrutia, Neruda would, aside from many foreign trips
and a stint as Allende's ambassador to France from 1970 to 1973, spend
the rest of his life in Chile.
By this time, Neruda enjoyed worldwide fame as a poet, and his books
were being translated into virtually all the major languages of the
world. He vigorously denounced the United States during the Cuban
missile crisis and later in the decade he likewise repeatedly
condemned the U.S. for its involvement in the Vietnam War. But being
one of the most prestigious and outspoken left-wing intellectuals
alive, he also attracted opposition from ideological opponents. The
Congress for Cultural Freedom, an anti-communist organization covertly
established and funded by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency,
adopted Neruda as one of its primary targets and launched a campaign
to undermine his reputation, reviving the old claim that he had been
an accomplice in the attack on
Leon Trotsky in
Mexico City in
1940. The campaign became more intense when it became known that
Neruda was a candidate for the 1964 Nobel Prize, which was eventually
awarded to Jean-Paul Sartre.
La Sebastiana, Neruda's house in Valparaíso
In 1966, Neruda was invited to attend an
International PEN conference
in New York City. Officially, he was barred from entering the U.S.
because he was a communist, but the conference organizer, playwright
Arthur Miller, eventually prevailed upon the Johnson Administration to
grant Neruda a visa. Neruda gave readings to packed halls, and
even recorded some poems for the Library of Congress. Miller later
opined that Neruda's adherence to his communist ideals of the 1930s
was a result of his protracted exclusion from "bourgeois society". Due
to the presence of many
Eastern Bloc writers, Mexican writer Carlos
Fuentes later wrote that the PEN conference marked a "beginning of the
end" of the Cold War.
Upon Neruda's return to Chile, he stopped in Peru, where he gave
readings to enthusiastic crowds in
Arequipa and was received
by President Fernando Belaúnde Terry. However, this visit also
prompted an unpleasant backlash; because the Peruvian government had
come out against the government of
Fidel Castro in Cuba, July 1966 saw
more than one hundred Cuban intellectuals retaliate against the poet
by signing a letter that charged Neruda with colluding with the enemy,
calling him an example of the "tepid, pro-Yankee revisionism" then
prevalent in Latin America. The affair was particularly painful for
Neruda because of his previous outspoken support for the Cuban
revolution, and he never visited the island again, even after
receiving an invitation in 1968.
After the death of
Che Guevara in
Bolivia in 1967, Neruda wrote
several articles regretting the loss of a "great hero". At the
same time, he told his friend Aida Figueroa not to cry for Che, but
for Luis Emilio Recabarren, the father of the Chilean communist
movement, who preached a pacifist revolution over Che's violent ways.
Last years and death
La Chascona, Neruda's house in Santiago
In 1970, Neruda was nominated as a candidate for the Chilean
presidency, but ended up giving his support to Salvador Allende, who
later won the election and was inaugurated in 1970 as the first
democratically elected socialist head of state. Shortly
thereafter, Allende appointed Neruda the Chilean ambassador to France,
lasting from 1970–1972; his final diplomatic posting. During his
stint in Paris, Neruda helped to renegotiate the external debt of
Chile, billions owed to European and American banks, but within months
of his arrival in
Paris his health began to deteriorate. Neruda
Chile two and half years later due to his failing health.
Buenos Aires 1971
In 1971, Neruda was awarded the Nobel Prize, a decision that did
not come easily because some of the committee members had not
forgotten Neruda's past praise of Stalinist dictatorship. But his
Swedish translator, Artur Lundkvist, did his best to ensure the
Chilean received the prize. "A poet," Neruda stated in his
Stockholm speech of acceptance of the Nobel Prize, "is at the same
time a force for solidarity and for solitude." The following year
Neruda was awarded the prestigious Golden Wreath Award at the Struga
As the coup d'état of 1973 unfolded, Neruda, then diagnosed with
prostate cancer, was devastated by the mounting attacks on the Allende
government. The military coup led by General
Augusto Pinochet saw
Neruda's hopes for
Chile destroyed. Shortly thereafter, during a
search of the house and grounds at Isla Negra by Chilean armed forces
at which Neruda was reportedly present, the poet famously remarked:
"Look around—there's only one thing of danger for you
Neruda laid out in his coffin, 1973
It was originally reported that, on the evening of September 23, 1973,
at Santiago's Santa María Clinic, Neruda had died of heart
However, “(t)hat day, he was alone in the hospital where he had
already spent five days. His health was declining and he called his
wife, Matilde Urrutia, so she could come immediately because they were
giving him something and he wasn’t feeling good." On May 12,
2011, the Mexican magazine Proceso published an interview with his
former driver Manuel Araya Osorio in which he states that he was
present when Neruda called his wife and warned that he believed
Pinochet had ordered a doctor to kill him, and that he had just been
given an injection in his stomach. He would die six and a half
hours later. Even reports from the pro-
Pinochet El Mercurio newspaper
the day after Neruda's death (refer) to an injection immediately
beforehand. According to an official Chilean Interior Ministry
report prepared in March 2015 for the court investigation into
Neruda’s death, "he was either given an injection or something
orally" at the Santa María Clinic "which caused his death
six-and-a-half hours later. The 1971 Nobel laureate was scheduled to
fly to Mexico where he may have been planning to lead a government in
exile that would denounce General Augusto Pinochet, who led the coup
against Allende on September 11, according to his friends, researchers
and other political observers". The funeral took place amidst a
massive police presence, and mourners took advantage of the occasion
to protest against the new regime, established just a couple of weeks
before. Neruda's house was broken into and his papers and books taken
In 1974 his Memoirs appeared under the title I Confess I Have Lived,
updated to the last days of the poet's life, and including a final
segment describing the death of
Salvador Allende during the storming
of the Moneda Palace by General
Pinochet and other generals –
occurring only twelve days before Neruda died. Matilde Urrutia
subsequently compiled and edited for publication the memoirs and
possibly his final poem "Right Comrade, It's the Hour of the Garden".
These and other activities brought her into conflict with Pinochet's
government, which continually sought to curtail Neruda's influence on
the Chilean collective consciousness. Urrutia's own memoir, My Life
with Pablo Neruda, was published posthumously in 1986. Manuel
Araya, his Communist Party-appointed chauffeur, published a book about
Neruda's final days in 2012.
Rumored murder and exhumation
In June 2013, a Chilean judge ordered that an investigation be
launched, following suggestions that Neruda had been killed by the
Pinochet regime for his pro-Allende stance and political views.
Neruda's driver, Manuel Araya, stated that doctors had administered
poison as the poet was preparing to go into exile. In December
2011 Chile's Communist Party asked Chilean Judge Mario Carroza to
order the exhumation of the remains of the poet. Carroza had been
conducting probes into hundreds of deaths allegedly connected to
abuses of Pinochet's regime from 1973 to 1990. Carroza's
inquiry during 2011–12 uncovered enough evidence to order the
exhumation in April 2013. Eduardo Contreras, a Chilean lawyer who
was leading the push for a full investigation, commented: "We have
world-class labs from India, Switzerland, Germany, the US, Sweden,
they have all offered to do the lab work for free." The Pablo Neruda
Foundation fought the exhumation under the grounds that the Araya's
claims were unbelievable.
In June 2013 a court order was issued to find the man who allegedly
poisoned Neruda. Police were investigating Michael Townley, who was
facing trial for the killings of General
Carlos Prats (Buenos Aires,
1974), and ex Chancellor
Orlando Letelier (Washington, 1976).
Test results were released on 8 November 2013 of the seven-month
investigation by a 15-member forensic team. Patricio Bustos, the head
of Chile's medical legal service, stated "No relevant chemical
substances have been found that could be linked to Mr. Neruda's death"
at the time. However, Carroza said that he was waiting for the
results of the last scientific tests conducted in May (2015), which
found that Neruda was infected with the Staphylococcus aureus
bacterium, which can be highly toxic and result in death if
A team of 16 international experts lead by Spanish forensic specialist
Aurelio Luna from the
University of Murcia
University of Murcia announced on 20 October
2017 that "from analysis of the data we cannot accept that the poet
had been in an imminent situation of death at the moment of entering
the hospital" and that death from prostate cancer was not likely at
the moment when he died. The team also discovered something in
Neruda's remains that could possibly be a laboratory-cultivated
bacteria. The results of their continuing analysis are expected in
Neruda owned three houses in Chile; today they are all open to the
public as museums:
La Chascona in Santiago, La Sebastiana in
Casa de Isla Negra
Casa de Isla Negra in Isla Negra, where he and
Matilde Urrutia are buried.
A bust of Neruda stands on the grounds of the Organization of American
States building in Washington, D.C.
In popular culture
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American composer Tobias Picker set to music Tres Sonetos de Amor for
baritone and orchestra
American composer Tobias Picker set to music Cuatro Sonetos de Amor
for voice and piano
Mikis Theodorakis set to music the Canto general.
Greek composer and singer
Nikos Xilouris composed Οι Νεκρoί
της Πλατείας (The dead of the Square) based on Los muertos
de la plaza.
Samuel Barber used Neruda's poems for his cantata
The Lovers in 1971.
Alternative rock musician
Lynda Thomas released as a single the
flamenco song Ay, Ay, Ay (2001), which is based on the book "Twenty
Love Poems and a Song of Despair".
Austrian avant-garde composer
Michael Gielen set to music Un día
sobresale (Ein Tag Tritt Hervor. Pentaphonie für obligates Klavier,
fünf Soloinstrumente und fünf Gruppen zu je fünf Musikern mit
Worten von Pablo Neruda. 1960–63).
Native American composer Ron Warren set to music Quatro Sonetos de
Amor for coloratura soprano, flute and piano (1999), 1 from each group
of sonnets in Cien Sonetos de Amor. Recorded on Circle All Around Me
Blue Heron Music BHM101.
Daniel Catán wrote an opera
Il Postino (2010), whose
premiere production featured Spanish tenor
Plácido Domingo portraying
The Dutch composer
Peter Schat used twelve poems from the Canto
General for his cantata
Canto General for mezzo-soprano, violin and
piano (1974), which he dedicated to the memory of the late president
Folk rock / progressive rock group Los Jaivas, famous in Chile, used
Las alturas de Macchu Picchu as the text for their album of the same
Sergio Ortega worked closely with the poet in the
musical play Fulgor y muerte de Joaquín Murieta (1967). Three decades
later, Ortega expanded the piece into an opera, leaving Neruda's text
Peter Lieberson composed Neruda Songs (2005) and Songs of Love and
Sorrow (2010) based on Cien Sonetos de Amor.
Luciana Souza released an album called "Neruda" (2004)
featuring 10 of Neruda's poems set to the music of Federico Mompou.
The South African musician
Johnny Clegg drew heavily on Neruda in his
early work with the band Juluka.
On the back on Jackson Browne's album The Pretender, there is a poem
Canadian rock group
Red Rider named their 1983 LP/CD release, Neruda.
Sixpence None the Richer
Sixpence None the Richer set his poem "Puedo escribir" to
music on their platinum selling self-titled album (1997).
Brazilian Girls turned "Poema 15" ("Poem 15") from Veinte
poemas de amor y una canción desesperada (20 love poems and a song of
despair) into their song "Me gusta cuando callas" from their
With permission from the Fundación Neruda,
Marco Katz composed a song
cycle based on the volume Piedras del cielo for voice and
Centaur Records CRC 3232, 2012.
Occitan singer Joanda composed the song Pablo Neruda
American contemporary composer Morten Lauridsen set Neruda's poem
"Soneto de la noche" to music as part of his cycle "Nocturnes" from
The opening lines for the song "Bachata Rosa" by
Juan Luis Guerra
Juan Luis Guerra was
inspired by Neruda's The Book of Questions.
Ezequiel Vinao composed "Sonetos de amor" (2011) a song cycle based on
Neruda's love poems.
Ute Lemper co-composed the songs of "Forever" (2013) an album of the
Love poems of Pablo Neruda
American composer Daniel Welcher composed Abeja Blanca, for
Mezzo-Soprano, English Horn, and Piano using the Abeja Blanca text
from Neruda's Twenty Love Songs and a Song of Despair
Canadian rock band The Tragically Hip, on their album Now for Plan A
(Universal, 2012), on the sixth track of the album, in a song titled
"Now For Plan A", includes a reading by guest vocalist
Sarah Harmer of
the first two stanzas of the
Pablo Neruda poem, "Ode To Age" ("Odă
Neruda's 1952 stay in a villa on the island of
Capri was fictionalized
in Chilean author Antonio Skarmeta's 1985 novel Ardiente Paciencia
(published as Burning Patience, later known as El cartero de Neruda,
or Neruda's Postman).
The 1998 Spanglish novel
Yo-Yo Boing! by
Giannina Braschi features a
comic, dinner party debate between poets and artists about Neruda’s
genius versus that of other
Spanish language poets Quevedo, Góngora,
Ruben Darío, Juan Ramon Jimenez, and Federico Garcia Lorca.
In 2008 the writer
Roberto Ampuero published a novel El caso Neruda,
about his private eye Cayetano Brulé, where
Pablo Neruda is one of
The Dreamer (2010) is a children's fictional biography of Neruda, "a
shy Chilean boy whose spirit develops and thrives despite his father's
relentless negativity". Written by
Pam Muñoz Ryan and illustrated by
Peter Sís, the text and illustrations are printed in Neruda's
signature green ink.
The character of The Poet in Isabel Allende's debut novel The House of
the Spirits is likely an allusion to Neruda.
The Italian film Il Postino, inspired by Antonio Skármeta's 1985
novel Ardiente paciencia (Ardent Patience, later known as El cartero
de Neruda, or Neruda's Postman), centres on the story of Pablo Neruda
(Philippe Noiret) living in exile on
Salina Island near
the 1950s. While there, he befriends the local letter carrier and
inspires in him a love of poetry.
Neruda is a 120-minute documentary about his life and poetry including
interviews with his friends like Volodia Teitelboim, Jose Balmes,
Jorge Edwards, Andrej Wosnessenski, Mikis Theodorakis. This film was
directed by the German filmmaker Ebbo Demant and broadcast 2004 in the
European culture TV channel ARTE and the German public-service
Neruda, a 2016 Chilean film
The English film Truly, Madly, Deeply, written and directed by Anthony
Minghella, uses Neruda's poem "The Dead Woman" as a pivotal device in
the plot when Nina (Juliet Stevenson) understands she must let go of
her dead lover Jamie (Alan Rickman).
The 1998 film Patch Adams features Love Sonnet XVII.
In the U.S. sitcom How I Met Your Mother, both
Ted Mosby and the
Mother's favourite poem is revealed to be Pablo Neruda's "Mañana
The Simpsons episode "Bart Sells His Soul", Lisa mentions and
Pablo Neruda ("Laughter is the language of the soul") and Bart
snidely replies that he is familiar with his work.
For most of his life, Neruda was fascinated by butterflies. In 1976, a
sub-group of the South American genus
Heliconius was named after
List of works
Crepusculario. Santiago, Ediciones Claridad, 1923.
Veinte poemas de amor y una canción desesperada. Santiago, Editorial
Tentativa del hombre infinito. Santiago, Editorial Nascimento, 1926.
Anillos. Santiago, Editorial Nascimento, 1926. (Prosa poética de
Pablo Neruda y Tomás Lago.)
El hondero entusiasta. Santiago, Empresa Letras, 1933.
El habitante y su esperanza. Novela. Santiago, Editorial Nascimento,
Residencia en la tierra (1925–1931). Madrid, Ediciones del Árbol,
España en el corazón. Himno a las glorias del pueblo en la guerra:
(1936–1937). Santiago, Ediciones Ercilla, 1937.
Nuevo canto de amor a Stalingrado. México, 1943.
Tercera residencia (1935–1945). Buenos Aires, Losada, 1947.
Alturas de Macchu Picchu. Ediciones de Libreria Neira, Santiago de
Canto general. México, Talleres Gráficos de la Nación, 1950.
Los versos del capitán. 1952.
Todo el amor. Santiago, Editorial Nascimento, 1953.
Las uvas y el viento. Santiago, Editorial Nascimento, 1954.
Odas elementales. Buenos Aires, Editorial Losada, 1954.
Nuevas odas elementales. Buenos Aires, Editorial Losada, 1955.
Tercer libro de las odas. Buenos Aires, Losada, 1957.
Estravagario. Buenos Aires, Editorial Losada, 1958.
Navegaciones y regresos. Buenos Aires, Editorial Losada, 1959.
Cien sonetos de amor. Santiago, Editorial Universitaria, 1959.
Canción de gesta. La Habana, Imprenta Nacional de Cuba, 1960.
Poesías: Las piedras de Chile. Buenos Aires, Editorial Losada, 1960.
Las Piedras de Pablo Neruda
Cantos ceremoniales. Buenos Aires, Losada, 1961.
Memorial de Isla Negra. Buenos Aires, Losada, 1964. 5 volúmenes.
Arte de pájaros. Santiago, Ediciones Sociedad de Amigos del Arte
Fulgor y muerte de Joaquín Murieta. Santiago, Zig-Zag, 1967. La obra
fue escrita con la intención de servir de libreto para una ópera de
La Barcarola. Buenos Aires, Losada, 1967.
Las manos del día. Buenos Aires, Losada, 1968.
Comiendo en Hungría. Editorial Lumen, Barcelona, 1969. (En
co-autoría con Miguel Ángel Asturias)
Fin del mundo. Santiago, Edición de la Sociedad de Arte
Contemporáneo, 1969. Con Ilustraciones de Mario Carreño, Nemesio
Antúnez, Pedro Millar, María Martner, Julio Escámez y Oswaldo
Aún. Editorial Nascimento, Santiago, 1969.
Maremoto. Santiago, Sociedad de
Arte Contemporáneo, 1970. Con
Xilografías a color de Carin Oldfelt Hjertonsson.
La espada encendida. Buenos Aires, Losada, 1970.
Las piedras del cielo. Editorial Losada, Buenos Aires, 1970.
Discurso de Estocolmo. Alpignano, Italia, A. Tallone, 1972.
Geografía infructuosa. Buenos Aires, Editorial Losada, 1972.
La rosa separada. Éditions du Dragon, París, 1972 con grabados de
Incitación al Nixonicidio y alabanza de la revolución chilena.
Santiago, Empresa Editora Nacional Quimantú, Santiago, 1973.
The Heights of Macchu Picchu (bilingual edition)(Jonathan Cape Ltd
London; Farrar, Strauss, Giroux New York 1966, translated by Nathaniel
Tarn, preface by Robert Pring-Mill)(broadcast by the BBC Third
Canto General (University of California Press, 1991) (translated by
Selected Odes of
Pablo Neruda (University of California Press, 1990)
(translated by Margaret Sayers Peden)
All The Odes (Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 2013) (various translators,
prominently Margaret Sayers Peden)
100 Love Sonnets (bilingual edition) (Exile Editions, 2004, new
edition 2016) (translated and with an afterword by Gustavo Escobedo;
Introduction by Rosemary Sullivan; Reflections on reading Neruda by
George Elliott Clarke, Beatriz Hausner and A.F. Moritz)
Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair (bilingual edition) (London:
Jonathan Cape Ltd London; Penguin Books, 1976 translated by William
The Hands of the Day (Copper Canyon Press, 2008) (translated by
The Book of Questions (Copper Canyon Press, 1991, 2001) (translated by
The Yellow Heart (Copper Canyon Press, 1990, 2002) (translated by
Stones of the Sky (Copper Canyon Press, 1990, 2002) (translated by
The Sea and the Bells (Copper Canyon Press, 1988, 2002) (translated by
Winter Garden (Copper Canyon Press, 1987, 2002) (translated by James
The Separate Rose (Copper Canyon Press, 1985) (translated by William
Still Another Day (Copper Canyon Press, 1984, 2005) (translated by
On the Blue Shore of Silence: Poems of the Sea (Rayo Harper Collins,
2004) (translated by Alastair Reid, epilogue Antonio Skármeta)
The Captain's Verses (bilingual edition) (New Directions, 1972)
(translated by Donald D. Walsh)
Residence on Earth (bilingual edition) (New Directions, 1973)
(translated by Donald D. Walsh)
100 Love Sonnets (bilingual edition) (University of Texas Press, 1986)
(translated by Stephen Tapscott)
Extravagaria (bilingual edition) (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1974)
(translated by Alastair Reid)
Intimacies: Poems of Love (Harper Collins, 2008) (translated by
The Essential Neruda: Selected Poems (City Lights, 2004) (translated
by Robert Hass, Jack Hirschman, Mark Eisner, Forrest Gander, Stephen
Mitchell, Stephen Kessler, and John Felstiner. Preface by Lawrence
Then Come Back: The Lost Neruda (forthcoming, Copper Canyon Press)
(translated by Forrest Gander)
Venture of the Infinite Man (City Lights, 2017) (translated by Jessica
Powell; introduction by Mark Eisner)
^ "Neruda". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
^ Wyman, Eva Goldschmidt; Zurita, Magdalena Fuentes (2002). The Poets
and the General: Chile's Voices of Dissent under Augusto Pinochet
1973–1989 (1st ed.). Santiago de Chile: LOM Ediciones. p. 18.
ISBN 9562824918. In Spanish and English.
^ a b "Neruda fue asesinado". Proceso (in Spanish). Retrieved
^ a b c d País, Ediciones El (2015-11-06). "
Chile believes it "highly
likely" that poet Neruda was murdered in 1973". EL PAÍS. Retrieved
^ Plinio Apuleyo Mendoza (1 March 1983). The Fragrance of Guava:
Conversations with Gabriel García Márquez. Verso. p. 49.
Retrieved 4 August 2011.
^ Tarn (1975) p. 13
^ Feinstein (2005) p. 7
^ Neruda, Pablo (1975). Selected poems of Pablo Neruda. The Penguin
Poets. Translated by Kerrigan, Anthony. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
p. 14. ISBN 9780140421859.
^ Adam Feinstein (2005). Pablo Neruda: A Passion For Life. Bloomsbury
Publishing USA. p. 97. ISBN 9781582345949. Despite their
political differences and the fact that she was religious and Neruda
was an atheist, Pablo had far more in common with Bombal than with
^ Feinstein (2005) p. 19
^ Pablo Neruda. Biography.com.
^ a b c d Tarn (1975) p. 14
Pablo Neruda Chilean poet". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved
^ a b c Tarn (1975) p. 15
^ a b c d Tarn (1975) p. 16
^ Feinstein (2005) p. 109
^ Feinstein (2005) p. 434
^ Feinstein (2005) p. 141
^ Feinstein (2005) p. 145
^ a b c d e f Tarn (1975) p. 17
^ Feinstein (2005) p. 340
^ Feinstein (2005) p. 244
^ a b c Feinstein (2005) pp. 312–313
^ Roman, Joe. (1993)
Octavio Paz Chelsea House Publishers
^ Paz, Octavio (1991) On Poets and Others. Arcade.
ISBN 1-55970-139-0 p. 127
^ Neruda, La vida del poeta: Cronología, 1944–1953, Fundación
Neruda, University of Chile. Retrieved 29 December 2006.
^ "Alberto Acereda – El otro
Pablo Neruda – Libros".
Libros.libertaddigital.com. 1990-01-01. Retrieved 2010-03-11.
^ Feinstein (2005) p. 263
^ Shull (2009) p. 69
^ Feinstein (2005) p. 181
^ Feinstein (2005) p. 199
^ Burgin (1968) p. 95.
^ Burgin (1968) p. 96.
^ a b Feinstein (2005) pp. 236–7
^ a b Feinstein (2005) p. 290
^ "Full Woman, Fleshly Apple, Hot Moon: Selected Poems of Pablo Neruda
– Eagle Harbor Book Co". Retrieved 15 April 2015.
^ a b c d e f g h Tarn (1975) p. 22
^ Feinstein (2005) p. 278
^ Feinstein (2005) p. 487
^ Feinstein (2005) pp. 334–5
^ a b c d e Feinstein (2005) pp. 341–5
^ Feinstein (2005) p. 326
^ Feinstein (2005) p. 367
^ Feinstein (2005) p. 333
Pablo Neruda (1994). Late and posthumous poems, 1968–1974. Grove
^ "Pablo Neruda". Струшки вечери на поезијата.
Retrieved 15 April 2015.
^ Feinstein (2005) p. 413
^ "Pablo Neruda, Nobel Poet, Dies in a Chilean Hospital", The New York
Times, September 24, 1973.
^ Neruda and Vallejo: Selected Poems, Robert Bly, ed.; Beacon Press,
Boston, 1993, p. xii.
^ Earth-Shattering Poems, Liz Rosenberg, ed.; Henry Holt, New York,
1998, p. 105.
^ S.A.P., El Mercurio. "Emol.com – El sitio de noticias online de
Chile". www.emol.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 2015-11-06.
^ Urrutia, Matilde; translated by Alexandria Giardino (2004). My Life
with Pablo Neruda. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.
^ a b Newman, Lucia (21 May 2012). "Was
Pablo Neruda murdered?".
Chile judge orders
Pablo Neruda death probe". BBC News. June 2,
^ a b Franklin, Jonathan (7 April 2013). "Pablo Neruda's grave to be
Pinochet regime murder claims". The Guardian.
Pablo Neruda death probe urged in Chile". CBC News. December 6,
^ "Unravelling the mystery of Pablo Neruda's death". BBC. 8 April
2013. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
^ "Revelan que un ex agente de la CIA envenenó a Neruda". INFOnews.
Retrieved 15 April 2015.
^ Washington Post, June 2, 2013, "Chilean judge issues order to
investigate poet Neruda's alleged killer"
^ "Forensic tests show no poison in remains of Chilean poet Pablo
Neruda" 8 November 2013 Washington Post.
^ "Researchers raise doubts over cause of Chilean poet Neruda's
death". 21 October 2017. Reuters.
^ "OAS and
Chile Rededicate Bust of
Gabriela Mistral at the
Organization’s Headquarters in Washington, DC," January 31, 2014,
OAS website. Retrieved 1 Feb. 2015.
^ "Pablo Neruda—Washington, D.C." Waymarking.com, retrieved 1 Feb.
^ "Lieberson: Songs of Love and Sorrow – Program Note by the
Composer" (PDF). Boston Symphony Orchestra. Retrieved 9 November
^ "Bienvenido al sitio web de la Fundación
Pablo Neruda –
Fundación Pablo Neruda". Retrieved 15 April 2015.
^ "Single Pablo Neruda". Retrieved 15 April 2015.
^ Maggiolo, Marcio Veloz; del Castillo, José (2009). El bolero :
visiones y perfiles de una pasión dominicana (in Spanish). Santo
Domingo, República Dominicana: CODETEL. p. 268.
ISBN 9789993486237. Su Bachata rosa está inspirada en el Libro
de las preguntas del extraordinario poeta chileno Pablo Neruda
^ Amazon description of Burning Patience
^ Yo-Yo Boing!, Introduction by Doris Sommer, Harvard University.
Latin American Literary Review Press. 1998.
^ Amazon description of The Dreamer (2010)
^ Cherry, James A. (1997). "[3F02] Bart Sells His Soul". Simpsons
Archive. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
^ 1976 JRG Turner Adaptive radiation and convergence in subdivisions
of the butterfly genus
Heliconius (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 58, 297–308. 1976.
^ Neruda. Tree of Life Web Project.
^ Alter, Alexandra. "Rediscovered
Pablo Neruda Poems to Be Published".
ArtsBeat. The New York Times. Retrieved 5 August 2015.
Feinstein, Adam Pablo Neruda: A Passion for Life, Bloomsbury, 2004.
Neruda, Pablo. Memoirs (translation of Confieso que he vivido:
Memorias), translated by Hardie St. Martin, Farrar, Straus, and
Giroux, 1977. (1991 edition is ISBN 0-374-20660-0)
Shull, Jodie. Pablo Neruda: Passion, Poetry, Politics. Enslow.
Tarn, Nathaniel, Ed (1975) Pablo Neruda: Selected Poems Penguin.
Burgin, Richard (1968) Conversations with Jorge Luis Borges, Holt,
Rhinehart, & Winston
Consuelo Hernández."El Antiorientalismo en Pablo Neruda;" Voces y
perspectivas en la poesia latinoamericanana del siglo XX. Madrid:
Pablo Neruda. The poet's calling, by Mark Eisner. New York,
Ecco/Harper Collins 2018
Translating Neruda: The Way to Macchu Picchu John Felstiner 1980
The poetry of Pablo Neruda. Costa, René de., 1979
Pablo Neruda: Memoirs (Confieso que he vivido: Memorias) / tr. St.
Martin, Hardie, 1977
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pablo Neruda.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Pablo Neruda
Profile at the Poetry Foundation
Profile at Poets.org with poems and articles
Rita Guibert (Spring 1971). "Pablo Neruda, The Art of Poetry No. 14".
Paris Review (51).
NPR Morning Edition on Neruda's Centennial 12 July 2004 (audio 4 mins)
"Pablo Neruda's 'Poems of the Sea'" 5 April 2004 (Audio, 8 mins)
Pablo Neruda and his passions". The New Yorker. 8
Documentary-in-progress on Neruda, funded by Latino Public
Broadcasting site features interviews from
Isabel Allende and others,
Poems of Pablo Neruda
Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair
Residence on Earth
Cien Sonetos de Amor
Il Postino: The Postman (fictionalized depiction)
La Chascona (residence)
Casa de Isla Negra
Casa de Isla Negra (residence)
Laureates of the
Nobel Prize in Literature
1901 Sully Prudhomme
1902 Theodor Mommsen
1903 Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson
Frédéric Mistral / José Echegaray
1905 Henryk Sienkiewicz
1906 Giosuè Carducci
1907 Rudyard Kipling
1908 Rudolf Eucken
1909 Selma Lagerlöf
1910 Paul Heyse
1911 Maurice Maeterlinck
1912 Gerhart Hauptmann
1913 Rabindranath Tagore
1915 Romain Rolland
1916 Verner von Heidenstam
1917 Karl Gjellerup / Henrik Pontoppidan
1919 Carl Spitteler
1920 Knut Hamsun
1921 Anatole France
1922 Jacinto Benavente
1923 W. B. Yeats
1924 Władysław Reymont
1925 George Bernard Shaw
1926 Grazia Deledda
1927 Henri Bergson
1928 Sigrid Undset
1929 Thomas Mann
1930 Sinclair Lewis
1931 Erik Axel Karlfeldt
1932 John Galsworthy
1933 Ivan Bunin
1934 Luigi Pirandello
1936 Eugene O'Neill
1937 Roger Martin du Gard
1938 Pearl S. Buck
1939 Frans Eemil Sillanpää
1944 Johannes V. Jensen
1945 Gabriela Mistral
1946 Hermann Hesse
1947 André Gide
1948 T. S. Eliot
1949 William Faulkner
1950 Bertrand Russell
1951 Pär Lagerkvist
1952 François Mauriac
1953 Winston Churchill
1954 Ernest Hemingway
1955 Halldór Laxness
1956 Juan Ramón Jiménez
1957 Albert Camus
1958 Boris Pasternak
1959 Salvatore Quasimodo
1960 Saint-John Perse
1961 Ivo Andrić
1962 John Steinbeck
1963 Giorgos Seferis
Jean-Paul Sartre (declined award)
1965 Mikhail Sholokhov
Shmuel Yosef Agnon
Shmuel Yosef Agnon / Nelly Sachs
1967 Miguel Ángel Asturias
1968 Yasunari Kawabata
1969 Samuel Beckett
1970 Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
1971 Pablo Neruda
1972 Heinrich Böll
1973 Patrick White
Eyvind Johnson / Harry Martinson
1975 Eugenio Montale
1976 Saul Bellow
1977 Vicente Aleixandre
1978 Isaac Bashevis Singer
1979 Odysseas Elytis
1980 Czesław Miłosz
1981 Elias Canetti
1982 Gabriel García Márquez
1983 William Golding
1984 Jaroslav Seifert
1985 Claude Simon
1986 Wole Soyinka
1987 Joseph Brodsky
1988 Naguib Mahfouz
1989 Camilo José Cela
1990 Octavio Paz
1991 Nadine Gordimer
1992 Derek Walcott
1993 Toni Morrison
1994 Kenzaburō Ōe
1995 Seamus Heaney
1996 Wisława Szymborska
1997 Dario Fo
1998 José Saramago
1999 Günter Grass
2000 Gao Xingjian
2001 V. S. Naipaul
2002 Imre Kertész
2003 J. M. Coetzee
2004 Elfriede Jelinek
2005 Harold Pinter
2006 Orhan Pamuk
2007 Doris Lessing
2008 J. M. G. Le Clézio
2009 Herta Müller
2010 Mario Vargas Llosa
2011 Tomas Tranströmer
2012 Mo Yan
2013 Alice Munro
2014 Patrick Modiano
2015 Svetlana Alexievich
2016 Bob Dylan
2017 Kazuo Ishiguro
Struga Poetry Evenings
Struga Poetry Evenings Golden Wreath Laureates
Robert Rozhdestvensky (1966)
Bulat Okudzhava (1967)
László Nagy (1968)
Mak Dizdar (1969)
Miodrag Pavlović (1970)
W. H. Auden
W. H. Auden (1971)
Pablo Neruda (1972)
Eugenio Montale (1973)
Fazıl Hüsnü Dağlarca
Fazıl Hüsnü Dağlarca (1974)
Léopold Sédar Senghor
Léopold Sédar Senghor (1975)
Eugène Guillevic (1976)
Artur Lundkvist (1977)
Rafael Alberti (1978)
Miroslav Krleža (1979)
Hans Magnus Enzensberger
Hans Magnus Enzensberger (1980)
Blaže Koneski (1981)
Nichita Stănescu (1982)
Sachchidananda Vatsyayan 'Ajneya' (1983)
Andrei Voznesensky (1984)
Yiannis Ritsos (1985)
Allen Ginsberg (1986)
Tadeusz Różewicz (1987)
Desanka Maksimović (1988)
Thomas Shapcott (1989)
Justo Jorge Padrón (1990)
Joseph Brodsky (1991)
Ferenc Juhász (1992)
Gennadiy Aygi (1993)
Ted Hughes (1994)
Yehuda Amichai (1995)
Makoto Ooka (1996)
Liu Banjiu (1998)
Yves Bonnefoy (1999)
Edoardo Sanguineti (2000)
Seamus Heaney (2001)
Slavko Mihalić (2002)
Tomas Tranströmer (2003)
Vasco Graça Moura (2004)
William S. Merwin (2005)
Nancy Morejón (2006)
Mahmoud Darwish (2007)
Fatos Arapi (2008)
Tomaž Šalamun (2009)
Lyubomir Levchev (2010)
Mateja Matevski (2011)
Mongane Wally Serote (2012)
José Emilio Pacheco
José Emilio Pacheco (2013)
Ko Un (2014)
Bei Dao (2015)
Margaret Atwood (2016)
Charles Simic (2017)
Adam Zagajewski (2018)
ISNI: 0000 0001 2144 0986
BNF: cb118871020 (data)