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The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
Europe
(OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization. Its mandate includes issues such as arms control, promotion of human rights, freedom of the press, and fair elections. It employs around 3,460 people, mostly in its field operations but also in its secretariat in Vienna, Austria
Austria
and its institutions. It has its origins in the 1975 Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE) held in Helsinki, Finland. The OSCE is concerned with early warning, conflict prevention, crisis management, and post-conflict rehabilitation. Its 57 participating states are located in Europe, northern and central Asia, and North America. The participating states cover much of the land area of the Northern Hemisphere. It was created during the Cold War
Cold War
era as an East–West forum.[2]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Languages 1.2 Participating states 1.3 Partners for co-operation

2 Legal status 3 Structure and institutions 4 Secretary General 5 Chairmanship

5.1 Summits of heads of State and Government 5.2 Ministerial Council Meetings (ordinary) 5.3 Chairmanship history 5.4 Fiscal history

6 Relations with the United Nations 7 The three dimensions

7.1 Politico-military dimension (first dimension) 7.2 Economic and environmental dimension (second dimension) 7.3 Human dimension (third dimension)

8 OSCE Democracy Defender Award 9 Criticism

9.1 OSCE Parliamentary Assembly 9.2 2012 Texas controversy 9.3 War in Donbass

10 See also 11 References 12 External links

History[edit]

Helmut Schmidt, Erich Honecker, Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
and Bruno Kreisky
Bruno Kreisky
at the 1975 CSCE summit in Helsinki, Finland.

The Organization has its roots in the 1973 Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe
Europe
(CSCE). Talks had been mooted about a European security grouping since the 1950s but the Cold War
Cold War
prevented any substantial progress until the talks at Dipoli
Dipoli
in Espoo
Espoo
began in November 1972. These talks were held at the suggestion of the Soviet Union which wished to use the talks to maintain its control over the communist countries in Eastern Europe, and President of Finland
President of Finland
Urho Kekkonen hosted them in order to bolster his policy of neutrality. Western Europe, however, saw these talks as a way to reduce the tension in the region, furthering economic cooperation and obtaining humanitarian improvements for the populations of the Communist bloc. The recommendations of the talks, in the form of "The Blue Book", gave the practical foundations for a three-stage conference called the " Helsinki
Helsinki
process".[3] The CSCE opened in Helsinki
Helsinki
on 3 July 1973 with 35 states sending representatives. Stage I only took five days to agree to follow the Blue Book. Stage II was the main working phase and was conducted in Geneva
Geneva
from 18 September 1973 until 21 July 1975. The result of Stage II was the Helsinki
Helsinki
Final Act which was signed by the 35 participating states during Stage III, which took place in Finlandia Hall
Finlandia Hall
from 30 July – 1 August 1975. It was opened by Holy See’s diplomat Cardinal Agostino Casaroli, who was chairman of the conference. The concepts of improving relations and implementing the act were developed over a series of follow-up meetings, with major gatherings in Belgrade
Belgrade
(4 October 1977 – 8 March 1978), Madrid
Madrid
(11 November 1980 – 9 September 1983) and Vienna
Vienna
(4 November 1986 – 19 January 1989). The collapse of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
required a change of role for the CSCE. The Charter of Paris for a New Europe, signed on 21 November 1990, marked the beginning of this change. With the changes capped by the renaming of the CSCE to the OSCE on 1 January 1995, in accord with the results of the conference held in Budapest, Hungary, in 1994. The OSCE now had a formal secretariat, Senior Council, Parliamentary Assembly, Conflict Prevention Centre, and Office for Free Elections (later becoming the Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights). In December 1996, the " Lisbon
Lisbon
Declaration on a Common and Comprehensive Security Model for Europe
Europe
for the Twenty-First Century" affirmed the universal and indivisible nature of security on the European continent. In Istanbul
Istanbul
on 19 November 1999, the OSCE ended a two-day summit by calling for a political settlement in Chechnya
Chechnya
and adopting a Charter for European Security. According to then Minister of Foreign Affairs Igor Ivanov, this summit marked a turning point in Russian perception of the OSCE, from an organization that expressed Europe's collective will, to an organization that serves as a Western tool for "forced democratization".[4] Through its Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR), the OSCE observes and assesses elections in its member states, in order to support fair and transparent democratic processes, in keeping with the mutual standards to which the organization is committed;[5] between 1994 and 2004 the OSCE sent teams of observers to monitor more than 150 elections, typically focusing on elections in emerging democracies.[6] In 2004, at the invitation of the United States Government, the ODIHR
ODIHR
deployed an assessment mission, made up of participants from six OSCE member states, which observed that year's US presidential election and produced a report.[7] It was the first time that a US presidential election was the subject of OSCE monitoring, although the organization had previously monitored state-level American elections in Florida and California, in 2002 and 2003.[6] The 2004 assessment took place against the backdrop of the controversial recount effort in the 2000 US presidential election,[6] and came about largely through the initiative of 13 Democratic members of the United States
United States
House of Representatives. That group, which included Barbara Lee, of California, and Eddie Bernice Johnson, of Texas, initially addressed a request for election observers to the United Nations, in a letter to Kofi Annan, the UN Secretary-General, but the request was declined.[5] Subsequently, the administration of President George W. Bush, through the State Department, headed by Secretary of State Colin Powell, responded to the lawmakers' concerns by inviting the OSCE election-monitoring mission.[5] Languages[edit] The six official languages of the OSCE are English, French, German, Italian, Russian and Spanish. Participating states[edit]

OSCE signatories as of 2012   signed Helsinki
Helsinki
Final Act and Paris
Paris
Charter   signed Helsinki
Helsinki
Final Act only   non-signatory   partner for cooperation

State Admission Signed the Helsinki
Helsinki
Final Act Signed the Charter of Paris Language Currency Capital

 Albania 19 June 1991 16 September 1991 17 September 1991 Albanian Albanian lek Tirana

 Andorra 25 April 1996 10 November 1999 17 February 1998 Catalan Euro Andorra
Andorra
la Vella

 Armenia 30 January 1992 8 July 1992 17 April 1992 Armenian Armenian dram Yerevan

 Austria 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 German Euro Vienna

 Azerbaijan 30 January 1992 8 July 1992 20 December 1993 Azerbaijani Azerbaijani manat Baku

 Belarus 30 January 1992 26 February 1992 8 April 1993 Belarusian, Russian Belarusian ruble Minsk

 Belgium 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 Dutch, French, German Euro Brussels

 Bosnia and Herzegovina 30 April 1992 8 July 1992   Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
convertible mark Sarajevo

 Bulgaria 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 Bulgarian Bulgarian lev Sofia

 Canada 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 English, French Canadian dollar Ottawa

 Croatia 24 March 1992 8 July 1992   Croatian Croatian kuna Zagreb

 Cyprus 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 Greek, Turkish Euro Nicosia

 Czech Republic 1 January 1993  [Note 1]  [Note 1] Czech Czech koruna Prague

 Denmark 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 Danish Danish krone Copenhagen

 Estonia 10 September 1991 14 October 1991 6 December 1991 Estonian Euro Tallinn

 Finland 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 Finnish, Swedish Euro Helsinki

 France 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 French Euro Paris

 Georgia 24 March 1992 8 July 1992 21 January 1994 Georgian Georgian lari Tbilisi

 Germany - as  West Germany - as  East Germany 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 German Euro Berlin

 Greece 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 Greek Euro Athens

Holy See 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 Italian, Latin Euro Vatican City

 Hungary 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 Hungarian Hungarian forint Budapest

 Iceland 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 Icelandic Icelandic krona Reykjavik

 Ireland 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 Irish, English Euro Dublin

 Italy 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 Italian Euro Rome

 Kazakhstan 30 January 1992 8 July 1992 23 September 1992 Kazakh, Russian Kazakhstani tenge Astana

 Kyrgyzstan 30 January 1992 8 July 1992 3 June 1994 Kyrgyz, Russian Kyrgyzstani som Bishkek

 Latvia 10 September 1991 14 October 1991 6 December 1991 Latvian Euro Riga

 Liechtenstein 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 German Swiss franc Vaduz

 Lithuania 10 September 1991 14 October 1991 6 December 1991 Lithuanian Euro Vilnius

 Luxembourg 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 French, German, Luxembourgish Euro Luxembourg

 Macedonia[Note 2][8] 12 October 1995     Macedonian Macedonian denar Skopje

 Malta 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 English, Maltese Euro Valletta

 Moldova 30 January 1992 26 February 1992 29 January 1993 Romanian Moldovan leu Chișinău

 Monaco 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 French Euro Monaco

 Mongolia 21 November 2012[Note 3]

  Mongolian Mongolian tögrög Ulaanbaatar

 Montenegro 22 June 2006 1 September 2006   Montenegrin Euro Podgorica

 Netherlands 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 Dutch Euro Amsterdam

 Norway 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 Norwegian Norwegian krone Oslo

 Poland 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 Polish Polish złoty Warsaw

 Portugal 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 Portuguese Euro Lisbon

 Romania 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 Romanian Romanian leu Bucharest

  Russia
Russia
(as  Soviet Union) 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 Russian Russian ruble Moscow

 San Marino 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 Italian Euro City of San Marino

  Serbia
Serbia
(as  FR Yugoslavia) 10 November 2000 27 November 2000[citation needed] 27 November 2000[citation needed] Serbian Serbian dinar Belgrade

 Slovakia 1 January 1993  [Note 1]  [Note 1] Slovak Euro Bratislava

 Slovenia 24 March 1992 8 July 1992 8 March 1993 Slovene Euro Ljubljana

 Spain 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 Spanish Euro Madrid

 Sweden 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 Swedish Swedish krona Stockholm

  Switzerland 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 German, French, Italian, Romansh Swiss franc Bern

 Tajikistan 30 January 1992 26 February 1992   Tajik Tajikistani somoni Dushanbe

 Turkey 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 Turkish Turkish lira Ankara

 Turkmenistan 30 January 1992 8 July 1992   Turkmen Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
manat Ashgabat

 Ukraine 30 January 1992 26 February 1992 16 June 1992 Ukrainian Ukrainian hryvnia Kiev

 United Kingdom 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 English Pound sterling London

 United States 25 June 1973 1 August 1975 21 November 1990 English US dollar Washington D.C.

 Uzbekistan 30 January 1992 26 February 1992 27 October 1993 Uzbek Uzbekistani som Tashkent

^ a b c d Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
was an original signatory ^ Referred to by the OSCE as the "Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" ^ Asia
Asia
partner for co-operation 2004-2012.

Partners for co-operation[edit]

Mediterranean States

 Algeria  Egypt  Israel  Jordan  Morocco  Tunisia

Asia

1992    Japan 1994    South Korea 2000    Thailand 2003    Afghanistan

Oceania

2009    Australia[9]

Legal status[edit] A unique aspect of the OSCE is the non-binding status of its constitutive charter. Rather than being a formal treaty ratified by national legislatures, the Helsinki
Helsinki
Final Act represents a political commitment by the heads of government of all signatories to build security and cooperation in Europe
Europe
on the basis of its provisions. This allows the OSCE to remain a flexible process for the evolution of improved cooperation, which avoids disputes and/or sanctions over implementation. By agreeing to these commitments, signatories for the first time accepted that treatment of citizens within their borders was also a matter of legitimate international concern. This open process of the OSCE is often given credit for helping build democracy in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Eastern Europe, thus leading to the end of the Cold War[citation needed]. Unlike most international intergovernmental organizations, however, the OSCE does not have international legal personality on account of the lack of legal effect of its charter.[10] As a result, its headquarters’ host, Austria, had to confer legal personality on the organization in order to be able to sign a legal agreement regarding its presence in Vienna. Structure and institutions[edit] Political direction to the organization is given by heads of state or government during summits. Summits are not regular or scheduled but held as needed. The last summit took place in Astana
Astana
(Kazakhstan), on 1 and 2 December 2010. The high-level decision-making body of the organization is the Ministerial Council, which meets at the end of every year. At ambassadorial level the Permanent Council convenes weekly in Vienna
Vienna
and serves as the regular negotiating and decision-making body. The chairperson of the Permanent Council is the ambassador to the Organization of the participating State which holds the chairmanship. From 1 January 2017 to 31 December 2017 the Chairperson-in-Office is Austrian Foreign Minister, Sebastian Kurz, who succeeded German Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier. In addition to the Ministerial Council and Permanent Council, the Forum for Security Co-operation is also an OSCE decision-making body. It deals predominantly with matters of military co-operation, such as modalities for inspections according to the Vienna
Vienna
Document of 1999.[11] The OSCE's Secretariat is located in Vienna, Austria. The current Secretary General is Lamberto Zannier
Lamberto Zannier
of Italy, who took over from Marc Perrin de Brichambaut
Marc Perrin de Brichambaut
of France.[12] The organization also has offices in Copenhagen, Geneva, The Hague, Prague
Prague
and Warsaw.

A meeting of the OSCE Permanent Council at the Hofburg
Hofburg
in Vienna, Austria.

As of March 2016[update], the OSCE employed 3,462 staff, including 513 in its secretariat and institutions and 2,949 in its 17 field operations.[13] The Parliamentary Assembly of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
Europe
is made up of 323 parliamentarians from 57 member states. The Parliamentary Assembly performs its functions mainly via the Standing Committee, the Bureau, and 3 General Committees (Committee on Political Affairs and Security, Committee on Economic Affairs, Science, Technology and Environment, and Committee on Democracy, Human Rights and Humanitarian Questions).[14] The Parliamentary Assembly passes resolutions on matters such as political and security affairs, economic and environmental issues, and democracy and human rights. Representing the collective voice of OSCE parliamentarians, these resolutions and recommendations are meant to ensure that all participating states live up to their OSCE commitments. The Parliamentary Assembly also engages in parliamentary diplomacy, and has an extensive election observation program. The oldest OSCE institution is the Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR), established in 1991 following a decision made at the 1990 Summit of Paris. It is based in Warsaw, Poland, and is active throughout the OSCE area in the fields of election observation, democratic development, human rights, tolerance and non-discrimination, rule of law, and Roma and Sinti
Sinti
issues. The ODIHR has observed over 300 elections and referendums since 1995, sending more than 50,000 observers. It has operated outside its own area twice, sending a team that offered technical support to the 9 October 2004 presidential elections in Afghanistan, an OSCE Partner for Co-operation, and an election support team to assist with parliamentary and provincial council elections on 18 September 2005. ODIHR
ODIHR
is headed by Michael Georg Link. The Office of the OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media, established in December 1997, acts as a watchdog to provide early warning on violations of freedom of expression in OSCE participating States. The representative also assists participating States by advocating and promoting full compliance with OSCE norms, principles and commitments regarding freedom of expression and free media. As of 2011, the current representative is expert in media law from Bosnia and Herzegovina Dunja Mijatovic.[15] The High Commissioner on National Minorities was created on July 8, 1992 by the Helsinki
Helsinki
Summit Meeting of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe. It is charged with identifying and seeking early resolution of ethnic tension that might endanger peace, stability or friendly relations between participating states. Each year the OSCE holds an OSCE Asian Conference with partner nations like Australia, Thailand, South Korea, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Afghanistan.[16] Secretary General[edit] The incumbent of this post acts as the representative of the Chairperson-in-Office, and as the OSCE's chief administrative officer. Since the post was created in 1992, Secretaries-General of the OSCE have been:

Wilhelm Höynck (de) (1993–1996) Giancarlo Aragona (1996–1999) Ján Kubiš
Ján Kubiš
(1999–2005) Marc Perrin de Brichambaut
Marc Perrin de Brichambaut
(2005–2011) Lamberto Zannier
Lamberto Zannier
(2011–2017) Thomas Greminger
Thomas Greminger
(2017–)

Chairmanship[edit]

OSCE Permanent Council venue at the Hofburg, Vienna.

The responsibilities of the Chairman-in-Office (CiO) include

co-ordination of the work of OSCE institutions; representing the Organization; supervising activities related to conflict prevention, crisis management and post-conflict rehabilitation.

The chairmanship rotates annually, and the post of the chairman-in-office is held by the foreign minister of the participating State which holds the chairmanship. The CiO is assisted by the previous and incoming chairman-in-office; the three of them together constitute the Troika.[17] The origin of the institution lies with the Charter of Paris for a New Europe
Europe
(1990), the Helsinki Document 1992 formally institutionalized this function.[18] Summits of heads of State and Government[edit]

Summit Date Location Country Decisions

I 30 July – 1 August 1975 Helsinki  Finland Closing of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE). Signing of the Final Act ( Helsinki
Helsinki
Act).

II 19–21 November 1990 Paris  France (Second CSCE Summit). Signing of the Charter of Paris for a New Europe ( Paris
Paris
Charter), the Vienna
Vienna
Confidence and Security Building Measures (CSBM) Document and the CFE Treaty.

III 9–10 July 1992 Helsinki  Finland Final Document: The Challenges of Change. Creation of the High Commissioner on National Minorities, the Forum for Security Co-operation and the Economic Forum. Suspension of FR Yugoslavia from membership.

IV 5–6 December 1994 Budapest  Hungary Final Document: Towards a Genuine Partnership in a New Era. Approval of a multi-national peace-keeping force to Nagorno-Karabakh. Endorsement of the Code of Conduct on politico-military aspects of security.

V 2–3 December 1996 Lisbon  Portugal (First OSCE Summit). Lisbon
Lisbon
Declaration on a Common and Comprehensive Security Model for Europe
Europe
for the Twenty-First Century. Adoption of a Framework for Arms Control.

VI 18–19 November 1999 Istanbul  Turkey Signing of the Istanbul
Istanbul
Document and the Charter for European Security.

VII 1–2 December 2010 Astana  Kazakhstan Adoption of the Astana
Astana
Commemorative Declaration, which reconfirms the Organization's comprehensive approach to security based on trust and transparency.

Ministerial Council Meetings (ordinary)[edit]

Council Date Location Country Decisions

1st 19–20 June 1991 Berlin  Germany Admission of Albania

2nd 30–31 January 1992 Prague  Czechoslovakia Admission of ten former Soviet republics.

3rd 14–15 December 1992 Stockholm  Sweden Creation of the post of Secretary General and appointment of Max van der Stoel as first High Commissioner on National Minorities.

4th 30 November – 1 December 1993 Rome  Italy Establishment of the Mission to Tajikistan.

5th 7–8 December 1995 Budapest  Hungary Establishment of the Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
to carry out the tasks assigned to the OSCE in the Dayton Peace Agreements.

6th 18–19 December 1997 Copenhagen  Denmark Creation of the Co-ordinator of OSCE Economic and Environmental Activities and the Representative on Freedom of the Media.

7th 2–3 December 1998 Oslo  Norway

8th 27–28 November 2000 Vienna  Austria Vienna
Vienna
Declaration on the OSCE's activities in South-Eastern Europe. Re-admission of FR Yugoslavia.Teija Egan Evans

9th 3–4 December 2001 Bucharest  Romania Bucharest
Bucharest
Declaration. Bucharest
Bucharest
Plan of Action for Combating Terrorism. Creation of the Strategic Police Matters Unit and a Senior Police Adviser in the OSCE Secretariat.

10th 6–7 December 2002 Porto  Portugal Porto Declaration: Responding to Change. OSCE Charter on Preventing and Combating Terrorism.

11th 1–2 December 2003 Maastricht  Netherlands Strategy to Address Threats to Security and Stability in the Twenty-First Century. Strategy Document for the Economic and Environmental Dimension.

12th 6–7 December 2004 Sofia  Bulgaria

13th 5–6 December 2005 Ljubljana  Slovenia Statement on the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. Approval of the Border Security and Management Concept.

14th 4–5 December 2006 Brussels  Belgium Brussels
Brussels
Declaration on Criminal Justice Systems. Ministerial Statement on Supporting and Promoting the International Legal Framework against Terrorism.

15th 29–30 November 2007 Madrid  Spain Madrid
Madrid
Declaration on Environment and Security. Ministerial Statement on Supporting the United Nations
United Nations
Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy.

16th 4–5 December 2008 Helsinki  Finland

17th 1–2 December 2009 Athens  Greece Ministerial Declarations on Non-Proliferation and on the OSCE Corfu Process.

16–17 July 2010 Almaty  Kazakhstan Informal discussions on Corfu Process progress, the situation in Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and the forthcoming OSCE summit.

18th 6–7 December 2011 Vilnius  Lithuania Decisions on responses to conflicts and transnational threats; to enhance capabilities in early warning; early action; dialogue facilitation and mediation support; and post-conflict rehabilitation. Decisions to enhance engagement with OSCE Partners for Co-operation, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in particular.

19th 6–7 December 2012 Dublin  Ireland Helsinki+40 Process: clear path to the 2015 40th anniversary of the Helsinki
Helsinki
Final Act, intent to reinforce and revitalize the OSCE; unanimous support for Transdniestrian settlement process: negotiated, comprehensive, just and viable solution to the conflict; strengthening good governance: deepening engagement in preventing and countering corruption, addressing transnational threats, and adding an anti-terrorism framework to earlier decisions on threats from information and communication technologies, drugs and chemical precursors and strategic policing; despite Ireland's hopes, a decision on human rights was not reached: greater, still, was concern for the Council's trend of human rights decision-failures.[19]

20th 5–6 December 2013 Kiev  Ukraine

21st 4–5 December 2014 Basel   Switzerland Declaration on further steps in the Helsinki+40 Process. Ministerial statement on the negotiations on the Transdniestrian Settlement Process in the "5+2"format. Declaration on youth. Declaration on the Transfer of Ownership to the Parties to the Agreement on Sub-regional Arms Control, Annex 1B, Article IV of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Declaration on the OSCE role in countering the phenomenon of foreign terrorist fighters in the context of the implementation of UN Security Council resolutions 2170 (2014) and 2178 (2014). Declaration on the OSCE role in countering kidnapping and hostage-taking committed by terrorist groups in the context of the implementation of the UN Security Council resolution 2133 (2014). Decision on the prevention of corruption. Decision on enhancing disaster risk reductionDecision on preventing and combating violence against women. Decision on an addendum to the 2004 OSCE Action Plan for the Promotion of Gender Equality. Ministerial commemorative declaration on the seventieth anniversary of the end of the Second World War. Declaration on enhancing efforts to combat anti-Semitism. Declaration on co-operation with the Mediterranean Partners. Ministerial declaration on co-operation with the Asian Partners. Decision on small arms and light weapons and stockpiles of conventional ammunition. Commemorative Declaration on the Occasion of the Twentieth Anniversary of the OSCE Code of Conduct on Politico-Military Aspects of Security.

22nd 3–4 December 2015 Belgrade  Serbia Ministerial Declaration on Preventing and Countering Violent Extremism and Radicalization that lead to Terrorism. Declaration on the OSCE Activities in Support of Global Efforts in Tackling the World Drug Problem. Ministerial Declaration on Reinforcing OSCE Efforts to Counter Terrorism in the Wake of Recent Terrorist Attacks. Declaration on Youth and Security. Ministerial Statement on the Negotiations on the Transdniestrian Settlement Process in the "5+2" Format.

23st 8–9 December 2016 Hamburg  Germany Decision on the OSCE's role in the governance of large movements of migrants and refugees. Decision on strengthening good governance and promoting connectivity. Decision on OSCE efforts related to reducing the risks of conflict stemming from the use of information and communication technologies. Declaration on strengthening OSCE efforts to prevent and counter terrorism. Decision on enhancing the use of Advance Passenger Information. Ministerial statement on the negotiations on the Transdniestrian Settlement Process in the "5+2"format.

Chairmanship history[edit] Chairmanship of the OSCE is held by a member state on a calendar-year basis, with the minister for foreign affairs of that state performing the function of Chairman-in-Office. The table below shows the holders since 1991.[20]

Year Country Chairman-in-Office

1991  Germany Hans-Dietrich Genscher
Hans-Dietrich Genscher
(from June)

1992  Czechoslovakia Jiří Dienstbier
Jiří Dienstbier
(until 2 July); Jozef Moravčík (from 3 July)

1993  Sweden Margaretha af Ugglas

1994  Italy Beniamino Andreatta
Beniamino Andreatta
(until 11 May); Antonio Martino (from 12 May)

1995  Hungary László Kovács

1996   Switzerland Flavio Cotti

1997  Denmark Niels Helveg Petersen

1998  Poland Bronislaw Geremek

1999  Norway Knut Vollebaek

2000  Austria Wolfgang Schüssel
Wolfgang Schüssel
(until 4 February); Benita Ferrero-Waldner
Benita Ferrero-Waldner
(from 5 February)

2001  Romania Mircea Geoană

2002  Portugal Jaime Gama
Jaime Gama
(until 6 April); António Martins da Cruz (from 7 April)

2003  Netherlands Jaap de Hoop Scheffer
Jaap de Hoop Scheffer
(until 3 December); Bernard Bot
Bernard Bot
(from 4 December)

2004  Bulgaria Solomon Passy

2005  Slovenia Dimitrij Rupel

2006  Belgium Karel De Gucht

2007  Spain Miguel Ángel Moratinos

2008  Finland Ilkka Kanerva
Ilkka Kanerva
(until 4 April); Alexander Stubb
Alexander Stubb
(from 5 April)

2009  Greece Dora Bakoyannis
Dora Bakoyannis
(until 5 October); George Papandreou (from 6 October)

2010  Kazakhstan Kanat Saudabayev

2011  Lithuania Audronius Ažubalis

2012  Ireland Eamon Gilmore

2013  Ukraine Leonid Kozhara

2014   Switzerland Didier Burkhalter

2015  Serbia Ivica Dačić

2016  Germany Frank-Walter Steinmeier

2017  Austria Sebastian Kurz
Sebastian Kurz
(until 18 December); Karin Kneissl
Karin Kneissl
(from 18 December)

2018  Italy Angelino Alfano

2019  Slovakia Miroslav Lajčák

Fiscal history[edit] Since 1993, the OSCE's budget by year (in millions of euros,) has been:

2017 ... €139.0 million 2016 ... €141.1 million 2015 ... €141.1 million 2014 ... €142.3 million 2013 ... €144.8 million 2012 ... €148.4 million 2011 ... €150.0 million 2010 ... €150.7 million 2009 ... €158.6 million 2008 ... €164.1 million 2007 ... €186.2 million 2006 ... €186.2 million 2005 ... €186.6 million

2004 ... €180.8 million 2003 ... €165.5 million 2002 ... €167.5 million 2001 ... €194.5 million 2000 ... €202.7 million 1999 ... €146.1 million 1998 ... €118.7 million 1997 ... €43.3 million 1996 ... €34.9 million 1995 ... €18.9 million 1994 ... €21 million 1993 ... €12 million

Relations with the United Nations[edit] The OSCE considers itself a regional organization in the sense of Chapter VIII of the United Nations
United Nations
Charter[21] and is an observer in the United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly.[22] The Chairman-in-Office gives routine briefings to the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council.[23] The three dimensions[edit] Politico-military dimension (first dimension)[edit] The OSCE takes a comprehensive approach to the politico-military dimension of security, which includes a number of commitments by participating States and mechanisms for conflict prevention and resolution. The organization also seeks to enhance military security by promoting greater openness, transparency and co-operation.

Arms control[24]

The end of the Cold War
Cold War
resulted in a huge amount of surplus weapons becoming available in what is known as the international grey market for weapons. The OSCE helps to stop the - often illegal - spread of such weapons and offers assistance with their destruction. The OSCE hosts the annual exchange of information under the Conventional Forces in Europe
Europe
treaty. The OSCE has also implemented two additional exchanges of information, the Vienna
Vienna
Document and the Global Exchange of Military Information. The Open Skies Consultative Commission, the implementing body for the Treaty
Treaty
on Open Skies, meets monthly at its Vienna
Vienna
headquarters.[25]

Border management[26]

The actions taken by the OSCE in border monitoring range from conflict prevention to post-conflict management, capacity building and institutional support.

Combating terrorism[27]

With its expertise in conflict prevention, crisis management and early warning, the OSCE contributes to worldwide efforts in combating terrorism.

Conflict prevention[28][29]

The OSCE works to prevent conflicts from arising and to facilitate lasting comprehensive political settlements for existing conflicts. It also helps with the process of rehabilitation in post-conflict areas.

Military reform

The OSCE's Forum for Security Co-operation provides a framework for political dialogue on military reform, while practical activities are conducted by field operations, as well as the Conflict Prevention Centre.

Policing

OSCE police operations are an integral part of the organization's efforts in conflict prevention and post-conflict rehabilitation.

Implementation

The OSCE was a rather small organization until selection by the international community to provide electoral organization to post war Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
in early 1996. Ambassador Frowick was the first OSCE representative to initiate national election in September 1996, human rights issues and rule of law specifically designed to provide a foundation for judicial organization within Bosnia and Herzegovina. The OSCE had regional offices and field offices, to include the office in Brcko in northeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
which remained in limbo until the Brcko Arbitration Agreement could be decided, finalized and implemented. Brcko become a "special district" and remains so today. The OSCE essentially took the place of the United Nations
United Nations
in Bosnia and Herzegovina in part because the Bosnian leadership felt deep contempt for the UN efforts to stop the war which began in 1991 and ended in 1995. During the time the United Nations
United Nations
were attempting a political solution, thousands of UN troops were posted in and around Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
with special emphasis on Sarajevo. Between the inclusive dates of 1991 through 1995, over 200,000 Bosnians were killed and over one million displaced and another million as refugees. citation needed The OSCE continues to have a presence and a number of initiatives to bring a sustained peace to the region. Economic and environmental dimension (second dimension)[edit]

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Activities in the economic and environmental dimension include the monitoring of developments related to economic and environmental security in OSCE participating States, with the aim of alerting them to any threat of conflict; assisting States in the creation of economic and environmental policies, legislation and institutions to promote security in the OSCE region.

Economic activities

Among the economic activities of the OSCE feature activities related to migration management, transport and energy security. Most activities are implemented in co-operation with partner organizations.

Environmental activities

The OSCE has developed a range of activities in the environmental sphere aimed at addressing ecologic threats to security in its participating States. Among the activities feature projects in the area of hazardous waste, water management and access to information under the Aarhus Convention. Human dimension (third dimension)[edit] The commitments made by OSCE participating States in the human dimension aim to ensure full respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms; to abide by the rule of law; to promote the principles of democracy by building, strengthening and protecting democratic institutions; and to promote tolerance throughout the OSCE region.

Combating trafficking in human beings

Since 2003 the OSCE[30] has had an established mechanism for combating trafficking in human beings, as defined by Article 3 of the Palermo Protocol,[31] which is aimed at raising public awareness of the problem and building the political will within participating states to tackle it effectively. The OSCE actions against trafficking in human beings are coordinated by the Office of the Special
Special
Representative and Co-ordinator for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings.[30] Maria Grazia Giammarinaro,[32] a judge in the Criminal Court of Rome, took Office as the Special
Special
Representative in March 2010. From 2006 to 2009 this Office was held by Eva Biaudet, a former Finnish Minister of Health and Social Services. Biaudet currently serves as Finnish Ombudsman for Minorities. Her predecessor was former Austrian Minister Helga Conrad, who served as the first OSCE Special
Special
Representative for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings. The activities around Combating Trafficking in Human Beings in the OSCE Region of the Office of the Special
Special
Representative include:[33]

Co-operation with governments, helping them to accept and act on their responsibilities for curbing trafficking in human beings; Providing governments with decision and policy-making aids and offering guidance on anti-trafficking management, with the aim of arriving at solutions tailored to the needs of the individual countries and in line with international standards; Assisting governments to develop the national anti-trafficking structures required for efficient internal and transnational co-operation; Raising awareness to draw attention to the complexity of the problem and to the need for comprehensive solutions; Considering all dimensions of human trafficking, namely trafficking for sexual exploitation, trafficking for forced and bonded labour, including domestic servitude, trafficking into forced marriages, trafficking in organs and trafficking in children; Ensuring the effective interaction of all agents and stake holders involved in the fight against human trafficking, ranging from governmental authorities, law enforcement officials to NGOs, and—last but not least—international organizations, as the agencies providing support thorough expertise and know-how; Guaranteeing the highest possible visibility of the OSCE's fight against human trafficking to focus attention on the issue.

Democratization

The OSCE claims to promote democracy and assist the participating states in building democratic institutions.

Education

Education programmes are an integral part of the organization's efforts in conflict prevention and post-conflict rehabilitation.

Elections

As part of its democratization activities, the OSCE carries out election assistance projects in the run-up to, during, and following elections. However, the effectiveness of such assistance is arguable—Kazakhstan, for example, despite being the former chair of the OSCE, is considered by many to be one of the least democratic countries in the world. Moreover, the recent democratic advances made in other Central Asian republics, notably Kyrgyzstan, have led to rumours of Soviet-style disruption of the Kyrgyz democratic process by, in particular, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Russia. This may be in large part due to fears over the long-term stability of these countries' own quasi-dictatorships.

Gender equality

The equality of men and women is an integral part of sustainable democracy. The OSCE aims to provide equal opportunities for men and women and to integrate gender equality in policies and practices.

Human rights

The OSCE's human rights activities focus on such priorities as freedom of movement and religion, preventing torture and trafficking in persons.

National and international NGOs

OSCE could grant consultive status to NGOs
NGOs
and I NGOs
NGOs
in the form of "Researcher-in-residence programme" (run by the Prague
Prague
Office of the OSCE Secretariat): accredited representatives of national and international NGOs
NGOs
are granted access to all records and to numerous topical compilations related to OSCE field activities.

Media freedom

The OSCE observes relevant media developments in its participating states with a view to addressing and providing early warning on violations of freedom of expression.

Minority rights

Ethnic conflict is one of the main sources of large-scale violence in Europe
Europe
today. The OSCE's approach is to identify and to seek early resolution of ethnic tensions, and to set standards for the rights of persons belonging to minority groups and High Commissioner on National Minorities has been established. OSCE Democracy Defender Award[edit] The Democracy Defender Award honors a person or group for contributions to the promotion of democracy and the defense of human rights "in the spirit of Helsinki
Helsinki
Final Act and other OSCE principles and commitments." The award was established in 2016 on the initiative of Ambassadors of 8 countries, and supported by the delegations of the 18 countries of the OSCE (22 countries in 2017).[34][35]

Year Recipient Nationality Notes Reference

2017 Golos  Russia Russian organisation established in 2000 to protect the electoral rights of citizens and to foster civil society [34]

2016 Oleksandra Matviychuk  Ukraine Ukrainian activist, coordinator of Euromaidan SOS and leader of Civil Rights Center [36]

Criticism[edit] Following an unprecedented period of activity in the 1990s and early 2000s (decade), the OSCE has in the past few years faced accusations from the CIS states (primarily[citation needed] Russia) of being a tool for the Western states to advance their own interests. For instance, the events in Ukraine
Ukraine
in 2004 (the "Orange Revolution") led to allegations by Russia
Russia
of OSCE involvement on behalf of the pro-Western Viktor Yushchenko. At the 2007 Munich Conference on Security Policy, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
made this position very clear:

"They [unnamed Western States] are trying to transform the OSCE into a vulgar instrument designed to promote the foreign policy interests of one or a group of countries. And this task is also being accomplished by the OSCE's bureaucratic apparatus, which is absolutely not connected with the state founders in any way. Decision-making procedures and the involvement of so-called non-governmental organizations are tailored for this task. These organizations are formally independent but they are purposefully financed and therefore under control".[37][38][39][40]

Russia
Russia
and its allies are advancing the concept of a comprehensive OSCE reform, which would make the Secretariat, institutions and field presences more centralized and accountable to collective consensus-based bodies and focus the work of the Organization on topical security issues (human trafficking, terrorism, non-proliferation, arms control, etc.), at the expense of the "Human Dimension", or human rights issues. The move to reduce the autonomy of the theoretically independent OSCE institutions, such as ODIHR, would effectively grant a Russian veto over any OSCE activity. Western participating States are opposing this process, which they see as an attempt to prevent the OSCE from carrying out its democratization agenda in post-Soviet countries.[citation needed] Following the 2008 U.S. presidential election, OSCE's ODIHR
ODIHR
was accused of having double standards by Russia's lawmaker Slutsky. The point was made that while numerous violations of the voting process were registered, its criticism came only from within the United States (media, human rights organizations, McCain's election staff), while the OSCE known for its bashing criticism of elections on the post-Soviet space remained silent.[41][42] OSCE Parliamentary Assembly[edit] In 2004 the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly sent election observers to the U.S. Presidential elections. The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly’s president at the time was Democratic Congressman Alcee Hastings. Hastings had previously been impeached for corruption by the U.S. Congress. The OSCE faced criticism of partisanship and double standards due to Hastings's past and the fact that the OSCE's mandate was to promote democracy and the values of civil society.[43] In 2010 the Parliamentary Assembly of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
Europe
was criticized from within by the Latvian delegation for lacking transparency and democracy. Spencer Oliver (b. 1938) secretary general of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly, who has held the post since the organization's inception in 1992, faced a challenge from the Latvian Artis Pabriks. According to the rules of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly the incumbent general secretary can only be replaced with a full consensus minus one. Pabriks called the rules "quite shocking from the perspective of an organization that's monitoring elections".[44] In 2014, Ilkka Kanerva
Ilkka Kanerva
was elected the president of the OSCE PA. Kanerva had previously been fired from his post as foreign minister of Finland
Finland
after lying about sending over 200 text messages to an erotic dancer.[45] 2012 Texas controversy[edit] Before the U.S. presidential elections of November 2012, the OSCE announced its intention to send electoral observers to Texas and to other U.S. states. This prompted the Attorney General of Texas Greg Abbott to send letters to U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
and to the OSCE,[46] threatening to arrest OSCE officials if they should enter electoral premises in Texas and break Texas law.[47] In reply, the U.S. Department of State stated that OSCE observers enjoyed immunities.[48] In the event, no incidents between OSCE and Texas authorities were recorded during the elections. War in Donbass[edit]

OSCE SMM monitoring the movement of heavy weaponry in eastern Ukraine

The organization has been criticized by the Ukrainian press and government for actions during the Russian– Ukraine
Ukraine
conflict. During the War in Donbass, an OSCE observer allowed Russian separatists to use the organization's marked vehicle, which prompted the belief that the OSCE was biased in the war and not interested in carrying out its duties of mediating a ceasefire. The organization issued a statement regretting the incident.[49] The organization has also been criticized by Ukraine
Ukraine
for allegedly failing to monitor the implementation of the Minsk
Minsk
Protocol. The agreement called for a creation of a 40 km buffer zone, but upon Ukrainian forces withdrawing from their 20 km portion of the buffer, Russian separatists are said to have simply occupied the abandoned territory without withdrawing from their own 20 km buffer. Likewise, there are allegations of separatists using OSCE marked vehicles for transportation. Moreover, the mission also received criticism alleging that only 2 checkpoints on the Russian–Ukrainian border are currently being monitored, which has been described as "seriously inadequate" by Daniel Baerm the US ambassador to the OSCE. On the other hand, Ukraine
Ukraine
has faced criticism following a BBC report showing an alleged violation of the Minsk agreement when Ukraine
Ukraine
stationed tanks in the residential neighborhood Avdeevka. [50] The mission has also been criticized for waiting months to deploy drones to help monitor the border as well as withdrawing them after only several weeks of use due to Russian electronic attacks. Ukraine
Ukraine
has argued that approximately 80% of the OSCE observers located near Mariupol
Mariupol
were Russian citizens and many had ties to Russian security agencies such as the FSB and GRU. The organization has also been accused of allegedly revealing the locations of Ukrainian troops to Russian forces during the conflict and that Russian OSCE observers may be directly coordinating separatist artillery strikes on Ukrainian positions.[51][52][53][54][55] On 1 December 2014, an OSCE observer was injured by Ukrainian counter artillery fire while observing militants firing at Ukrainian forces. The OSCE team was located next to two pro Russian mortar teams. The OSCE team did not radio in or record the Russian mortar team firing on Ukrainian positions. Critics stated that the unorthodox behavior of being located next to an active separatist artillery position and not reporting the incident showed that the OSCE team was not acting in an impartial manner.[56] On 27 October 2015 a suspended OSCE monitor confirmed he was a former employee of Russia's Main Intelligence Directorate. The suspended SMM stated he had no trouble receiving the position and neither the OSCE nor Ukraine's Security Service thoroughly checked his background.[57] Following the report the OSCE issued a comment stating the monitor has been fired due to violations of the organization's code of conduct.[58] On 6 April 2016 photos of OSCE monitors attending the wedding of a Russian separatist were found. The wedding was hosted in June 2015. The OSCE expressed regret over the incident, issuing a statement saying “The unprofessional behavior displayed by the monitors in the picture is an individual incident that should not be abused to cast a shadow on the reputation of other mission members.” The OSCE reported that the monitors were no longer with the OSCE special monitoring mission.[59] In April 2017 an OSCE vehicle struck a mine, killing one member and injuring two.[60] Two armoured vehicles were on patrol was near Luhansk
Luhansk
when one struck the mine.[61] The dead man was American while the injured woman was from Germany
Germany
and the other person was from the Czech Republic.[61] See also[edit]

Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe
Europe
Treaty Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia Council of Europe Economics Electoral fraud European Union Julie Finley, United States
United States
ambassador International Federation for Human Rights International organisations in Europe NATO Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
Europe
statistics OSCE Minsk
Minsk
Group Silence procedure Treaty
Treaty
on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Western European Union

References[edit]

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Europe
2017". Countryeconomy.com. Retrieved 30 December 2017.  ^ Galbreath, David J. (2007). The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
Europe
(OSCE). New York, NY: Routledge. ISBN 9780203960943.  ^ "Final Recommendations of the Helsinki
Helsinki
Consultations". Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. 3 July 1973. Retrieved 9 May 2015.  ^ Ivanov, Igor S., The New Russian Diplomacy, Nixon Center and Brookings Institution
Brookings Institution
Press: Washington, D.C., 2002. pp. 97-98. ^ a b c Hammond, Roch (August 9, 2004). "International Monitoring of US Election Called 'Frightening'". CNSNews.com. Cybercast News Service. Archived from the original on February 3, 2008. Retrieved 2016-12-30.  ^ a b c "U.S. invites international observers to Nov. election". USA Today. usatoday.com. August 10, 2004. Archived from the original on May 15, 2008. Retrieved 2016-12-30.  ^ "Presidential Election, 2 November 2004, United States
United States
of America". OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights. Retrieved 2016-12-30. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 July 2009. Retrieved 27 June 2009.  ^ List of Partners for Co-Operation; Mediterranean and Asian States Archived 5 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Making a credible case for a legal personality for the OSCE", OSCE Secretariat ^ " Vienna
Vienna
Document 1999 of the Negotiations on Confidence- and Security-building Measures" (PDF). Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. 16 November 1999. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 April 2005. Retrieved 21 May 2016.  ^ "Secretary General". 20 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-06.  ^ "What is the OSCE?". Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. p. 7. Retrieved 1 April 2016.  ^ "The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly". www.osce.org. Retrieved 17 January 2018.  ^ "Representative on Freedom of the Media". Osce.org. Retrieved 31 December 2017.  ^ "2017 OSCE Asian Conference". OSCE.  ^ "The OSCE Chair-in-Office (CiO)". Global Affairs. international.gc.ca. Government of Canada. Retrieved 12 November 2014.  ^ "Who we are". osce.org. Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. Retrieved 12 November 2014.  ^ "19th OSCE Ministerial Council". Osce.org. Retrieved 31 December 2017.  ^ OSCE Magazine, issue number 4/2009, December 2009, pages 20–23. ^ "Secretariat - External Cooperation". OSCE.  ^ United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly Session 48 Resolution 5. Observer status for the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe
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in the General Assembly A/RES/48/5 22 October 1993. Retrieved 2008-10-01. ^ United Nations
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