OAKLAND /ˈoʊklənd/ is the largest city and the county seat of
Alameda County ,
Oakland's territory covers what was once a mosaic of California
coastal terrace prairie , oak woodland , and north coastal scrub . Its
land served as a rich resource when its hillside oak and redwood
timber were logged to build San Francisco, and Oakland's fertile
flatland soils helped it become a prolific agricultural region. In the
late 1860s, Oakland was selected as the western terminal of the
Transcontinental Railroad . Following the 1906 San Francisco
earthquake , many
Oakland is known for its sustainability practices, including a top-ranking for usage of electricity from renewable resources . Oakland is also known for its history of political activism, as well as its professional sports franchises (such as the Oakland Raiders , Oakland Athletics and the Golden State Warriors ) and major corporations, which include health care, dot-com companies , and manufacturers of household products. In addition, due to a steady influx of immigrants during the 20th century, along with thousands of African-American war-industry workers who relocated from the Deep South during the 1940s, Oakland is the most ethnically diverse major city in the country.
* 1 History
* 1.1 Pre-incorporation * 1.2 City beginnings * 1.3 1900–1950s * 1.4 1960–1999 * 1.5 2000s
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Cityscape * 2.2 Neighborhoods * 2.3 Climate and vegetation
* 3 Demographics
* 3.1 Race and ethnicity * 3.2 Educational attainment and income * 3.3 Households * 3.4 Shifting of cultures
* 4 Economy
* 4.1 Top employers
* 5 Tourism
* 5.1 Arts and culture * 5.2 Attractions * 5.3 Nightlife * 5.4 "There is no there there"
* 6 Sports
* 7 Parks and recreation
* 7.1 Parks * 7.2 Places of worship
* 8 Law and government
* 8.1 Politics * 8.2 Crime
* 9 Education
* 9.1 Primary and secondary education * 9.2 Colleges and universities
* 10 Media
* 11 Infrastructure
* 11.1 Transportation
* 11.1.1 Air and rail * 11.1.2 Mass transit and bicycling * 11.1.3 Bridges, freeways, and tunnels
* 11.2 Freight rail * 11.3 Shipping * 11.4 Utilities * 11.5 Healthcare
* 12 Notable people
* 13 International relations
* 13.1 Sister cities * 13.2 Friendship cities
* 14 See also * 15 References * 16 Further reading * 17 External links
The earliest known inhabitants were the Huchiun Indians, who lived
there for thousands of years. The Huchiun belonged to a linguistic
grouping later called the
In 1772, the area that later became Oakland was claimed, with the rest of California, by Spanish settlers for the King of Spain. In the early 19th century, the Spanish crown granted the East Bay area to Luis María Peralta for his Rancho San Antonio . The grant was confirmed by the successor Mexican republic upon its independence from Spain. Upon his death in 1842, Peralta divided his land among his four sons. Most of Oakland fell within the shares given to Antonio Maria and Vicente. The portion of the parcel that is now Oakland was called _encinal_—Spanish for "oak grove"—due to the large oak forest that covered the area, which eventually led to the city's name.
1857 Map of Oakland
In 1851, three men—
Horace Carpentier , Edson Adams, and Andrew
Moon—began developing what is now downtown Oakland. On May 4, 1852,
the Town of Oakland incorporated. Two years later, on March 25, 1854,
Oakland re-incorporated as the City of Oakland, with Horace Carpentier
elected the first mayor, though a scandal ended his mayorship in less
than a year. The city and its environs quickly grew with the
railroads, becoming a major rail terminal in the late 1860s and 1870s.
In 1868, the Central Pacific constructed the
Oakland Long Wharf at
Oakland Point, the site of today's
Port of Oakland
A number of horsecar and cable car lines were constructed in Oakland during the latter half of the 19th century. The first electric streetcar set out from Oakland to Berkeley in 1891, and other lines were converted and added over the course of the 1890s. The various streetcar companies operating in Oakland were acquired by Francis "Borax" Smith and consolidated into what eventually became known as the Key System , the predecessor of today's publicly owned AC Transit .
At the time of incorporation, Oakland consisted of the territory that lay south of today's major intersection of San Pablo Avenue, Broadway, and Fourteenth Street. The city gradually annexed farmlands and settlements to the east and the north. Oakland's rise to industrial prominence, and its subsequent need for a seaport, led to the digging of a shipping and tidal channel in 1902. This resulted in the nearby town of Alameda being made an island. In 1906, the city's population doubled with refugees made homeless after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire.
Oakland expanded during the 1920s, as its population expanded with factory workers. Approximately 13,000 homes were built in the 3 years between 1921 and 1924, more than during the 13 years between 1907 and 1920. Many of the large downtown office buildings, apartment buildings, and single-family houses still standing in Oakland were built during the 1920s; they reflect the architectural styles of the time. In 1924, the Tribune Tower was completed; in 1976, it was restored and declared an Oakland landmark. It is no longer used by the Oakland Tribune.
Russell Clifford Durant established Durant Field at 82nd Avenue and East 14th Street in 1916. The first transcontinental airmail flight finished its journey at Durant Field on August 9, 1920, flown by Army Capt. Eddie Rickenbacker and Navy Lt. Bert Acosta . Durant Field was often called Oakland Airport, though the current Oakland International Airport was soon established four miles (6.4 km) to the southwest.
During World War II, the East Bay Area was home to many war-related
Moore Dry Dock Company expanded its shipbuilding
capabilities and built over 100 ships. Valued at $100 million in 1943,
Oakland's canning industry was its second-most-valuable war
contribution after shipbuilding. The largest canneries were in the
Fruitvale District, and included the Josiah Lusk Canning Company, the
Oakland Preserving Company (which started the Del Monte brand), and
Franklin D. Roosevelt called on defense industries with
government contracts to integrate their workforces and provide
opportunities for all Americans. Tens of thousands of laborers were
attracted from around the country, and especially poor whites and
blacks from the Deep South: Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana,
Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas, as well as Missouri and
Henry J. Kaiser
National City Lines (NCL), a
Soon after the war, as Oakland's shipbuilding industry declined and the automobile industry went through restructuring, many jobs were lost. Economic competition increased racial tension. In addition, labor unrest increased as workers struggled to protect their livelihoods. Oakland was the center of a general strike during the first week of December 1946, one of six cities across the country that had such a strike after World War II.
In 1960, Kaiser Corporation erected its headquarters; it was the
largest skyscraper in Oakland, as well as "the largest office tower
Students Huey Newton and Bobby Seale founded the Black Panther Party at Merritt College to emphasize black power and taking care of their own community. Among their social programs were feeding children and providing other services to the needy. During the 1970s, Oakland began to suffer serious violence and other problems related to gang-controlled dealing of heroin and cocaine when drug kingpin Felix Mitchell created the nation's first large-scale operation of this kind. Both violent crime and property crime increased during this period, and Oakland's murder rate rose to twice that.
As in many other American cities during the 1980s, crack cocaine became a serious problem in Oakland. Drug dealing in general, and the dealing of crack cocaine in particular, resulted in elevated rates of violent crime, causing Oakland to consistently be listed as one of America's most crime-ridden cities.
In 1980 Oakland's black population reached its 20th-century peak at approximately 47% of the overall city population.
The 6.9 Mw Loma Prieta earthquake occurred on October 17, 1989. The
rupture was related to the
San Andreas fault system and affected the
San Francisco Bay Area
On October 20, 1991, a massive firestorm swept down from the Berkeley /Oakland hills above the Caldecott Tunnel. Twenty-five people were killed, 150 people were injured, and nearly 4,000 homes destroyed. With the loss of life and an estimated economic loss of US$1.5 billion, this was the worst urban firestorm in American history.
During the mid-1990s, Oakland's economy began to recover as it
transitioned to new types of jobs. In addition, the city participated
in large development and urban renewal projects, concentrated
especially in the downtown area, at the
Port of Oakland
Oak Tree growing in Frank H. Ogawa Plaza
After his 1999 inauguration, Oakland
Due to allegations of misconduct by the
Oakland Police Department ,
the City of Oakland has paid claims for a total of US$57 million
during the 2001–2011 timeframe to plaintiffs claiming police abuse;
this is the largest sum paid by any city in California. On October
10, 2011, protesters and civic activists began "
Occupy Oakland "
Frank Ogawa Plaza in
Aerial view of Downtown
Oakland is in the eastern region of the
San Francisco Bay
Oakland's highest point is near Grizzly Peak Blvd, east of Berkeley, just over 1,760 feet (540 m) above sea level at about 37°52′43″N 122°13′27″W / 37.8786°N 122.2241°W / 37.8786; -122.2241 . Oakland has 19 miles (31 km) of shoreline, but Radio Beach is the only beach in Oakland.
Oaklanders refer to their city's terrain as "the flatlands" and "the hills" . Until recent waves of gentrification, these terms also symbolized Oakland's deep economic divide, with "the hills" being more affluent communities. About two-thirds of Oakland lies in the flat plain of the East Bay, with one-third rising into the foothills and hills of the East Bay range.
Ruptures along the nearby
San Andreas fault caused severe earth
movement in the
San Francisco Bay Area
Main article: List of neighborhoods in Oakland,
Oakland has more than 50 distinct neighborhoods. The greater
divisions in the city include downtown Oakland and its greater Central
Business District ,
Lake Merritt , East Oakland , North Oakland , West
Oakland , and the Oakland Hills . East Oakland, which includes the
East Oakland Hills, encompasses more than half of Oakland's land area,
stretching from Lakeshore Avenue on the east shore of Lake Merritt
southeast to the San Leandro border. North Oakland encompasses the
neighborhoods between downtown and Berkeley and Emeryville . West
Oakland is the area between downtown and the Bay, partially surrounded
by the Oakland Point , and encompassing the
Port of Oakland
Lake Merritt, an urban estuary near downtown, is a mix of fresh and salt water draining in and out from the Oakland Harbor at the San Francisco Bay and one of Oakland's most notable features. It was designated the United States' first official wildlife refuge in 1870. Originally a marsh-lined wildlife haven, Lake Merritt was dredged and bordered with parks from the 1890s to the 1910s. Despite this reduction in habitat, Oakland is home to a number of rare and endangered species, many of which are localized to serpentine soils and bedrock. Lake Merritt is surrounded by residential and business districts, including downtown and Grand Lake . Lake Merritt, towards the southern end
The city of Piedmont , incorporated in Oakland's central foothills after the 1906 earthquake, is a small independent city surrounded by the city of Oakland.
CLIMATE AND VEGETATION
Oakland has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate with an average of 260 sunny days per year. Lake Merritt , a large estuary centrally located east of Downtown, was designated as the United States' first official wildlife refuge.
Based on data gathered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration , Oakland is ranked No. 1 in climate among U.S. cities.
Oakland's climate is typified by the temperate and seasonal
Mediterranean climate. Summers are usually dry and warm and winters
are mild and damp. It has features found in both nearby coastal cities
U.S. Weather Bureau
The higher rainfall in the hills supports woods of oak, madrona,
pine, fir and a few redwood groves in the wetter areas. Before being
logged in the 19th century, some of the tallest redwood trees in
CLIMATE DATA FOR OAKLAND MUSEUM (1981–2010 NORMALS)
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR
RECORD HIGH °F (°C) 78 (26) 81 (27) 88 (31) 97 (36) 105 (41) 106 (41) 103 (39) 99 (37) 109 (43) 103 (39) 84 (29) 75 (24) 109 (43)
AVERAGE HIGH °F (°C) 58.1 (14.5) 61.6 (16.4) 63.9 (17.7) 66.3 (19.1) 68.7 (20.4) 71.5 (21.9) 72.0 (22.2) 73.0 (22.8) 74.1 (23.4) 71.7 (22.1) 64.6 (18.1) 58.3 (14.6) 67.0 (19.4)
AVERAGE LOW °F (°C) 44.3 (6.8) 46.8 (8.2) 48.5 (9.2) 50.0 (10) 52.7 (11.5) 55.0 (12.8) 56.2 (13.4) 57.5 (14.2) 57.1 (13.9) 54.4 (12.4) 49.1 (9.5) 44.7 (7.1) 51.4 (10.8)
RECORD LOW °F (°C) 30 (−1) 29 (−2) 34 (1) 37 (3) 43 (6) 48 (9) 51 (11) 50 (10) 48 (9) 43 (6) 36 (2) 26 (−3) 26 (−3)
AVERAGE RAINFALL INCHES (MM) 4.71 (119.6) 4.50 (114.3) 3.39 (86.1) 1.42 (36.1) 0.77 (19.6) 0.12 (3) Trace 0.06 (1.5) 0.25 (6.4) 1.37 (34.8) 2.89 (73.4) 4.48 (113.8) 23.96 (608.6)
AVERAGE RAINY DAYS (≥ 0.01 IN) 10.8 10.5 10.6 5.9 3.4 1.0 0.1 0.4 1.2 3.6 7.9 10.4 65.8
Source: NOAA (extremes 1970–present)
In 1991, an urban conflagration , the Oakland Hills Fire , destroyed nearly 4,000 homes and killed twenty-five people in the Oakland hills range ; it was the worst urban firestorm in American history.
EST. 2016 420,005
U.S. Decennial Census
RACE AND ETHNICITY
Map of racial distribution in
San Francisco Bay
RACIAL COMPOSITION 2010 1990 1970 1940
White 34.5% 32.5% 59.1% 95.3%
—Non-Hispanic 25.9% 28.3% 52.0% n/a
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 25.4% 13.9% 7.6% n/a
Asian 16.8% 14.8% 4.8% –
2010 United States Census reported that Oakland had a
population of 390,724. The population density was 5,009.2 inhabitants
per square mile (1,934.1/km2). The racial makeup of Oakland was
134,925 (34.5%) White (non-Hispanic White 25.9%), 129,471 (34.0%)
DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE 2010
Total Population 390,724 – 100%
One Race 368,847 – 94%
Not Hispanic or Latino 291,656 – 75%
White 101,308 – 26%
American Indian and Alaska Native alone 1,214 – 0.3%
Asian alone 65,127 – 17%
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone 2,081 – 0.5%
Some other race alone 1,213 – 0.3%
Two or more races alone 14,076 – 3.6%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 99,068 – 25.4%
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT AND INCOME
Oakland has the fifth largest cluster of "elite zip codes" ranked by the number of households with the highest combination of income and education. 37.9% of residents over 25 years of age have bachelor's degree or higher. Oakland ranked among the top cities with residents with bachelor's degrees and graduate degrees per square mile.
Oakland ranks in the top 20 of American cities in median household income, with a 2012 value of US$51,863. In 2012, the median income for a household in the city was US$51,863 and the median income for a family was US$59,459. The mean income for a household was US$77,888 and the mean income for a family was US$90,948. Males had a median income of US$50,140 versus US$50,304 for females. The unemployment rate as of December 2013 was 9.7%.
In 2007 approximately 15.3 percent of families and 17.0 percent of the general population were below the poverty line, including 27.9 percent of those under age 18 and 13.1 percent of those age 65 or over. 0.7% of the population is homeless. Home ownership is 41% and 14% of rental units are subsidized.
As of the census of 2000, 19.4% of the population and 16.2% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 27.9% of those under the age of 18 and 13.1% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.
The census reported that 382,586 people (97.9% of the population) lived in households, 5,675 (1.5%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 2,463 (0.6%) were institutionalized.
There were 153,791 households, out of which 44,762 (29.1%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 50,797 (33.0%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 24,122 (15.7%) had a female householder with no husband present, 8,799 (5.7%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 11,289 (7.3%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships , and 3,442 (2.2%) same-sex married couples or partnerships . 52,103 households (33.9%) were made up of individuals and 13,778 (9.0%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49. There were 83,718 families (54.4% of all households); the average family size was 3.27.
The population was spread out with 83,120 people (21.3%) under the age of 18, 36,272 people (9.3%) aged 18 to 24, 129,139 people (33.1%) aged 25 to 44, 98,634 people (25.2%) aged 45 to 64, and 43,559 people (11.1%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.8 males.
There were 169,710 housing units at an average density of 2,175.7 per square mile (840.0/km2), of which 63,142 (41.1%) were owner-occupied, and 90,649 (58.9%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 3.0%; the rental vacancy rate was 8.5%. 166,662 people (42.7% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 215,924 people (55.3%) lived in rental housing units.
SHIFTING OF CULTURES
Oakland is one of the most ethnically diverse major cities in the
country. Oakland was ranked the fourth most diverse city in the
Between 2000 and 2010 Oakland's black population decreased by nearly
25 percent. The city's demographics have changed due to a combination
of rising housing prices associated with gentrification and with
blacks relocating to better housing in Bay Area suburbs or moving to
In the 2010 census African Americans maintained their status as Oakland's single largest ethnic group, with 27% of the population, followed by non-Hispanic whites at 25.9%, and Hispanics of any race at 25.4%. Ethnic Asians constitute 17%, followed by smaller minority groups.
Recent trends and cultural shifts have led to a decline among some of Oakland's longstanding black institutions, such as churches, businesses and nightclubs, which had developed during the growing years of the 1950s through 1970. Some long-time black residents have been dismayed at the population changes.
Many immigrants have settled in the city. In recent years, immigrants and others have marched by the thousands down Oakland's International Boulevard in support of legal reforms benefiting illegal immigrants .
An analysis by the Urban Institute of U.S. Census 2000 numbers showed
that Oakland had the third-highest concentration of gays and lesbians
among the 50 largest U.S. cities, behind
The iconic Tribune Tower , from 13th St. and Franklin St. in
Downtown Further information: List of companies based in Oakland,
Oakland is a major West Coast port, and the fifth busiest in the
As of 2013 , the San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward metropolitan area has
Oakland experienced an increase of both its population and of land
values in the early-to-mid first decade of the 21st century. The 10k
Plan , which began during former mayor
Elihu Harris ' administration,
and intensified during former mayor
As of 2015 , the top employers in the city were:
# EMPLOYER # OF EMPLOYEES
1 Kaiser Permanente 9,992
2 Oakland Unified School District 6,637
3 County of Alameda 5,312
4 City of Oakland 3,352
7 Children\'s Hospital Oakland 2,800
8 Alameda Health System 2,300
View from Tribune Tower at night
In 2013, over 2.5 million people visited Oakland, injecting US$1.3 billion into the economy. Oakland has been experiencing an increase in hotel demand. Occupancy is 74%, while RevPAR (Revenue Per Available Room) increased by 14%, the highest increase of any big city in the western region of the United States. Both Oakland and San Francisco were forecasted to experience the highest increases in ADR (Average daily rate ).
In recent years, Oakland has gained national recognition as a travel destination. In 2012, Oakland was named the top North American city to visit, highlighting its growing number of sophisticated restaurants and bars, top music venues, and increasing nightlife appeal. Oakland also took the No. 16 spot in "America's Coolest Cities," ranked by metrics like entertainment options and recreational opportunities per capita, etc. In 2013, Oakland topped the No. 1 spot in "America's Most Exciting Cities," notably having the most movie theaters, theater companies, and museums per square mile. In "America's Most Hipster Cities," Oakland took the number-5 spot, cited for luring San Francisco "hippies" into the city. Oakland has also increased its travel destination allure internationally.
ARTS AND CULTURE
Oakland has a significant art scene and claims the highest
concentration of artists per capita in the United States. In 2013,
Oakland was designated as one of America's top twelve art communities,
recognizing Downtown (including Uptown), Chinatown, Old Oakland, and
Jack London Square
A night view of the Downtown skyline and Lakeside Apartments District as seen from the East 18th Street Pier
Recent years have seen the growth of the Oakland Art Murmur event, occurring in the Uptown neighborhood the first Friday evening of every month. The event attracts around 20,000 people along twenty city blocks, featuring live performances, food trucks, and over 30 galleries and venues.
"THERE IS NO THERE THERE"
The HERETHERE sculpture straddling the Oakland-Berkeley border
Gertrude Stein wrote about Oakland in her 1937 book _Everybody\'s Autobiography _ "There is no there there," upon learning that the neighborhood where she lived as a child had been torn down to make way for an industrial park . The quote is sometimes misconstrued to refer to Oakland as a whole.
Modern-day Oakland has turned the quote on its head, with a statue
downtown titled _"There."_ In 2005 a sculpture called _HERETHERE_ was
installed by the City of Berkeley on the Berkeley-Oakland border at
Martin Luther King Jr. Way. The sculpture consists of eight-foot-tall
letters spelling "HERE" and "THERE" in front of the
Oakland has professional teams in three sports: baseball, basketball,
and football. The
CLUB SPORT FOUNDED LEAGUE VENUE
Oakland's former sports teams include:
* Oakland Oaks ,
Pacific Coast League
PARKS AND RECREATION
Oakland has many parks and recreation centers which total 5,937 acres (2,403 ha). In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land , a national land conservation organization, reported that Oakland had the 18th best park system among the 50 most populous U.S. cities. In 2013, Oakland ranked 4th among American cities as an urban destination for nature lovers.
Some of the city's most notable parks include:
* Lake Merritt * Morcom Rose Garden best from July through October * Mosswood Park * Allendale Park * Peralta Hacienda Historical Park, headquarters of the Peralta rancho, Rancho San Antonio * William Joseph McInnes Botanic Garden and Campus Arboretum , located on the Mills College campus
Additionally, the following seven East Bay Regional Parks are located entirely or partially in the city of Oakland:
* Anthony Chabot Regional Park * Huckleberry Botanic Regional Preserve * Leona Canyon Regional Open Space Preserve * Redwood Regional Park * Robert Sibley Volcanic Regional Preserve * Roberts Regional Recreation Area * Temescal Regional Park
PLACES OF WORSHIP
Major places of worship in Oakland include: Oakland City Church,
First Congregational Church of Oakland, Evangelistic Outreach Center,
Green Pastures, the Presbyterian, First Presbyterian Church of
Oakland; Greek Orthodox Ascension Cathedral ; the Roman Catholic
Cathedral of Christ the Light ; the United Methodist Chinese Community
Church ; the Unitarian First Unitarian Church ; the Church of Jesus
Christ of Latter-Day Saints' Oakland
LAW AND GOVERNMENT
See also: Government of Alameda County, California Oakland City Hall and central plaza in 1917. Built of framed steel with unreinforced masonry infill at a cost of US$2 million in 1914. The structure was the tallest building in the city until the Tribune Tower was built in 1923.
Oakland has a mayor-council government . The mayor is elected at-large for a four-year term. The Oakland City Council has eight council members representing seven districts in Oakland with one member elected at-large and others from single-member districts ; council members serve staggered four-year terms. The mayor appoints a city administrator, subject to the confirmation by the City Council, who is the chief administrative officer of the city. Other city officers include: city attorney (elected), city auditor (elected), and city clerk (appointed by city administrator). Oakland's mayor is limited to two terms. There are no term limits for the city council. Council member Larry Reid, also serving as vice-mayor, was elected to a fifth term in November 2012.
Oakland City Hall was evacuated after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake until US$80M seismic retrofit and hazard abatement work was complete in 1995. City offices had to be housed in leased space and other locations.
Jean Quan was elected mayor in November 2010, beating Don Perata and Rebecca Kaplan in the city's first ranked choice balloting . This new system is intended to increase voters' ability to choose preferred candidates, as they can combine ranked votes when several candidates are competing.
Oakland is also part of Alameda County , for which the Government of
Alameda County is defined and authorized under the California
City Hall next to City Center
Oakland was politically conservative from the 1860s to the 1950s,
with positions expressed by the Republican-oriented _
Oakland Tribune _
newspaper. At the time, the Republican Party was more moderate than it
has become in the 21st century, and some members belonged to a
progressive tradition across the Northern Tier of states. In the
1960s, the majority of voters began to favor liberal policies and the
Democratic Party. Oakland has the highest percentage of registered
Democrats of any of the incorporated cities in Alameda County, with
Berkeley coming in a close second. As of 2009 , Oakland has 204,646
registered voters. 140,858 (68.8%) are registered Democrats, 12,248
(5.9%) are registered Republicans, 10,431 (5.2%) are members of other
parties and 41,109 (20.1%) decline to state a political affiliation.
Oakland is widely regarded as being one of the most liberal major
cities in the nation. The
Cook Partisan Voting Index of Congressional
District 13 , which includes Oakland and Berkeley, is D+37, making it
the most Democratic congressional district in
Main article: Crime in Oakland,
Substantial progress has been made in reducing the city's historically high crime rate. Gun crime is primarily concentrated in certain poor minority neighborhoods with nearly all homicides being committed by guns. Oakland's crime rate had begun to escalate during the late 1960s; and by the end of the 1970s, during the drug wars, the city's per capita murder rate had risen to twice that of San Francisco or New York City. That dramatic rise in crime may have been affected by the different methods being used to deal with rebellious youth. Prior to 1960, there had been successful government-funded social programs, where workers would work in neighborhoods searching for rebellious teens to enter them in youth centers that would be able to teach them proper values and improve their behavior.
But by the late 1960s, the police and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) used military tactics to manage unwanted behavior, with increases in arrests, prosecutions, and imprisonment. During the first decade of the 21st century, Oakland has consistently been listed as one of the most dangerous large cities in the United States, but in the latter part of the decade, the homicide rate dropped four years in a row, and violent crime in general had dropped 27%. During 2011 there were increases in both categories. In 2012 Oakland reported 131 homicides, the highest number since 2006, when 148 killings were recorded.
Since 2012 there have been continued decreases in various categories of crime, including homicides. In 2013, there was a 33% decline in homicides from the previous year, allowing Oakland to record its lowest homicide count since 2004. Aggravated assaults were down 10%; and rapes declined by 27%, the lowest level of that crime in eight years. In its crime statistics released for the year 2016, the Oakland Police Department reported a total of 93 murders. That total for 2016 still constitutes a 29% drop in homicides when compared to the city's reported murders for 2012.
Oakland's police force has dropped to 612 officers, down from more than 800 in 2009. It is below the 925 recommended by the city's strategic plan. The city has recently started to rebuild its force and recently graduated 34 officers. The Oakland Police Department is committed to improved public safety by increasing police presence during peak crime hours, improving intelligence gathering, and moving more aggressively to arrest violent crime suspects.
Among Oakland's 35 police patrol beats, violent crime remains a serious problem in specific East and West Oakland neighborhoods. In 2008, homicides were concentrated: 72% occurred in three City Council districts, District 3 in West Oakland and Districts 6 and 7 in East Oakland, although these districts have 44% of Oakland's residents.
In 2012, Oakland implemented Operation Ceasefire , a gang violence reduction plan used in other cities, based in part on the research and strategies of author David M. Kennedy .
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION
Most public schools in Oakland are operated by the Oakland Unified
School District (OUSD), which covers the city except for Sheffield
Village. Due to financial troubles and administrative failures, it was
in receivership by the state of
OUSD test scores historically lag behind the rest of California, in particular due to a high proportion of English-language learners. Some individual schools have much better performance than the citywide average. As of 2013 , for example, over half the students at Hillcrest Elementary School in the Montclair upper hills neighborhood performed at the "advanced" level in the English portion of the test, and students at Lincoln Elementary School in the Chinatown neighborhood performed at the "advanced" level in the math portion.
Oakland's three largest public high schools are Oakland High School , Oakland Technical High School , and Skyline High School . There are also numerous small public high schools within Castlemont Community of Small Schools , Fremont Federation of High Schools , and McClymonds Educational Complex , all of which were once single, larger public high schools that were reorganized due to poor performance (Castlemont High School, Fremont High School, and McClymonds High School , respectively).
Among charter schools in the district, North Oakland Community Charter School (NOCCS), an elementary and middle school, is one of the few public progressive schools in the country. Other charter schools include the Oakland Military Institute , Oakland School for the Arts , Bay Area Technology School , and Oakland Charter Academy .
There are several private high schools including the secular The College Preparatory School and Head-Royce School , and the Catholic Bishop O\'Dowd High School , Holy Names High School and St. Elizabeth High School . Catholic schools in Oakland are operated by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Oakland also include eight K–8 schools (plus one in Piedmont on the Oakland city border). Northern Light School is a private nonprofit elementary and middle school. Bentley School is an Independent Co-educational K–12, college preparatory school, located on two campuses in Oakland and Lafayette, California.
COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES
Accredited colleges and universities include:
In 2001, the SFSU Oakland Multimedia Center was opened, allowing San
Francisco State University to conduct classes near downtown Oakland.
The Oakland Higher Education Consortium and the City of Oakland's
Community and Economic Development Agency (CEDA) opened the Oakland
Higher Education Center downtown in 2002 to provide "access to
multiple higher education service providers within a shared urban
facility." Member schools include primary user
Main article: List of television stations in the
Oakland is served by major television stations broadcasting primarily
Oakland was served by the Oakland Tribune , which published its first newspaper on February 21, 1874. The Tribune Tower , which features a large clock, is an Oakland landmark. At key times throughout the day (8:00 am, noon and 5:00 pm), the clock tower carillon plays a variety of classic melodies, which change daily. In 2007, the Oakland Tribune moved its offices from the tower to an East Oakland location, before folding in 2011.
Oaklandwiki is a thriving (mostly) English-language LocalWiki .
Air And Rail
Oakland residents have access to the three major airports of the San
Francisco Bay Area:
Oakland International Airport , San Francisco
International Airport , and
San Jose International Airport . Oakland
International Airport, located within the city limits of Oakland, is 4
mi (6.4 km) south of downtown Oakland and serves domestic and
The city has regional and long distance passenger train service
Historically, the city was served by several train companies, which
terminated in different terminals. Santa Fe trains terminated at the
40th and San Pablo station.
Mass Transit And Bicycling
The most recent census data compiled in 2007 before gasoline price spikes in 2008, show 24.3 percent of Oaklanders used public transportation, walked or used "other means" to commute to work, not including telecommuting , with 17 percent of Oakland households being "car free" and or statistically categorized as having "no vehicles available."
Bus transit service in Oakland and the inner East Bay is provided by
the Alameda and Contra Costa Transit District,
Intercity bus companies that serve Oakland include Greyhound ,
The metropolitan area is served by
Bay Area Rapid Transit
The Alameda / Oakland Ferry operates ferry service from Jack London Square to Alameda , San Francisco, and Angel Island . Oakland licenses taxi cabs, and has zoned cab stands in its downtown, including a bicycle pedi-cab service.
The Oakland City Council adopted a Bicycle Master Plan in 1999 as a part of the Land Use and Transportation (LUTE) element of Oakland's 1998 General Plan. In addition, the Oakland City Council reaffirmed the bike plan in 2005 and 2007. Several miles of bike lanes were created as a result of the plan, with more awaiting funding. Facilities for parking thousands of bicycles have been installed downtown and in other commercial districts throughout Oakland. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2011 American Community Survey, Oakland moved into 7th place in the nation by percentage of people that choose to commute by bike in 2011.
Bridges, Freeways, And Tunnels
Oakland is served by several major highways: Eastbound Bay Bridge
traffic entering Oakland then splits into three freeways at the
MacArthur Maze freeway interchange: Interstate 580 (MacArthur Freeway)
heads southeast toward Hayward and eventually to the California
Central Valley ;
Interstate 880 (Nimitz Freeway) runs south to San
Jose ; and the Eastshore Freeway (Interstate 80 /I-580) runs north,
providing connections to
At the time of the
1989 Loma Prieta earthquake
Two underwater tunnels, the Webster and Posey Tubes, connect the main
island of Alameda to downtown Oakland, coming above ground in
Chinatown. In addition, the Park Street , Fruitvale , and High Street
bridges connect Alameda to East Oakland over the Oakland
In the hills, the Leimert Bridge crosses Dimond Canyon, connecting the Oakmore neighborhood to Park Boulevard. The Caldecott Tunnel carries Highway 24 through the Berkeley Hills , connecting central Contra Costa County to Oakland. The Caldecott has four bores.
Freight service, which consists primarily of moving shipping containers to and from the Port of Oakland, is provided today by Union Pacific Railroad (UP), and to a lesser extent by BNSF Railway (which now shares the tracks of the UP between Richmond and Oakland).
Historically, Oakland was served by several railroads. Besides the
transcontinental line of the Southern Pacific, there was also the
Santa Fe (whose Oakland terminal was actually in Emeryville), the
Western Pacific Railroad (who built a pier adjacent to the SP's), and
As one of the three major ports on the West Coast of the United
States , the
Port of Oakland
Water and sewage treatment are provided by East Bay Municipal Utility
Pacific Gas and Electric Company
* List of cities and towns in the
San Francisco Bay Area
* ^ "Legal Briefs" (PDF). City of Oakland Office of the City
Attorney. May 2002. Retrieved March 19, 2015.
* ^ SCANLON, TOM (November 22, 1992). "The New Motown : Call it
\'Oaktown.\' It\'s funky, it\'s thriving. It\'s definitely not L.A. or
New York. And it just may be the Hip-Hop Capital of America" – via
* ^ "Debate over Oakland motto exposes racial divide, identity
* ^ "
* ^ "Oakland Tribune, May 5, 1929. \'
* ^ Ruben Llamas, _Eye from the Edge: A Memoir of West Oakland,
* ^ UNITED STATES, v. NATIONAL CITY LINES, Inc., et al.—186 F.2d
562—AltLaw Archived November 16, 2009, at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Elena Conis (2002). "From Horses to Hybrid: A Century
of East Bay Transport". Journalism.berkeley.edu. Retrieved April 19,
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_
Heather Mac Donald (Autumn 1999). "Jerry Brown\'s
No-Nonsense New Age for Oakland.". City Journal. Retrieved August 8,
* ^ Weir, Stan (November 22, 2005). "1946: The Oakland General
Strike". libcom.org. Retrieved December 31, 2011.
* ^ _The furniture of Sam Maloof_. Google Books. 2001. ISBN
978-0-393-73080-7 . Retrieved April 19, 2012.
* ^ _Inside the Panther Revolution,_ Robyn Cean Spencer, Chapter
13, p. 302
* ^ monthlyreview.org
* ^ Tyler, Carolyn (October 19, 2016). "
Oakland Museum of CA
celebrates 50th anniversary of Black Panthers". _abc7news.com_.
* ^ _Crack In America: Demon Drugs and Social Justice – Craig
Reinarman, Harry Gene Levine – Google Books_. Books.google.com.
1997. ISBN 978-0-520-20242-9 . Retrieved 2012-07-24.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _Catastrophe: The 100 Greatest Disasters of All Time,_
Stephen J. Spignesi, Citadel, 2004, pp 292–94
* ^ "Some faults revealed by firestorm remain uncorrected".
www.ktvu.com. Archived from the original on January 22, 2012.
* ^ Edward Iwata, of the examiner staff (February 16, 1997). "On
the road to economic success, where we work".
* ^ Gammon, Robert (January 3, 2007). "Inflating the Numbers, The
Brown administration came very close on the 10K Plan. So why the grade
East Bay Express
* Bibliography of Oakland,
Find more aboutOAKLAND, CALIFORNIAat's sister projects
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