The Info List - Oakland, California

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Oakland is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, California, United States. A major West Coast port city, Oakland is the largest city in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area, the third largest city overall in the San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area, the eighth most populated city in California, and the 45th largest city in the United States. With a population of 412,040 as of 2016[update],[14] it serves as a trade center for the San Francisco Bay Area; its Port of Oakland
Port of Oakland
is the busiest port in the San Francisco Bay, the entirety of Northern California, and the fifth busiest in the United States
United States
of America.[16] An act to incorporate the city was passed on May 4, 1852, and incorporation was later approved on March 25, 1854, which officially made Oakland a city.[4] Oakland is a charter city.[17] Oakland's territory covers what was once a mosaic of California coastal terrace prairie, oak woodland, and north coastal scrub.[18] Its land served as a rich resource when its hillside oak and redwood timber were logged to build San Francisco.[18] Oakland's fertile flatland soils helped it become a prolific agricultural region. In the late 1860s, Oakland was selected as the western terminal of the Transcontinental Railroad.[19] Following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, many San Francisco
San Francisco
citizens moved to Oakland, enlarging the city's population, increasing its housing stock and improving its infrastructure. This is also the time when plague cases were discovered in Oakland and the East Bay.[20] It continued to grow in the 20th century with its busy port, shipyards, and a thriving automobile manufacturing industry. Oakland is known for its sustainability practices, including a top-ranking for usage of electricity from renewable resources. Oakland is also known for its history of political activism, as well as its professional sports franchises (such as the Oakland Raiders, Oakland Athletics and the Golden State Warriors) and major corporations, which include health care, dot-com companies, and manufacturers of household products.


1 History

1.1 Pre-incorporation 1.2 Development of Chinatown 1.3 City beginnings 1.4 1900–1950s

1.4.1 Plague Epidemic 1.4.2 Incorporation

1.5 1960–1999 1.6 2000s

2 Geography

2.1 Cityscape 2.2 Neighborhoods 2.3 Climate and vegetation

3 Demographics

3.1 Race and ethnicity 3.2 Educational attainment and income 3.3 Households 3.4 Shifting of cultures

4 Economy

4.1 Top employers

5 Tourism

5.1 Arts and culture 5.2 Attractions 5.3 Nightlife 5.4 "There is no there there"

6 Sports 7 Parks and recreation

7.1 Parks 7.2 Places of worship

8 Law and government

8.1 Politics 8.2 Crime

9 Education

9.1 Primary and secondary education 9.2 Colleges and universities

10 Media 11 Infrastructure

11.1 Transportation

11.1.1 Air and rail 11.1.2 Mass transit and bicycling 11.1.3 Bridges, freeways, and tunnels

11.2 Freight rail 11.3 Shipping 11.4 Utilities 11.5 Healthcare

12 Notable people 13 International relations

13.1 Sister cities 13.2 Friendship cities

14 See also 15 References 16 External links

History[edit] See also: History of Oakland, California
and Timeline of Oakland, California Pre-incorporation[edit] The earliest known inhabitants were the Huchiun Indians, who lived there for thousands of years. The Huchiun belonged to a linguistic grouping later called the Ohlone
(a Miwok
word meaning "western people").[21] In Oakland, they were concentrated around Lake Merritt and Temescal Creek, a stream that enters the San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
at Emeryville. In 1772, the area that later became Oakland was claimed, with the rest of California, by Spanish settlers for the King of Spain. In the early 19th century, the Spanish crown granted the East Bay area to Luis María Peralta for his Rancho San Antonio. The grant was confirmed by the successor Mexican republic upon its independence from Spain.[22] Upon his death in 1842, Peralta divided his land among his four sons. Most of Oakland fell within the shares given to Antonio Maria and Vicente.[23] The portion of the parcel that is now Oakland was called encinal—Spanish for "oak grove"—due to the large oak forest that covered the area, which eventually led to the city's name.[5] Development of Chinatown[edit] During the 1850s just as Gold was discovered in California; Oakland started growing and developing because land was becoming too expensive in San Francisco.[24] The Chinese were struggling financially, as a result of the First Opium War, Second Opium War
Second Opium War
and the Taiping Rebellion, so they began migrating to Oakland in an effort to provide for their families in China. However, the Chinese struggled to settle because they were discriminated by the white community and their living quarters got burned down on several occasions.[25] The majority of the Chinese migrants lived in unhealthy conditions in China
and they often had diseases, so Plague spread into San Francisco
San Francisco
even though the Chinese were thoroughly inspected for diseases upon their arrival to San Francisco.[25] City beginnings[edit]

1857 Map of Oakland

In 1851, three men—Horace Carpentier, Edson Adams, and Andrew Moon—began developing what is now downtown Oakland.[26] In 1852, the Town of Oakland became incorporated by the state legislature.[27] During this time, Oakland had 75-100 inhabitants, two hotels, a wharf, two warehouses, and only cattle trails.[27] Two years later, on March 25, 1854, Oakland re-incorporated as the City of Oakland, with Horace Carpentier elected the first mayor, though a scandal ended his mayorship in less than a year. The city and its environs quickly grew with the railroads, becoming a major rail terminal in the late 1860s and 1870s. In 1868, the Central Pacific constructed the Oakland Long Wharf at Oakland Point, the site of today's Port of Oakland. A number of horsecar and cable car lines were constructed in Oakland during the latter half of the 19th century. The first electric streetcar set out from Oakland to Berkeley in 1891, and other lines were converted and added over the course of the 1890s. The various streetcar companies operating in Oakland were acquired by Francis "Borax" Smith and consolidated into what eventually became known as the Key System, the predecessor of today's publicly owned AC Transit. 1900–1950s[edit] Plague Epidemic[edit] Oakland was one of the worst affected cities in California
that was impacted by the plague epidemic. Quarantine
measures were set in place at the Oakland ports requiring the authorities at the port to inspect the arriving vessels for the presence of infected rats.[20] Quarantine authorities at these ports inspected over a thousand vessels per year for plague and yellow fever. By 1908, over 5,000 people were detained in quarantine.[28] Hunters were sent to poison the affected areas in Oakland and shoot the squirrels, but the eradication work was limited in its range because the State Board of Health and the United States Public Health Service were only allotted about $60,000 a year to eradicate the disease. During this period Oakland did not have sufficient health facilities, so some of the infected patients were treated at home.[29] The State Board of Health along with Oakland also advised the Physicians to promptly report any cases of infected patients.[30] Yet, in 1919 it still resulted in a small epidemic of Pneumonic plague
Pneumonic plague
which killed a dozen people in Oakland.[31] This started when a man went hunting in Contra Costa Valley and killed a squirrel. After eating the squirrel, he fell ill four days later and another household member contracted the plague. This in turn was passed on either directly or indirectly to about a dozen others.[32] The officials in Oakland acted quickly by issuing death certificates to monitor the spread of plague.[30] Incorporation[edit]

One day's output of 1917 Chevrolet
automobiles at their major West Coast plant, now the location of Eastmont Town Center

At the time of incorporation in 1852, Oakland had consisted of the territory that lay south of today's major intersection of San Pablo Avenue, Broadway, and Fourteenth Street. The city gradually annexed farmlands and settlements to the east and the north. Oakland's rise to industrial prominence, and its subsequent need for a seaport, led to the digging of a shipping and tidal channel in 1902. This resulted in the nearby town of Alameda being made an island. In 1906, the city's population doubled with refugees made homeless after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire. In 1916, General Motors
General Motors
opened an automobile factory in East Oakland called Oakland Assembly. It produced Chevrolet
cars and then GMC trucks until 1963, when it was moved to Fremont in southern Alameda County.[33] Also in 1916, the Fageol
Motor Company chose East Oakland for their first factory, manufacturing farming tractors from 1918 to 1923.[34][35] By 1920, Oakland was the home of numerous manufacturing industries, including metals, canneries, bakeries, internal combustion engines, automobiles, and shipbuilding.[36] By 1929, when Chrysler expanded with a new plant there, Oakland had become known as the " Detroit
of the West," referring to the major auto manufacturing center in Michigan.[37] Oakland expanded during the 1920s, as its population expanded with factory workers. Approximately 13,000 homes were built in the 3 years between 1921 and 1924,[38] more than during the 13 years between 1907 and 1920.[39] Many of the large downtown office buildings, apartment buildings, and single-family houses still standing in Oakland were built during the 1920s; they reflect the architectural styles of the time.

In 1924, the Tribune Tower was completed; in 1976, it was restored and declared an Oakland landmark. It is no longer used by the Oakland Tribune.

Russell Clifford Durant established Durant Field at 82nd Avenue and East 14th Street in 1916.[40] The first transcontinental airmail flight finished its journey at Durant Field on August 9, 1920, flown by Army Capt. Eddie Rickenbacker
Eddie Rickenbacker
and Navy Lt. Bert Acosta.[41] Durant Field was often called Oakland Airport, though the current Oakland International Airport was soon established four miles (6.4 km) to the southwest.[42] During World War II, the East Bay Area was home to many war-related industries. Oakland's Moore Dry Dock Company expanded its shipbuilding capabilities and built over 100 ships. Valued at $100 million in 1943, Oakland's canning industry was its second-most-valuable war contribution after shipbuilding. The largest canneries were in the Fruitvale District, and included the Josiah Lusk Canning Company, the Oakland Preserving Company (which started the Del Monte brand), and the California
Packing Company.[43] President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
called on defense industries with government contracts to integrate their workforces and provide opportunities for all Americans. Tens of thousands of laborers came from around the country, especially poor whites and blacks from the Deep South: Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas, as well as Missouri and Tennessee. Henry J. Kaiser's representatives recruited sharecroppers and tenant farmers from rural areas to work in his shipyards. African Americans were part of the Great Migration by which five million persons left the South, mostly for the West, from 1940 to 1970. White migrants from the Jim Crow South carried their racial attitudes, causing tensions to rise among black and white workers competing for the better-paying jobs in the Bay Area. The racial harmony Oakland blacks had been accustomed to prior to the war evaporated.[44] Also migrating to the area during this time were many Mexican Americans
Mexican Americans
from southwestern states such as New Mexico, Texas, and Colorado. Many worked for the Southern Pacific Railroad, at its major rail yard in West Oakland. Their young men encountered hostility and discrimination by Armed Forces personnel, and tensions broke out in "zoot suit riots" in downtown Oakland in 1943 in the wake of a major disturbance in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
that year.[45]

View of Lake Merritt
Lake Merritt
looking southwest from the northeastern tip of the lake

In 1946, National City Lines
National City Lines
(NCL), a General Motors
General Motors
holding company, acquired 64% of Key System
Key System
stock; during the next several years NCL engaged in the conspiratorial dissolution of Oakland's electric streetcar system. The city's expensive electric streetcar fleet was converted to the cheaper diesel buses.[46] The state Legislature created the Alameda and Contra Costa Transit District in 1955, which operates today as AC Transit, the third-largest bus-only transit system in the nation.[47] Soon after the war, as Oakland's shipbuilding industry declined and the automobile industry went through restructuring, many jobs were lost. Economic competition increased racial tension.[48] In addition, labor unrest increased as workers struggled to protect their livelihoods. Oakland was the center of a general strike during the first week of December 1946, one of six cities across the country that had such a strike after World War II.[49] 1960–1999[edit] In 1960, Kaiser Corporation opened its new headquarters; it was the largest skyscraper in Oakland, as well as "the largest office tower west of Chicago" up to that time.[50] In the postwar period, suburban development increased around Oakland, and wealthier residents moved to new housing. Despite the major increases in the number and proportion of African Americans in the city, in 1966 only 16 of the city's 661 police officers were black. Tensions between the black community and the largely white police force were high, as expectations during the civil rights era increased to gain social justice and equality before the law. Police abuse of blacks was common.[51][52] Students Huey Newton
Huey Newton
and Bobby Seale
Bobby Seale
founded the Black Panther Party at Merritt College
Merritt College
in Oakland Hills neighborhood, to emphasize black power and taking care of their own community. Among their social programs were feeding children and providing other services to the needy.[53] During the 1970s, Oakland began to suffer serious violence and other problems related to gang-controlled dealing of heroin and cocaine when drug kingpin Felix Mitchell created the nation's first large-scale operation of this kind.[48] Both violent crime and property crime increased during this period, and Oakland's murder rate rose to twice that.[48] As in many other American cities during the 1980s, crack cocaine became a serious problem in Oakland. Drug dealing in general, and the dealing of crack cocaine in particular, resulted in elevated rates of violent crime, causing Oakland to consistently be listed as one of America's most crime-ridden cities.[54] In 1980 Oakland's black population reached its 20th-century peak at approximately 47% of the overall city population. The 6.9 Mw Loma Prieta earthquake occurred on October 17, 1989. The rupture was related to the San Andreas fault system and affected the entire San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area
with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent). Many structures in Oakland were badly damaged including the double-decker portion of Interstate 880
Interstate 880
that collapsed. The eastern span of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge
San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge
also sustained damage and was closed to traffic for one month. On October 20, 1991, a massive firestorm swept down from the Berkeley/Oakland hills above the Caldecott Tunnel. Twenty-five people were killed, 150 people were injured, and nearly 4,000 homes destroyed. With the loss of life and an estimated economic loss of US$1.5 billion, this was the worst urban firestorm in American history, until 2017.[55][56] During the mid-1990s, Oakland's economy began to recover as it transitioned to new types of jobs. In addition, the city participated in large development and urban renewal projects, concentrated especially in the downtown area, at the Port of Oakland, and at the Oakland International Airport.[57] 2000s[edit]

Tree growing in Frank H. Ogawa
Frank H. Ogawa

After his 1999 inauguration, Oakland Mayor
Jerry Brown
Jerry Brown
continued his predecessor Elihu Harris' public policy of supporting downtown housing development in the area defined as the Central Business District in Oakland's 1998 General Plan.[58] Brown's plan and other redevelopment projects were controversial due to potential rent increases and gentrification, which would displace lower-income residents from downtown Oakland into outlying neighborhoods and cities.[59] Due to allegations of misconduct by the Oakland Police Department, the City of Oakland has paid claims for a total of US$57 million during the 2001–2011 timeframe to plaintiffs claiming police abuse; this is the largest sum paid by any city in California.[60] On October 10, 2011, protesters and civic activists began "Occupy Oakland" demonstrations at Frank Ogawa
Frank Ogawa
Plaza in Downtown Oakland.[61][62] Geography[edit]

Aerial view of Downtown

Oakland is in the eastern region of the San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay. In 1991 the City Hall tower was at 37°48′19″N 122°16′21″W / 37.805302°N 122.272539°W / 37.805302; -122.272539 (NAD83). (The building still exists, but like the rest of the Bay Area, it has shifted northwest perhaps 0.6 meters in the last twenty years.) The United States
United States
Census Bureau says the city's total area is 78.0 square miles (202 km2), including 55.8 square miles (145 km2) of land and 22.2 square miles (57 km2) (28.48 percent) of water. Oakland's highest point is near Grizzly Peak Blvd, east of Berkeley, just over 1,760 feet (540 m) above sea level at about 37°52′43″N 122°13′27″W / 37.8786°N 122.2241°W / 37.8786; -122.2241. Oakland has 19 miles (31 km) of shoreline,[63] but Radio Beach is the only beach in Oakland. Oaklanders refer to their city's terrain as "the flatlands" and "the hills". Until recent waves of gentrification, these terms also symbolized Oakland's deep economic divide, with "the hills" being more affluent communities. About two-thirds of Oakland lies in the flat plain of the East Bay, with one-third rising into the foothills and hills of the East Bay range. Ruptures along the nearby San Andreas Fault
San Andreas Fault
caused severe earth movement in the San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area
in 1906 and 1989. San Andreas quakes induces creep (movement occurring on earthquake faults) in the Hayward fault, which runs directly through Oakland, Berkeley, San Jose and other Bay Area cities.[64] Cityscape[edit]

Neighborhoods[edit] Main article: List of neighborhoods in Oakland, California

The north end of the Adams Point district, as seen from Lakeshore Avenue on the east shore of the Lake

Upper Rockridge

Oakland has more than 50 distinct neighborhoods. The city's greater divisions include downtown Oakland and its greater Central Business District, Lake Merritt, East Oakland, North Oakland, West Oakland, and the Oakland Hills. East Oakland, which includes the East Oakland Hills, encompasses more than half of Oakland's land area, stretching from Lakeshore Avenue on the east shore of Lake Merritt
Lake Merritt
southeast to the San Leandro border. North Oakland encompasses the neighborhoods between downtown and Berkeley and Emeryville. West Oakland is the area between downtown and the Bay, partially surrounded by the Oakland Point, and encompassing the Port of Oakland. In 2011, Oakland was ranked the 10th most walkable city in the United States.[65] Lake Merritt, an urban estuary near downtown, is a mix of fresh and salt water draining in and out from the Oakland Harbor at the San Francisco Bay and one of Oakland's most notable features.[66] It was designated the United States' first official wildlife refuge in 1870.[67] Originally a marsh-lined wildlife haven, Lake Merritt
Lake Merritt
was dredged and bordered with parks from the 1890s to the 1910s. Despite this reduction in habitat, Oakland is home to a number of rare and endangered species, many of which are localized to serpentine soils and bedrock. Lake Merritt
Lake Merritt
is surrounded by residential and business districts, including downtown and Grand Lake.

Lake Merritt, towards the southern end

The city of Piedmont, incorporated in Oakland's central foothills after the 1906 earthquake, is a small independent city surrounded by the city of Oakland. Climate and vegetation[edit] Oakland has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate with an average of 260 sunny days per year. In general, the city features warm, dry summers, and mild, wet winters. Lake Merritt, a large estuary centrally located east of Downtown, was announced as the United States' first official wildlife refuge. Based on data gathered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Oakland is ranked No. 1 in climate among U.S. cities.[68] Oakland's climate is typified by the temperate and seasonal Mediterranean climate. Summers are usually dry and warm and winters are mild and damp. It has features found in both nearby coastal cities such as San Francisco
San Francisco
and inland cities such as San Jose, making it warmer than San Francisco
San Francisco
and cooler than San Jose. Its position on San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
across from the Bay Bridge means the northern part of the city can have cooling maritime fog. It is far enough inland the fog often burns off by midday, allowing it to have typically sunny California
days. The hills tend to have more fog than the flatlands, as the fog drifts down from Berkeley. The U.S. Weather Bureau
U.S. Weather Bureau
kept weather records in downtown Oakland from October 4, 1894, to July 31, 1958. During that time, the record high temperature was 104 °F (40 °C) on June 24, 1957, and the record low temperature was 24 °F (−4 °C) on January 23, 1949. Dry, warm offshore "Diablo" winds (similar to the Santa Ana winds of Southern California) sometimes occur, especially in fall, and raise the fire danger. In 1991, such an episode allowed the catastrophic Oakland Hills fire to spread and consume many homes. The wettest year was 1940 with 38.65 inches (982 mm) and the driest year was 1910 with 12.02 inches (305 mm). The most rainfall in one month was 15.35 inches (390 mm) in January 1911. The most rainfall in 24 hours was 4.27 inches (108 mm) on February 12, 1904.[69] Rainfall near the bayfront is only 23 inches (580 mm), but is higher in the Oakland Hills to the east (up to 30 inches [760 mm]). The higher rainfall in the hills supports woods of oak, madrona, pine, fir and a few redwood groves in the wetter areas. Before being logged in the 19th century, some of the tallest redwood trees in California (used for navigation by ships entering the Golden Gate) may have stood in the Oakland Hills. One old stump 30 feet (9.1 m) in diameter can be seen near Redwood Regional Park. Sunny, drier slopes are grassy or covered in scattered oaks and chaparral brush. Australian eucalyptus trees have been extensively planted in many areas, as they come from a similar climate. The National Weather Service
National Weather Service
today has two official weather stations in Oakland: Oakland International Airport
Oakland International Airport
and the Oakland Museum (established 1970).

Climate data for Oakland Museum
Oakland Museum
(1981–2010 normals)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °F (°C) 78 (26) 81 (27) 88 (31) 97 (36) 105 (41) 106 (41) 103 (39) 99 (37) 109 (43) 103 (39) 84 (29) 75 (24) 109 (43)

Average high °F (°C) 58.1 (14.5) 61.6 (16.4) 63.9 (17.7) 66.3 (19.1) 68.7 (20.4) 71.5 (21.9) 72.0 (22.2) 73.0 (22.8) 74.1 (23.4) 71.7 (22.1) 64.6 (18.1) 58.3 (14.6) 67.0 (19.4)

Average low °F (°C) 44.3 (6.8) 46.8 (8.2) 48.5 (9.2) 50.0 (10) 52.7 (11.5) 55.0 (12.8) 56.2 (13.4) 57.5 (14.2) 57.1 (13.9) 54.4 (12.4) 49.1 (9.5) 44.7 (7.1) 51.4 (10.8)

Record low °F (°C) 30 (−1) 29 (−2) 34 (1) 37 (3) 43 (6) 48 (9) 51 (11) 50 (10) 48 (9) 43 (6) 36 (2) 26 (−3) 26 (−3)

Average rainfall inches (mm) 4.71 (119.6) 4.50 (114.3) 3.39 (86.1) 1.42 (36.1) 0.77 (19.6) 0.12 (3) Trace 0.06 (1.5) 0.25 (6.4) 1.37 (34.8) 2.89 (73.4) 4.48 (113.8) 23.96 (608.6)

Average rainy days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.8 10.5 10.6 5.9 3.4 1.0 0.1 0.4 1.2 3.6 7.9 10.4 65.8

Source: NOAA (extremes 1970–present)[70][71]


Historical population

Census Pop.

1860 1,543

1870 10,500


1880 34,555


1890 48,682


1900 66,960


1910 150,174


1920 216,261


1930 284,063


1940 302,163


1950 384,575


1960 367,548


1970 361,561


1980 339,337


1990 372,242


2000 399,484


2010 390,724


Est. 2016 412,040 [14] 5.5%

U.S. Decennial Census[72]

Race and ethnicity[edit]

Map of racial distribution in San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian Hispanic, or Other (yellow)

Racial composition 2010[73] 1990[74] 1970[74] 1940[74]

White 34.5% 32.5% 59.1% 95.3%

—Non-Hispanic 25.9% 28.3% 52.0%[75] n/a

Black or African American 28.0% 43.9% 34.5% 2.8%

Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 25.3% 13.9% 7.6%[75] n/a

Asian 16.8% 14.8% 4.8% –

The 2010 United States
United States
Census[73] reported Oakland had a population of 390,724. The population density was 5,009.2 inhabitants per square mile (1,934.1/km2). The racial makeup of Oakland was 134,925 (34.5%) White (non-Hispanic White 25.9%), 129,471 (28.0%) African American, 3,040 (0.8%) Native American, 65,811 (16.8%) Asian (8.7% Chinese, 2.2% Vietnamese, 1.6% Filipino, 0.7% Cambodian, 0.7% Laotian, 0.6% Korean, 0.5% Japanese, 0.5% Indian, 0.1% Mongolian), 2,222 (0.6%) Pacific Islander (0.3% Tongan), 53,378 (13.7%) from other races, and 21,877 (5.6%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 99,068 persons (25.4%). 18.1% of the population were of Mexican descent, 1.9% Salvadoran, 1.3% Guatemalan, and 0.7% Puerto Rican.

Demographic profile[73] 2010

Total Population 390,724 – 100%

Hispanic or Latino 99,068 – 25.3%

White 134,925 – 34.5%

African American 109,471 - 28.0%

Asian 65,811 - 16.8%

American Indian and Alaska Native 3,040 - 0.8%

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander 2,222 - 0.6%

Other 53,378 - 13.7%

Two or more races 21,877 - 5.6%

Educational attainment and income[edit] Oakland has the fifth largest cluster of "elite zip codes" ranked by the number of households with the highest combination of income and education.[76] 37.9% of residents over 25 years of age have bachelor's degree or higher.[77] Oakland ranked among the top cities with residents with bachelor's degrees and graduate degrees per square mile.[78] Oakland ranks in the top 20 of American cities in median household income, with a 2012 value of US$51,863.[79] In 2012, the median income for a household in the city was US$51,863 and the median income for a family was US$59,459. The mean income for a household was US$77,888 and the mean income for a family was US$90,948. Males had a median income of US$50,140 versus US$50,304 for females.[80] The unemployment rate as of December 2013 was 9.7%.[81] In 2007 approximately 15.3 percent of families and 17.0 percent of the general population were below the poverty line, including 27.9 percent of those under age 18 and 13.1 percent of those age 65 or over. 0.7% of the population is homeless.[82] Home ownership is 41%[82] and 14% of rental units are subsidized.[82] As of the census[83] of 2000, 19.4% of the population and 16.2% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 27.9% of those under the age of 18 and 13.1% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Households[edit] The census reported 382,586 people (97.9% of the population) lived in households, 5,675 (1.5%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 2,463 (0.6%) were institutionalized. There were 153,791 households, out of which 44,762 (29.1%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 50,797 (33.0%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 24,122 (15.7%) had a female householder with no husband present, 8,799 (5.7%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 11,289 (7.3%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 3,442 (2.2%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 52,103 households (33.9%) were made up of individuals and 13,778 (9.0%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49. There were 83,718 families (54.4% of all households); the average family size was 3.27. The population was spread out with 83,120 people (21.3%) under the age of 18, 36,272 people (9.3%) aged 18 to 24, 129,139 people (33.1%) aged 25 to 44, 98,634 people (25.2%) aged 45 to 64, and 43,559 people (11.1%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.8 males. There were 169,710 housing units at an average density of 2,175.7 per square mile (840.0/km2), of which 63,142 (41.1%) were owner-occupied, and 90,649 (58.9%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 3.0%; the rental vacancy rate was 8.5%. 166,662 people (42.7% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 215,924 people (55.3%) lived in rental housing units. Shifting of cultures[edit] Oakland is one of the most ethnically diverse major cities in the country.[84][85] Oakland was ranked the fourth most diverse city in the United States, with an overall diversity score of 91.4.[86] The city's formerly most populous ethnic group, whites, declined from 95.3% in 1940 to 32.5% by 1990, due to a combination of factors, such as suburbanization. Oakland became a destination for African Americans in the Great Migration during and after World War II as they gained high-paying jobs in the defense industry. Since the 1960s, Oakland has been known as a center of Northern California's African-American community. Oakland's black population decreased by nearly 25 percent between 2000 and 2010.[87] The city's demographics have changed due to a combination of rising housing prices associated with gentrification and with blacks relocating to better housing in Bay Area suburbs or moving to the Southern United States
United States
in a reverse migration, where conditions are considered to have improved.[88][89][90] Blacks have formed a plurality in Oakland for many years, peaking in 1980 at about 47% of the population. In the 2010 census African Americans maintained their status as Oakland's single largest ethnic group, with 27% of the population, followed by non-Hispanic whites at 25.9%, and Hispanics of any race at 25.4%.[91] Ethnic Asians constitute 17%, followed by smaller minority groups. Recent trends and cultural shifts have led to a decline among some of Oakland's longstanding black institutions, such as churches, businesses and nightclubs, which had developed during the growing years of the 1950s through 1970.[92] Some long-time black residents have been dismayed at the population changes. Many immigrants have settled in the city. In recent years, immigrants and others have marched by the thousands down Oakland's International Boulevard in support of legal reforms benefiting illegal immigrants.[93] An analysis by the Urban Institute of U.S. Census 2000 numbers showed Oakland had the third-highest concentration of gays and lesbians among the 50 largest U.S. cities, behind San Francisco
San Francisco
and Seattle. Census data showed that among incorporated places that have at least 500 female couples, Oakland had the nation's largest proportion. In the 2000 census, 2,650 lesbian couples identified as such in Oakland; one in every 41 Oakland couples identified as a same-sex female partnership.[94][95] Economy[edit]

The iconic Tribune Tower, from 13th St. and Franklin St. in Downtown

Further information: List of companies based in Oakland, California Oakland is a major West Coast port, and the fifth busiest in the United States
United States
by cargo volume.[96] The Port of Oakland
Port of Oakland
handles 99% of all containerized goods moving through Northern California, representing $41 billion worth of international trade.[97][98] There are nearly 200,000 jobs related to marine cargo transport in the Oakland area.[99] These jobs range from minimum wage hourly positions to Transportation Storage and Distribution Managers who earn an annual average salary of US$91,520.[100] The Port of Oakland
Port of Oakland
was an early innovator/pioneer in the technologies of Intermodal Containerized Shipping. The city is also home to several major corporations including Kaiser Permanente, Clorox, and Dreyer's ice cream, and retailer Cost Plus World Markets.[101] Tech companies such as Ask.com and Pandora Radio
Pandora Radio
are in Oakland,[102] and in recent years many start-up high tech and green energy companies have found a home in the downtown neighborhoods of Uptown, City Center, Jack London Square
Jack London Square
and Lake Merritt
Lake Merritt
Financial District.[103] In 2014, Oakland was the fifth ranked city for tech entrepreneurs by total venture capital investment.[104] In 2015 Uber announced plans to build and house 3,000 employees in a new office at the site of the old Sears building, which is being redeveloped with plans to open in late 2017.[105][106] As of 2013[update], the San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward metropolitan area has a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$360.4 billion, ranking eighth among metropolitan areas in the United States.[107] In 2014, Oakland was amongst the best cities to start a career, the highest ranked city in California
after San Francisco. Additionally, Oakland ranked fourth in cities with professional opportunities.[108] Numerous companies in San Francisco
San Francisco
continue to expand in or migrate over to Oakland.[109] Oakland experienced an increase of both its population and of land values in the early-to-mid first decade of the 21st century. The 10k Plan, which began during former mayor Elihu Harris' administration, and intensified during former mayor Jerry Brown's administration resulted in several thousand units of new multi-family housing and development. Top employers[edit] As of 2015[update], the top employers in the city were:[110]

# Employer # of Employees

1 Kaiser Permanente 9,992

2 Oakland Unified School District 6,637

3 County of Alameda 5,312

4 City of Oakland 3,352

5 Bay Area Rapid Transit 3,210

6 State of California 3,169

7 Children's Hospital Oakland 2,800

8 Alameda Health System 2,300

9 United Parcel Service 2,200

10 Southwest Airlines 2,113


View from Tribune Tower at night

In 2013, over 2.5 million people visited Oakland, injecting US$1.3 billion into the economy.[111] Oakland has been experiencing an increase in hotel demand. Occupancy is 74%, while RevPAR (Revenue Per Available Room) increased by 14%, the highest increase of any big city in the western region of the United States.[112] Both Oakland and San Francisco
San Francisco
were forecasted to experience the highest increases in ADR (Average daily rate).[113] In recent years, Oakland has gained national recognition as a travel destination. In 2012, Oakland was named the top North American city to visit, highlighting its growing number of sophisticated restaurants and bars, top music venues, and increasing nightlife appeal.[114] Oakland also took the No. 16 spot in "America's Coolest Cities," ranked by metrics like entertainment options and recreational opportunities per capita, etc.[115] In 2013, Oakland topped the No. 1 spot in "America's Most Exciting Cities," notably having the most movie theaters, theater companies, and museums per square mile.[116] In "America's Most Hipster Cities," Oakland took the number-5 spot, cited for luring San Francisco
San Francisco
"hippies" into the city.[117] Oakland has also increased its travel destination allure internationally.[118] Arts and culture[edit] Oakland has a significant art scene and claims the highest concentration of artists per capita in the United States.[119] In 2013, Oakland was designated as one of America's top twelve art communities, recognizing Downtown (including Uptown), Chinatown, Old Oakland, and Jack London Square
Jack London Square
as communities "that have most successfully combined art, artists and venues for creativity and expression with independent businesses, retail shops and restaurants, and a walkable lifestyle to make vibrant neighborhoods." [120] Galleries exist in various parts of Oakland, with the newest additions centered mostly in the Uptown area. Oakland ranked 11th in cities for designers and artists.[121] The city is a renowned culinary hotbed, offering both a wide variety and innovative approaches to diverse cuisines in restaurants and markets, often featuring locally grown produce and international styles such as French, Italian, Iberian, Asian, Hispanic/Latino, African-Caribbean, Southern/French African-American fusions, etc. that reflect the city's ethnically diverse population. Historically a focal point of the West Coast blues and jazz scenes, Oakland is also home to musicians representing such genres as rhythm and blues, gospel, funk, punk, heavy metal, Rap/Gangsta rap, and hip hop. Attractions[edit]

Frank H. Ogawa
Frank H. Ogawa
Memorial Torii
at the Gardens of Lake Merritt

African American
African American
Museum and Library at Oakland All Out Comedy Theater AXIS Dance Company Chabot Space and Science Center Children's Fairyland Chinatown Dunsmuir House Fox Oakland Theatre, concert venue Jack London Square Joaquin Miller Park Lake Merritt, Listed on the National Register of Historic Places, oldest wildlife/bird sanctuary in North America, Lake Merritt
Lake Merritt
Garden Center, Bonsai Garden Lake Temescal Mountain View Cemetery, designed by Frederick Law Olmsted
Frederick Law Olmsted
and resting place of many famous Californians Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum, home of baseball's Oakland Athletics, and the Oakland Raiders
Oakland Raiders
of the NFL Oakland Aviation Museum Oakland Museum
Oakland Museum
of California Oakland Public Library Oakland Symphony Oakland Zoo Oracle Arena, directly adjacent to the Oakland Coliseum, home to the Golden State Warriors
Golden State Warriors
of the NBA Paramount Theatre Pardee Home Peralta Hacienda Historical Park, Museum of History and Culture Redwood Regional Park Preservation Park USS Potomac, Franklin D. Roosevelt's presidential yacht


A night view of the Downtown skyline and Lakeside Apartments District as seen from the East 18th Street Pier

Downtown Oakland
Downtown Oakland
has an assortment of bars and nightclubs. They include dive bars, dance clubs, modern lounges and jazz bars. The Paramount Theater features headlining musical tours and productions, while Fox Oakland Theatre
Fox Oakland Theatre
draws various musical genres including jam bands, rock, punk, blues, jazz, and reggae. The Paramount and Fox theaters often book simultaneous events, creating busy nights uptown.[122] In 2012, Oakland was dubbed a "New Sin City", following its 2010 decision to relax its cabaret laws, which gave a boost to its nightclub and bar scene.[123] Recent years have seen the growth of the Oakland Art Murmur
Art Murmur
event, occurring in the Uptown neighborhood the first Friday evening of every month.[124] The event attracts around 20,000 people along twenty city blocks, featuring live performances, food trucks, and over 30 galleries and venues.[125][126] "There is no there there"[edit]

The HERETHERE sculpture straddling the Oakland-Berkeley border

Gertrude Stein
Gertrude Stein
wrote about Oakland in her 1937 book Everybody's Autobiography "There is no there there," upon learning that the neighborhood where she lived as a child had been torn down to make way for an industrial park. The quote is sometimes misconstrued to refer to Oakland as a whole.[127][128] Modern-day Oakland has made steps to rebuke Stein's claim with a statue downtown titled "There." In 2005 a sculpture called HERETHERE was installed by the City of Berkeley on the Berkeley-Oakland border at Martin Luther King Jr. Way. The sculpture consists of eight-foot-tall letters spelling "HERE" and "THERE" in front of the BART
tracks as they descend from their elevated section in Oakland to the subway through Berkeley.[129] Sports[edit] Oakland currently has professional teams in three sports: baseball, basketball, and football. The Oakland Athletics
Oakland Athletics
club won three consecutive World Series
World Series
championships in 1972, 1973, and 1974, and appeared in another three consecutive World Series
World Series
from 1988 to 1990, winning their fourth championship in 1989. The Golden State Warriors won the 1974–75, 2014–15, and 2016–17 NBA championships, while losing in 2016. The Oakland Raiders
Oakland Raiders
of the NFL
won Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XI in 1977, Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XV in 1981, and Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XVIII in 1984, while they were in Los Angeles. They also appeared in Super Bowl
Super Bowl
II in 1968 and Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XXXVII in 2003. The Raiders left Oakland for Los Angeles
Los Angeles
in 1982, where they won a third Super Bowl
Super Bowl
championship and returned to Oakland in 1995. The Warriors announced in April 2014 that they will leave Oakland once their new arena is built across the Bay in San Francisco, while the Raiders are in the process of relocating to Las Vegas. On March 27, 2017, it was confirmed the Raiders would be moving to Las Vegas. Later in 2017, the Athletics announced plans to build a new ballpark in the Peralta district near Laney College.

Club Sport Founded League Venue

Oakland Athletics Baseball 1901 (in Oakland since 1968) Major League Baseball Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum

Oakland Raiders Football 1960 (in San Francisco
San Francisco
1960–1961 and Los Angeles
Los Angeles
1982–1994) National Football League Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum

Golden State Warriors Basketball 1946 (in San Jose in 1996–97) National Basketball
Association Oracle Arena

The Oakland Coliseum, home of the Oakland Athletics
Oakland Athletics
baseball and Oakland Raiders
Oakland Raiders
football teams

Oakland's former sports teams include:

Oakland Oaks, Pacific Coast League
Pacific Coast League
of Baseball, 1903–1955. (The Oaks played at Oaks Park in Emeryville after 1912.) Oakland Larks, West Coast Negro Baseball
League, 1946. Oakland Hornets, member of American Football League (1944) Oakland Oaks, American Basketball
League, 1962. Oakland Oaks, American Basketball
Association, 1967–1969. Oakland Seals, National Hockey League, 1967–1976. Oakland Clippers, National Professional Soccer League, 1967; North American Soccer League, 1968. Oakland Stompers, North American Soccer League, 1978. Oakland Invaders, United States
United States
Football League, 1983–1985. Oakland Skates, Roller Hockey International, 1993–1996. Oakland Slammers, International Basketball
League, 2005–2006.

Parks and recreation[edit]

J. Mora Moss House
J. Mora Moss House
in Mosswood Park
Mosswood Park
was built in 1864 by San Francisco businessman Joseph Moravia Moss in the Carpenter Gothic
Carpenter Gothic
style. The building houses Parks and Recreation offices and storage.

Parks[edit] Oakland has many parks and recreation centers which total 5,937 acres (2,403 ha). In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land, a national land conservation organization, reported that Oakland had the 18th best park system among the 50 most populous U.S. cities.[130] In 2013, Oakland ranked 4th among American cities as an urban destination for nature lovers.[131] Some of the city's most notable parks include:

Joaquin Miller Park Joseph Knowland State Arboretum and Park, home of the Oakland Zoo Lake Merritt Morcom Rose Garden
Morcom Rose Garden
best from July through October Mosswood Park Allendale Park Peralta Hacienda Historical Park,[132] headquarters of the Peralta rancho, Rancho San Antonio William Joseph McInnes Botanic Garden and Campus Arboretum on the Mills College
Mills College

Additionally, the following seven East Bay Regional Parks are entirely or partially in the city of Oakland:

Anthony Chabot Regional Park Huckleberry Botanic Regional Preserve Leona Canyon Regional Open Space Preserve Redwood Regional Park Robert Sibley Volcanic Regional Preserve Roberts Regional Recreation Area Temescal Regional Park

French Trail, Redwood Regional Park

The Cascade Waterfall, Joaquin Miller Park

Places of worship[edit] Major places of worship in Oakland include Oakland City Church, First Congregational Church of Oakland, Evangelistic Outreach Center, Green Pastures, the Presbyterian, First Presbyterian Church of Oakland; Greek Orthodox Ascension Cathedral; the Roman Catholic Cathedral of Christ the Light; the United Methodist Chinese Community Church; the Unitarian First Unitarian Church; the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints' Oakland California
Temple; the Muslim, 31st Street Islamic Center, Islamic Cultural Center of Northern California, Light-House Mosque; the Reform Jewish Temple Sinai; the Conservative Jewish, Temple Beth Abraham; Allen Temple Baptist Church; and the Orthodox Jewish, Beth Jacob Congregation, American Baptist; Faith Baptist Church of Oakland, St. Paul Lutheran, His Gospel
Christian Fellowship, six Kingdom Halls of Jehovah's Witnesses and St. Vartan Armenian Apostolic Church. Law and government[edit] See also: Government of Alameda County, California

Oakland City Hall
Oakland City Hall
and central plaza in 1917. Built of framed steel with unreinforced masonry infill at a cost of US$2 million in 1914. The structure was the tallest building in the city until the Tribune Tower was built in 1923.

Oakland has a mayor-council government. The mayor is elected at-large for a four-year term. The Oakland City Council
Oakland City Council
has eight council members representing seven districts in Oakland with one member elected at-large and others from single-member districts; council members serve staggered four-year terms. The mayor appoints a city administrator, subject to the confirmation by the City Council, who is the city's chief administrative officer. Other city officers include: city attorney (elected), city auditor (elected), and city clerk (appointed by city administrator).[133] Oakland's mayor is limited to two terms. There are no term limits for the city council. Council member Larry Reid, also serving as vice-mayor, was elected to a fifth term in November 2012.[134] Oakland City Hall
Oakland City Hall
was evacuated after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake until US$80M seismic retrofit and hazard abatement work was complete in 1995.[135] City offices had to be housed in leased space and other locations. Jean Quan
Jean Quan
was elected mayor in November 2010, beating Don Perata and Rebecca Kaplan
Rebecca Kaplan
in the city's first ranked choice balloting.[136] This new system is intended to increase voters' ability to choose preferred candidates, as they can combine ranked votes when several candidates are competing. Oakland is also part of Alameda County, for which the Government of Alameda County is defined and authorized under the California Constitution, California
law, and the Charter of the County of Alameda.[137] The County government provides countywide services such as elections and voter registration, law enforcement, jails, vital records, property records, tax collection, public health, and social services. The County government is primarily composed of the elected five-member Board of Supervisors, other elected offices including the Sheriff/Coroner, the District Attorney, Assessor, Auditor-Controller/County Clerk/Recorder, and Treasurer/Tax Collector, and numerous county departments and entities under the supervision of the County Administrator. In the California
State Legislature, Oakland is in the 9th Senate District, represented by Democrat Nancy Skinner,[8] and is split between the 15th and 18th Assembly districts, represented by Tony Thurmond and Rob Bonta, respectively.[9] In the United States
United States
House of Representatives, Oakland is in California's 13th congressional district, represented by Democrat Barbara Lee.[10] Politics[edit]

City Hall next to City Center

Oakland was politically conservative from the 1860s to the 1950s, with positions expressed by the Republican-oriented Oakland Tribune newspaper. At the time, the Republican Party was more moderate than it has become in the 21st century, and some members belonged to a progressive tradition across the Northern Tier of states. In the 1960s, the majority of voters began to favor liberal policies and the Democratic Party.[138][139] Oakland has the highest percentage of registered Democrats of any of the incorporated cities in Alameda County, with Berkeley coming in a close second. As of 2009[update], Oakland has 204,646 registered voters. 140,858 (68.8%) are registered Democrats, 12,248 (5.9%) are registered Republicans, 10,431 (5.2%) are members of other parties and 41,109 (20.1%) decline to state a political affiliation.[140] Oakland is widely regarded as being one of the most liberal major cities in the nation. The Cook Partisan Voting Index of Congressional District 13, which includes Oakland and Berkeley, is D+37, making it the most Democratic congressional district in California
and the fourth most Democratic district in the US.[141] Crime[edit] Main article: Crime in Oakland, California Substantial progress has been made in reducing the city's historically high crime rate. Gun crime is primarily concentrated in certain poor minority neighborhoods with nearly all homicides committed by guns. Oakland's crime rate had begun to escalate during the late 1960s; and by the end of the 1970s, during the drug wars, the city's per capita murder rate had risen to twice that of San Francisco
San Francisco
or New York City.[142] That dramatic rise in crime may have been affected by the different methods being used to deal with rebellious youth. Prior to 1960, there had been successful government-funded social programs, where workers would work in neighborhoods searching for rebellious teens to enter them in youth centers that would be able to teach them proper values and improve their behavior.[143] But by the late 1960s, the police and Federal Bureau of Investigation(FBI) used military tactics to manage unwanted behavior, with increases in arrests, prosecutions, and imprisonment.[143] During the first decade of the 21st century, Oakland has consistently been listed as one of the most dangerous large cities in the United States,[144] but in the latter part of the decade, the homicide rate dropped four years in a row, and violent crime in general had dropped 27%. During 2011 there were increases in both categories.[145] In 2012 Oakland reported 131 homicides, the highest number since 2006, when 148 killings were recorded.[146][147] Since 2012 there have been continued decreases in various categories of crime, including homicides. In 2013, there was a 33% decline in homicides from the previous year, allowing Oakland to record its lowest homicide count since 2004. Aggravated assaults were down 10%; and rapes declined by 27%, the lowest level of that crime in eight years.[148][149] In its crime statistics released for the year 2016, the Oakland Police Department
Oakland Police Department
reported a total of 93 murders.[150] That total for 2016 still constitutes a 29% drop in homicides when compared to the city's reported murders for 2012.[151] Oakland's police force has dropped to 612 officers, down from more than 800 in 2009. It is below the 925 recommended by the city's strategic plan. The city has recently started to rebuild its force and recently graduated 34 officers.[146] The Oakland Police Department
Oakland Police Department
is committed to improved public safety by increasing police presence during peak crime hours, improving intelligence gathering, and moving more aggressively to arrest violent crime suspects.[152][153] Among Oakland's 35 police patrol beats, violent crime remains a serious problem in specific East and West Oakland neighborhoods. In 2008, homicides were concentrated: 72% occurred in three City Council districts, District 3 in West Oakland and Districts 6 and 7 in East Oakland, although these districts have 44% of Oakland's residents.[154] In 2012, Oakland implemented Operation Ceasefire, a gang violence reduction plan used in other cities, based in part on the research and strategies of author David M. Kennedy.[155][156][157][158] Education[edit] Primary and secondary education[edit] The Oakland Unified School District
Oakland Unified School District
(OUSD), which covers the city except for Sheffield Village, operates most of Oakland's public schools. Due to financial troubles and administrative failures, it was in receivership by the state of California
from 2002 to 2008.[159] As of 2015[update], the Oakland Unified School District
Oakland Unified School District
includes 86 division-run schools and 32 charter schools; the district also manages several adult education programs. As of 2015[update] there are 48,181 K–12 students; among division-run schools, there are 4,600 plus employees.[160] OUSD test scores historically lag behind the rest of California, in particular due to a high proportion of English-language learners.[161] Some individual schools have much better performance than the citywide average. As of 2013[update], for example, over half the students at Hillcrest Elementary School in the Montclair upper hills neighborhood performed at the "advanced" level in the English portion of the test, and students at Lincoln Elementary School in the Chinatown neighborhood performed at the "advanced" level in the math portion.[162] Oakland's three largest public high schools are Oakland High School, Oakland Technical High School, and Skyline High School. There are also numerous small public high schools within Castlemont Community of Small Schools, Fremont Federation of High Schools, and McClymonds Educational Complex, all of which were once single, larger public high schools that were reorganized due to poor performance (Castlemont High School, Fremont High School, and McClymonds High School, respectively). Among charter schools in the district, North Oakland Community Charter School (NOCCS), an elementary and middle school, is one of the few public progressive schools in the country.[clarification needed] Other charter schools include the Oakland Military Institute, Oakland School for the Arts, Bay Area Technology School, East Bay Innovation Academy, and Oakland Charter Academy.[163] There are several private high schools including the secular The College Preparatory School and Head-Royce School, and the Catholic Bishop O'Dowd High School, Holy Names High School and St. Elizabeth High School. Catholic schools in Oakland are operated by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Oakland also include eight K–8 schools (plus one in Piedmont on the Oakland city border). Northern Light School is a private nonprofit elementary and middle school. Bentley School
Bentley School
is an Independent Co-educational K–12, college preparatory school on two campuses in Oakland and Lafayette, California. Colleges and universities[edit] Accredited colleges and universities include:

Peralta Community College District

Laney College Merritt College

College of the Arts (formerly the California
College of Arts and Crafts) Holy Names University
Holy Names University
(formerly Holy Names College) Lincoln University Mills College
Mills College
( Julia Morgan School for Girls is a private middle school for girls housed on the campus) Patten University Samuel Merritt College
Merritt College
(a health science college)

Oakland is also the home of the headquarters of the University of California
system, the University of California
Office of the President.

In 2001, the SFSU Oakland Multimedia Center was opened, allowing San Francisco State University to conduct classes near downtown Oakland.[164] The Oakland Higher Education Consortium and the City of Oakland's Community and Economic Development Agency (CEDA) opened the Oakland Higher Education Center downtown in 2002 to provide "access to multiple higher education service providers within a shared urban facility." Member schools include primary user California
State University, East Bay as well as Lincoln University, New College of California, Saint Mary's College of California, SFSU Multimedia Studies Program, UC Berkeley Extension, University of Phoenix
University of Phoenix
and Peralta Community College District.[165][166] Media[edit] Main article: List of television stations in the San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Area Oakland is served by major television stations broadcasting primarily out of San Francisco
San Francisco
and San Jose. The region's Fox O&O, KTVU
2, is based in (and licensed to) Oakland at Jack London Square
Jack London Square
along with co-owned independent station KICU-TV
36 (licensed to San Jose). In addition, the city is served by various AM and FM radio stations as well; AM stations KKSF, KMKY, KNEW and KQKE
are licensed to Oakland. Oakland was served by the Oakland Tribune, which published its first newspaper on February 21, 1874. The Tribune Tower, which features a large clock, is an Oakland landmark. At key times throughout the day (8:00 am, noon and 5:00 pm), the clock tower carillon plays a variety of classic melodies, which change daily. In 2007, the Oakland Tribune
Oakland Tribune
moved its offices from the tower to an East Oakland location, before folding in 2011.[167] The East Bay Express, a locally owned free weekly paper, is based in Jack London Square
Jack London Square
and distributed throughout the East Bay. Oaklandwiki is a thriving (mostly) English-language LocalWiki. Infrastructure[edit] Transportation[edit] Air and rail[edit] Oakland residents have access to the three major airports of the San Francisco Bay Area: Oakland International Airport, San Francisco International Airport, and San Jose International Airport. Oakland International Airport, within Oakland's city limits, is 4 mi (6.4 km) south of downtown Oakland and serves domestic and international destinations. AC Transit
AC Transit
provides 24-hour service to the airport, and BART's Coliseum– Oakland International Airport
Oakland International Airport
automated guideway transit line provides frequent service between the airport and Oakland Coliseum
Oakland Coliseum
station. The city has regional and long distance passenger train service provided by Amtrak, with stations near Jack London Square
Jack London Square
and the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum. Amtrak's California
Zephyr has its western terminus at the nearby Emeryville station. Historically, the city was served by several train companies, which terminated in different terminals. Santa Fe trains terminated at the 40th and San Pablo station. Southern Pacific
Southern Pacific
trains ended at the 16th Street Station.[168] Western Pacific trains ended at the 3rd and Washington station. However, a common feature was that the different railroads continued one more stop to a station at Oakland Pier.[169] From this latter point passengers would ride ferries to San Francisco. Mass transit and bicycling[edit]

The Lake Merritt
Lake Merritt

The most recent census data compiled in 2007 before gasoline price spikes in 2008, show 24.3 percent of Oaklanders used public transportation, walked or used "other means" to commute to work, not including telecommuting,[170] with 17 percent of Oakland households being "car free" and/or statistically categorized as having "no vehicles available."[171] Bus transit service in Oakland and the inner East Bay is provided by the Alameda and Contra Costa Transit District, AC Transit. The district originated in 1958 after the conspiratorial dissolution of the Key System
Key System
of streetcars. Many AC Transit
AC Transit
lines follow old routes of the Key System.[47] Intercity bus companies that serve Oakland include Greyhound, BoltBus, Megabus, USAsia, and Hoang Transportation.[172] The metropolitan area is served by Bay Area Rapid Transit
Bay Area Rapid Transit
(BART) from eight stations in Oakland. The system has headquarters in Oakland, with major transfer hubs at MacArthur and 19th Street stations. BART's headquarters was in a building above the Lake Merritt
Lake Merritt
station until 2006, when it relocated to the Kaiser Center
Kaiser Center
due to seismic safety concerns. The Alameda / Oakland Ferry
Alameda / Oakland Ferry
operates ferry service from Jack London Square to Alameda, AT&T Park, Pier 41, the San Francisco
San Francisco
Ferry Building, and the South San Francisco
San Francisco
Ferry Terminal. Oakland licenses taxi cabs, and has zoned cab stands in its downtown, including a bicycle pedi-cab service. The Oakland City Council
Oakland City Council
adopted a Bicycle Master Plan in 1999 as a part of the Land Use and Transportation (LUTE) element of Oakland's 1998 General Plan. The creation of the plan was to promote alternatives to the private automobile.[173] The Oakland City Council reaffirmed the bike plan in 2005, revised it in 2007, and reaffirmed it in 2012.[174][173] From 1999 to 2007, the city installed 900 bike racks throughout Oakland, accommodating over 2,000 bicycles.[175] By the end of 2017, over 160 bikeway miles and 9,900 bike parking spaces were constructed.[176] Facilities for parking thousands of bicycles have been installed downtown and in other commercial districts throughout Oakland.[177] According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2011 American Community Survey, Oakland came in 7th place out of the 100 largest cities in the nation by percentage of people that chose to commute by bike in 2011.[178] Bridges, freeways, and tunnels[edit] Oakland is served by several major highways: Eastbound Bay Bridge traffic entering Oakland then splits into three freeways at the MacArthur Maze
MacArthur Maze
freeway interchange: Interstate 580 (MacArthur Freeway) heads southeast toward Hayward and eventually to the California Central Valley; Interstate 880
Interstate 880
(Nimitz Freeway) runs south to San Jose; and the Eastshore Freeway (Interstate 80/I-580) runs north, providing connections to Sacramento
and San Rafael, respectively. Interstate 980 (Williams Freeway) begins its eastbound journey at I-880 in Downtown Oakland
Downtown Oakland
before turning into State Route 24 (Grove Shafter Freeway) at I-580. State Route 13 begins as the Warren Freeway at I-580, and runs through a scenic valley in the Montclair District before entering Berkeley. A stub of a planned freeway was constructed at the High Street exit from the Nimitz Freeway, but that freeway extension plan was abandoned.

Portion of the collapsed Cypress Viaduct from the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake.

At the time of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, the Cypress Street Viaduct double-deck segment of the Nimitz Freeway
Nimitz Freeway
collapsed, killing 42 people. The old freeway segment had passed through the middle of West Oakland, forming a barrier between West Oakland neighborhoods. Following the earthquake, this section was rerouted around the perimeter of West Oakland and rebuilt in 1999. The east span of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge
San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge
also suffered damage from the quake when a 50-foot (15-m) section of the upper deck collapsed onto the lower deck; the damaged section was repaired within a month of the earthquake. As a result of Loma Prieta, a significant seismic retrofit was performed on the western span of the Bay Bridge. The eastern span has now been replaced with a dramatic single-tower self-anchoring suspension span. Two underwater tunnels, the Webster and Posey Tubes, connect the main island of Alameda to downtown Oakland, coming above ground in Chinatown. In addition, the Park Street, Fruitvale, and High Street bridges connect Alameda to East Oakland over the Oakland Estuary. In the hills, the Leimert Bridge
Leimert Bridge
crosses Dimond Canyon, connecting the Oakmore neighborhood to Park Boulevard. The Caldecott Tunnel
Caldecott Tunnel
carries Highway 24 through the Berkeley Hills, connecting central Contra Costa County to Oakland. The Caldecott has four bores. Freight rail[edit] Freight service, which consists primarily of moving shipping containers to and from the Port of Oakland, is provided today by Union Pacific Railroad (UP), and to a lesser extent by BNSF Railway
BNSF Railway
(which now shares the tracks of the UP between Richmond and Oakland). Historically, Oakland was served by several railroads. Besides the transcontinental line of the Southern Pacific, there was also the Santa Fe (whose Oakland terminal was actually in Emeryville), the Western Pacific Railroad
Western Pacific Railroad
(who built a pier adjacent to the SP's), and the Sacramento
Northern Railroad (eventually absorbed by the Western Pacific, which in turn was absorbed by UP in 1983). Shipping[edit] As one of the three major ports on the West Coast of the United States, the Port of Oakland
Port of Oakland
is the largest seaport on San Francisco Bay and the fifth busiest container port in the United States. It was one of the earliest seaports to switch to containerization and to intermodal container transfer,[179] thereby displacing the Port of San Francisco, which never modernized its waterfront. One of the earlier limitations to growth was the inability to transfer containers to rail lines, all cranes historically operating between ocean vessels and trucks. In the 1980s, the Port of Oakland
Port of Oakland
began the evaluation of development of an intermodal container transfer capability, i.e., facilities that now allow trans-loading of containers from vessels to either trucks or rail modes.[180] Utilities[edit] Water and sewage treatment are provided by East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD). Pacific Gas and Electric Company
Pacific Gas and Electric Company
(PG & E) provides natural gas and electricity service. Municipal garbage collection is franchised to Waste Management, Inc. Telecommunications and subscriber television services are provided by multiple private corporations and other service providers in accordance with the competitive objectives of the Telecommunications Act of 1996. Oakland tops the list of the 50 largest US cities using electricity from renewable sources.[181] Healthcare[edit]

Alta Bates Summit Medical Center

Originating in Oakland, Kaiser Permanente, is an HMO started in 1942, during World War II, by industrialist Henry J. Kaiser
Henry J. Kaiser
to provide medical care for Kaiser Shipyards
Kaiser Shipyards
workers. It is the largest managed care organization in the United States
United States
and the largest non-governmental health care provider in the world.[182] It is headquartered at One Kaiser Plaza in Downtown Oakland
Downtown Oakland
and maintains a large medical center in the Piedmont Avenue neighborhood. Alta Bates Summit Medical Center, an East Bay hospital system, maintains its Summit Campus in the neighborhood known as "Pill Hill" north of downtown. Until 2000, it was the Summit Medical Center before merging with Berkeley-based Alta Bates. All campuses now operate under the Sutter Health network. Alameda County Medical Center
Alameda County Medical Center
is operated by the county and provides medical services to county residents, including the medically indigent who do not have health insurance. The main campus, Highland Hospital in East Oakland, is the trauma center for the northern area of the East Bay. Children's Hospital Oakland
Children's Hospital Oakland
is the primary medical center specializing in pediatrics in the East Bay. It is a designated Level I pediatric trauma center and the only independent children's hospital in Northern California. Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people from Oakland, California International relations[edit]

This article contains a list of miscellaneous information. Please relocate any relevant information into other sections or articles. (June 2017)

Sister cities[edit] Oakland has 12 sister cities:[183]

Country City Year of Partnership

 Japan Fukuoka 1962

 Ghana Sekondi Takoradi 1975

 China Dalian 1982

 Portugal Funchal 1999

 Cuba Santiago de Cuba 2000

 Vietnam Da Nang 2005

 Nigeria Benin City 2010

 Haiti Port-de-Paix 2011

 China Foshan

 Nigeria Bauchi

 Jamaica Ocho Rios

 Russia Nakhodka

Friendship cities[edit] Oakland has 18 friendship cities.:[183]

- Agadir, Morocco - Bahir Dar, Ethiopia - Changping District, China - Chengdu, China - Guangzhou, China - Haikou, China - Jing'an District, China - Jinzhou, China - Jurong, China - Maoming, China - Mianyang, China - Nanning, China - Pudong, China - Qingdao, China - SongShang, China - Tanggu District, China - Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia - Weifang, China

See also[edit]

San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area
portal California

List of cities and towns in the San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area Mayors of Oakland Oakland tallest buildings Oakland Ebonics controversy


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Jean Quan
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External links[edit]

Find more aboutOakland, Californiaat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Official website Visit Oakland: Oakland Convention and Visitors Bureau Oakland on LocalWiki "Oakland". U.S. City Open Data Census. UK: Open Knowledge Foundation.  "Oakland". C-SPAN
Cities Tour. January 2016. 

Places adjacent to Oakland, California

Emeryville Berkeley Orinda Moraga

San Francisco


Alameda San Leandro

Links to related articles

v t e

Oakland, California


Port of Oakland List of companies


Higher education California
College of the Arts Holy Names University Laney College Lincoln University Merritt College Mills College Samuel Merritt University Patten University

Primary and secondary education Oakland USD

Castlemont High Coliseum College Prep Academy Fremont High McClymonds High MetWest High Oakland High Oakland Technical High Skyline High

American Indian Model Schools

High School

The Crucible Bishop O'Dowd High School The College Preparatory School Head-Royce School Oakland School for the Arts St. Elizabeth High School


Mayors City Hall City Council Fire Department Police Department


Oakland Railroad Company Oakland Army Base Key System Naval Supply Depot Black Panther Party 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake Oakland firestorm of 1991 Oscar Grant shooting Oakland Police shootings Riders scandal Your Black Muslim Bakery Occupy Oakland Oakland Tribune 2016 warehouse fire Timeline


Golden State Warriors Oakland Athletics Oakland Raiders


San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge SR 24

Caldecott Tunnel

Posey and Webster Street Tubes MacArthur Maze Interstate 580 Interstate 880

Cypress Street Viaduct

Warren Freeway International Boulevard Oakland – Jack London Square
Jack London Square
station Oakland International Airport AC Transit Eastmont Transit Center


12th Street Oakland City Center 19th Street Oakland (Uptown Transit Center) Coliseum Lake Merritt MacArthur OAK Rockridge West Oakland


Neighborhoods Notable people Tallest buildings Children's Hospital Mountain View Cemetery Lake Merritt Temescal Creek Sausal Creek Crime

Alameda County San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area California United States

v t e

Oakland, California

Downtown / Lake Merritt

Adams Point Chinatown City Center Civic Center Crocker Highlands Grand Lake Jack London District Jack London Square Lakeside Apartments District Old Oakland Trestle Glen Uptown Cleveland Heights

East Oakland

Dimond District Eastmont Elmhurst Fruitvale Havenscourt Jingletown Laurel Millsmont Maxwell Park Ridgemont San Antonio Seminary Sobrante Park

North Oakland

Bushrod Park Golden Gate Koreatown Longfellow Piedmont Avenue Rockridge Santa Fe Temescal

West Oakland

Acorn Cypress Village Dogtown Ghost Town Lower Bottoms Oakland Point

Oakland Hills & Foothills

Claremont Glenview Grass Valley Joaquin Miller Park Panoramic Hill Redwood Heights Montclair Mountain View Cemetery Piedmont Pines Oakmore Sequoyah Heights

v t e

Attractions in Oakland, California


Cathedral of Christ the Light Chapel of the Chimes Children's Fairyland Dunsmuir House First Unitarian Church Jack London Square Kaiser Building Lake Merritt Leimert Bridge City Hall Oakland Temple Pardee Home Preservation Park René C. Davidson Courthouse Rockridge Market Hall Ronald V. Dellums Federal Building USS Potomac Tribune Tower Oakland Technical High School Evergreen Cemetery Mountain View Cemetery


African American
African American
Museum Chabot Space and Science Center Oakland Aviation Museum Oakland Museum
Oakland Museum
of California

Zoos and parks

Anthony Chabot Regional Park Huckleberry Botanic Regional Preserve Joaquin Miller Park Knowland Park Lake Temescal Leona Canyon Regional Open Space Preserve Morcom Rose Garden Mosswood Park Oakland Zoo Redwood Regional Park Robert Sibley Volcanic Regional Preserve Temescal Regional Park


Kaiser Convention Center Grand Lake Theater Oakland East Bay Symphony Paramount Theater Fox Theater Yoshi's Art Murmur


Oakland Athletics Oakland Raiders Golden State Warriors Oakland Alameda Coliseum Oracle Arena

Shopping districts

Oakland City Center Rockridge

v t e

Municipalities and communities of Alameda County, California, United States

County seat: Oakland


Alameda Albany Berkeley Dublin Emeryville Fremont Hayward Livermore Newark Oakland Piedmont Pleasanton San Leandro Union City


Ashland Castro Valley Cherryland Fairview San Lorenzo Sunol

Unincorporated communities

Albrae Altamont Asco Baumberg Brightside Brookshire Carpenter Dougherty Dresser East Pleasanton Farwell Hall Station Halvern Kilkare Woods Komandorski Village Lorenzo Station Mattos Mendenhall Springs Midway Mountain House Mowry Landing Radum San Ramon Village Scotts Corner Sorenson Verona

Former settlements

Alden Alisal Alvarado Ann Brooklyn Carnegie Decoto Drawbridge Eden Landing Elliot Goecken Greenville Hacienda Hayward Heath Laddville Larkin's Landing Lynn Mallard Melita Merienda Monte Vista Mount Eden Remillard Robert Russell City Stokes Landing Tesla

v t e

San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay

Bodies of water

Bodega Bay Carquinez Strait Clifton Forebay Golden Gate Grizzly Bay Guadalupe River Half Moon Bay Lake Berryessa Napa River Oakland Estuary Petaluma River Richardson Bay Richmond Inner Harbor Russian River Sacramento
River San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay San Leandro Bay San Pablo Bay Sonoma Creek Suisun Bay Tomales Bay


Alameda Contra Costa Marin Napa San Francisco San Mateo Santa Clara Solano Sonoma

Major cities

San Jose San Francisco Oakland

Cities and towns 100k–250k

Antioch Berkeley Concord Daly City Fairfield Fremont Hayward Richmond Santa Clara Santa Rosa Sunnyvale Vallejo

Cities and towns 50k–99k

Alameda Brentwood Castro Valley Cupertino Livermore Milpitas Mountain View Napa Novato Palo Alto Petaluma Pittsburg Pleasanton Redwood City San Leandro San Mateo San Rafael San Ramon South San Francisco Union City Vacaville Walnut Creek

Cities and towns 25k-50k

Belmont Benicia Burlingame Campbell Danville Dublin East Palo Alto Foster City Gilroy Los Altos Los Gatos Martinez Menlo Park Morgan Hill Newark Oakley Pacifica Pleasant Hill Rohnert Park San Bruno San Carlos San Pablo Saratoga Suisun City Windsor

Cities and towns 10k–25k

Alamo Albany American Canyon Ashland Bay Point Cherryland Clayton Discovery Bay Dixon El Cerrito El Sobrante Emeryville Fairview Half Moon Bay Healdsburg Hercules Hillsborough Lafayette Larkspur Millbrae Mill Valley Moraga North Fair Oaks Orinda Piedmont Pinole San Anselmo San Lorenzo Sonoma Stanford Tamalpais-Homestead Valley


East Bay North Bay San Francisco
San Francisco
Peninsula Silicon Valley South Bay

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county seats

Consolidated city-county

San Francisco


Alturas Auburn Bakersfield Colusa Crescent City El Centro Eureka Fairfield Fresno Hanford Hollister Jackson Lakeport Los Angeles Madera Martinez Marysville Merced Modesto Napa Nevada City Oakland Oroville Placerville Red Bluff Redding Redwood City Riverside Sacramento Salinas San Bernardino San Diego San Jose San Luis Obispo San Rafael Santa Ana Santa Barbara Santa Cruz Santa Rosa Sonora Stockton Susanville Ukiah Ventura Visalia Willows Woodland Yreka Yuba City


Bridgeport Downieville Independence Mariposa Markleeville Quincy San Andreas Weaverville

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Mayors of cities with populations exceeding 100,000 in California

Eric Garcetti (Los Angeles) Kevin Faulconer (San Diego) Sam Liccardo (San Jose) Mark Farrell (San Francisco) Lee Brand (Fresno) Darrell Steinberg (Sacramento) Robert Garcia (Long Beach) Libby Schaaf (Oakland) Karen Goh (Bakersfield) Tom Tait (Anaheim) Miguel A. Pulido (Santa Ana) Rusty Bailey (Riverside) Anthony Silva (Stockton) Mary Salas (Chula Vista) Don Wagner (Irvine) Lily Mei (Fremont) R. Carey Davis (San Bernardino) Garrad Marsh (Modesto) Acquanetta Warren (Fontana) Tim Flynn (Oxnard) Jesse Molina (Moreno Valley)* Mike Posey (Huntington Beach)* Paula Devine (Glendale)* Marsha McLean (Santa Clarita)* Jim Wood (Oceanside) Steven R. Jones (Garden Grove) L. Dennis Michael (Rancho Cucamonga) John Sawyer (Santa Rosa)* Paul S. Leon (Ontario) Gary Davis (Elk Grove) Eugene Montanez (Corona)* R. Rex Parris (Lancaster) James C. Ledford Jr. (Palmdale) Barbara Halliday (Hayward) Joe Gunter (Salinas) Elliot Rothman (Pomona) Jim Griffith (Sunnyvale) Sam Abed (Escondido) Patrick J. Furey (Torrance) Terry Tornek (Pasadena) Teresa Smith (Orange) Greg Sebourn (Fullerton)* Carol Garcia (Roseville) Steve Nelsen (Visalia) Al Adam (Thousand Oaks)* Edi E. Birsan (Concord)* Bob Huber (Simi Valley) Jamie L. Matthews (Santa Clara) Gloria Garcia (Victorville) Bob Sampayan (Vallejo) Jesse Arreguín (Berkeley) Andre Quintero (El Monte) Luis H. Marquez (Downey)* Matt Hall (Carlsbad) Stephen Mensinger (Costa Mesa)* Harry T. Price (Fairfield) Jeff Comerchero (Temecula) James T. Butts Jr. (Inglewood) Wade Harper (Antioch) Harry Ramos (Murrieta) Cheryl Heitmann (Ventura)* Tom Butt (Richmond) Fredrick Sykes (West Covina)* Luigi Vernola (Norwalk)* Raymond A. Buenaventura (Daly City) Bob Frutos (Burbank)* Alice Patino (Santa Maria) Nathan Magsig (Clovis)* Bill Wells (El Cajon) Maureen Freschet (San Mateo)* Judy Ritter (Vista) Brad Hancock (Jurupa Valley)

^* Mayor
selected from city council

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 State of California




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Metro regions

Metropolitan Fresno Los Angeles
Los Angeles
metropolitan area Greater Sacramento San Bernardino-Riverside metropolitan area San Francisco
San Francisco
metropolitan area San Diego–Tijuana


Alameda Alpine Amador Butte Calaveras Colusa Contra Costa Del Norte El Dorado Fresno Glenn Humboldt Imperial Inyo Kern Kings Lake Lassen Los Angeles Madera Marin Mariposa Mendocino Merced Modoc Mono Monterey Napa Nevada Orange Placer Plumas Riverside Sacramento San Benito San Bernardino San Diego San Francisco San Joaquin San Luis Obispo San Mateo Santa Barbara Santa Clara Santa Cruz Shasta Sierra Siskiyou Solano Sonoma Stanislaus Sutter Tehama Trinity Tulare Tuolumne Ventura Yolo Yuba

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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 125244396 LCCN: n79118971 GND: 4117963-8 BNF: