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Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
(Turkish: Kuzey Kıbrıs), officially the Turkish Republic
Republic
of Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
(TRNC; Turkish: Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti), is a partially recognised state that comprises the northeastern portion of the island of Cyprus. Recognised only by Turkey, Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
is considered by the international community to be part of the Republic
Republic
of Cyprus. Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
extends from the tip of the Karpass Peninsula
Karpass Peninsula
in the northeast to Morphou
Morphou
Bay, Cape Kormakitis
Cape Kormakitis
and its westernmost point, the Kokkina
Kokkina
exclave in the west. Its southernmost point is the village of Louroujina. A buffer zone under the control of the United Nations stretches between Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
and the rest of the island and divides Nicosia, the island's largest city and capital of both sides. A coup d'état in 1974, performed as part of an attempt to annex the island to Greece, prompted the Turkish invasion of Cyprus. This resulted in the eviction of much of the north's Greek Cypriot population, the flight of Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
from the south, and the partitioning of the island, leading to a unilateral declaration of independence by the North in 1983. Due to its lack of recognition, Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
is heavily dependent on Turkey
Turkey
for economic, political and military support.[5][6][7] Attempts to reach a solution to the Cyprus
Cyprus
dispute have been unsuccessful. The Turkish Army
Turkish Army
maintains a large force in Northern Cyprus. While its presence is supported and approved by the TRNC government, the Republic
Republic
of Cyprus
Cyprus
and the international community regard it as an occupation force, and its presence has been denounced in several United Nations
United Nations
Security Council resolutions.[8] Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
is a semi-presidential, democratic republic with a cultural heritage incorporating various influences and an economy that is dominated by the services sector. The economy has seen growth through the 2000s and 2010s, with the GNP per capita more than tripling in the 2000s, but is held back by an international embargo due to the official closure of the ports in Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
by the Republic
Republic
of Cyprus. The official language is Turkish, with a distinct local dialect being spoken. The vast majority of the population consists of Sunni Muslims, while religious attitudes are mostly moderate and secular.[9] Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
is an observer of the OIC and ECO, and has observer status in the PACE under the title "Turkish Cypriot Community".

Contents

1 History

1.1 1960–1974 1.2 1974–1983 1.3 1983–present

2 Administrative divisions 3 Politics

3.1 Human rights and law 3.2 International status and foreign relations 3.3 Military

4 Geography

4.1 Biodiversity 4.2 Climate

5 Economy

5.1 Tourism 5.2 Infrastructure

6 Demographics

6.1 Religion 6.2 Education

7 Culture

7.1 Music and dance 7.2 Literature 7.3 Cinema 7.4 Theatre 7.5 Sports 7.6 Cuisine

8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

History See also: Ottoman Cyprus
Cyprus
and Modern history of Cyprus 1960–1974 See also: Cypriot intercommunal violence

Fazıl Küçük, former Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
leader and former Vice President of Cyprus

Sarayönü Square
Sarayönü Square
of North Nicosia
North Nicosia
in 1969, after the division of the city

A united Cyprus
Cyprus
gained independence from British rule in August 1960, after both Greek and Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
agreed to abandon their respective plans for enosis (union with Greece) and taksim (Turkish for "partition"). The agreement involved Cyprus
Cyprus
being governed under a constitution which apportioned Cabinet posts, parliamentary seats and civil service jobs on an agreed ratio between the two communities. Within three years, tensions began to show between the Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
in administrative affairs. In particular, disputes over separate municipalities and taxation created a deadlock in government. In 1963 President Makarios proposed unilateral changes to the constitution, via 13 amendments. Turkey
Turkey
and the Turkish Cypriots rejected the proposed amendments, claiming that this was an attempt to settle constitutional disputes in favour of the Greek Cypriots[10] and to demote Turkish status from co-founders of the state to one of minority status, removing their constitutional safeguards in the process. Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
filed a lawsuit against the 13 amendments in the Supreme Constitutional Court of Cyprus (SCCC). Makarios announced that he would not comply with the decision of the SCCC, whatever it was,[11] and defended his amendments as being necessary "to resolve constitutional deadlocks" as opposed to the stance of the SCCC.[12] On 25 April 1963, the SCCC decided that Makarios' 13 amendments were illegal. The Cyprus
Cyprus
Supreme Court's ruling found that Makarios had violated the constitution by failing to fully implement its measures and that Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
had not been allowed to return to their positions in government without first accepting the proposed constitutional amendments.[13] On 21 May, the president of the SCCC resigned due to Makarios' stance. On 15 July, Makarios ignored the decision of the SCCC.[14] After the resignation of the president of the SCCC, the SCCC ceased to exist. The Supreme Court of Cyprus
Cyprus
(SCC) was formed by merging the SCCC and the High Court of Cyprus, and undertook the jurisdiction and powers of the SCCC and HCC.[15] On 30 November, Makarios legalized the 13 proposals. In 1963, the Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
wing of the government created the Akritas plan which outlined a policy that would remove Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
from the government and ultimately lead to union with Greece. The plan stated that if the Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
objected then they should be "violently subjugated before foreign powers could intervene".[16] On 21 December 1963, shots were fired at a Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
crowd that had gathered as the Greek police patrol stopped two Turkish Cypriots, claiming to ask for identification; two Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
were killed.[17] Almost immediately, intercommunal violence broke out with a major Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
paramilitary attack upon Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
in Nicosia
Nicosia
and Larnaca. Though the TMT—a Turkish resistance group created in 1959 to promote a policy of taksim (division or partition of Cyprus), in opposition to the Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
nationalist group EOKA and its advocacy of enosis (union of Cyprus
Cyprus
with Greece)—committed a number of acts of retaliation, historian of the Cyprus
Cyprus
conflict Keith Kyle noted that "there is no doubt that the main victims of the numerous incidents that took place during the next few months were Turks".[10] Seven hundred Turkish hostages, including children, were taken from the northern suburbs of Nicosia. Nikos Sampson, a nationalist and future coup leader, led a group of Greek Cypriot irregulars into the mixed suburb of Omorphita/Küçük Kaymaklı and attacked the Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
population.[18] By 1964, 364 Turkish Cypriots and 174 Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots
had been killed.[19] Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
members of the government had by now withdrawn, creating an essentially Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
administration in control of all institutions of the state. After the partnership government collapsed, the Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
led administration was recognized as the legitimate government of the Republic
Republic
of Cyprus
Cyprus
at the stage of the debates in New York in February 1964.[20] In September 1964, the then United Nations Secretary General, U Thant
U Thant
reported that "UNFICYP carried out a detailed survey of all damage to properties throughout the island during the disturbances; it shows that in 109 villages, most of them Turkish-Cypriot or mixed villages, 527 houses have been destroyed while 2,000 others have suffered damage from looting".[21] Widespread looting of Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
villages prompted 20,000 refugees to retreat into armed enclaves, where they remained for the next 11 years,[22] relying on food and medical supplies from Turkey
Turkey
to survive. Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
formed paramilitary groups to defend the enclaves, leading to a gradual division of the island's communities into two hostile camps. The violence had also seen thousands of Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
attempt to escape the violence by emigrating to Britain, Australia
Australia
and Turkey.[23] On 28 December 1967, the Turkish Cypriot Provisional Administration was founded.[24] 1974–1983 Main articles: 1974 Cypriot coup d'état, Turkish invasion of Cyprus, and Turkish Federated State of Cyprus

Rauf Denktaş, founder and former President of the Turkish Republic
Republic
of Northern Cyprus

On 6 July 1974, Makarios accused the Greek government of turning the Cypriot National Guard
Cypriot National Guard
into an army of occupation.[25] On 15 July 1974, the Greek military junta and the Cypriot National Guard
Cypriot National Guard
backed a Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
military coup d'état in Cyprus. Pro- Enosis
Enosis
Nikos Sampson replaced President Makarios as the new president.[26] The Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
coupists proclaimed the establishment of the "Hellenic Republic
Republic
of Cyprus".[27][28] Turkey
Turkey
claimed that under the 1960 Treaty of Guarantee, the coup was sufficient reason for military action to protect the Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
populace, and thus Turkey
Turkey
invaded Cyprus on 20 July. Turkish forces proceeded to take over the northern four-elevenths of the island (about 36% of Cyprus's total area). The coup caused a civil war filled with ethnic violence, after which it collapsed and Makarios returned to power.[citation needed] On 2 August 1975, in the negotiations in Vienna, a population exchange agreement was signed between community leaders Rauf Denktaş and Glafcos Clerides
Glafcos Clerides
under the auspices of United Nations.[29][30] On the basis of the Agreement, 196,000 Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots
living in the north were exchanged for 42,000 Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
living in the south[31] (the number of settlers was disputed[32]). The Orthodox Greek Cypriots in Rizokarpaso, Agios Andronikos and Agia Triada chose to stay in their villages,[33] as did also Catholic Maronites
Maronites
in Asomatos, Karpasia and Kormakitis. Approximately 1,500 Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots
and 500 Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
remain missing.[34] The invasion led to the formation of the first sovereign administrative body of Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
in August 1974, the Autonomous Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
Administration. In 1975, the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus
Cyprus
(Kıbrıs Türk Federe Devleti) was declared as a first step towards a future federated Cypriot state, but was rejected by the Republic
Republic
of Cyprus
Cyprus
and the United Nations. After eight years of failed negotiations with the leadership of the Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
community,[citation needed] the north unilaterally declared its independence on 15 November 1983 under the name of the Turkish Republic
Republic
of Northern Cyprus.[1] This was rejected by the UN and the Republic
Republic
of Cyprus. 1983–present

Atatürk Square, North Nicosia
North Nicosia
in 2006, with the Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
and Turkish flags.

In recent years, the politics of reunification has dominated the island's affairs. The European Union
European Union
decided in 2000 to accept Cyprus as a member, even if it was divided. This was due to their view of Rauf Denktaş, the pro-independence Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
President, as the main stumbling block, but also due to Greece
Greece
threatening to block eastern EU expansion. It was hoped that Cyprus's planned accession into the European Union
European Union
would act as a catalyst towards a settlement. In the time leading up to Cyprus
Cyprus
becoming a member, a new government was elected in Turkey
Turkey
and Rauf Denktaş lost political power in Cyprus. In 2004, a United Nations–brokered peace settlement was presented in a referendum to both sides.[35] The proposed settlement was opposed by both the president of Cyprus, Tassos Papadopoulos, and Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
president Rauf Denktaş; in the referendum, while 65% of Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
accepted the proposal, 76% of Greek Cypriots rejected it. As a result, Cyprus
Cyprus
entered the European Union
European Union
divided, with the effects of membership suspended for Northern Cyprus.[35][not in citation given][citation needed] Denktaş resigned in the wake of the vote, ushering in the pro-settlement Mehmet Ali Talat
Mehmet Ali Talat
as his successor. However, the pro-settlement side and Mehmet Ali Talat
Mehmet Ali Talat
lost momentum due to the ongoing embargo and isolation,[36] despite promises from the European Union that these would be eased.[37] As a result, the Turkish Cypriot electorate became frustrated. This led ultimately to the pro-independence side winning the general elections in 2009 and its candidate, former Prime Minister
Prime Minister
Derviş Eroğlu, winning the presidential elections in 2010. Although Eroğlu and his National Unity Party favours the independence of Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
rather than reunification with the Republic
Republic
of Cyprus, he is negotiating with the Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
side towards a settlement for reunification.[38] In 2011, Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
protested against economic reforms made by the Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
and Turkish governments (cf. 2011 Turkish Cypriot demonstrations). Administrative divisions Main article: Districts of Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
is divided into six districts: Lefkoşa, Gazimağusa, Girne, Güzelyurt, İskele and Lefke. Lefke District was established by separation from the Güzelyurt District
Güzelyurt District
in 2016.[39] In addition there are further twelve sub-districts divided between the five larger districts and twenty-eight municipalities.

Lefkoşa Girne İskele Güzelyurt Gazimağusa

Politics Main article: Politics of Northern Cyprus

Mustafa Akıncı President

The politics of Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is head of state and the Prime Minister
Prime Minister
head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power
Legislative power
is vested in both the government and the Assembly of the Republic. The Judiciary
Judiciary
is independent of the executive and the legislature. The president is elected for a five-year term and is currently Mustafa Akıncı. The current Prime Minister
Prime Minister
is Tufan Erhürman. The legislature is the Assembly of the Republic, which has 50 members elected by proportional representation from six electoral districts. In the elections of January 2018, the right-wing National Unity Party won the most seats in the Assembly, but a coalition was formed between the left-leaning pro-unification Republican Turkish Party, the centrist People's Party, the left-wing Communal Democracy Party
Communal Democracy Party
and the centre-right Democratic Party. Due to Northern Cyprus' isolation and heavy reliance on Turkish support, Turkey
Turkey
has a high level of influence over the country's politics. This has led to some experts characterising it as an effective puppet state of Turkey.[40][41][42] Other experts, however, have pointed out to the independent nature of elections and appointments in Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
and disputes between the Turkish Cypriot and Turkish governments, concluding that "puppet state" is not an accurate description for Northern Cyprus.[43][44] In April 2017, Yiğit Bulut, a Turkish presidential advisor, was heavily criticized by leaders of a number of Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
political parties, including nationalistic ones,[45][46][47] as well as journalists and members of the Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
parliament for calling Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
as "an overseas province of Turkey".[48] This statement was immediately rejected and criticized as "inappropriate" and "damaging to the bilateral relations" by Barış Burcu, the Turkish Cypriot presidential speaker,[49] forcing Bulut to state that his words were manipulated and were to demonstrate the close relationship between the nations.[50] Human rights and law Main article: Human rights in Northern Cyprus

The law courts building in North Nicosia

In January 2011, The Report of the Office of the United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Human Rights on the question of Human Rights in Cyprus
Cyprus
noted that the ongoing division of Cyprus
Cyprus
continues to affect human rights throughout the island "... including freedom of movement, human rights pertaining to the question of missing persons, discrimination, the right to life, freedom of religion, and economic, social and cultural rights."[51] Freedom House
Freedom House
has classified the perceived level of democratic and political freedom in Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
as "free" since 2000 in its Freedom in the World report.[52][53] The 2016 ranking was "free" with the scores (1: most free, 7: least free) political rights:2/7, civil liberties:2/7 and aggregate score: 79/100.[54] Reporters Without Borders' World Press Freedom Index ranked Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
76th among 180 countries in 2015.[55] The Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
and Maronite communities, numbering 343 and 118 respectively as of 2014, are denied the right to vote in presidential, parliamentary and municipal elections or run for office. Maronites
Maronites
do elect the leader of their village, whilst Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots
have two appointed leaders, one by the Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
government and the other by the Republic
Republic
of Cyprus.[56][57] World Happiness Report 2016 of United Nations' Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) ranked Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
62nd among 157 countries.[58] Gallup Healthways Well-Being Index of 2014 ranked Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
49th among 145 countries.[59] Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
received 153 asylum applications during 2011–14 according to United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).[60] International status and foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of Northern Cyprus

London
London
office of the Turkish Republic
Republic
of Northern Cyprus, Bedford Square.

No nation other than Turkey[40][61][62][63] has officially recognised Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
as a sovereign state. The United Nations
United Nations
recognises it as territory of the Republic
Republic
of Cyprus
Cyprus
under Turkish occupation.[64][65][66] Pakistan
Pakistan
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
had initially declared their recognition of Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
as a sovereign state shortly after its declaration of independence,[67] but they withdrew their recognition as a result of US pressure after the UN deemed the declaration illegal.[68] The United Nations
United Nations
considers the declaration of independence by Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
as legally invalid, as enunciated in several of its resolutions.[64][69] In the wake of the April 2004 referendum on the United Nations
United Nations
Annan Plan, and in view of the support of the Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
community for the plan, the European Union
European Union
made pledges towards ending the isolation of Northern Cyprus. These included measures for trade and 259 million euro in aid.[citation needed] A pledge by the EU to lift the embargo on Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
in the wake of the Annan Plan referendums has been blocked by the Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
government.[35] In 2004, the Organisation of Islamic Co-operation upgraded the delegation of the Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
Muslim community from "observer community" (1979) to that of a constituent state with the designation " Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
State", making Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
an observer member of the organization.[70] A number of high-profile formal meetings have also taken place between former President Mehmet Ali Talat
Mehmet Ali Talat
and various foreign leaders and politicians, including the former U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, the then British foreign minister, Jack Straw and former Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf, and between President Dervis Eroglu
Dervis Eroglu
and Ban Ki-Moon, Secretary-General of the United Nations. In 2004, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
gave observer status to the representatives of Turkish Cypriot community.[71] Since then, Northern Cyprus's representatives have actively participated in all PACE activities without voting rights. The European Union
European Union
considers the area not under effective control of the Republic
Republic
of Cyprus
Cyprus
as EU territory under Turkish military occupation and thus indefinitely exempt from EU legislation until a settlement has been found. The status of Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
has become a recurrent issue especially during the recent talks for Turkey's membership of the EU where the division of the island is seen as a major stumbling block in Turkey's road to membership.[72][73] The Autonomous Republic
Republic
of Nakhichevan in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
has issued a resolution recognizing the independence of Northern Cyprus. As a result of the Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
issue, however, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
itself has not recognised North Cyprus.[74] Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
have been applying for decades for passports issued by Cyprus. When the entry points with the Republic
Republic
of Cyprus
Cyprus
were closed, the applications were made either through middlemen or through consulates and embassies of Cyprus
Cyprus
in other countries. A yearly increase in the number of applications for such passports of 10–15% was observed in years prior to 2001, when the rate greatly increased and 817 were issued in the first eight months of 2001 as compared to 448 for the whole of 2000. After the opening of the borders with the Republic
Republic
of Cyprus, Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
started lineups applying for Cypriot passports by visiting the Republic
Republic
of Cyprus
Cyprus
and showing proof of their Cypriot ancestry.[75] There are seven border crossings between Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
and the Republic
Republic
of Cyprus.[76] Since May 2004 some tourists have taken to flying to the Republic
Republic
of Cyprus
Cyprus
directly then crossing the green line to holiday in Northern Cyprus.[77][needs update] On 21 September 2011, Turkey
Turkey
and Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
signed an EEZ border agreement in New York.[78][79] In October 2012, Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
became an observer member of the Economic Cooperation Organisation
Economic Cooperation Organisation
under the name "Turkish Cypriot State". Military Main article: Military of Northern Cyprus

Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
soldiers of the Security Forces Command
Security Forces Command
perform during a Republic
Republic
Day parade.

The Security Forces Command
Security Forces Command
consists of an 8,000 strong force primarily made up of conscripted Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
males between the ages of 18 and 40.[citation needed] There is also an additional reserve force which consists of about 10,000 first-line and 16,000 second-line troops conscripted up to the age of 50. The Security Forces Command is lightly armed and heavily dependent on its mainland Turkish allies, from which it draws much of its officer corps.[80] It is led by a Brigadier General drawn from the Turkish Army. It acts essentially as a gendarmerie charged with protection of the border of Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
from Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
incursions and maintaining internal security within Northern Cyprus.[81] In addition, the mainland Turkish Armed Forces
Turkish Armed Forces
maintains the Cyprus Turkish Peace Force which consists of around 30,000–40,000 troops drawn from the 9th Turkish Army
Turkish Army
Corps and comprising two divisions, the 28th and 39th. It is equipped with a substantial number of US-made M48 Patton main battle tanks and artillery weapons. The Turkish Air Force, Turkish Navy
Turkish Navy
and Turkish Coast Guard
Turkish Coast Guard
also have a presence in Northern Cyprus. Although formally part of Turkish 4th Army, headquartered in İzmir, the sensitivities of the Cyprus
Cyprus
situation means that the commander of the Cyprus
Cyprus
Turkish Peace Force also reports directly to the Turkish General Staff in Ankara. The Cyprus Turkish Peace Force is deployed principally along the Green Line and in locations where hostile amphibious landings might take place.[81] The presence of the mainland Turkish military in Cyprus
Cyprus
is highly controversial, having been denounced as an occupation force by the Republic
Republic
of Cyprus
Cyprus
and the international community. Several United Nations Security Council resolutions have called on the Turkish forces to withdraw.[8] Economic research has found that military expenditure in Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
has a statistically significant impact on economic growth.[82] Geography Main articles: Geography of Cyprus
Cyprus
and Climate of Cyprus

Panoramic view of the Güzelyurt District, and Morphou Bay
Morphou Bay
as seen from the Troodos mountains.

Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
has an area of 3,355 square kilometres (1,295 sq mi), which amounts to around a third of the island. 75 kilometres (47 mi) to the north of Northern Cyprus lies Turkey
Turkey
with Syria
Syria
lying 97 kilometres (60.3 mi) to the east. It lies between latitudes 34° and 36° N, and longitudes 32° and 35° E. The coastline of Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
features two bays: the Morphou
Morphou
Bay and the Famagusta
Famagusta
Bay, and there are four capes: Cape Apostolos Andreas, Cape Kormakitis, Cape Zeytin and Cape Kasa, with Cape Apostolos Andreas being the endpoint of the Karpaz Peninsula. The narrow Kyrenia
Kyrenia
mountain range lies along the northern coastline, and the highest point in Northern Cyprus, Mount Selvili, lies in this mountain range with an altitude of 1,024 metres (3,360 ft).[83] The Mesaoria
Mesaoria
plain, extending from the Güzelyurt district
Güzelyurt district
to the eastern coastline is another defining landscape. The Mesaoria
Mesaoria
plains consist of plain fields and small hills, and is crossed by several seasonal streams. The eastern part of the plain is used for dry agriculture, such as the cultivation of wheat and barley, and are therefore predominantly green in the winter and spring, while it turns yellow and brown in the summer.[84] 56.7% of the land in Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
is agriculturally viable.[85] Biodiversity

Wild Cyprus
Cyprus
donkeys inhabit the mainly remote northern region of the İskele District.

A relatively unspoilt part of the Mediterranean Basin
Mediterranean Basin
biodiversity hotspot, Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
has considerable ecological diversity, containing a variety of terrestrial habitats.[86] Its flora includes around 1900 plant species, of which 19 are endemic to Northern Cyprus.[87] Even in the urban areas, there is a lot of diversity: a study conducted on the banks of the Pedieos
Pedieos
river around Nicosia
Nicosia
found more than 750 different plant species.[88] Among these species are 30 of the orchid species that are endemic to Cyprus.[87] An endangered species that is the subject of folk tales and myths is the sea daffodil, found on the sandy beaches and endangered due to the disruption of their habitats.[89] The medoş tulip (Tulipa cypria) is a notable species that is endemic to Northern Cyprus; it is only found in the villages of Tepebaşı/ Diorios
Diorios
and Avtepe/Ayios Simeon, and is celebrated with an annual festival.[90] In the national park in the Karpaz Peninsula
Karpaz Peninsula
around Cape Apostolos Andreas, there is a population of around 1000 wild Cyprus
Cyprus
donkeys. These donkeys, under the protection of the Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
government, are free to wander in herds over an area of 300 square kilometres (120 square miles)[91] The donkeys have earned a strong image for the peninsula, which is also home to a rich fauna and relatively big forests.[92] The beaches of Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
also include sites where hundreds of loggerhead turtles and green turtles lay eggs, which hatch at the end of the summer, followed by observers.[90] Climate

Beach near Mehmetcik, İskele District

The winter in Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
is cool and rainy, particularly between December and February, with 60% of annual rainfall.[93] These rains produce winter torrents that fill most of the rivers, which typically dry up as the year progresses. Snow has been known to fall on the Kyrenia
Kyrenia
Range, but seldom elsewhere in spite of low night temperatures. The short spring is characterized by unstable weather, occasional heavy storms and the "meltem", or westerly wind. Summer is hot and dry enough to turn low-lying lands on the island brown. Parts of the island experience the "Poyraz", a north-westerly wind, or the sirocco, a wind from Africa, which is dry and dusty. Summer is followed by a short, turbulent autumn. Climate conditions on the island vary by geographical factors. The Mesaoria
Mesaoria
Plain, cut off from the summer breezes and from much of the humidity of the sea, may reach temperature peaks of 40 to 45 °C (104 to 113 °F). Humidity rises at the Karpaz Peninsula. Humidity and water temperature, 16 to 28 °C (61 to 82 °F), combine to stabilize coastal weather, which does not experience inland extremes. The Southern Range blocks air currents that bring rain and atmospheric humidity from the south-west, diminishing both on its eastern side. Economy Main article: Economy of Northern Cyprus

Kyrenia
Kyrenia
(Girne) is one of the main tourist resorts in Northern Cyprus. Tourism is one of the dominant sectors of the Northern Cyprus' economy.

The economy of Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
is dominated by the services sector (69% of GDP in 2007) which includes the public sector, trade, tourism and education. The revenues gained by the education sector in 2011 was $400 million.[94] Industry (light manufacturing) contributes 22% of GDP and agriculture 9%.[95] The economy of Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
is based on a free market approach[96] and it became the top country in Europe
Europe
in entrepreneurial intent to start a new business in 2014.[97] Economic development is adversely affected by the continuing Cyprus problem. Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
is under an international embargo as the Republic
Republic
of Cyprus, as the internationally recognised authority, has declared airports and ports in the area not under its effective control closed. All UN member states other than Turkey
Turkey
respect the closure of those ports and airports.[98] As a result, Northern Cyprus is heavily dependent on Turkish economic support,[99] and is still dependent on monetary transfers from the Turkish government.[95]

A hotel and the headquarters of a large company in Nicosia, the center of the Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
economy.

Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
uses the Turkish Lira
Turkish Lira
as its currency which links its economy to that of Turkey's. Since the Republic
Republic
of Cyprus
Cyprus
joined the Euro
Euro
zone and the movement of peoples between the north and south has become more free, the Euro
Euro
is also in wide circulation.[citation needed] Exports and imports have to go via Turkey;[100] while European Union promised an opening up of the ports after the Annan plan, this was blocked by the Republic
Republic
of Cyprus
Cyprus
and exporting through the south, while technically possible, remains impractical.[101] Despite the constraints imposed by the lack of international recognition, the nominal GDP growth rates of the economy in 2001–2005 were 5.4%, 6.9%, 11.4%, 15.4% and 10.6%, respectively.[102][103] The real GDP growth rate in 2007 was estimated at 2%.[95] This growth has been buoyed by the relative stability of the Turkish Lira
Turkish Lira
and a boom in the education and construction sectors. Between 2002 and 2007, Gross National Product per capita more than tripled, from US$4,409 in 2002 to US$16,158 (in current U.S. dollars).[104] The growth continued through the 2010s, with real growth rates of 3.7%, 3.9%, 1.8% and 1.1% respectively in 2010–2013.[105] The unemployment rate declined through the 2010s and was at 8.3% in 2014.[106] In 2011, North Cyprus
Cyprus
sold electricity to the Republic
Republic
of Cyprus following an explosion in the southern part of the island which affected a large power station.[107] The Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
Water Supply Project, completed in 2015, is aimed at delivering water for drinking and irrigation from southern Turkey
Turkey
via a pipeline under the Mediterranean Sea.[108] International telephone calls are routed via a Turkish dialling code ( +90 392) as Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
has neither its own country code nor official ITU prefix.[citation needed] Similarly with the internet Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
has no top level domain of its own and is under the Turkish second-level domain .nc.tr. Items of mail must be addressed 'via Mersin 10, TURKEY' as the Universal Postal Union
Universal Postal Union
does not recognise Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
as a separate entity.[109][110] Amateur radio operators sometimes use callsigns beginning with "1B", but these have no standing for awards or other operating credit. Tourism Main article: Tourism in Northern Cyprus

Panoramic view of the Kyrenia
Kyrenia
Harbour, with the Venetian-era Kyrenia Castle on the far left, and the Kyrenia Mountains
Kyrenia Mountains
in the background

Tourism is considered as one of the driving sectors of the Turkish Cypriot economy. The country received over 1.1 million tourists in 2012,[111] when hotels and restaurants generated an income of $328 million[112] and constituted 8.5% of the GDP.[113] Accommodation and catering created more than 10,000 jobs in the same year.[114] The tourism sector has seen great development in the 2000s and 2010s, with the number of tourists more than doubling, increased investment and hotel construction; official estimates of income derived from tourism were around 700 million US dollars in 2013 and the total bed capacity was estimated to be around 20,000.[115]

Casino tourism is one of the major sectors of the North Cyprus economy.

Kyrenia
Kyrenia
is considered the capital of tourism in Northern Cyprus, with its numerous hotels, entertainment facilities, vibrant nightlife and shopping areas.[116] In 2012, 62.7% of the visitors in Northern Cyprus stayed in the Girne District
Girne District
during their visit.[111] Out of the 145 hotels in Northern Cyprus, 99 were in the Girne District
Girne District
in 2013.[115] Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
has traditionally been an attraction for beach holidays, partly thanks to its reputation as an unspoiled area. Its mild climate, rich history and nature are seen as sources of attraction. A significant sector of eco-tourism has been developed in Northern Cyprus, as tourists visit it for birdwatching, cycling, walking and observing flowers in the wild.[117] It is praised for its relative safety, and especially for the Karpass Peninsula, its well-preservation.[118] The peninsula is home to several sorts of tourism: it hosts the Bafra Tourism Area as a center for beach-goers, where four luxurious and large hotels were built until 2014, several facilities and regular festivals that highlight its rural qualities and exhibit local traditions, a remote natural park, the Kantara Castle attracting sightseers, and a marina that was built to host international yachts and boats, along with large facilities.[119] Casino tourism has also grown to become a significant contribution to the economy in Northern Cyprus. They were first opened in the 1990s, and have since become very popular with visitors from Turkey
Turkey
and the rest of the island, where casinos are banned. This has led to huge investments in the casino sector.[120] However, the sector has been criticized due to claims of its lack of benefits for the small and middle-scale business and shop owners.[121] The "nightclubs" that have been established for prostitution attract sex tourism to Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
and the industry has been described as a "civilized one", despite the sex workers being described as "vulnerable to abuse".[122][123] Infrastructure

The Ercan International Airport
Ercan International Airport
serves as the main port of entry into Northern Cyprus.

The share of the transport and communications industry in the GDP of Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
is constantly varying; it decreased from 12.1% in 2008 to 8.5% in 2011, but rose again to 9.3% in 2012.[112] Air transport is a major route of entry into Northern Cyprus. The country is home to two airports, the Ercan International Airport
Ercan International Airport
and the Geçitkale Airport, of which only Ercan is currently functioning.[124] The Ercan airport
Ercan airport
saw an important renovation in the 2010s that greatly increased its passenger traffic, it was used by 1.76 million passengers in the first seven months of 2014 alone.[125] Non-stop flights are only available from multiple points in Turkey through a number of Turkish carriers.[126] Direct scheduled and charter flights take place from other countries, but with mandatory stopovers in Turkey. 600 charter flights were scheduled for 2013. Scheduled destinations include cities such as London
London
and Manchester,[127] while charter flight destinations include cities such as Berlin[128] and Ljubljana.[129] Direct flights to Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
and the trade traffic through the Northern Cypriot ports are restricted as part of the embargo on Northern Cypriot ports.[130] The airports of Geçitkale and Ercan are only recognised as legal ports of entry by Turkey
Turkey
and Azerbaijan.[131] Direct charter flights between Poland
Poland
and North Cyprus
Cyprus
started on 20 June 2011.[132] The seaports in Famagusta
Famagusta
and Kyrenia
Kyrenia
have been declared closed to all shipping by the Republic
Republic
of Cyprus
Cyprus
since 1974.[133] By agreement between Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
and Syria, there was a ship tour between Famagusta
Famagusta
and Latakia, Syria
Syria
before the outbreak of the Syrian Civil War. Since the opening of the Green Line Turkish Cypriot residents are allowed to trade through Greek Cypriot ports.[134] With the lack of a railway system, the country's highways are used for transport between major cities. In the 21st century, these highways were upgraded into dual carriageways, with some roads in the Karpass area still being upgraded as of 2015[update]. Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
has around 7,000 kilometres (4,300 miles) of roads, with two thirds of these roads paved.[124] Recent constructions included the construction of a Northern Coast Highway, which was hailed as a major incentive for economic development.[135] Demographics See also: Demographics of Cyprus, Turkish Cypriots, and Mainland Turks in Northern Cyprus

Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
elders playing backgammon

Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
children in the walled part of North Nicosia

Northern Cyprus's first official census was performed in 1996. The population recorded was 200,587.[136] The second census, carried out in 2006, revealed the population of Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
to be 265,100,[137] of which majority is composed of indigenous Turkish Cypriots (including refugees from Southern Cyprus) and settlers from Turkey. Of the 178,000 Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
citizens, 82% are native Cypriots (145,000). Of the 45,000 people born to non-Cypriot parentage, nearly 40% (17,000) were born in Cyprus. The figure for non-citizens, including students, guest workers and temporary residents stood at 78,000 people.[137][138] The third official census of Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
was carried out in 2011, made under the auspices of UN observers. It returned a total population of 294,906.[139] These results were disputed by some political parties, labour unions and local newspapers. The government was accused of deliberately under-counting the population, after apparently giving an estimate of 700,000 before the census, in order to demand financial help from Turkey.[140][141][142] One source claims that the population in the north has reached 500,000,[143] split between 50% Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
and 50% Turkish settlers or Cypriot-born children of such settlers.[144] Researcher Mete Hatay has written that such reports are "wildly speculative" and are picked up by opposition parties for political benefit, which resulted in reports in the south. Such reports have never been scientifically or statistically scrutinized, despite opportunities of opposition parties to do so using the electoral rolls in their possession, thereby continuing a "war of numbers".[145] The Government
Government
of Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
estimates that the 1983 population of Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
was 155,521.[146] Estimates by the government of the Republic
Republic
of Cyprus
Cyprus
from 2001 place the population at 200,000, of which 80–89,000 are Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
and 109,000–117,000 are designated as Turkish settlers by the Republic
Republic
of Cyprus.[147] An island-wide census in 1960 indicated the number of Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
as 102,000 and Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots
as 450,000.[148] As of 2005[update], the settlers constituted no more than 25% of the electorate in Northern Cyprus. The degree of the integration of mainland Turks to the Turkish Cypriot community varies; some identify as Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
and have culturally integrated, while some embrace a Turkish identity.[149] Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
is almost entirely Turkish-speaking. English, however, is widely spoken as a second language.[citation needed] There are 644 Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots
living in Rizokarpaso
Rizokarpaso
(Dipkarpaz) and 364 Maronites
Maronites
in Kormakitis.[150] 162,000[151] Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots
were forcibly evicted from their homes in the North by the invading force of the Turkish army.[152][153][154] Rizokarpaso
Rizokarpaso
is the home of the biggest Greek-speaking population in the north. The Greek-Cypriot inhabitants are still supplied by the UN, and Greek-Cypriot products are consequently available in some shops.[citation needed]

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Northern Cyprus TRNC 2011 Population and Housing Census

Rank Name District Pop.

North Nicosia

Famagusta 1 North Nicosia Lefkoşa 61,378

Kyrenia

Morphou

2 Famagusta Gazimağusa 40,920

3 Kyrenia Girne 33,207

4 Morphou Güzelyurt 18,946

5 Gönyeli Lefkoşa 17,277

6 Kythrea Lefkoşa 11,895

7 Lefka Güzelyurt 11,091

8 Dikomo Girne 9,120

9 Trikomo İskele 7,906

10 Lapithos Girne 7,839

Religion

Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
Religions[155]

Islam

99%

other/unknown

1%

Main article: Religion in Cyprus Further information: Islam in Cyprus

Lala Mustafa Pasha Mosque
Lala Mustafa Pasha Mosque
in Famagusta

The majority of Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
(99%) are Sunni Muslims,[155] whilst a small number are Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslims.[156] Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
is a secular state.[157] Alcohol is frequently consumed within the community and most Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
women do not cover their heads; however headscarves are still worn on occasion by public figures as a symbol of the inhabitants' Turkish culture, or simply as a conservative form of dress.[155] However, some religious traditions still play a role within the community. Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
males are generally circumcised in accordance with religious beliefs.[158] Education Main article: Education in Northern Cyprus

Girne American University
Girne American University
in Kyrenia, Northern Cyprus

The education system in Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
consists of pre-school education, primary education, secondary education and higher education. Five years of primary education is mandatory. Higher Education Planning Evaluation Accreditation and Coordination Council (YÖDAK) of Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
is a member of International Network for Quality Assurance Agencies in Higher Education (INQAAHE).[159] In 2013 there were 63,765 university students from 114 countries in nine universities in Northern Cyprus. In 2014, the number of students increased to 70,004, (15,210 Turkish Cypriots; 36,148 from Turkey; 18,646 international students):[160][161][162] Near East University (NEU),[163][164] Girne American University, Middle East
Middle East
Technical University-TRNC, European University of Lefke, Cyprus
Cyprus
International University, Eastern Mediterranean University
Eastern Mediterranean University
(EMU), Istanbul Technical University-TRNC, University of Mediterranean Karpasia, and University of Kyrenia, all established since 1974. EMU is an internationally recognised institution of higher learning with more than 1000 faculty members from 35 countries. There are 15,000 students in EMU representing 68 nationalities. The 8 universities have been approved by the Higher Education Council of Turkey. Eastern Mediterranean University and Near East University[163][164] are full individual members of the European University Association.[165] EMU is a full member of Community of Mediterranean Universities, Federation Universities of Islamic World, International Association of Universities and International Council of Graphic Design Associations,[166] and was ranked as the best university in the island and among the top 500 in Europe
Europe
by Webometrics.[167] Girne American University, in the northern coastal city of Kyrenia, opened a campus in Canterbury, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 2009,[168] and was accredited by the British Accreditation Council in 2010.[169] Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
regularly participates in international Robocup competition, and took 14th place out of 20 in 2013.[170][171] The country has supercomputers with which it participates in CERN experiments that led to the discovery of the Higgs boson.[172] Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
is among participant countries of Solar Challenge of solar powered vehicles in South Africa
South Africa
in 2014.[173] Culture Main article: Culture of Northern Cyprus Music and dance

Ziynet Sali
Ziynet Sali
is a Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
pop singer famous in Turkey
Turkey
and Northern Cyprus.

Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
children, dressed in traditional clothing, preparing for a folk-dance show

See also: Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
folk dances Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
folk music consists of a rich variety of local tunes, influenced by the mainland Turkish music to a limited extent. Historically, it was shaped around the tradition of weddings, the primary social gatherings at the time. Violin, goblet drum, known locally as "darbuka", zurna and other drums were heavily used in these gatherings, and a large number of traditional songs developed based on this legacy.[174][175] Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
culture also incorporates a great diversity of folk dances with various influences, including different versions of karsilamas, çiftetelli and zeybek. The Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
State Symphony Orchestra has been active since 1975. The Bellapais Abbey
Bellapais Abbey
in Kyrenia
Kyrenia
hosts international festivals of classical music, and is considered in important platform of classical music.[174] North Nicosia
North Nicosia
has its own Nicosia
Nicosia
Municipal Orchestra that performs at open spaces, such as parks and squares, and is also home to the annual Walled City Jazz Festival.[176] Rüya Taner
Rüya Taner
is a Turkish Cypriot pianist who has achieved international acclaim. Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
cities and towns regularly organize festivals that include performances of local and international singers and bands.[174] Some Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
singers, such as Ziynet Sali
Ziynet Sali
and Işın Karaca, have achieved fame in Turkey. The Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
band Sıla 4 produced music that is considered essential for the Turkish Cypriot identity, and also acquired fame in Turkey.[177] Rock and pop music are popular with the public in Northern Cyprus, important singers and bands include SOS, the newly formed Gara Limon and Fikri Karayel.[178][179] Literature Poetry is the most widely published form of literature in Northern Cyprus. Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
poetry is based on both the effects of Turkish literature and the culture of the island of Cyprus, along with some reflection of the British colonial history.[180] The first era of Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
poetry after the introduction of the Latin alphabet, characterised by poets such as Nazif Süleyman Ebeoğlu, Urkiye Mine Balman, Engin Gönül, Necla Salih Suphi and Pembe Marmara, had strong nationalistic elements due to the political attitudes of Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
at the time and stylistically reflected the poetry of the Turkish mainland. Meanwhile, other poets, such as Özker Yaşın, Osman Türkay, who was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature twice,[181] and Nevzat Yalçın sought to write in more original styles, with the influence of nascent poetic styles in Turkey and those in Britain. This group of poets were very prolific and increased the popularity of poetry in the Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
community, and are seen as key figures in Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
literature.[180] The nationalism gave way to a notion of Cypriotness in the 1970s, with the influence of Yaşın, Türkay and Yalçın. During this period, the so-called "1974 generation of poets" arose, led by poets including Mehmet Yaşın, Hakkı Yücel, Nice Denizoğlu, Neşe Yaşın, Ayşen Dağlı and Canan Sümer. The poetry of this generation was characterized by the appreciation of the Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
identity as distinct from Turkish identity and the identification of Cyprus
Cyprus
as the Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
homeland instead of Turkey, in contrast to the previous nationalist poetry. This approach is often called the "Cypriot poetry of rejection" as it resists the influence of Turkey, highlighting the cultural rift between Turkey
Turkey
and Cyprus
Cyprus
due to the recent experience of war and therefore the independence of the Turkish Cypriot poetry and identity. This was followed by an increased adoption of the Mediterranean identity in the 1980s, accompanied by the effects of the liberalization of the Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
society, as reflected in the feminist elements, of which a particular example is Neriman Cahit.[180][182][183] Cinema Anahtar (Key), released in 2011, was the first full-length film entirely produced in Northern Cyprus.[184] Some other co-productions have also taken place. A co-production of Northern Cyprus, Turkey, Britain and the Netherlands, Kod Adı Venüs[185] (Code Name Venus) was shown in the Cannes Film Festival
Cannes Film Festival
in 2012.[186] The film director and screenwriter Derviş Zaim achieved fame with his 2003 film Mud (Çamur) which won the UNESCO award at the Venice Film Festival. The documentary film Kayıp Otobüs (The Missing Bus), directed by Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
journalist Fevzi Tașpınar, was aired on the TRT TV as well as participating in the Boston Film Festival in 2011. The film tells the story of eleven Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
workers who left their homes in a bus in 1964 that never came back. Their remains were found in a well in Cyprus
Cyprus
in October 2006.[187][188] Theatre

Karagöz and Hacivat

An early Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
theatre group, 1880s

Theatre in Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
is mostly carried out by the Turkish Cypriot State Theatre, municipal theatres and a number of private theatrical companies. Cyprus
Cyprus
Theatre Festival, organised by the Nicosia
Nicosia
Turkish Municipality is a large organization with institutions from Turkey
Turkey
participating as well. There are no major halls built specifically for theater in Northern Cyprus, so plays often take place in conference halls.[189][190] The origins of Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
theatre lie in Karagöz and Hacivat, a shadow play that was popularized in the island as a form of entertainment during the Ottoman era. This form of theatre has lost its popularity nowadays, but remains to be televised during religious festivals.[191] After the 1840s, as the Ottoman Empire started modernizing, theatre with greater European elements met with the Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
public. However, the inception of Turkish Cypriot theatre in the modern sense is considered the staging of the play "Vatan Yahut Silistre" ("Homeland vs. Silistra") by Turkish playwright Namık Kemal
Namık Kemal
in 1908.[192] This was followed by a proliferation of theatrical activity in the Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
community as local plays were written and staged and theatrical companies from Turkey
Turkey
took the stage in Cyprus
Cyprus
by the 1920s, all the major towns in Cyprus
Cyprus
had Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
plays that were performed regularly.[191][192] In the 1960s, Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
theatre started to be institutionalised. A leading theatre group named "İlk Sahne" (First Stage), founded in 1963, was renamed the Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
State Theatre in 1966, and has since performed more than 85 plays.[191][193] Theatre is currently a very popular form of art in Northern Cyprus, with long queues forming for tickets of the plays in the Cyprus
Cyprus
Theatre Festival, and the number of theatre-goers constantly increasing.[194] Sports Main article: Sport in Northern Cyprus

Nicosia
Nicosia
Atatürk Stadium is the largest stadium in Northern Cyprus.

There are five stadiums in Northern Cyprus, with each holding a capacity ranging anywhere from 7,000 to 30,000. The most popular sport in Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
is football. There are over 29 sport federations in Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
with a total registered membership of 13,950 6,054 been registered practitioners for, taekwondo-karate-aikido-kurash, with shooting having (1,150 registered) and hunting having (1,017 registered) members.[195] Northern Cyprus' national football team currently ranks 109th in the Elo Ratings.[196] Several of sport clubs participate in leagues in Turkey. These include the Fast Break Sport Club in Turkey's Men's Basketball Regional League; the Beşparmak Sport Club in Turkey's Handball Premier League; and the Lefke European University Turkey
Turkey
Table-tennis Super League. Water sports such as windsurfing, jetskiing, waterskiing and sailing are also available at beaches throughout the coastline of Northern Cyprus. Sailing is especially found at Escape Beach Club, near Kyrenia. Cuisine Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
is also well known for several dishes; among them are kebabs made of skewered lamb Şiş Kebab or ground with herbs and spices and made into a Kofte
Kofte
or Şeftali Kebab. Other dishes are based on meat wrapped in flat bread such as Lahmacun. Vegetarians can find stuffed vegetables based dishes Yalancı Dolma or many other dishes made with a bean or pulse such as Börülce which consists of Swiss chard cooked with black-eyed peas. There are also plant based foods such as Molohiya
Molohiya
or root based stews such as Kolokas.[197] See also

Outline of Northern Cyprus

Geography portal Cyprus
Cyprus
portal Asia
Asia
portal

References

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Republic
of Northern Cyprus Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 3 April 2016.  ^ TRNC SPO, Economic and Social Indicators 2014, pages=2–3 ^ a b "KKTC". Turkish Ministry of Economy. Retrieved 28 July 2015.  ^ "Saatler geri alınıyor!". Yeni Düzen. Retrieved 18 October 2017.  ^ Central Intelligence Agency
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(8 October 2013). "Northern Cyprus". The CIA World Factbook
World Factbook
2014. Skyhorse Publishing Company, Incorporated. p. 691. ISBN 978-1-62873-451-5. The Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
are heavily dependent on transfers from the Turkish Government. Ankara directly finances about one-third of the Turkish Cypriot "administration's" budget.  ^ Gideon Boas (1 January 2012). Public International Law: Contemporary Principles and Perspectives. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-85793-956-2. For example, the Turkish Republic
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Cyprus
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Turkish Cypriots
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Greek Cypriots
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Famagusta
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Cyprus
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Republic
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Turkey
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Republic
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Cyprus
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Turkey
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Cyprus
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Cyprus
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High Commissioner for Human Rights on the question of human rights in Cyprus : 16th Session, Human Rights Council, United Nations" (PDF). Ohchr.org. 7 January 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2014.  ^ "Freedom in the World 2011 Report" (PDF). Freedom House. p. 29. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2011.  ^ "Freedom in the World 2014" (PDF). Freedom House. Retrieved 14 February 2014.  ^ Freedom House
Freedom House
Freedom in the World in 2016, p.24 ^ Reporters Without Borders 2015 World Freedom Index ^ "Overview of the Human Rights Situation in North Cyprus". Turkish Cypriot Human Rights Foundation. 14 January 2009. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2011.  ^ "'Kuzey Kıbrıs'ta Hıristiyanlar yarı vatandaş'" (in Turkish). Agos. Retrieved 18 May 2015.  ^ UN SDSN World Happiness Report 2016 Archived 18 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Figure 2.2. Renking of Happiness ^ Gallup Healthways Well-Being Index 2014 ^ UNHCR UNHCR Asylum Trend 2014, p. 21 ^ " Cyprus
Cyprus
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Review 2003/04: The Economic and Business Report. Kogan Page Publishers. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-7494-4067-1. The Turkish Cypriot-dominated north is the Turkish Republic
Republic
of Northern Cyprus' which elects its own government and is recognised only by Turkey.  ^ The CIA World Factbook
World Factbook
2010. Skyhorse Publishing Inc. 2009. p. 182. ISBN 978-1-60239-727-9. the formation of a "Turkish Republic
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of Northern Cyprus" ("TRNC"), which is recognized only by Turkey  ^ a b "Permanent Mission of the Republic
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of Cyprus
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to the United Nations —". Un.int. Archived from the original on 6 May 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2014.  ^ Scott Leckie (28 May 2007). Housing and Property Restitution Rights of Refugees and Displaced Persons: Laws, Cases, and Materials. Cambridge University Press. p. 448. ISBN 978-1-139-46409-3. The complaints raised in this application arise out of the Turkish military operations in northern Cyprus
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in July and August ... This development was condemned by the international community. ... of the establishment of the "TRNC" legally invalid and calling upon all States not to recognise any Cypriot State other than the ...  ^ Quigley. The Statehood of Palestine. Cambridge University Press. p. 164. ISBN 978-1-139-49124-2. The international community found this declaration invalid, on the ground that Turkey
Turkey
had occupied territory belonging to Cyprus
Cyprus
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Republic
of Cyprus
Cyprus
to the United Nations —". Un.int. Archived from the original on 28 August 2003. Retrieved 14 February 2014.  ^ "Netwebsearch.com". Islamic-conference-news.newslib.com. Retrieved 14 February 2014. [permanent dead link] ^ "Council of Europe
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on a long road to accession". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 30 January 2007.  ^ "EU Sets Deadline for Turkey
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to Open Up Its Ports". Deutsche Welle. 21 November 2006. Retrieved 30 January 2007.  ^ "REGNUM news agency press release". Regnum.ru. Retrieved 17 November 2010.  ^ Yael Navaro-Yashin (12 March 2012). The Make-Believe Space: Affective Geography in a Postwar Polity. Duke University Press. pp. 118–122. ISBN 0-8223-5204-4.  ^ " Cyprus
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Turkish Army
on the island, the Turkish Cypriot Security Force was believed to remain under the de facto operational control of the Turkish forces. It also depended on Turkey
Turkey
for training and equipment. Most of its officers were regular Turkish Army
Turkish Army
officers on secondment.  ^ a b "Cyprus." Jane's Sentinel: Eastern Mediterranean, issue 22, 2007. ^ Feridun, Mete, Sawhney, Bansi and Shahbaz, Muhammad (2011) "The impact of military spending on economic growth: the case of North Cyprus." Defence and Peace Economics, 22 (5). pp. 555–562. ISSN 1024-2694 (print), 1476-8267 (online) (doi:10.1080/10242694.2011.562370) ^ Alptekin, Ünal; Ertaş, Aytekin. "Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti'nde 1995 yılı orman yangını sonrasındaki ağaçlandırmalardan gözlemler". Istanbul University.  ^ Doğu Mesarya Bölgesi Archived 9 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine., EU Coordination Center, retrieved on 28 December 2012. ^ KUZEY KIBRIS TÜRK CUMHURİYETİ MESARYA OVASI TARIM İŞLETMELERİNDE YETER GELİRLİ İŞLETME BÜYÜKLÜĞÜ VE OPTİMAL ÜRETİM DESENİNİN DOĞRUSAL PROGRAMLAMA YÖNTEMİ İLE TESPİTİ, Ankara
Ankara
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'will open up to Cyprus'". BBC News. 7 December 2006. Retrieved 20 May 2010.  ^ "North Cyprus
Cyprus
Airport, Ercan, Larnaca, Cheap Flights Northern Cyprus". Northcyprusonline.com. Retrieved 17 November 2010.  ^ "BRT". Brtk.net. Retrieved 14 February 2014.  ^ "Merchant Shipping". Csa-cy.org. Archived from the original on 17 January 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2010.  ^ "HC 113 II 04.05.PDF" (PDF). Retrieved 17 November 2010.  ^ "Girne – Karpaz Yolu 50 Dakikaya İndi". Haber KKTC. Archived from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2015.  ^ "Kıbrıslı Türkler Kaç Kişi – Kıbrıs Postası Gazetesi – Haber Merkezi". Kibrispostasi.com. Retrieved 14 February 2014.  ^ a b "Census.XLS" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2014.  ^ Simon Bahceli (15 February 2007). "Indigenous Turkish Cypriots
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just over half north's population". Cyprus
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Turkish Cypriot
Population Shrinking?" (PDF). PRIO Cyprus
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Center. Retrieved 20 February 2015.  ^ "??". Devplan.org. Retrieved 14 February 2014.  ^ "Quoted after the Euromosaic report, a study commissioned by the European Commission" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 June 2007.  (120 KB) ^ " Cyprus
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– Society". Country-data.com. Retrieved 17 November 2010.  ^ Hatay, Mete (2005) Beyond Numbers: An Inquiry into the Political Integration of the Turkish 'Settlers' in Northern Cyprus, PRIO Report, 4. Oslo/Nicosia: PRIO Cyprus
Cyprus
Centre. ^ "Please, add title". Archived from the original on 25 July 2011.  ^ "Botschaft der Republik Zypern in Berlin
Berlin
– Zypernfrage". Archived from the original on 1 February 2016.  ^ Denver journal of international law and policy. 1993. The invasion of Cyprus
Cyprus
by Turkish troops in 1974 resulted in the widespread eviction and population transfer of 162,000 Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots
from their homes in the northern part of Cyprus. In Cyprus
Cyprus
v. Turkey, the European Commission on ..  ^ William Mallinson (15 February 2011). Britain and Cyprus: Key Themes and Documents since World War II. I.B.Tauris. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-84885-456-7. Around 180,000 Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots
had been expelled from their homes and fled to the unoccupied part of the island, with another 20,000 being "encouraged" to flee later.  ^ Wolfgang Hörner; Hans Döbert; Botho von Kopp; Wolfgang Mitter (19 December 2006). The Education Systems of Europe. Springer. p. 202. ISBN 978-1-4020-4868-5. Turkish settlers and military personnel, estimated at 85,000 and 40,000 respectively, who have moved into the Turkish-occupied areas since the Turkish invasion of Cyprus
Cyprus
in 1974. At that time one third of the Greek population (about 200,000 persons) was expelled from their homes in the northern part of the island and forced to resettle in the southern areas.  ^ a b c Kevin Boyle; Juliet Sheen (2013). Freedom of Religion and Belief: A World Report. Routledge. p. 290. ISBN 978-1-134-72229-7.  ^ "MEMBERS OF THE AHMADIYYA MUSLIM COMMUNITY DR MUHAMMED JALAL SHAMS, OSMAN SEKER, KUBILAY ÇIL: PRISONERS OF CONSCIENCE FOR THEIR RELIGIOUS BELIEFS". Amnesty International. 5 June 2002. Archived from the original on 4 July 2014. Retrieved 10 June 2014.  ^ Darke 2009, 10. ^ Nevzat & Hatay 2009, 911. ^ "Member profile". Inqaahe. Archived from the original on 23 August 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.  ^ "Students Flock to Universities in Northern Cyprus". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 February 2014.  ^ "Study in North Cyprus". Studyinnorthcyprus.org. Retrieved 14 February 2014.  ^ Kibris Postasi 24 October 2014 70,000 students enrolled to the universities ^ a b "Kıbrıs Yakın Doğu Üniversitesi". Retrieved 1 October 2014.  ^ a b " Near East University
Near East University
– Mercin – Turkey
Turkey
– MastersPortal.eu". MastersPortal.eu. Retrieved 1 October 2014.  ^ "EUA members directory". Eua.be. Retrieved 14 February 2014.  ^ "Eastern Mediterranean University". Icograda. Archived from the original on 19 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.  ^ Eastern Mediterranean University, Webometrics, retrieved on 30 December 2014. ^ "(Edu) Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
President Opens Girne American University'S Campus In Canterbury. – Free Online Library". Thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved 14 February 2014.  ^ "COLLEGE SEARCH RESULTS". Archived from the original on 13 December 2007.  ^ "Small Size Robot League – teams:teams". Robocupssl.cpe.ku.ac.th. Retrieved 14 February 2014.  ^ "NeuIslanders". Robotics.neu.edu.tr. Retrieved 14 February 2014.  ^ "Yakın Doğu Üniversitesi Duyuru Haber » Faculty of Engineering of Near East University
Near East University
(NEU) is continuing to make contributions to the world of science through supporting the CERN Laboratory". Duyuru.neu.edu.tr. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.  ^ "SA Solar Challenge 2014". Sasol Solar Challenge. Retrieved 1 October 2014.  ^ a b c "Kültürel, Sanatsal ve Sosyal Yaşamı, El Sanatları, Gelenek, Görenek ve Adetler". Near East University. Retrieved 19 January 2015.  ^ "EPISODES OF TRADITIONAL TURKISH AND GREEK CYPRIOT WEDDINGS" (PDF). turkishstudies.net. Retrieved 19 January 2015.  ^ "Tarihçemiz". Nicosia
Nicosia
Municipal Orchestra. Retrieved 2 January 2015.  ^ "Efsanevi Kıbrıs Türk müzik grubu SILA 4 yepyeni bir CD ile büyük bir sürprize imza atmak üzere". Kıbrıs Postası. Retrieved 19 January 2015.  ^ "SOS". Cypnet. Retrieved 19 January 2015.  ^ "Fikri Karayel'in ilk albümü çıkıyor". Kıbrıs Postası. Retrieved 19 January 2015.  ^ a b c Turan, Metin. Çağdaş Kıbrıs Türk Şiirinde Eğilimler/ Yönelimler (Çukurova University) Retrieved on 27 May 2012. ^ Kozmik şiirin yazarı (Hürriyet), retrieved on 31 December 2014. ^ "Boşluğun hasadı kalemledir" (Radikal) retrieved on 31 December 2014. ^ Yaşın, Mehmet (1994). Kıbrıslıtürk şiiri antolojisi: 18. yy-20. yy : 3 kuşak, 3 kimlik, 3 vatan arasında bir Türk azınlık şiiri. Yapı Kredi Yayınları. pp. 58–60. ISBN 978-975-363-345-1.  ^ "KKTC'nin ilk uzun metrajlı filmi Anahtar, Altın Portakal'da gösterildi". Kibris Postasi. Retrieved 14 February 2014.  ^ "Kod Adı: VENÜS". Retrieved 1 October 2014.  ^ "Yakın Doğu Üniversitesi'nin hazırladığı "Kod Adı Venüs" filmi Cannes Film Festivali'nde". Kibris Postasi. Retrieved 14 February 2014.  ^ "Haber: "Kayıp Otobüs" belgesel filmi haberi / Haber, Haberler, Haberi, Haberleri, Haber oku, Gazete, Gazetesi, Gazeteleri, Gazete oku". Turkmedya.com. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.  ^ "Documentary on Turkish Cyprus
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bus in US festival". Turkish Journal. Retrieved 14 February 2014.  ^ TRNC State Planning Organization. 2008 Yılı Makroekonomik ve Sektörel Gelişmeler, June 2010, p. 169. ^ Kıbrıs Tiyatro Festivali. Nicosia
Nicosia
Turkish Municipality and Nicosia Municipal Theatre. ^ a b c Turkish-Cypriot Theatres, cypnet.co.uk, retrieved on 28 December 2014. ^ a b Cihangir, Yurdal. THE PRIMARY YEARS OF TURKISH CYPRIOT PLAY-WRITING AND "SAFA YAHUT NETİCE-İ İBTİLA, Turkish Studies, retrieved on 28 December 2014. ^ Kuzey Kıbrıs’ın Kültürel ve Sosyal Yaşamı, University of Kyrenia, retrieved on 28 December 2014. ^ Bilet satışı başladı, Yeni Düzen, retrieved on 28 December 2014. ^ TRNC State Planning Organization. 2008 Yılı Makroekonomik ve Sektörel Gelişmeler, p.176-179. ^ "World Football Elo Ratings". Eloratings.net. 10 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.  ^ "North Cyprus
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Further reading

Langdale, Allan (2012). In a Contested Realm: an Illustrated Guide to the Archaeology and Historical Architecture of Northern Cyprus. Grimsay Press. ISBN 978-1845301286.  North Cyprus
Cyprus
– a Pocket-Guide. Rustem Bookshop, Nicosia. 2006. ISBN 9944-968-03-X. 

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v t e

States with limited recognition

Details concerning international recognition and foreign relations provided by the articles linked in parenthesis

UN member states

Partially unrecognised

Armenia

relations

China

relations

Cyprus

relations

Israel

recognition relations

North Korea

relations

South Korea

relations

UN observer states

Partially unrecognised

Palestine

recognition relations

Non-UN member states

Recognised by at least one UN member

Abkhazia

recognition relations

Kosovo

recognition relations

Northern Cyprus

relations relations

Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic

recognition relations

South Ossetia

recognition relations

Taiwan

relations

Recognised only by non-UN members

Artsakh

recognition relations

Transnistria

recognition relations

Unrecognised

Somaliland

relations

v t e

Cyprus
Cyprus
dispute

Participants

Island divisions

Republic
Republic
of Cyprus Turkish Republic
Republic
of Northern Cyprus

Declaration of Independence

United Nations
United Nations
Buffer Zone Akrotiri and Dhekelia

Guarantor powers

Greece Turkey United Kingdom

Events

1955–64 intercommunal violence

Battle of Tylliria Civilian casualties

1974 Cypriot coup d'état 1974 Turkish invasion

Military operations Maratha, Santalaris and Aloda massacre

Cyprus
Cyprus
Missile Crisis Maritime-zone dispute

Politics

Enosis
Enosis
and Taksim Enosis
Enosis
referendum Akritas plan List of UNSC resolutions Demographic issues

Refugees Turkish settlers in Northern Cyprus Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots
left in Northern Cyprus

Embargo against Northern Cyprus

Lawsuits

Apostolides v Orams Cyprus
Cyprus
v. Turkey Loizidou v. Turkey Toumazou et al. v. Republic
Republic
of Turkey
Turkey
et al.

peace process

Annan reunification Plan

2004 referendums

Two-state solution 2014 talks

v t e

Left-hand traffic countries

Europe

Akrotiri and Dhekelia Guernsey Ireland2 Isle of Man Jersey Malta2 United Kingdom2

Americas

Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda The Bahamas Barbados Bermuda British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Dominica Falkland Islands Grenada Guyana Jamaica Montserrat Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Suriname Trinidad and Tobago Turks and Caicos Islands United States Virgin Islands

Asia

Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Cyprus12 Hong Kong India Indonesia Japan Macau Malaysia Maldives Nepal Northern Cyprus13 Pakistan Singapore Sri Lanka Thailand

Africa

Botswana Kenya Lesotho Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Seychelles South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Swaziland Tanzania Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

Oceania

Australia East Timor Fiji Kiribati Nauru New Zealand Niue Papua New Guinea Pitcairn Islands Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu

Note:Territories and related divisions are in italic 1 Partially in Asia, or entirely in Asia
Asia
with cultural links to Europe. 2 Member of the European Union. 3 States with limited recognition

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 247725

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