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Northeast India
India
(officially North Eastern Region, NER) is the easternmost region of India
India
representing both a geographic and political administrative division of the country. It comprises eight states: Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim
Sikkim
and Tripura. The Siliguri Corridor
Siliguri Corridor
in West Bengal, with a width of 21 to 40 kilometres (13 to 25 mi),[1] connects the North Eastern Region with East India. The region shares more than 4,500 kilometres (2,800 mi) of international border with Tibet Autonomous Region, China
China
in the north, Myanmar
Myanmar
in the east, Bangladesh in the southwest and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the northwest.[1] It comprises an area of 262,230 square kilometres (101,250 sq mi), almost 8 percent of that of India, and is one of the largest salient (panhandle) in the world. The states of North Eastern Region are officially recognised under the North Eastern Council (NEC),[2] constituted in 1971 as the acting agency for the development of the north eastern states. Long after induction of NEC, Sikkim
Sikkim
formed part of the North Eastern Region as the eighth state in 2002.[3][4] India's Look-East connectivity projects connect Northeast India
India
to China
China
and ASEAN.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Formation of North Eastern states 1.2 Seven Sister States 1.3 World War II 1.4 Sino-Indian War
Sino-Indian War
(1962)

2 Geography

2.1 Topography

2.1.1 Highest peaks 2.1.2 Brahmaputra River
Brahmaputra River
Basin

2.2 Climate 2.3 High risk seismic zone

3 Wildlife

3.1 Flora 3.2 Fauna 3.3 National Parks 3.4 State Symbols

4 Demographics

4.1 Largest cities 4.2 Languages

4.2.1 Official languages 4.2.2 Etymology of state names 4.2.3 Endangered languages

4.3 Religions 4.4 Ethnic groups

4.4.1 Major communities

5 Culture

5.1 Northeast India
India
cuisines 5.2 Arts

6 Administration and political disputes

6.1 International borders management 6.2 Pan-states development authorities

6.2.1 Development and connectivity projects

6.3 States and sub-divisions 6.4 Government 6.5 21st century separatist unrest

6.5.1 Malom Massacre

7 Economy

7.1 Industries

7.1.1 Agriculture 7.1.2 Tourism

7.2 Transportation

7.2.1 Air 7.2.2 Railway

7.3 Look East Policy

8 See also 9 References

9.1 Citations 9.2 Sources cited

10 Official Sites

History[edit] Further information: History of Assam, History of Manipur, and History of Tripura

The traditional map of Kamarupa
Kamarupa
from first millennium sources

Assam
Assam
annexation to British India
India
in 1838.

Eastern Bengal and Assam
Assam
in 1907

The earliest settlers may have been Austro-Asiatic speakers from Southeast Asia, followed by Tibeto-Burmese from China
China
and by 500 B.C. Indo-Aryans speakers from Gangetic Plains.[5] Due to the bio- and crop diversity of the region, archaeological researchers believe that early settlers of Northeast India
India
had domesticated several important plants.[6] Writers believe that the 100 BC writings of Chinese explorer, Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
indicate an early trade route via Northeast India.[7] The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea mention a people called Sêsatai in the region,[8] who produced malabathron, so prized in the old world.[9] In the early historical period (most of first millennium), Kamarupa straddled most of present-day Northeast India, besides Bhutan
Bhutan
and Sylhet in Bangladesh. Xuanzang, a travelling Chinese Buddhist monk, visited Kamarupa
Kamarupa
in the 7th century. He described the people as "short in stature and black-looking", whose speech differed a little from mid- India
India
and who were of simple but violent disposition. He wrote that the people in Kamarupa
Kamarupa
knew of Sichuan, which lay to the kingdom's east beyond a treacherous mountain.[10] For many of the tribal peoples, their primary identification is with subtribes and villages, which have distinct dialects and cultures. The northeastern states were established during the British Raj
British Raj
of the 19th and early 20th centuries, when they became relatively isolated from traditional trading partners such as Bhutan
Bhutan
and Myanmar.[11] Many of the peoples in present-day Mizoram, Meghalaya
Meghalaya
and Nagaland converted to Christianity
Christianity
under the influence of British (Welsh) missionaries. Formation of North Eastern states[edit] In the early 19th century, both the Ahom and the Manipur
Manipur
kingdoms fell to a Burmese invasion. The ensuing First Anglo-Burmese War resulted in the entire region coming under British control. In the colonial period (1826–1947), North East India
India
was made a part of Bengal Province from 1839 to 1873, when Assam
Assam
became its own province.[12] After Indian Independence from British Rule in 1947, the Northeastern region of British India
India
consisted of Assam
Assam
and the princely states of Manipur
Manipur
and Tripura. Subsequently, Nagaland
Nagaland
in 1963, Meghalaya
Meghalaya
in 1972, Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
in 1975 (capital changed to Itanagar) (formed on 20 February 1987) and Mizoram
Mizoram
in 1987 were formed out of the large territory of Assam.[13] Manipur
Manipur
and Tripura
Tripura
remained as Union Territories of India
India
between 1956 until 1972, when they attained fully-fledged statehood. Sikkim
Sikkim
was integrated as the eighth North Eastern Council state in 2002.[3] The city of Shillong
Shillong
served as the capital of the Assam
Assam
province created during British Rule. It remained as the capital of undivided Assam
Assam
until formation of the state of Meghalaya
Meghalaya
in 1972.[14] The capital of Assam
Assam
was shifted to Dispur, a part of Guwahati, and Shillong
Shillong
was designated as the capital of Meghalaya.

State Historic Name Capital(s) Statehood

Arunachal Pradesh North-East Frontier Agency Itanagar 1987 (earlier a Union Territory of India, constituted in 1971)[15]

Assam Pragjyotisha, Kamarupa Shillong
Shillong
(till 1969), Dispur 1947

Manipur Kangleipak[16] Imphal 1971 (earlier a Union Territory of India, constituted in 1956)[15]

Meghalaya Khasi hills, Jaintia hills and Garo hills Shillong 1971[15]

Mizoram Lushai hills Aizawl 1987 (earlier a Union Territory of India, constituted in 1971)[15] [17]

Nagaland Naga hills Kohima 1963

Sikkim Sukhim Gangtok 1975

Tripura Tipperah [18] Agartala 1971 (earlier a Union Territory of India, constituted in 1956)[15]

Seven Sister States[edit]

Seven Sister States

The Seven Sister States[19] is a popular term for the contiguous states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland
Nagaland
and Tripura
Tripura
prior to inclusion of the state of Sikkim
Sikkim
into the North Eastern Region of India. The sobriquet 'Land of the Seven Sisters' was coined to coincide with the inauguration of the new states in January 1972 by Jyoti Prasad Saikia,[20] a journalist in Tripura, in the course of a radio talk show. He later compiled a book on the interdependence and commonness of the Seven Sister States, and named it the Land of Seven Sisters. It has been primarily because of this publication that the nickname has caught on. World War II[edit] Main articles: Battle of Kohima
Kohima
and Battle of Imphal In 1944, the Japanese planned a daring attack on India. Traveling through Burma, its forces were stopped at Kohima
Kohima
and Imphal
Imphal
by British and Indian troops. This marked the furthest western expansion of the Japanese Empire; its defeat in this area presaged Allied victory . Sino-Indian War
Sino-Indian War
(1962)[edit] Main article: Sino-Indian War Arunachal Pradesh, a state in the Northeastern tip of India, is claimed by China
China
as South Tibet.[citation needed] Sino-Indian relations degraded, resulting in the Sino-Indian War
Sino-Indian War
of 1962. The cause of the escalation into war is still disputed by both Chinese and Indian sources. During the war in 1962, the PRC (China) captured much of the NEFA (North-East Frontier Agency) created by India
India
in 1954. But on 21 November 1962, China
China
declared a unilateral ceasefire, and withdrew its troops 20 kilometres (12 mi) behind the McMahon Line. It returned Indian prisoners of war in 1963.[21] Geography[edit]

Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
plain and Eastern Himalaya
Eastern Himalaya
in Northeast India

The Northeast region can be physiographically categorised into the Eastern Himalaya, the Patkai
Patkai
and the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
and the Barak valley plains. Northeast India
India
(at the confluence of Indo-Malayan, Indo-Chinese, and Indian biogeographical realms) has a predominantly humid sub-tropical climate with hot, humid summers, severe monsoons, and mild winters. Along with the west coast of India, this region has some of the Indian sub-continent's last remaining rain forests, which support diverse flora and fauna and several crop species. Reserves of petroleum and natural gas in the region are estimated to constitute a fifth of India's total potential. The region is covered by the mighty Brahmaputra-Barak river systems and their tributaries. Geographically, apart from the Brahmaputra, Barak and Imphal
Imphal
valleys and some flat lands in between the hills of Meghalaya
Meghalaya
and Tripura, the remaining two-thirds of the area is hilly terrain interspersed with valleys and plains; the altitude varies from almost sea-level to over 7,000 metres (23,000 ft) above MSL. The region's high rainfall, averaging around 10,000 millimetres (390 in) and above, creates problems of ecosystem, high seismic activity, and floods. The states of Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
and Sikkim
Sikkim
have a montane climate with cold, snowy winters and mild summers.

Ropeway, Gangtok

Aizawl, Mizoram

Aerial view of Shillong

Dzükou Valley
Dzükou Valley
(Borders of Manipur
Manipur
and Nagaland)

Sela Pass, Tawang (Arunachal Pradesh)

Bhalukpong, Arunachal Pradesh

Loktak lake, Manipur

Majuli
Majuli
Island, Assam

Nohkalikai Falls, Cherrapunji

Topography[edit] Highest peaks[edit]

Mt. Kanchenjunga, Sikkim

Teesta River, Sikkim

Main article: List of Indian states and territories by highest point Kangchenjunga, the third highest mountain peak in the world rising to an altitude of 8,586 m (28,169 ft), lies in-between the state Sikkim
Sikkim
and adjacent country Nepal.

Mountains and hills by state

Peak State Range/Region Height (m) Height (ft) Coordinates

Kangchenjunga
Kangchenjunga
(shared with Nepal) Sikkim Eastern Himalaya 8,586 28,169 27°42′11″N 88°08′53″E / 27.703°N 88.148°E / 27.703; 88.148

Kangto
Kangto
(shared with Tibet) Arunachal Pradesh Eastern Himalaya 7,090 23,261 27°51′54″N 92°31′59″E / 27.865°N 92.533°E / 27.865; 92.533

Mount Saramati
Mount Saramati
(Shared with Myanmar) Nagaland Naga Hills 3,841 12,602 25°44′31″N 95°01′59″E / 25.742°N 95.033°E / 25.742; 95.033

Mount Iso (also known as Tenipu) Manipur Senapati District 2,994 9,823 25°31′52″N 94°05′06″E / 25.531°N 94.085°E / 25.531; 94.085

Phawngpui
Phawngpui
(Blue Mountain) Mizoram Saiha
Saiha
District 2,165 7,103 22°37′55″N 93°02′20″E / 22.632°N 93.039°E / 22.632; 93.039

Shillong
Shillong
Peak Meghalaya Khasi Hills 1,965 6,447 25°31′55″N 91°51′04″E / 25.532°N 91.851°E / 25.532; 91.851

Unnamed peak near Laike Assam Dima Hasao District 1,960 6,430 25°19′16″N 93°27′11″E / 25.321°N 93.453°E / 25.321; 93.453

Betalongchhip Tripura Jampui Hills 930 3,051 23°48′36″N 92°15′40″E / 23.810°N 92.261°E / 23.810; 92.261

Brahmaputra River
Brahmaputra River
Basin[edit]

Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
river basin

See also: Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
River, List of rivers by length, and List of rivers of Assam Tributaries of the Brahmaputra River
Brahmaputra River
in Northeast India:

Beki River Bhogdoi River Dhansiri River Dibang River Dihing River Kameng River Kolong Kopili River Lohit River Manas River Sankosh River Subansiri River Teesta River

Climate[edit]

Indian map of Köppen climate classification

Northeast India
India
has a subtropical climate that is influenced by its relief and influences from the southwest and northeast monsoons.[22][23] The Himalayas
Himalayas
to the north, the Meghalaya
Meghalaya
plateau to the south and the hills of Nagaland, Mizoram
Mizoram
and Manipur
Manipur
to the east influences the climate.[24] Since monsoon winds originating from the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
move northeast, these mountains force the moist winds upwards, causing them to cool adiabatically and condense into clouds, releasing heavy precipitation on these slopes.[24] It is the rainiest region in the country, with many places receiving an average annual precipitation of 2,000 mm (79 in), which is mostly concentrated in summer during the monsoon season.[24] Cherrapunji, located on the Meghalaya
Meghalaya
plateau is one of the rainiest place in the world with an annual precipitation of 11,777 mm (463.7 in).[24] Temperatures are moderate in the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
and Barak valley
Barak valley
river plains which decreases with altitude in the hilly areas.[24] At the highest altitudes, there is permanent snow cover.[24] Temperature Temperatures vary by altitude with the warmest places being in the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
and Barak River
Barak River
plains and the coldest at the highest altitudes.[25] It is also influenced by proximity to the sea with the valleys and western areas being close to the sea, which moderates temperatures.[25] Generally, temperatures in the hilly and mountainous areas are generally lower than the plains which lie at a lower altitude.[26] Summer temperatures tend to be more uniform than winter temperatures due to high cloud cover and humidity.[27] In the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
and Barak valley
Barak valley
river plains, mean winter temperatures vary between 16 to 17 °C (61 to 63 °F) while mean summer temperatures are around 28 °C (82 °F).[25] The highest summer temperatures occur in the West Tripura
Tripura
plain with Agartala, the capital of Tripura
Tripura
having mean maximum summer temperatures ranging between 33 to 35 °C (91 to 95 °F) in April.[28] The highest temperatures in summer occur before the arrival of monsoons and thus eastern areas have the highest temperatures in June and July where the monsoon arrives later than western areas.[28] In the Cachar Plain, located south of the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
plain, temperatures are higher than the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
plain although the temperature range is smaller owing to higher cloud cover and the monsoons that moderate night temperatures year round.[28][26] In the mountainous areas of Arunachal Pradesh, the Himalayan ranges in the northern border with India
India
and China
China
experience the lowest temperatures with heavy snow during winter and temperatures that drop below freezing.[26] Areas with altitudes exceeding 2,000 metres (6,562 ft) receive snowfall during winters and have cool summers.[26] Below 2,000 metres (6,562 ft) above sea level, winter temperatures reach up to 15 °C (59 °F) during the day with nights dropping to zero while summers are cool, with a mean maximum of 25 °C (77 °F) and a mean minimum of 15 °C (59 °F).[26] In the hilly areas of Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram, winters are cold while summers are cool.[27] The plains in Manipur
Manipur
has colder winter minimums than what is warranted by its elevation owing to being surrounded by hills on all sides.[29] This is due to temperature inversions during winter nights when cold air descends from the hills into the valleys below and its geographic location which prevents winds that bring hot temperatures and humidity from coming into the Manipur
Manipur
plain.[29] Rainfall The southwest monsoon is responsible for bringing 90% of the annual rainfall to the region.[30] April to late October are the months where most of the rainfall in Northeast India
India
occurs with June and July being the rainiest months.[30] Southern areas are the first to receive the monsoon (May or June) with the Brahmaputra valley
Brahmaputra valley
and the mountainous north receiving later (later May or June).[30] In the hilly parts of Mizoram, the closer proximity to the Bay of Bengal causes it to experience early monsoons with June being the wettest season.[30] High risk seismic zone[edit]

India
India
Plate and other tectonic plates

See also: List of earthquakes
List of earthquakes
in India The North Eastern Region of India
India
is a mega-earthquake prone zone caused by active fault planes beneath formed by the convergence of three tectonic plates viz. India
India
Plate, Eurasian Plate
Eurasian Plate
and Burma Plate. Historically the region has suffered from two great earthquakes (M > 8.0) – 1897 Assam
Assam
earthquake and 1950 Assam- Tibet
Tibet
earthquake – and about 20 large earthquakes (8.0 > M > 7.0) since 1897.[31][32] The 1950 Assam- Tibet
Tibet
earthquake is still the largest earthquake in India. Wildlife[edit] Flora[edit]

Khangchendzonga National Park

WWF has identified the entire Eastern Himalayas
Himalayas
as a priority Global 200 Ecoregion. Conservation International
Conservation International
has upscaled the Eastern Himalaya hotspot to include all the eight states of Northeast India, along with the neighbouring countries of Bhutan, southern China
China
and Myanmar. The region has been identified by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research as a centre of rice germplasm. The National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR), India, has highlighted the region as being rich in wild relatives of crop plants. It is the centre of origin of citrus fruits. Two primitive variety of maize, Sikkim
Sikkim
Primitive 1 and 2, have been reported from Sikkim
Sikkim
(Dhawan, 1964). Although jhum cultivation, a traditional system of agriculture, is often cited as a reason for the loss of forest cover of the region, this primary agricultural economic activity practised by local tribes supported the cultivation of 35 varieties of crops. The region is rich in medicinal plants and many other rare and endangered taxa. Its high endemism in both higher plants, vertebrates, and avian diversity has qualified it as a biodiversity hotspot. The following figures highlight the biodiversity significance of the region:[33]

51 forest types are found in the region, broadly classified into six major types — tropical moist deciduous forests, tropical semi evergreen forests, tropical wet evergreen forests, subtropical forests, temperate forests and alpine forests. Out of the nine important vegetation types of India, six are found in the North Eastern Region. These forests harbour 8,000 out of 15,000 species of flowering plants. In floral species richness, the highest diversity is reported from the states of Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
(5000 species) and Sikkim
Sikkim
(4500 species) amongst the North Eastern states. According to the Indian Red Data Book, published by the Botanical Survey of India, 10 percent of the flowering plants in the country are endangered. Of the 1500 endangered floral species, 800 are reported from Northeast India. Most of the North Eastern states have more than 60% of their area under forest cover, a minimum suggested coverage for the hill states in the country in order to protect from erosion. Northeast India
India
is a part of Indo-Burma hotspot. This hotspot is the second largest in the word, next only to the Mediterranean Basin, with an area 2,206,000 square kilometres (852,000 sq mi) among the 25 identified.[citation needed]

Fauna[edit]

Asiatic Buffalo at Kaziranga National Park

One horned rhinoceros at Kaziranga National Park

See also: List of amphibians of Northeast India The International Council for Bird
Bird
Preservation, UK identified the Assam
Assam
plains and the Eastern Himalaya
Eastern Himalaya
as an Endemic Bird
Bird
Area (EBA). The EBA has an area of 220,000 km2 following the Himalayan range in the countries of Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Nepal, Myanmar
Myanmar
and the Indian states of Sikkim, northern West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh, southern Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Meghalaya
Meghalaya
and Mizoram. Because of a southward occurrence of this mountain range in comparison to other Himalayan ranges, this region has a distinctly different climate, with warmer mean temperatures and fewer days with frost, and much higher rainfall. This has resulted in the occurrence of a rich array of restricted-range bird species. More than two critically endangered species, three endangered species, and 14 vulnerable species of birds are in this EBA. Stattersfield et al. (1998) identified 22 restricted range species, out of which 19 are confined to this region and the remaining three are present in other endemic and secondary areas. Eleven of the 22 restricted-range species found in this region are considered as threatened ( Birdlife International 2001), a number greater than in any other EBA of India.[citation needed] WWF has identified the following priority ecoregions in North-East India:

Brahmaputra Valley
Brahmaputra Valley
Semi Evergreen Forests Eastern Himalayan Broadleaved Forests Eastern Himalayan Sub-alpine Coniferous Forests India– Myanmar
Myanmar
Pine Forests[citation needed]

National Parks[edit] See also: Wildlife sanctuaries of India
India
and List of national parks of India

National park Location State Area (km2) Importance Vegetation

Namdapha National Park Changlang district Arunachal Pradesh 1,985 Largest protected area in Eastern Himalaya Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, montane forests

Manas National Park Barpeta district Assam 950 UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests

Kaziranga National Park Golaghat and Nagaon
Nagaon
districts Assam [34] 882 UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site Brahmaputra Valley
Brahmaputra Valley
semi-evergreen forests, Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands

Khangchendzonga National Park North Sikkim
Sikkim
district Sikkim 850 UNESCO
UNESCO
Mixed World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
and highest altitude wildlife protected area in India Sub-tropical to Alpine, Krummholz
Krummholz
(stunted forest)[35]

Mouling National Park Upper Siang, West Siang and East Siang districts Arunachal Pradesh 483

Tropical to Temperate forests

Dibru-Saikhowa National Park Dibrugarh
Dibrugarh
and Tinsukia
Tinsukia
districts Assam 350

Brahmaputra Valley
Brahmaputra Valley
semi-evergreen forests

Balphakram National Park South Garo Hills district Meghalaya 220

Sub-tropical evergreen deciduous forests

Intangki National Park Peren district Nagaland 202

Temperate evergreen forests

Nameri National Park Sonitpur district Assam 200

Brahmaputra Valley
Brahmaputra Valley
semi-evergreen forests

Murlen National Park Champhai
Champhai
district Mizoram 100

Montane sub-tropical semi-evergreen forest[36]

Orang National Park Darrang and Sonitpur Assam 79

Eastern seasonal swamp forests, Eastern Himalayan moist mixed deciduous forests, eastern wet alluvial grasslands[37]

Phawngpui
Phawngpui
National Park Lawngtlai district Mizoram 50

Temperate forests[38]

Nokrek National Park West Garo Hills district Meghalaya 48

Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests

Sirohi National Park Ukhrul
Ukhrul
district Manipur 41

Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rainforest

Keibul Lamjao National Park Bishnupur district Manipur 40 World's only floating National park Phumdi
Phumdi
(floating marshes)

Bison (Rajbari) National Park South Tripura
Tripura
district Tripura 32

Tropical semi-evergreen and moist deciduous forests

Clouded Leopard National Park Sepahijala district Tripura 5

Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests

State Symbols[edit] Main article: List of symbols of Indian states and territories

Arunachal Pradesh Assam Manipur Meghalaya

Animal Mithun (Bos frontalis)

Indian rhinoceros
Indian rhinoceros
(Rhinoceros unicornis)

Sangai
Sangai
(Rucervus eldii eldii)

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(Neofelis nebulosa)

Bird Hornbill (Buceros bicornis)

White-winged duck
White-winged duck
(Asarcornis scutulata)

Mrs. Hume's pheasant
Mrs. Hume's pheasant
(Syrmaticus humiae)

Hill myna (Gracula religiosa)

Flower Foxtail orchid (Rhynchostylis retusa)

Foxtail orchid (Rhynchostylis retusa)

Siroi lily
Siroi lily
(Lilium mackliniae)

Lady’s Slipper Orchid (Paphiopedilum insigne)

Tree Hollong (Dipterocarpus macrocarpus)

Hollong (Dipterocarpus macrocarpus)

Uningthou (Phoebe hainesiana)

Gamhar (Gmelina arborea)

Mizoram Nagaland Sikkim Tripura

Animal Himalayan serow
Himalayan serow
(Capricornis thar)

Mithun (Bos frontalis)

Red panda
Red panda
(Ailurus fulgens)

Phayre's leaf monkey
Phayre's leaf monkey
(Trachypithecus phayrei)

Bird Mrs. Hume's pheasant
Mrs. Hume's pheasant
(Syrmaticus humiae)

Blyth's tragopan
Blyth's tragopan
(Tragopan blythii)

Blood pheasant
Blood pheasant
(Ithaginis cruentus)

Green imperial pigeon
Green imperial pigeon
(Ducula aenea)

Flower Red Vanda (Renanthera imschootiana)

Tree rhododendron (Rhododendron arboreum)

Noble dendrobium (Dendrobium nobile)

Indian rose chestnut (Mesua ferrea)

Tree Indian rose chestnut (Mesua ferrea)

Alder (Alnus nepalensis)

Rhododendron (Rhododendron niveum)

Agarwood
Agarwood
(Aquillaria agallocha)

Demographics[edit] Main article: 2011 Census of India The total population of Northeast India
India
is 46 million. 68 percent of the total population live in Assam
Assam
alone.

State Population Males Females Sex Ratio Literacy % Rural Population Urban Population Area (km²) Density (/km²)

Arunachal Pradesh 1,383,727 713,912 669,815 938 65.38 870,087 227,881 83,743 17

Assam 31,205,576 15,939,443 15,266,133 958 72.19 23,216,288 3,439,240 78,438 397

Manipur 2,570,390 1,290,171 1,280,219 992 79.21 1,590,820 575,968 22,327 122

Meghalaya 2,966,889 1,491,832 1,475,057 989 74.43 1,864,711 454,111 22,429 132

Mizoram 1,097,206 555,339 541,867 976 91.33 447,567 441,006 21,081 52

Nagaland 1,978,502 1,024,649 953,853 931 79.55 1,647,249 342,787 16,579 119

Sikkim 610,577 323,070 287,507 890 81.42 480,981 59,870 7,096 86

Tripura 3,673,917 1,874,376 1,799,541 960 87.22 2,653,453 545,750 10,486 350

Largest cities[edit] Main article: List of cities in India
India
by population According to 2011 Census of India, the largest cities in Northeast India
India
are

Rank City Type State Population Rank City Type State Population

1 Guwahati UA Assam 1,260,419 9 Jorhat UA Assam 153,249

2 Agartala City Tripura 522,613 10 Nagaon UA Assam 147,137

3 Imphal UA Manipur 414,288 11 Tinsukia UA Assam 125,637

4 Dimapur City Nagaland 379,769 12 Dhubri UA Assam 109,234

5 Shillong UA Meghalaya 354,325 13 Tezpur UA Assam 100,477

6 Aizawl City Mizoram 291,822 14 Kohima UA Nagaland 100,000

7 Silchar UA Assam 228,985 15 Gangtok City Sikkim 98,658

8 Dibrugarh UA Assam 154,019 16 Itanagar City Arunachal Pradesh 95,650

UA: Urban Agglomeration[39]

Languages[edit] Northeast India
India
constitutes a single linguistic region with about 220 languages in multiple language families (Indo-European, Sino-Tibetan, Tai–Kadai, Austroasiatic)[40] that share common structural features.[41][42] Assamese, an Indo-Aryan language spoken mostly in the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
Valley, developed as a lingua franca for many speech communities. Assamese-based pidgin/creoles have developed in Nagaland (Nagamese) and Arunachal (Nefamese),[43] though their use has been on a decline in recent times. The Austro-Asiatic family is represented by the Khasi, Jaintia and War languages of Meghalaya. A small number of Tai–Kadai languages
Tai–Kadai languages
(Ahom, Tai Phake, Khamti, etc.) are also spoken. Sino-Tibetan is represented by a number of languages that differ significantly from each other,[44] some of which are: Bodo, Rabha, Karbi, Mising, Tiwa, Deori, Biate etc. (Assam); Garo, Biate (Meghalaya) Ao, Angami, Sema, Lotha, Konyak etc.(Nagaland); Mizo, Hmar, Chakma (Mizoram); Hrusso, Tanee, Nisi, Adi, Abor, Nocte, Apatani, Misimi etc. (Arunachal). Meitei is the official language in Manipur, the dominant language of the Imphal
Imphal
Valley; while Naga languages such as Poumai, Mao, Maram, Rongmei (Kabui) and Tangkul, and Kuki languages such as Thadou, Hmar, Simte and Paite predominate in individual hill areas of the state. Among other Indo-Aryan languages, Bengali is spoken in South Assam
Assam
in the Barak Valley. Besides the Sino-Tibetan Tripuri language, Bengali is a majority language in Tripura. Nepali, an Indo-Aryan language, is dominant in Sikkim, besides the Sino-Tibetan languages
Sino-Tibetan languages
Limbu, Bhutia and Lepcha. Bengali was the official language of Colonial Assam
Assam
for about forty years from the 1830s. Official languages[edit] See also: Languages with official status in India

State Official Languages[45]

Arunachal Pradesh Hindi, English

Assam Assamese, Bengali (in the Barak Valley), Bodo (in Bodoland)

Manipur Meiteilon

Meghalaya Khasi, Garo, English

Mizoram Mizo, English

Nagaland English[46]

Sikkim Nepali, English

Tripura Bengali, Kokborok

Etymology of state names[edit] See also: Nomenclature of States in North East India
India
and List of Indian state and union territory name etymologies

Name of state Origin Literal meaning

Arunachal Pradesh Sanskrit Land of the rising sun

Assam Native[47] Terrain/Ahom people[48]

Manipur Sanskrit Land abundant with jewels, adopted in the 18th century

Meghalaya Sanskrit Abode of the clouds, coined by Shiba P. Chatterjee

Mizoram Mizo language Land of the Mizo people

Nagaland English Land of the Naga people

Sikkim Limbu
Limbu
Language New House – Derived from the word "Sukhim", "Su" meaning new and "Khim" meaning house

Tripura Kokborok Sanskrit
Sanskrit
version of native names: Tripra, Tuipura, Twipra, Tippera etc.

Endangered languages[edit] Main article: List of endangered languages in India Given the diverse population in the region with only a few widely spoken ones recognised as the official languages by both the state and central governments, a large number of languages from the North Eastern Region of India
India
have become vulnerable. Without proper teaching and preservation efforts, the already underdeveloped literature of the endangered languages are on the verge of extinction. Additionally, the younger generation are rapidly adopting the widely spoken languages to secure employment and livelihood.[49] Religions[edit]

Religion in Northeast India
India
(2011)    Hinduism
Hinduism
(54.02%)    Islam
Islam
(25.05%)    Christianity
Christianity
(17.24%)    Buddhism
Buddhism
(1.37%)    Jainism
Jainism
(0.07%)    Sikhism
Sikhism
(0.07%)   Other religions (1.97%)   Not Stated (0.19%)

Religious population in North Eastern Region, according to 2011 Census of India[50]

State Hinduism Islam Christianity Buddhism Jainism Sikhism Other Religions Religion Not Stated

Arunachal Pradesh 401,876 27,045 418,732 162,815 771 3,287 362,553 6,648

Assam 19,180,759 10,679,345 1,165,867 54,993 25,949 20,672 27,118 50,873

Manipur 1,181,876 239,836 1,179,043 7,084 1,692 1,527 233,767 10,969

Meghalaya 342,078 130,399 2,213,027 9,864 627 3,045 258,271 9,578

Mizoram 30,136 14,832 956,331 93,411 376 286 808 1,026

Nagaland 173,054 48,963 1,739,651 6,759 2,655 1,890 3,214 2,316

Sikkim 352,662 9,867 60,522 167,216 314 1,868 16,300 1,828

Tripura 3,063,903 316,042 159,882 125,385 860 1,070 1,514 5,261

Total 24,726,344 11,466,329 7,893,055 627,527 33,244 33,645 903,545 88,499

Ethnic groups[edit] Northeast India
India
has over 220 ethnic groups and equal number of dialects in which Bodo form the largest indegenous ethnic group.[citation needed] The hills states in the region like Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Mizoram
Mizoram
and Nagaland
Nagaland
are predominantly inhabited by tribal people with a degree of diversity even within the tribal groups. The region's population results from ancient and continuous flows of migrations from Tibet, Indo-Gangetic India, the Himalayas, present Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Myanmar.[51] Major communities[edit]

Adivasi Anāl Naga Assamese Bahun Bhutia Bishnupriya Biate Bodo Chakma Chhetri Chorei Deori Dimasa Garo Gurung Hajong Hmar Jamatia Karbi Khasi Khampti Koch Kom Kuki Lepcha Limbu Mao Maram Meitei Mishing Mizo Monsang Mishmi Naga Nepali Noatia Paite Pnar Poumai Purvottar maithili Rabha Ranglong (Langrong) Reang Rongmei Singpho Sylheti Tamang Tangkhul Tiwa Tripuri Zomi people
Zomi people
(Paite, Vaiphei, Zou, Teddim, Simte, Gangte)

British India
India
map of Northeast India
India
by ethnicity, 1891

A Naga warrior in 1960

Bishnupuriya bride

Shad suk Mynsiem, a Khasi festival

Aka tribe, Arunachal Pradesh

Mizo school girls

Women selling fruits in Senapati, Manipur

Princess of Sikkim
Sikkim
in traditional royal dress

Culture[edit] Northeast India
India
cuisines[edit] Main article: Indian cuisine

State Staple diet Popular dishes Related article

Arunachal Pradesh Rice, fish, meat, leaf vegetables Thukpa, momo, apong (rice beer) Cuisine of Arunachal Pradesh

Assam Rice, fish, meat, green leafy vegetables Assam
Assam
tea, khar, tenga, pura, pitha, tamul (betel nut) – paan, rice beer Assamese cuisine

Manipur Rice, fish, local vegetables Eromba, u-morok, singju, ngari (fermented fish), kangshoi Cuisine of Manipur

Meghalaya Rice, spiced meat, fish Jadoh, ki kpu, minil, nakham (dried fish), momo, bamboo shoot Cuisine of Meghalaya

Mizoram Rice, fish, meat Bai, bekang (fermented soya beans), sa-um (fermented pork), sawhchiar

Nagaland Rice, meat, stewed or steamed vegetables fermented bamboo shoot, smoked pork and beef, axone, bhut jolokia Naga cuisine

Sikkim Rice, meat, dairy products Thukpa, momo, sha Phaley, gundruk, sinki, sel roti Sikkimese cuisine

Tripura Rice, fish, meat Fish
Fish
stew, bamboo shoot, fermented fish Tripuri cuisine

Nagamese meal

Bhangui - ethnic food of Tripura

Paknam (Manipur)

Smoked freshwater fish (Manipur)

Thukpa
Thukpa
- a popular Northeast India
India
cuisine

North Sikkim
Sikkim
meal

Assamese thali

Red rice with pork (Arunachal Pradesh)

Arts[edit] Sattriya
Sattriya
(from Assam) and Manipuri dance
Manipuri dance
(from Manipur) have been listed as classical dances of India. Besides these, all tribes in the Northeast India
India
have their own folk dances associated with their religion and festivals. The tribal heritage in the region is rich with the practice of hunting, land cultivation and indigenous crafts. The rich culture is vibrant and visible with the traditional attires of each community.[citation needed] All states in Northeast India
India
share the handicrafts of bamboo and cane, wood carving, making traditional weapons and musical instruments, pottery and handloom weaving. Traditional tribal attires are made of thick fabrics primarily with cotton.[52] Assam
Assam
silk is a famous industry in the region.

State Traditional Performing Arts Traditional Visual Arts Traditional Crafts

Arunachal Pradesh Wancho dances, Idu Mishmi dance, Digaru Mishmi Buiya dance, Khampti dance, Ponung dance, Sadinuktso[53]

Cane and bamboo, cotton and wool weaving, wood carving, blacksmithy (hand tools, weapons, ornaments, dishes, sacred bells and smoking pipes)[53][54]

Assam Sattriya, Bagurumba, Bihu dance, Bhaona
Bhaona
(For more see Music of Assam) Hastividyarnava
Hastividyarnava
(For more see Fine Arts of Assam) Cane and bamboo, bell metal and brass, silk, toy and mask making, pottery and terracotta, jewellery, musical instruments making, boat making, paints

Manipur Manipuri dance
Manipuri dance
(Ras Lila), Kartal Cholam, Manjira Cholom, Khuba Kishei, Pung Cholam, Lai-Haraoba

Cotton
Cotton
textile, bamboo crafts (hats, baskets), pottery[54][52]

Meghalaya Nongkrem, Shad suk, Behdienkhlam, Wangala, Lahoo dance [55][54] (For more see Music of Meghalaya)

Making hand tools and weapons, musical instruments (drums), cane and bamboo work, weaving traditional attires, jewellery making (gold, coral, glass), wall engravings, wood carving[54][56]

Mizoram Cheraw, Khuallam, Chheih-Lam, Chai, Rallu-Lam, Solakia, Sarlamkai, Par-lam, Sakei Lu Lam[57] (For more see Music of Mizoram)

Traditional hand tools, weapons and textile work, bamboo and cane handicrafts[58][54]

Nagaland Zeliang dance, war dance, Nruirolians (cock dance) (For more see Music of Nagaland)

Cane and bamboo crafts, traditional hand tools, weapons and textile work, wood carving, pottery, ornaments for traditional attire, musical instruments (drum and trumpet)[54]

Sikkim Chu Faat dance, Lu Khangthamo, Gha To Kito, Rechungma, Maruni, Tamang Selo, Singhi Chaam, Yak Chaam, Khukuri
Khukuri
dance, Rumtek Chaam (mask dance)[59][60][61] (See also Music of Sikkim) Thangka
Thangka
(showcasing Buddhist teachings on cotton canvas using vegetable dyes)[60] Handmade paper, carpet making, woollen textile, wood carving[60]

Tripura Goria dance, Jhum dance, Lebang dance, Mamita dance, Mosak sulmani dance, Hojagiri
Hojagiri
dance, Bizhu dance, Wangala, Hai-hak dance, Sangrai dance, Owa dance

Cane and bamboo, weaving and handloom, sitalpati (mat making), wood carving,[54] string and wind musical instruments

Sattriya
Sattriya
dance (Assam)

Nyokum festival of Nyishi tribe (Arunachal Pradesh)

Manipuri dance

Bagurumba
Bagurumba
dance of Bodo tribe (Assam)

Wangala dance of Garo tribe (Meghalaya)

Dance of Angami tribe (Nagaland)

Hojagiri
Hojagiri
dancers (Tripura)

Students performing traditional dance at Jorethang
Jorethang
(Sikkim)

Administration and political disputes[edit] International borders management[edit]

McMahon Line
McMahon Line
and manned by Indo-Tibetan Border Police
Indo-Tibetan Border Police
and Special Frontier Force with China
China
along Sikkim
Sikkim
and Arunachal Pradesh India- Bangladesh
Bangladesh
border and crossings manned by Border Security Force along Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura
Tripura
and Mizoram India– Myanmar
Myanmar
barrier, crossings and Look-East connectivity manned by Assam
Assam
Rifles and Indian Army
Indian Army
along Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur
Manipur
and Mizoram India- Bhutan
Bhutan
borders manned by Sashastra Seema Bal
Sashastra Seema Bal
along Sikkim, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh India- Nepal
Nepal
border manned by Sashastra Seema Bal
Sashastra Seema Bal
along Sikkim

Pan-states development authorities[edit]

Ministry for Development of North Eastern Region (DoNER) North Eastern Council

Development and connectivity projects[edit]

NE road, rail, air services, water, power and tourism projects Look-East connectivity projects with ASEAN
ASEAN
and SAARC

States and sub-divisions[edit] Main articles: Administrative divisions of India
India
and List of districts in India

State Code Capital Districts Sub-division Type Number of Subdivisions

Arunachal Pradesh AR Itanagar 20 Circle 149

Assam AS Dispur 33 Sub-division 78

Manipur MN Imphal 9 Sub-division 38

Meghalaya ML Shillong 11 Community Development Block 39

Mizoram MZ Aizawl 8 Community Development Block 22

Nagaland NL Kohima 11 Circle 33

Sikkim SK Gangtok 4 Sub-division 9

Tripura TR Agartala 8 Mahakuma 23

Autonomous Administrative Divisions in North Eastern States

State Autonomous Division Establishment

Assam Bodoland
Bodoland
Territorial Area Districts February 2003

Dima Hasao district February 1970

Karbi Anglong district

Mising Autonomous Council 1995

Rabha
Rabha
Hasong Autonomous Council 1995

Manipur Sadar Hills Autonomous District Council

Meghalaya Garo Hills Autonomous District Council

Jaintia Hills Autonomous District Council July 2012

Khasi Hills Autonomous District Council

Mizoram Chakma Autonomous District Council April 1972

Lai Autonomous District Council April 1972

Mara Autonomous District Council May 1971

Tripura Tripura
Tripura
Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council January 1982

Main article: Autonomous administrative divisions of India

Government[edit] The northeastern states, having 3.8% of India's total population, are allotted 25 out of a total of 543 seats in the Lok Sabha. This is 4.6% of the total number of seats.[citation needed]

State Chief Minister[62] Governor[63] High Court Chief Justice

Arunachal Pradesh Pema Khandu B. D. Mishra Guwahati
Guwahati
High Court ( Itanagar
Itanagar
Bench) Justice Ajit Singh

Assam Sarbananda Sonowal Professor Jagdish Mukhi Guwahati
Guwahati
High Court Justice Ajit Singh

Manipur Nongthombam Biren Singh Najma Heptulla Manipur
Manipur
High Court Justice N. Kotiswar Singh

Meghalaya Conrad Sangma Ganga Prasad Meghalaya
Meghalaya
High Court Justice Dinesh Maheshwari

Mizoram Lal Thanhawla Lt. General (Retd.) Nirbhay Sharma Guwahati
Guwahati
High Court ( Aizawl
Aizawl
Bench) Justice Ajit Singh

Nagaland Neiphiu Rio Shri Padmanabha Balakrishna Acharya Guwahati
Guwahati
High Court ( Kohima
Kohima
Bench) Justice Ajit Singh

Sikkim Pawan Kumar Chamling Shri Shriniwas Dadasaheb Patil Sikkim
Sikkim
High Court Justice Satish K. Agnihotri

Tripura Biplab Kumar Deb Shri Tathagata Roy Tripura
Tripura
High Court Justice Tinlianthang Vaiphei

21st century separatist unrest[edit] Main article: Insurgency in Northeast India In 1947 Indian independence and partition resulted in the North East becoming a landlocked region. This exacerbated the isolation that has been recognised, but not studied. East Pakistan
East Pakistan
controlled access to the Indian Ocean.[64] The mountainous terrain has hampered the construction of road and railways connections in the region.[citation needed] The militant groups have formed an alliance to fight against the governments of India, Bhutan, and Myanmar, and now use the term "Western Southeast Asia" (WESEA) to refer to the region.[65] The separatist groups include the Kangleipak Communist Party
Kangleipak Communist Party
(KCP), Kanglei Yawol Kanna Lup (KYKL), People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK), People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak-Pro (PREPAK-Pro), Revolutionary People's Front (RPF) and United National Liberation Front (UNLF) of Manipur, Hynniewtrep National Liberation Council (HNLC) of Meghalaya, Kamatapur Liberation Organization (KLO), which operates in Assam
Assam
and North Bengal, National Democratic Front of Bodoland
Bodoland
and ULFA
ULFA
of Assam
Assam
and the National Liberation Front of Tripura
Tripura
(NLFT).[66] Malom Massacre[edit] Some political groups have argued for creating states independent of India. On 2 November 2000, in Malom, a town in the Imphal
Imphal
Valley of Manipur, ten civilians were shot and killed while waiting at a bus stop. The incident, known as the "Malom Massacre",[67][68] was allegedly committed by the Assam
Assam
Rifles, one of the Indian Paramilitary forces operating in the state.[69][70] This incident resulted in continuing unrest in the area. Economy[edit] The Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region (MDoNER) is the deciding body under Government of India
India
for socio-economic development in the region. The North Eastern Council under MDoNER serves as the regional governing body for Northeast India. The North Eastern Development Finance Corporation Ltd. (NEDFi) is a Public Limited Company providing assistance to micro, small, medium and large enterprises within the north eastern region (NER). Other organisations under MDoNER include North Eastern Regional Agricultural Marketing Corporation Limited (NERAMAC), Sikkim
Sikkim
Mining Corporation Limited (SMC) and North Eastern Handlooms and Handicrafts Development Corporation (NEHHDC). Industries[edit] Agriculture[edit] The economy is agrarian. Little land is available for settled agriculture. Along with settled agriculture, jhum (slash-and-burn) cultivation is still practised by a few indigenous groups of people. The inaccessible terrain and internal disturbances has made rapid industrialisation difficult in the region.[citation needed]

Jhum cultivation

Tea garden in Darrang, Assam

Paddy fields in Manipur

Oil palm plantation in Mizoram

Terrace farming in Nagaland

Local vegetables in Assam

Tourism[edit] See also: Tourism in North East India
India
and Tourism in India
India
by state Living Root Bridges

Living root bridge, Meghalaya

Northeast India
India
is also the home of many Living root bridges. In Meghalaya, these can be found in the southern Khasi and Jaintia Hills.[71][72][73] They are still widespread in the region, though as a practice they are fading out, with many examples having been destroyed in floods or replaced by more standard structures in recent years.[74] Living root bridges
Living root bridges
have also been observed in the state of Nagaland, near the Indo- Myanmar
Myanmar
border.[75] Transportation[edit] Air[edit]

Inside Guwahati
Guwahati
airport (Assam)

Agartala
Agartala
airport (Tripura)

Main article: List of airports in India States in the North Eastern Region are well connected by air-transport conducting regular flights to all major cities in the country. The states also own several small airstrips for military and private purposes which may be accessed using Pawan Hans
Pawan Hans
helicopter services. The region currently has two international airpots viz. Lokapriya Gopinath Bordoloi International Airport and Bir Tikendrajit International Airport conducting flights to Thailand, Myanmar, Nepal and Bhutan. While the airport in Sikkim
Sikkim
is under-construction, Bagdogra Airport
Bagdogra Airport
(IATA: IXB, ICAO: VEBD) remains the closest domestic airport to the state.

Public airports operational in Northeast India

State Airport City IATA Code

Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar
Itanagar
Airport (Under construction) Itanagar

Assam Dibrugarh
Dibrugarh
Airport Dibrugarh DIB

Jorhat
Jorhat
Airport Jorhat JRH

Lokpriya Gopinath Bordoloi International Airport Guwahati GAU

Lilabari Airport Lakhimpur IXI

Rupsi Airport Dhubri RUP

Silchar
Silchar
Airport Silchar IXS

Tezpur
Tezpur
Airport Tezpur TEZ

Manipur Bir Tikendrajit International Airport Imphal IMF

Meghalaya Baljek Airport Tura VETU (ICAO)

Shillong
Shillong
Airport Shillong SHL

Mizoram Lengpui Airport Aizawl AJL

Nagaland Dimapur
Dimapur
Airport Dimapur DMU

Sikkim Pakyong Airport
Pakyong Airport
(Under construction) Gangtok VEPY (ICAO)

Tripura Agartala
Agartala
Airport Agartala IXA

Railway[edit]

Northeast India
India
railway

Main article: Northeast Frontier Railway zone The northeast India
India
railway network is managed by the Northeast Frontier Railway zone of Indian Railways. The railway network in the region is poor with the states of Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland
Nagaland
and Sikkim
Sikkim
remaining almost disconnected till date (11 June 2017). Projects are underway to extend the network and connect all the capital cities in the region.[76] Look East Policy[edit] In the 21st century, there has been recognition among policy makers and economists of the region that the main stumbling block for economic development of the Northeastern region is the disadvantageous geographical location.[77] It was argued that globalisation propagates deterritorialisation and a borderless world which is often associated with economic integration. With 98 percent of its borders with China, Myanmar, Bhutan, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Nepal, Northeast India
India
appears to have a better scope for development in the era of globalisation.[78] As a result, a new policy developed among intellectuals and politicians that one direction the Northeastern region must be looking to as a new way of development lies with political integration with the rest of India
India
and economic integration with the rest of Asia, with East and Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
in particular, as the policy of economic integration with the rest of India
India
did not yield much dividends. With the development of this new policy the Government of India
India
directed its Look East policy towards developing the Northeastern region. This policy is reflected in the Year End Review 2004 of the Ministry of External Affairs, which stated that: "India’s Look East Policy has now been given a new dimension by the UPA Government. India
India
is now looking towards a partnership with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN
ASEAN
countries, both within BIMSTEC
BIMSTEC
and the India-ASEAN Summit dialogue as integrally linked to economic and security interests, particularly for India’s East and North East region."[79] See also[edit]

Geography portal Asia portal Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
portal India
India
portal Himalaya region portal

Assam
Assam
silk Assam
Assam
tea Assamese Brahmins Battle of the Tennis Court Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
River Brahmaputra Valley
Brahmaputra Valley
Film Festival Eastern Fare Music Foundation Kamrupi Brahmins Laskar Committee Report Ledo Road
Ledo Road
(Stillwell Road) List of Christian denominations in Northeast India List of educational institutions in Shillong Literature
Literature
from North East India Mizo music Music of Assam Music of Meghalaya Music of Nagaland Music of Sikkim Northeast India
India
International Travel Mart NorthEast United FC Political integration of India

References[edit] Citations[edit]

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and India
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Assam
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Brahmaputra
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and its language their name (Ahom and the modern ɒχɒm 'Assam' come from an attested earlier form asam, acam, probably from a Burmese corruption of the word Shan/Shyam, cf. Siam: Kakati 1962; 1–4)." (Masica 1993, p. 50) ^ "Endangered languages of North-east India".  ^ "Population By Religious Community".  ^ van Driem, G. (2012) ^ a b "Northeast India
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