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Norse mythology
Norse mythology
is the body of myths of the North Germanic people stemming from Norse paganism
Norse paganism
and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia and into the Scandinavian folklore
Scandinavian folklore
of the modern period. The northernmost extension of Germanic mythology, Norse mythology consists of tales of various deities, beings, and heroes derived from numerous sources from both before and after the pagan period, including medieval manuscripts, archaeological representations, and folk tradition. Numerous gods are mentioned in the source texts such as the hammer-wielding, humanity-protecting thunder-god Thor, who relentlessly fights his foes; the one-eyed, raven-flanked god Odin, who craftily pursues knowledge throughout the worlds and bestowed among humanity the runic alphabet; the beautiful, seiðr-working, feathered cloak-clad goddess Freyja
Freyja
who rides to battle to choose among the slain; the vengeful, skiing goddess Skaði, who prefers the wolf howls of the winter mountains to the seashore; the powerful god Njörðr, who may calm both sea and fire and grant wealth and land; the god Freyr, whose weather and farming associations bring peace and pleasure to humanity; the goddess Iðunn, who keeps apples that grant eternal youthfulness; the mysterious god Heimdallr, who is born of nine mothers, can hear grass grow, has gold teeth, and possesses a resounding horn; the jötunn Loki, who brings tragedy to the gods by engineering the death of the goddess Frigg's beautiful son Baldr; and numerous other deities. Most of the surviving mythology centers on the plights of the gods and their interaction with various other beings, such as humanity and the jötnar, beings who may be friends, lovers, foes or family members of the gods. The cosmos in Norse mythology
Norse mythology
consists of Nine Worlds
Nine Worlds
that flank a central cosmological tree, Yggdrasil. Units of time and elements of the cosmology are personified as deities or beings. Various forms of a creation myth are recounted, where the world is created from the flesh of the primordial being Ymir, and the first two humans are Ask and Embla. These worlds are foretold to be reborn after the events of Ragnarök, when an immense battle occurs between the gods and their enemies, and the world is enveloped in flames, only to be reborn anew. There the surviving gods will meet, and the land will be fertile and green, and two humans will repopulate the world. Norse mythology
Norse mythology
has been the subject of scholarly discourse since the 17th century, when key texts were brought to the attention of the intellectual circles of Europe. By way of comparative mythology and historical linguistics, scholars have identified elements of Germanic mythology reaching as far back as Proto-Indo-European mythology. In the modern period, the Romanticist Viking revival re-awoke an interest in the subject matter, and references to Norse mythology
Norse mythology
may now be found throughout modern popular culture. The myths have further been revived in a religious context among adherents of Germanic Neopaganism.

Contents

1 Sources 2 Mythology

2.1 Gods and other beings 2.2 Cosmology 2.3 Humanity 2.4 Influence on the popular culture

3 Further reading

3.1 General secondary works 3.2 Romanticism 3.3 Modern retellings

4 Notes 5 References 6 External links

Sources[edit]

The Rök Runestone
Rök Runestone
(Ög 136), located in Rök, Sweden, features a Younger Futhark
Younger Futhark
runic inscription that makes various references to Norse mythology

Norse mythology
Norse mythology
is primarily attested in dialects of Old Norse, a North Germanic language spoken by the Scandinavian people during the European Middle Ages, and the ancestor of modern Scandinavian languages. The majority of these Old Norse
Old Norse
texts were created in Iceland, where the oral tradition stemming from the pre-Christian inhabitants of the island was collected and recorded in manuscripts. This occurred primarily in the 13th century. These texts include the Prose Edda, composed in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson, and the Poetic Edda, a collection of poems from earlier traditional material anonymously compiled in the 13th century.[1] The Prose Edda
Prose Edda
was composed as a prose manual for producing skaldic poetry—traditional Old Norse
Old Norse
poetry composed by skalds. Originally composed and transmitted orally, skaldic poetry utilizes alliterative verse, kennings, and various metrical forms. The Prose Edda
Prose Edda
presents numerous examples of works by various skalds from before and after the Christianization process and also frequently refers back to the poems found in the Poetic Edda. The Poetic Edda
Poetic Edda
consists almost entirely of poems, with some prose narrative added, and this poetry—Eddic poetry—utilizes fewer kennings. In comparison to skaldic poetry, Eddic poetry is relatively unadorned.[1] The Prose Edda
Prose Edda
features layers of euhemerization, a process in which deities and supernatural beings are presented as having been either actual, magic-wielding human beings who have been deified in time or beings demonized by way of Christian mythology.[2] Texts such as Heimskringla, composed in the 13th century by Snorri and Gesta Danorum, composed in Latin
Latin
by Saxo Grammaticus
Saxo Grammaticus
in Denmark
Denmark
in the 12th century, are the results of heavy amounts of euhemerization.[3] Numerous further texts, such as the sagas, provide further information. The saga corpus consists of thousands of tales recorded in Old Norse
Old Norse
ranging from Icelandic family histories ( Sagas
Sagas
of Icelanders) to Migration period
Migration period
tales mentioning historic figures such as Attila the Hun
Attila the Hun
(legendary sagas). Objects and monuments such as the Rök Runestone
Rök Runestone
and the Kvinneby amulet
Kvinneby amulet
feature runic inscriptions—texts written in the runic alphabet, the indigenous alphabet of the Germanic peoples—that mention figures and events from Norse mythology.[4] Objects from the archaeological record may also be interpreted as depictions of subjects from Norse mythology, such as amulets of the god Thor's hammer Mjölnir
Mjölnir
found among pagan burials and small silver female figures interpreted as valkyries or dísir, beings associated with war, fate or ancestor cults.[5] By way of historical linguistics and comparative mythology, comparisons to other attested branches of Germanic mythology
Germanic mythology
(such as the Old High German
Old High German
Merseburg Incantations) may also lend insight.[6] Wider comparisons to the mythology of other Indo-European peoples by scholars has resulted in the potential reconstruction of far earlier myths.[7] Of the mythical tales and poems that are presumed to have existed during the Middle Ages, Viking Age, Migration Period, and prior, only a tiny amount of poems and tales survive.[8] Later sources reaching into the modern period, such as a medieval charm recorded as used by the Norwegian woman Ragnhild Tregagås—convicted of witchcraft in Norway
Norway
in the 14th century—and spells found in the 17th century Icelandic Galdrabók grimoire also sometimes make references to Norse mythology.[9] Other traces, such as place names bearing the names of gods may provide further information about deities, such as a potential association between deities based on placement of locations bearing their names, their local popularity, and associations with geological features.[10] Mythology[edit] Gods and other beings[edit]

The god Thor
Thor
wades through a river while the Æsir
Æsir
ride across the bridge Bifröst
Bifröst
in an illustration by Lorenz Frølich
Lorenz Frølich
(1895)

Central to accounts of Norse mythology
Norse mythology
are the plights of the gods and their interaction with various other beings, such as with the jötnar, who may be friends, lovers, foes or family members of the gods. Numerous gods are mentioned in the source texts. As evidenced by records of personal names and place names, the most popular god among the Scandinavians during the Viking Age
Viking Age
was Thor, who is portrayed as unrelentingly pursuing his foes, his mountain-crushing, thunderous hammer Mjölnir
Mjölnir
in hand. In the mythology, Thor
Thor
lays waste to numerous jötnar who are foes to the gods or humanity, and is wed to the beautiful, golden-haired goddess Sif.[11] The god Odin
Odin
is also frequently mentioned in surviving texts. One-eyed, wolf and raven-flanked, and spear in hand, Odin
Odin
pursues knowledge throughout the worlds. In an act of self-sacrifice, Odin
Odin
is described as having hanged himself on the cosmological tree Yggdrasil to gain knowledge of the runic alphabet, which he passed on to humanity, and is associated closely with death, wisdom, and poetry. Odin
Odin
has a strong association with death; Odin
Odin
is portrayed as the ruler of Valhalla, where valkyries carry half of those slain in battle. Odin's wife is the powerful goddess Frigg
Frigg
who can see the future but tells no one, and together they have a beloved son, Baldr. After a series of dreams had by Baldr
Baldr
of his impending death, his death is engineered by Loki, and Baldr
Baldr
thereafter resides in Hel, a realm ruled over by a goddess of the same name.[12] Odin
Odin
must share half of his share of the dead with a powerful goddess; Freyja. She is beautiful, sensual, wears a feathered cloak, and practices seiðr. She rides to battle to choose among the slain, and brings her chosen to her afterlife field Fólkvangr. Freyja
Freyja
weeps for her missing husband Óðr, and seeks after him in far away lands.[13] Freyja's brother, the god Freyr, is also frequently mentioned in surviving texts, and in his association with weather, royalty, human sexuality, and agriculture brings peace and pleasure to humanity. Deeply lovesick after catching sight of the beautiful jötunn Gerðr, Freyr
Freyr
seeks and wins her love, yet at the price of his future doom.[14] Their father is the powerful god Njörðr. Njörðr
Njörðr
is strongly associated with ships and seafaring, and so also wealth and prosperity. Freyja
Freyja
and Freyr's mother is Njörðr's sister (her name is unprovided in the source material). However, there is more information about his pairing with the skiing and hunting goddess Skaði. Their relationship is ill-fated, as Skaði
Skaði
cannot stand to be away from her beloved mountains, nor Njörðr
Njörðr
from the seashore.[15] Together, Freyja, Freyr, and Njörðr
Njörðr
form a portion of gods known as the Vanir. While the Aesir and the Vanir
Vanir
retain distinct identification, they came together as the result of the Aesir–Vanir War.[16] While they receive less mention, numerous other gods and goddesses appear in the source material. (For a list of these deities, see List of Germanic deities.) Some of the gods heard less of include the apple-bearing goddess Iðunn
Iðunn
and her husband, the skaldic god Bragi; the gold-toothed, white-skinned god Heimdallr, born of nine mothers; the ancient god Týr, who lost a hand while binding the great wolf Fenrir; and the goddess Gefjon, who formed modern day Zealand, Denmark.[17] Various beings outside of the gods are mentioned. Elves
Elves
and dwarfs are commonly mentioned and appear to be connected, but their attributes are vague and the relation between the two is ambiguous. Elves
Elves
are described as radiant and beautiful, whereas dwarfs often act as earthen smiths.[18] A group of beings variously described as jötnar, thursar, and trolls (in English these are all often glossed as "giants") frequently appear. These beings may either aid, deter, or take their place among the gods.[19] The norns, dísir, and aforementioned valkyries also receive frequent mention. While their functions and roles may overlap and differ, all are collective female beings associated with fate.[20] Cosmology[edit]

The cosmological, central tree Yggdrasil
Yggdrasil
is depicted in "The Ash Yggdrasil" by Friedrich Wilhelm Heine
Friedrich Wilhelm Heine
(1886)

Sól, the Sun, and Máni, the Moon, are chased by the wolves Sköll and Háti in "The Wolves Pursuing Sol and Mani" by J. C. Dollman (1909)

The cosmology of the worlds in which all beings inhabit—nine in total—centers around a cosmological tree, Yggdrasil. The gods inhabit the heavenly realm of Asgard
Asgard
whereas humanity inhabits Midgard, a region in the center of the cosmos. Outside of the gods, humanity, and the jötnar, these Nine Worlds
Nine Worlds
are inhabited by beings, such as elves and dwarfs. Travel between the worlds is frequently recounted in the myths, where the gods and other beings may interact directly with humanity. Numerous creatures live on Yggdrasil, such as the insulting messenger squirrel Ratatoskr
Ratatoskr
and the perching hawk Veðrfölnir. The tree itself has three major roots, and at the base of one of these roots live a trio of norns.[21] Elements of the cosmos are personified, such as the Sun (Sól, a goddess), the Moon (Máni, a god), and Earth (Jörð, a goddess), as well as units of time, such as day (Dagr, a god) and night (Nótt, a jötunn).[22] The afterlife is a complex matter in Norse mythology. The dead may go to the murky realm of Hel—a realm ruled over by a female being of the same name, may be ferried away by valkyries to Odin's martial hall Valhalla, or may be chosen by the goddess Freyja
Freyja
to dwell in her field Fólkvangr.[23] The goddess Rán
Rán
may claim those that die at sea, and the goddess Gefjon
Gefjon
is said to be attended by virgins upon their death.[24] Texts also make reference to reincarnation.[25] Time itself is presented between cyclic and linear, and some scholars have argued that cyclic time was the original format for the mythology.[26] Various forms of a cosmological creation story are provided in Icelandic sources, and references to a future destruction and rebirth of the world—Ragnarok—are frequently mentioned in some texts.[27] Humanity[edit] According to the Poetic Edda
Poetic Edda
poem Völuspá and the Prose Edda, the first human couple consisted of Ask and Embla; driftwood found by a trio of gods and imbued with life in the form of three gifts. After the cataclysm of Ragnarok, this process is mirrored in the survival of two humans from a wood; Líf and Lífþrasir. From these two humankind are foretold to repopulate the new, green earth.[28] Numerous heroes appear in Norse mythology
Norse mythology
and are celebrated in a variety of poems, songs, and narratives. Within the Prose and Poetic Edda, notable humans include Gylfi, the first King of Sweden, in the Gylfaginning, King Geirröth in the [Grímnismál], and two peasant children Þjálfi and Röskva, who are tricked into bondservice to Thor
Thor
by Loki
Loki
and appear in Skáldskaparmál
Skáldskaparmál
and the Gylfaginning. The Prose Edda
Prose Edda
also describes the afterlife for humans, with honourable warriors feasting and battling endlessly in Valhalla, while those who died dishonourably or out of battle were sent to Niffelheim. Influence on the popular culture[edit] Main article: Norse mythology
Norse mythology
in popular culture See also: Germanic mythology
Germanic mythology
and Germanic neopaganism With the widespread publication of Norse myths and legends at this time, references to the Norse gods and heroes spread into European literary culture, especially in Scandinavia, Germany, and Britain. In the later 20th century, references to Norse mythology
Norse mythology
became common in science fiction and fantasy literature, role-playing games, and eventually other cultural products such as Japanese animation. Traces of the religion can also be found in music and has its own genre, viking metal. Bands such as Amon Amarth, Bathory and Månegarm generally sing about Norse mythology. Further reading[edit] General secondary works[edit]

Abram, Christopher (2011). Myths of the Pagan North: the Gods of the Norsemen. London: Continuum. ISBN 978-1-84725-247-0. Aðalsteinsson, Jón Hnefill (1998). A Piece of Horse Liver: Myth, Ritual and Folklore in Old Icelandic Sources (translated by Terry Gunnell & Joan Turville-Petre). Reykjavík: Félagsvísindastofnun. ISBN 9979-54-264-0. Andrén, Anders. Jennbert, Kristina. Raudvere, Catharina. (editors) (2006). Old Norse
Old Norse
Religion in Long-Term Perspectives: Origins, Changes and Interactions. Lund: Nordic Academic Press. ISBN 91-89116-81-X. Branston, Brian (1980). Gods of the North. London: Thames and Hudson. (Revised from an earlier hardback edition of 1955). ISBN 0-500-27177-1. Christiansen, Eric (2002). The Norsemen
Norsemen
in the Viking Age. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell. ISBN 1-4051-4964-7. Clunies Ross, Margaret (1994). Prolonged Echoes: Old Norse
Old Norse
Myths in Medieval Northern Society, vol. 1: The Myths. Odense: Odense Univ. Press. ISBN 87-7838-008-1. Davidson, H. R. Ellis (1964). Gods and Myths of Northern Europe. Baltimore: Penguin. New edition 1990 by Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-013627-4. (Several runestones) Davidson, H. R. Ellis (1969). Scandinavian Mythology. London and New York: Hamlyn. ISBN 0-87226-041-0. Reissued 1996 as Viking and Norse Mythology. New York: Barnes and Noble. Davidson, H. R. Ellis (1988). Myths and Symbols in Pagan Europe. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse Univ. Press. ISBN 0-8156-2438-7. Davidson, H. R. Ellis (1993). The Lost Beliefs of Northern Europe. London & New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-04937-7. de Vries, Jan. Altgermanische Religionsgeschichte, 2 vols., 2nd. ed., Grundriss der germanischen Philologie, 12–13. Berlin: W. de Gruyter. DuBois, Thomas A. (1999). Nordic Religions in the Viking Age. Philadelphia: Univ. Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1714-4. Dumézil, Georges (1973). Gods of the Ancient Northmen. Ed. & trans. Einar Haugen. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03507-0. Grimm, Jacob (1888). Teutonic Mythology, 4 vols. Trans. S. Stallybras. London. Reprinted 2003 by Kessinger. ISBN 0-7661-7742-4, ISBN 0-7661-7743-2, ISBN 0-7661-7744-0, ISBN 0-7661-7745-9. Reprinted 2004 Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-43615-2 (4 vols.), ISBN 0-486-43546-6, ISBN 0-486-43547-4, ISBN 0-486-43548-2, ISBN 0-486-43549-0. Lindow, John (1988). Scandinavian Mythology: An Annotated Bibliography, Garland Folklore Bibliographies, 13. New York: Garland. ISBN 0-8240-9173-6. Lindow, John (2001). Norse Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Heroes, Rituals, and Beliefs. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515382-0. (A dictionary of Norse mythology.) Mirachandra (2006). Treasure of Norse Mythology
Mythology
Volume I ISBN 978-3-922800-99-6. Motz, Lotte (1996). The King, the Champion and the Sorcerer: A Study in Germanic Myth. Wien: Fassbaender. ISBN 3-900538-57-3. O'Donoghue, Heather (2007). From Asgard
Asgard
to Valhalla : the remarkable history of the Norse myths. London: I. B. Tauris. ISBN 1-84511-357-8. Orchard, Andy (1997). Cassell's Dictionary of Norse Myth and Legend. London: Cassell. ISBN 0-304-36385-5. Page, R. I. (1990). Norse Myths (The Legendary Past). London: British Museum; and Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-75546-5. Price, Neil S (2002). The Viking Way: Religion and War in Late Iron Age Scandinavia. Uppsala: Dissertation, Dept. Archaeology & Ancient History. ISBN 91-506-1626-9. Simek, Rudolf (1993). Dictionary of Northern Mythology. Trans. Angela Hall. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer. ISBN 0-85991-369-4. New edition 2000, ISBN 0-85991-513-1. Simrock, Karl Joseph (1853–1855) Handbuch der deutschen Mythologie. Svanberg, Fredrik (2003). Decolonizing the Viking Age. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell. ISBN 91-22-02006-3(v. 1); 9122020071(v. 2). Turville-Petre, E O Gabriel (1964). Myth and Religion of the North: The Religion of Ancient Scandinavia. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. Reprinted 1975, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-8371-7420-1.

Romanticism[edit]

Anderson, Rasmus (1875). Norse Mythology, or, The Religion of Our Forefathers. Chicago: S.C. Griggs. Guerber, H. A. (1909). Myths of the Norsemen: From the Eddas and Sagas. London: George G. Harrap. Reprinted 1992, Mineola, N.Y.: Dover. ISBN 0-486-27348-2. Keary, A & E (1909), The Heroes of Asgard. New York: Macmillan Company. Reprinted 1982 by Smithmark Pub. ISBN 0-8317-4475-8. Reprinted 1979 by Pan Macmillan ISBN 0-333-07802-0. Mable, Hamilton Wright (1901). Norse Stories Retold from the Eddas. Mead and Company. Reprinted 1999, New York: Hippocrene Books. ISBN 0-7818-0770-0. Mackenzie, Donald A (1912). Teutonic Myth and Legend. New York: W H Wise & Co. 1934. Reprinted 2003 by University Press of the Pacific. ISBN 1-4102-0740-4. Rydberg, Viktor (1889). Teutonic Mythology, trans. Rasmus B. Anderson. London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co. Reprinted 2001, Elibron Classics. ISBN 1-4021-9391-2. Reprinted 2004, Kessinger Publishing Company. ISBN 0-7661-8891-4.

Modern retellings[edit]

Bradish, Sarah Powers (1900). Old Norse
Old Norse
stories. New York: American Book Company / Internet Archive.  Colum, Padraic (1920). The Children of Odin: The Book of Northern Myths, illustrated by Willy Pogány. New York, Macmillan. Reprinted 2004 by Aladdin, ISBN 0-689-86885-5. Crossley-Holland, Kevin (1981). The Norse Myths. New York: Pantheon Books. ISBN 0-394-74846-8. Also released as The Penguin Book of Norse Myths: Gods of the Vikings. Harmondsworth: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-025869-8. d'Aulaire, Ingri and Edgar (1967). "d'Aulaire's Book of Norse Myths". New York, New York Review of Books. Munch, Peter Andreas (1927). Norse Mythology: Legends of Gods and Heroes, Scandinavian Classics. Trans. Sigurd
Sigurd
Bernhard Hustvedt (1963). New York: American-Scandinavian Foundation. ISBN 0-404-04538-3. Gaiman, Neil (2017). Norse Mythology. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-60909-X.

Notes[edit]

^ a b Faulkes (1995), pp. vi–xxi, and Turville-Petre (1964), pp. 1–34. ^ Faulkes (1995), pp. xvi–xviii. ^ Turville-Petre (1964), pp. 27–34. ^ Lindow (2001), pp. 11–12, Turville-Petre (1964), pp. 17–21, and MacLeod & Mees (2006), pp. 27–28, 216. ^ Regarding the dísir, valkyries, and figurines (with images), see Lindow (2001), pp. 95–97. For hammers, see Simek (2007), pp. 218–19, and Lindow (2001), pp. 288–89. ^ Lindow (2001), pp. 29–30, 227–28, and Simek (2007), pp. 84, 278. ^ Puhvel (1989), pp. 189–221, and Mallory (2005), pp. 128–42. ^ Turville-Petre (1964), p. 13. ^ Regarding Ragnhild Tregagås, see MacLeod & Mees (2006), p. 37. For Galdrabók, see Flowers (1989), p. 29. ^ Turville-Petre (1964), pp. 2–3, 178. ^ Lindow (2001), pp. 287–91. ^ Lindow (2001), pp. 128–29, 247–52. ^ Lindow (2001), pp. 118, 126–28. ^ Lindow (2001), pp. 121–22. ^ Lindow (2001), pp. 241–43. ^ Lindow (2001), pp. 311–12. ^ Lindow (2001), pp. 86–88, 135–37, 168–72, 198–99, 297–99. ^ Lindow (2001), pp. 99–102, 109–10, and Simek (2007), pp. 67–69, 73–74. ^ Simek (2007), pp. 108–09, 180, 333, 335. ^ Lindow (2001), pp. 95–97, 243–46. Simek (2007), pp. 62–62, 236–37, 349. ^ Lindow (2001), pp. 319–32. Simek (2007), pp. 375–76. ^ Lindow (2001), pp. 91–92, 205–06, 222–23, 278–80. ^ For Hel, see Lindow (2001), p. 172, and Orchard (1997), p. 79. For Valhalla, see Lindow (2001), pp. 308–09, and Orchard (1997), pp. 171–72. For Fólkvangr, see Lindow (2001), p. 118, and Orchard (1997), p. 45. ^ For Rán, see Lindow (2001), pp. 258–59, and Orchard (1997), p. 129. For Gefjon, see Orchard (1997), p. 52. ^ Orchard (1997), p. 131. ^ Lindow (2001), pp. 42–43. ^ Lindow (2001), pp. 1–2, 40, 254–58. ^ Simek (2007), p. 189.

References[edit]

Edda. Translated by Faulkes, Anthony. Everyman. 1995. ISBN 0-460-87616-3.  Flowers, Stephen (1989). The Galdrabók: An Icelandic Grimoire. ISBN 0-87728-685-X.  Lindow, John (2001). Norse Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Heroes, Rituals, and Beliefs. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515382-0.  MacLeod, Mindy; Mees, Bernard (2006). Runic Amulets and Magic Objects. Boydell Press. ISBN 1-84383-205-4.  Mallory, J. P. (2005). In Search of the Indo-Europeans: Language, Archaeology and Myth. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-27616-1.  Orchard, Andy (1997). Dictionary of Norse Myth and Legend. Cassell. ISBN 0-304-34520-2.  Puhvel, Jaan (1989). Comparative Mythology. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-3938-6.  Turville-Petre, E. O. G. (1964). Myth and Religion of the North: The Religion of Ancient Scandinavia. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.  Simek, Rudolf (2007). Dictionary of Northern Mythology. Translated by Hall, Angela. D.S. Brewer. ISBN 0-85991-513-1. 

External links[edit] Media related to Norse mythology
Norse mythology
at Wikimedia Commons

v t e

Norse mythology

Deities and other figures

Æsir

Baldr Bragi Dellingr Forseti Heimdallr Hermóðr Höðr Hœnir Ítreksjóð Lóðurr Loki Máni Meili Mímir Móði and Magni Odin Óðr Thor Týr Ullr Váli Víðarr Vili and Vé

Ásynjur

Bil Eir Frigg Fulla Gefjon Gerðr Gná Hlín Iðunn Ilmr Irpa Lofn Nanna Njörun Rán Rindr Sága Sif Sigyn Sjöfn Skaði Snotra Sól Syn Þorgerðr Hölgabrúðr Þrúðr Vár Vör

Vanir

Freyja Freyr

Ingunar-Freyr Yngvi

Gersemi Gullveig Hnoss Kvasir Njörðr Sister-wife of Njörðr

Jötnar

Ægir Alvaldi Angrboða Aurboða Baugi Beli Bergelmir Bestla Bölþorn Býleistr Eggthér Fárbauti Fjörgyn Fjörgynn Fornjót Gangr Geirröd Gilling Gjálp Greip Gríðr Gunnlöð Gymir Harðgreipr Helblindi Helreginn Hljod Hræsvelgr Hrímgerðr Hrímgrímnir Hrímnir Hroðr Hrungnir Hrym Hymir Hyrrokkin Iði Im Járnsaxa Jörð Laufey Leikn Litr Logi Mögþrasir Narfi Sökkmímir Surtr Suttungr Þjazi Þökk Þrívaldi Þrúðgelmir Þrymr Útgarða-Loki Vafþrúðnir Váli Víðblindi Vosud Vörnir Ymir

Dwarfs

Alvíss Andvari Billingr Brokkr Dáinn Durinn Dúrnir Dvalinn Eitri Fafnir Fjalar and Galar Gandalf Hreiðmarr Litr Mótsognir Norðri, Suðri, Austri and Vestri Ótr Regin Sons of Ivaldi

Heroes

Egil Arngrim Bödvar Bjarki Björn Járnsíða Guðmundr Hagbarðr Haki Heiðrekr Helgi Haddingjaskati Helgi Hjörvarðsson Helgi Hundingsbane Hervör Hjalmar and Ingeborg Hlöðr Höðbroddr Hrólfr Kraki Ingjald Jónakr's sons Örvar-Oddr Palnatoke Ragnarr Loðbrók Rerir Sigmund Sigurðr Svafrlami Sinfjötli Starkaðr Styrbjörn the Strong Svipdagr Völsung Vésteinn

Others

Ask and Embla Auðumbla Beyla Borr Búri Byggvir Dís Einherjar Eldir Elves

Dark elves (Dökkálfar) Light elves (Ljósálfar) Black elves (Svartálfar)

Fimafeng Fenrir Garmr Hati Hróðvitnisson Hel Hjúki Horses of the Æsir

Árvakr and Alsviðr Blóðughófi Falhófnir Gísl Glaðr Glær Glenr Grani Gullfaxi Gulltoppr Gyllir Hamskerpir and Garðrofa Hófvarpnir Skinfaxi and Hrímfaxi Sleipnir Svaðilfari

Jafnhárr Jörmungandr Móðguðr Nine Daughters of Ægir Nine Mothers of Heimdallr Narfi and Nari Níðhöggr Norns Personifications

Dagr Elli Nótt Sumarr and Vetr

Skírnir Sköll Shieldmaiden Þjálfi and Röskva Valkyrie Vættir Völundr

Locations

Nine Realms

Álfheimr Asgard Jötunheimr Midgard Muspelheim Niðavellir Svartálfar Niflheim Vanaheimr

Underworld

Éljúðnir Hel Gjallarbrú Náströnd Niflhel Niðafjöll

Rivers

Élivágar Gjöll Ífingr Kerlaugar Körmt and Örmt Slidr River Vadgelmir Vimur River

Other locations

Amsvartnir Andlang Barri Bifröst Bilskirnir Brávellir Brimir Fensalir Fólkvangr Fornsigtuna Fyrisvellir Gálgviðr Gandvik Gastropnir Gimlé Ginnungagap Gjallarbrú Glaðsheimr Glæsisvellir Glitnir Gnipahellir Grove of fetters Himinbjörg Hindarfjall Hlidskjalf Hnitbjorg Hoddmímis holt Iðavöllr Járnviðr Mímameiðr Myrkviðr Munarvágr Niðavellir Nóatún Okolnir Sessrúmnir Sindri Singasteinn Þrúðheimr Þrúðvangr Þrymheimr Útgarðar Valaskjálf Valhalla Víðbláinn Vígríðr Vingólf Wells

Hvergelmir Mímisbrunnr Urðarbrunnr

Ýdalir Yggdrasil

Events

Æsir– Vanir
Vanir
War Fimbulvetr Hjaðningavíg Ragnarök

Sources

Gesta Danorum Poetic Edda Prose Edda Runestones Sagas Tyrfing Cycle Völsung
Völsung
Cycle Old Norse
Old Norse
language Orthography Later influence

Society

Blót Félag Germanic calendar Heiti Hörgr Kenning Mead hall Nīþ Norse pagan worship Numbers Sacred trees and groves in Germanic paganism
Germanic paganism
and mythology Seiðr Skald Viking Age Völva

See also

Norse gods Norse giants Mythological Norse people, items and places Germanic paganism Heathenry (new religious movement)

v t e

Mythology
Mythology
of Europe

Sovereign states

Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland

Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia Artsakh Northern Cyprus South Ossetia Transnistria

Dependencies and other entities

Åland Faroe Islands Gibraltar Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Svalbard

v t e

Vikings

Viking Age

Culture

Old Norse
Old Norse
language Norse pantheon Norse mythology Norse religion Norsemen Danegeld Berserker

Homelands and colonies

Sweden Norway Denmark Iceland Greenland Vinland Faroe Islands Orkney Islands Shetland Islands Danelaw Normandy North Sea Empire

History

Viking expansion British Isles

Scotland

Battles

Tactics and warfare Raid on Seville Sack of Paris Siege of Paris Brunanburh Cnut the Great's Invasion of England Raids in the Rhineland Stamford Bridge

Arms and armour and fortifications

Halberd

Atgeir Skeggöx Dane axe

Sword

Ulfberht Ingelrii

Ring fortress

Historical figures

Erik the Red Leif Erikson Snorri Sturluson

Authority control

.