NINGBO (HELP ·INFO ), formerly written NINGPO, is a sub-provincial city in northeast Zhejiang province in China . It comprises the urban districts of Ningbo proper, three satellite cities , and a number of rural counties including islands in Hangzhou Bay and the East China Sea . Its port , spread across several locations, is among the busiest in the world and the municipality possesses a separate state-planning status. As of the 2010 census , the entire administrated area had a population of 7.6 million, with 3.5 million in the six urban districts of Ningbo proper. To the north, Hangzhou Bay separates Ningbo from Shanghai ; to the east lies Zhoushan in the East China Sea ; on the west and south, Ningbo borders Shaoxing and Taizhou respectively.
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 3 Geography and climate * 4 Administrative structure
* 5 Economy
* 5.1 Foreign investment
* 5.2 Economic and technological development zones
TANG AND SONG DYNASTY
Tianfeng Tower, originally built in Tang Dynasty, is the symbol of old Ningbo. A rock garden inside Tianyi Chamber
Since the Tang dynasty Ningbo has been an important commercial port. Arab traders lived in Ningbo during the Song dynasty when it was known as Mingzhou, as the ocean-going trade passages took precedence over land trade during this time. Another name for Mingzhou/ Ningbo was Siming. It was a well known center of ocean-going commerce with the foreign world. These merchants did not intermingle with native Chinese, practicing their own customs and religion and they inhabited ghettos. They did not try to proselytize Islam to Chinese. Jews also lived in Ningbo, as evidenced by the fact that, after a major flood destroyed Torah scrolls in Kaifeng, a replacement was sent to the Kaifeng Jews by the Ningbo Jewish community.
The city of Ningbo was known in Europe for a long time under the name of Liampó. This is the usual spelling used e.g. in the standard Portuguese history, João de Barros 's _Décadas da Ásia_, although Barros explained that Liampó was a Portuguese "corruption" of the more correct Nimpó. The spelling Liampó is also attested in the _Peregrination_ (_Peregrinação_) by Fernão Mendes Pinto , a (so-called) autobiography written in Portuguese during the 16th century. For the mid-16th-century Portuguese, the nearby promontory, which they called the cape of Liampó, after the nearby "illustrious city" was the easternmost known point of the mainland Asia. The Portuguese began trading in Ningbo around 1522. By 1542, the Portuguese had a sizable community in Ningbo (or, more likely, on nearby small islands). Portuguese activities from their Ningbo base included pillaging and attacking multiple Chinese port cities around Ningbo for plunder and spoil. They also enslaved people during their raids. The Portuguese were ousted from the Ningbo area in 1548.
Ningbo was one of the five Chinese _treaty ports _ opened by the Treaty of Nanjing (signed in 1842) at the end of the First Opium War between Britain and China. During the war, British forces took possession of the walled city of Ningbo briefly after storming the fortified town of Zhenhai at the mouth of the Yong River on October 10, 1841. The British repulsed a Chinese attempt to retake the city in the Battle of Ningpo on March 10, 1842. In 1864, the forces of the Taiping Rebellion held the town for six months. In March 1885, during the Sino-French War , Admiral Courbet's naval squadron blockaded several Chinese warships in Zhenhai Bay and exchanged fire with the shore defences. Ningbo was also once famed for traditional Chinese furniture production.
During the late Qing dynasty , in the 1800s, the Ningbo authorities contracted Cantonese pirates to exterminate and massacre Portuguese pirates who raided Cantonese shipping around Ningbo. The massacre was "successful", with 40 Portuguese dead and only 2 Chinese dead, being dubbed " The Ningpo Massacre " by an English correspondent, who noted that the Portuguese pirates had behaved savagely towards the Chinese, and that the Portuguese authorities at Macau should have reined in the pirates.
During late Qing era, Western missionaries set up a Presbyterian Church in Ningbo. Li Veng-eing was a Reverend of the Ningpo Church. The Ningpo College was managed by Rev. Robert F. Fitch. The four trustees were natives of Ningbo, three of them had Taotai rank. Rev. George Evans Moule, B. A. was appointed a missionary to China by the Church of England Missionary Society , and arrived at Ningpo with Mrs. Moule in February 1858. He then began a mission station at Hang-chow, between which and Ningpo his time had been chiefly divided. He wrote Christian publications in the Ningbo dialect .
During World War II in 1940, Japan bombed Ningbo with ceramic bombs full of fleas carrying the bubonic plague . According to Daniel Barenblatt, Prince Tsuneyoshi Takeda received, with Prince Mikasa , a special screening by Shiro Ishii of a film showing imperial planes loading germ bombs for bubonic dissemination over Ningbo in 1940. "It has been said of the Ningbo fishermen that, 'no people in the world apparently made so great an advance in the art of fishing; and for centuries past no people have made so little further progress.'"
GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE
Yuehu Mosque of Ningbo The Cathedral of the Sacred Heart of Jesus was built between 1872 and 1876, was closed by the government in 1963, and was reopened and renamed in 1980. It was recognized as a national heritage site in 2006.
Ningbo ranges in latitude from 28° 51' to 30° 33' N and in longitude from 120° 55' to 122° 16' E, bounded on the east by the East China Sea and Zhoushan Archipelago , on the north by Hangzhou Bay , across which it faces Jiaxing and Shanghai , on the west by Shaoxing , and on the south by Taizhou . Its land area is 9,816 square kilometres (3,790 sq mi), while oceanic territory amounts to 9,758 km2 (3,768 sq mi); there is a total 1,562 km (971 mi) of coastline including 788 km (490 mi) of mainland coastline and 774 km (481 mi) of island coastline, together accounting for one-third of the entire provincial coastline. There are 531 islands accounting for 524 km2 (202 sq mi) under the city's administration.
The city proper of Ningbo is sandwiched between the ocean and low-lying mountains to the southwest, with coastal plain and valleys in between. Important peninsulas include the Chuanshan Peninsula (穿山半岛), located in Beilun District and containing mainland Zhejiang's easternmost point, and the Xiangshan Peninsula (象山半岛) in Xiangshan County. The Siming Mountains (四明山) run north from Mount Tiantai and within Ningbo City, traverse Yuyao City, Haishu District, and Fenghua District, reaching a height of 979 m (3,212 ft).
Ningbo has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen _Cfa_) with four distinctive seasons, characterised by hot, humid summers and chilly, cloudy and drier winters (with occasional snow). The mean annual temperature is 16.53 °C (61.8 °F), with monthly daily averages ranging from 4.9 °C (40.8 °F) in January to 28.1 °C (82.6 °F) in July. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −8.8 °C (16 °F) on 12 January 1955 to 42.1 °C (108 °F) on 8 August 2013. The city receives an average annual rainfall of 1,440 millimetres (56.7 in) and is affected by the plum rains of the Asian monsoon in June, when average relative humidity also peaks. From August to October, Ningbo experiences the effects of typhoons , and is affected by an average 1.8 storms annually, though the city is not often struck directly by these systems. A 2012 OECD study lists Ningbo among the top 20 cities worldwide most at risk of flooding due to anthropogenic climate change.
CLIMATE DATA FOR NINGBO (1971–2000)
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR
RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 24.4 (75.9) 28.9 (84) 34.0 (93.2) 34.3 (93.7) 36.3 (97.3) 38.0 (100.4) 39.0 (102.2) 39.5 (103.1) 38.8 (101.8) 34.5 (94.1) 29.5 (85.1) 25.0 (77) 39.5 (103.1)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 8.8 (47.8) 10.1 (50.2) 13.6 (56.5) 20.0 (68) 24.6 (76.3) 28.0 (82.4) 32.6 (90.7) 31.9 (89.4) 27.6 (81.7) 23.0 (73.4) 17.6 (63.7) 12.0 (53.6) 20.8 (69.5)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 4.9 (40.8) 6.0 (42.8) 9.5 (49.1) 15.2 (59.4) 20.2 (68.4) 24.0 (75.2) 28.1 (82.6) 27.8 (82) 23.7 (74.7) 18.7 (65.7) 13.0 (55.4) 7.2 (45) 16.5 (61.7)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 1.8 (35.2) 3.0 (37.4) 6.2 (43.2) 11.4 (52.5) 16.7 (62.1) 21.0 (69.8) 24.8 (76.6) 24.7 (76.5) 20.8 (69.4) 15.3 (59.5) 9.3 (48.7) 3.6 (38.5) 13.2 (55.8)
RECORD LOW °C (°F) −7.9 (17.8) −6.2 (20.8) −3.7 (25.3) 0.7 (33.3) 7.4 (45.3) 12.7 (54.9) 18.2 (64.8) 18.4 (65.1) 11.0 (51.8) 1.4 (34.5) −3.0 (26.6) −8.5 (16.7) −8.5 (16.7)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 66.8 (2.63) 75.3 (2.965) 127.8 (5.031) 115.3 (4.539) 130.5 (5.138) 204.7 (8.059) 176.9 (6.965) 165.9 (6.531) 174.8 (6.882) 89.4 (3.52) 66.4 (2.614) 49.3 (1.941) 1,443.1 (56.815)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.1 MM) 12.6 12.3 16.9 15.3 14.7 16.4 13.1 14.5 14.1 10.3 8.9 8.5 157.6
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 76 78 80 81 82 86 83 83 83 80 77 75 80.3
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 123.7 108.4 121.7 142.4 156.7 147.8 243.8 238.0 171.5 166.5 143.4 146.1 1,910
PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 38 35 33 37 37 35 57 58 46 47 45 46 42.8
Source #1: China Weather (temperatures, precipitation)
Source #2: Ningbo Climate Studies (humidity, sunshine)
The mayor of Ningbo is Liu Qi . Wang Huizhong is the secretary of CPC in Ningbo, who is first-in-charge of the city. The Communist Party Secretary is always the highest official in cities in China and outranks all other officials.
Ningbo Local Government Offices
* Ningbo Foreign Affairs Office * Ningbo Foreign Trade line-height: 1; text-align: center; background-color: #ffffff; position: relative; max-width: 100%; overflow-x: auto;"> HAISHU JIANGBEI BEILUN ZHENHAI YINZHOU FENGHUA Xiangshan County Ninghai County Yuyao (city) Cixi (city)
SUBDIVISION SIMPLIFIED CHINESE PINYIN POPULATION (2010 ) AREA (KM2) DENSITY
PRIMARY URBAN CORE text-decoration: none">Hǎishǔ Qū 373,742 29.38 12,720.96
Yinzhou District 鄞州区 Yínzhōu Qū 1,359,198 1,345.54 1.010.15
Jiangbei District 江北区 Jiangbei Qū 361,242 208.16 1,735.40
SECONDARY URBAN CORES text-decoration: none">Běilún Qū 612,267 599.03 1,022.09
Zhenhai District 镇海区 Zhènhǎi Qū 418,500 245.90 1,701.91
Fenghua District 奉化区 Fènghuà Qū 491,697 1,267.60 387.89
Xiangshan County 象山县 Xiàngshān Xiàn 503,279 1,382.18 364.11
Ninghai County 宁海县 Nínghǎi Xiàn 646,074 1,843.26 350.50
Yuyao 余姚市 Yúyáo Shì 1,010,659 1,500.80 673.41
Cixi 慈溪市 Cíxī Shì 1,462,383 1,360.63 1,074.78
* Defunct: Jiangdong District
Ningbo is an important port city located 220 kilometres (140 mi) south of Shanghai . The city's export industry dates back to the 7th century. Today Ningbo is a major exporter of electrical products, textiles, food, and industrial tools. The private economy of the city is especially well-developed, contributing 80 percent of total GDP in 2013.
Historically Ningbo was geographically isolated from other major cities. In 2007 the Hangzhou Bay Bridge was built, cutting highway transit time between Ningbo and Shanghai to two and a half hours from four. The city now serves as the economic center for the southern Yangtze River Delta and has been ranked among the most competitive cities in China.
In 2009, Ningbo's economic activity reached USD 60.8 billion, down 10.4% from 2008. The exports totaled USD 38.65 billion, down 16.6% from the previous year. In addition, Ningbo imported USD 22.16 billion of goods, up 3.1% from the previous year.
Ningbo's economy grew 9.26 percent in 2013 to 712.89 billion yuan (US$115.12 billion). In 2009, the city's per capita output was US$10,833, about three times the national average.
With several important development zones established in or around Ningbo, the city has received considerable foreign investment. Over 60 domestic and foreign-invested financial institutions have established operations in the city, which has also attracted more than 10,000 foreigners. The municipal government offers preferential policies designed to encourage investment in international trade, new strategic industries, manufacturing, information services, and creative industries.
ECONOMIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT ZONES
Ningbo Economic ">
* Tianyi Pavilion (Tianyi Ge_), one of Ningbo's most popular tourist attractions, is in the vicinity of Moon Lake (_Yuehu_). Built in 1516 and said to be the oldest surviving library in China, it was founded by Ming official Fan Qin, whose collection went back to the 11th century and included woodblock and handwritten copies of the Confucian classics, rare local histories and lists of the candidates successful in imperial examinations . Today you can visit the library's garden and outhouses, some of which contain small displays of old books and tablets. * Baoguo Temple , the oldest intact wooden structure in eastern China, is located in Jiangbei District , 15 km (9.3 mi) north of Ningbo city proper. * Qita Temple , a Zen Buddhist temple complex first consecrated during the Tang Dynasty. * Tianhou Temple , a former temple of Mazu as the "Empress of Heaven" once used by Fujianese merchants as their guild hall (_Qing'an Huiguan_). In the 19th century, it was accounted by S. Wells Williams as the most beautiful place in Ningbo and by John Thomson as one of the most beautiful temples in China, but that structure was destroyed during the Chinese Civil War. It has been reconstructed with many of its original works of art, however, to form the East Zhejiang Maritime Affairs and Folk Customs Museum . * Tianfeng Pagoda * Ashoka Temple * Tiantong Temple * Tianyi Square * Yushan Islands * Dongqian Lake * Xuedou Temple * Hemudu Relics * Jiulong Lake * Zhaobao Mountain * Mount Phoenix Theme Park * Romon U-Park
Main article: List of people from Ningbo
* Zhang Jianhong , freelance writer, playwright, poet, and also a democracy activist * Pan Tianshou , artist in Chinese painting * Zhou Xinfang , artist in Peking Opera * Sha Menghai , the Master Calligrapher * Tu Youyou , the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine achieved scientist
People in Hong Kong
People in Taiwan
See also: Ningbo Lishe International Airport Zhao bao shan Bridge, Zhenhai District, Ningbo Ningbo New Railway Station was reopened in December 2013 after years of on-site restoration to accommodate high speed rails and increasing passengers.
As there are three main rivers running through Ningbo, it is crucial to build bridges to improve the efficiency of transport network in Ningbo. The Ling Bridge which connects Haishu district and Jiangdong District is the earliest modern bridge built in Ningbo, designed by German engineers. Since the late 1980s, 16 bridges have been built on the three rivers. Currently another 27 bridges are under construction.
The Hangzhou Bay Bridge , a combination cable-stayed bridge and causeway across Hangzhou Bay, opened to the public on May 1, 2008. This bridge connects the municipalities of Shanghai and Ningbo, and is considered the longest trans-oceanic bridge in the world. It is the world's second-longest bridge, after the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway in Louisiana , United States.
The Jintang Bridge, linking Jintang Island of Zhoushan and the Zhenhai district, is a 27 km (17 mi) long, 4 lane sea crossing bridge which opened on December 26, 2009.
The Xiangshan Harbor Bridge opened to traffic on December 29, 2012, connecting Ningbo with Xiangshan. The 47 km long project includes 22 km as the main body of the bridge plus an 8-kilometre-long tunnel.
The port of Ningbo is one of the world\'s busiest ports . It was ranked number 7 in total Cargo Volume and number 6 in total container traffic in 2011.
Ningbo Lishe International Airport connects Ningbo by air to the rest of China, with regularly scheduled domestic and international flights. In 2009, new air routes between Ningbo and Taiwan were opened. Jetstar Asia launched a new route between Ningbo and Singapore in September 2011. Tiger Air planned to begin flying this route from 26 December 2013.
Three railway lines intersect in Ningbo: the Xiaoshan–Ningbo Railway (Xiaoyong Line), which runs west to Hangzhou , the Ningbo–Taizhou– Wenzhou (Yongtaiwen) Railway , which runs south to Wenzhou , and the Hangzhou–Ningbo High-Speed Railway , which runs parallel to the Xiaoyong Line providing high-speed railway service.
With the booming economy in the region, the Xiaoyong Railway, a conventional railway built in the 1950s, cannot meet the demand for railway travel between Zhejiang's two largest cities, so construction of a new high-speed railway line between Hangzhou and Ningbo started in 2009. The new railway line was finished by 2013 and reduced travel time between Ningbo and Hangzhou to 50 minutes.
The Ningbo–Taizhou–Wenzhou Railway is a high-speed railway that opened in September 2009. It connects Ningbo with cities along the coast to the south to Fujian Province. High-speed trains on this line operate at speeds of up to 250 km/h (160 mph).
Ningbo re-opened the Ningbo Railway Station after three years of construction on December 28, 2013. With a construction area of more than 120,000 m2, it is one of the largest railway stations in China.
Seven expressways connect Ningbo with its surrounding cities:
* The Hangyong expressway, built in the 1990s, connects Hangzhou and Ningbo, now part of Hangzhou Bay ring expressway (G9211). * The Yongtaiwen expressway (G15), opened in 2000, connects Ningbo with Taizhou and Wenzhou. * The Yongjin expressway (G1512) connects Ningbo and Jinhua. * The Huyong expressway (G15) connects Ningbo and Shanghai via the Hangzhou Bay bridge. * The Yongzhou expressway (G9211) via Jintang Bridge . * The G1501 Ningbo Ring Expressway * The G15W2 Ningbo– Dongguan Expressway
Ningbo has two metro lines in service consisting of Line 1 , which is 46.2 kilometers in length and has 29 stations, and Line 2 , which is 28.4 kilometers in length and has 22 stations. More lines are under construction. Line 3 is scheduled to be finished in the year 2019 and Line 4 in 2020. Future plans are for 7 metro lines serving Ningbo.
Ningbo is the headquarters of the East Sea Fleet of the Chinese People\'s Liberation Army Navy . Its responsibility includes projecting force in the region around the Republic of China ( Taiwan ), which the People's Republic of China views as a renegade province.
As a city with giant ports, Ningbo influenced many countries near China, such as Japan.
Ningbo speech is a dialect of Wu Chinese , and has preserved many aspects of ancient Chinese phonology. Its original wording mode can be found in classical reference books. It can be found that the trisyllable and tetrasyllable phrases or proverbs in Ningbo dialect make it most unusual and dynamic. Moreover, the onomatopoeia, assonance words, collocations, inversions, and other language characteristics within Ningbo dialect all add spice to people's life. After port-opening, the western culture gradually permeated Ningbo, thus the prefix "洋yang" before the nouns of imported goods is a special language phenomenon of Ningbo dialect.
Ningbo is known for Ningbo Tangyuan , small stuffed buns which are boiled. The stuffing is usually ground sesame mixed with sugar. It can also be mixed with pork. The stuffing is wrapped with sticky rice powder. Even more so, Ningbo is famous throughout China for its seafood. Seafood markets are abundant, carrying countless varieties of fish, crabs/lobsters/shrimp, shellfish, snails, jellyfish and other invertebrates, and sea vegetables in all stages of preparation from "still swimming," to cleaned and ready to cook, to fully cooked.
Ningbo has many traditional Han Chinese festivals same as other provinces in China. However, the date of Mid-Autumn Festival is different with others. Han Chinese will have Mid-Autumn Festival on Lunar Calendar August 15th, but Ningbo will have on August 16th. The most creditable history is long long ago, whole city waited for Shi Hao, a prime minister.
By the end of 2013, there were 2,097 schools of all levels in total, with 1,334 thousand students. Among them there are 16 colleges and universities, with 153 thousand students; 81 secondary schools, with 97 thousand students; 55 vocational schools, with 78 thousand students; 216 junior schools, with 189 thousand students; 465 primary schools, with 487 thousand students; 1,254 kindergartens, with 276 thousand children. Besides, there are 2,500 international students in universities in Ningbo, up 56% from last year. All talents in Ningbo increased by 112 thousand people (8.6%) in 2013, and the total amount came to 1,413 thousand.
By the end of 2014, there were 2,082 schools of all levels in total, with 1,320.7 thousand students. Among them there are 14 colleges and universities, with 150.9 thousand students; 83 secondary schools, with 90.3 thousand students; 52 vocational schools, with 72.8 thousand students; 209 junior schools, with 189.8 thousand students; 457 primary schools, with 482.6 thousand students; 1,254 kindergartens, with 278.4 thousand children.
UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES
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Ningbo has 16 colleges and universities. Towards the north of the city is Ningbo University , while the Ningbo Higher Education Zone (Yinzhou district) is home to Zhejiang Wanli University as well as the University of Nottingham Ningbo – a joint venture between the University of Nottingham and the Wanli Education Group. The University of Nottingham (UK) agreed to invest an additional £27 million in the Ningbo campus during a visit in December, 2013. UNNC graduated its first PhD students in 2013. Affiliated to Zhejiang University , Ningbo Institute of Technology, Zhejiang University , which was ranked as the eleventh best of independent colleges in China in 2011, is also located in this education zone.
SECONDARY AND PRIMARY EDUCATION
Compulsory education (basic education in Chinese terms) is from the age 6 to 15. Students are catered for in a variety of state and private schools. Studying for the gaokao (university entrance test) is optional.
Several schools are permitted to operate educational programmes instead of the Chinese National curriculum and accept international students into their schools.
Access International Academy Ningbo (AIAN) offers a US curriculum with the College Boarrd Advanced Placement examinations. Ningbo Zhicheng School International is an IB World School and offers an international curriculum through the IB Diploma Programme , Ningbo International School offers the South Australian Curriculum Standards and Accountability framework (SACSA) for the toddler grades up to and including grade 5 and provides accredited Cambridge International University programmes for grades 6–12 inclusive. Huamao Multicultural Education Academy is an IB World School and offers an international curriculum through the IB Primary Years Programme for students aged 3–12 and the IB Diploma Programme for students aged 16–19.
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