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Ningbo
Ningbo
(Chinese: 宁波; Mandarin pronunciation: [nǐŋ pwó] ( listen)), formerly written Ningpo, is a sub-provincial city in northeast Zhejiang
Zhejiang
province in China. It comprises the urban districts of Ningbo
Ningbo
proper, three satellite cities, and a number of rural counties including islands in Hangzhou Bay and the East China
China
Sea. Its port, spread across several locations, is among the busiest in the world[2] and the municipality possesses a separate state-planning status.[3] As of the 2010 census, the entire administrated area had a population of 7.6 million, with 3.5 million in the six urban districts of Ningbo
Ningbo
proper. To the north, Hangzhou Bay
Hangzhou Bay
separates Ningbo
Ningbo
from Shanghai; to the east lies Zhoushan
Zhoushan
in the East China
China
Sea; on the west and south, Ningbo
Ningbo
borders Shaoxing
Shaoxing
and Taizhou respectively.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Tang and Song dynasty 2.2 Ming dynasty 2.3 Qing dynasty 2.4 Republican era

3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Administrative structure 5 Economy

5.1 Foreign investment 5.2 Economic and technological development zones

5.2.1 Ningbo
Ningbo
Economic & Technological Development Zone 5.2.2 Ningbo
Ningbo
Daxie Development Zone 5.2.3 Ningbo
Ningbo
National Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone 5.2.4 Ningbo
Ningbo
Free Trade Zone 5.2.5 Nordic Industrial Park 5.2.6 Ningbo
Ningbo
Advertising Park

6 Ningbo
Ningbo
Port 7 Tourism 8 Notable people 9 Transportation

9.1 Bridge 9.2 Sea 9.3 Air 9.4 Railway 9.5 Expressway 9.6 Rapid transit

10 Military 11 Culture

11.1 Language 11.2 Food 11.3 Festival

12 Education

12.1 Universities and colleges 12.2 Secondary and primary education 12.3 International education

13 See also 14 References 15 External links

Etymology[edit] The first character in the city's name ning (宁 or 寧) means "serene", while its second character bo (波) translates to "waves". The city is abbreviated Yǒng (甬), after the Yong Hill (甬山), a prominent coastal hill near the city, like the Yong River that flows through Ningbo. (The abbreviation Ning is used more commonly for Nanjing.) It was once named Míngzhōu (明州). The character ming (明) was composed by two parts, representing two lakes inside the city wall: Sun Lake (日湖) and Moon Lake (月湖). Only Moon Lake remains. History[edit] Main article: History of Ningbo Ningbo
Ningbo
is one of China's oldest cities, with a history dating to the Hemudu culture
Hemudu culture
in 4800 BC. Ningbo
Ningbo
was known as a trade city on the silk road at least two thousand years ago, and then as a major port, along with Yangzhou
Yangzhou
and Guangzhou
Guangzhou
in the Tang Dynasty; thereafter, the major ports for foreign trade in the Song Dynasty. Tang and Song dynasty[edit]

Tianfeng Tower, originally built in Tang Dynasty, is the symbol of old Ningbo.

A rock garden inside Tianyi Chamber

Since the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
Ningbo
Ningbo
has been an important commercial port. Arab traders lived in Ningbo
Ningbo
during the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
when it was known as Mingzhou, as the ocean-going trade passages took precedence over land trade during this time.[4][5] Another name for Mingzhou/Ningbo was Siming. It was a well known center of ocean-going commerce with the foreign world.[6] These merchants did not intermingle with native Chinese, practicing their own customs and religion and they inhabited ghettos. They did not try to proselytize Islam to Chinese.[7] Jews also lived in Ningbo, as evidenced by the fact that, after a major flood destroyed Torah
Torah
scrolls in Kaifeng, a replacement was sent to the Kaifeng Jews
Kaifeng Jews
by the Ningbo
Ningbo
Jewish community.[8] Ming dynasty[edit] The city of Ningbo
Ningbo
was known in Europe for a long time under the name of Liampó. This is the usual spelling used e.g. in the standard Portuguese history, João de Barros's Décadas da Ásia, although Barros explained that Liampó was a Portuguese "corruption" of the more correct Nimpó.[9][10] The spelling Liampó is also attested in the Peregrination (Peregrinação) by Fernão Mendes Pinto, a (so-called) autobiography written in Portuguese during the 16th century. For the mid-16th-century Portuguese, the nearby promontory, which they called the cape of Liampó, after the nearby "illustrious city" was the easternmost known point of the mainland Asia.[9] The Portuguese began trading in Ningbo
Ningbo
around 1522. By 1542, the Portuguese had a sizable community in Ningbo
Ningbo
(or, more likely, on nearby small islands like Shuangyu). Portuguese activities from their Ningbo
Ningbo
base included pillaging and attacking multiple Chinese port cities around Ningbo
Ningbo
for plunder and spoil. They also enslaved people during their raids.[11] The Portuguese were ousted from the Ningbo area in 1548. Qing dynasty[edit] Ningbo
Ningbo
was one of the five Chinese treaty ports opened by the Treaty of Nanjing
Nanjing
(signed in 1842) at the end of the First Opium War
First Opium War
between Britain and China. During the war, British forces took possession of the walled city of Ningbo
Ningbo
briefly after storming the fortified town of Zhenhai at the mouth of the Yong River on October 10, 1841. The British repulsed a Chinese attempt to retake the city in the Battle of Ningpo on March 10, 1842. In 1864, the forces of the Taiping Rebellion held the town for six months. In March 1885, during the Sino-French War, Admiral Courbet's naval squadron blockaded several Chinese warships in Zhenhai Bay and exchanged fire with the shore defences. Ningbo
Ningbo
was also once famed for traditional Chinese furniture production. During the Qing dynasty, western encyclopedias described Ningbo
Ningbo
as a center of craftsmanship and industry.[12][13] During the late Qing dynasty, in the 1800s, the Ningbo
Ningbo
authorities contracted Cantonese
Cantonese
pirates to exterminate and massacre Portuguese pirates who raided Cantonese
Cantonese
shipping around Ningbo. The massacre was "successful", with 40 Portuguese dead and only 2 Chinese dead, being dubbed "The Ningpo Massacre" by an English correspondent, who noted that the Portuguese pirates had behaved savagely towards the Chinese, and that the Portuguese authorities at Macau
Macau
should have reined in the pirates. During late Qing era, Western missionaries set up a Presbyterian Church in Ningbo. Li Veng-eing was a Reverend of the Ningpo Church.[14] The Ningpo College was managed by Rev. Robert F. Fitch. The four trustees were natives of Ningbo, three of them had Taotai rank.[15] Rev. George Evans Moule, B. A. was appointed a missionary to China
China
by the Church of England Missionary Society, and arrived at Ningpo with Mrs. Moule in February 1858. He then began a mission station at Hang-chow, between which and Ningpo his time had been chiefly divided. He wrote Christian publications in the Ningbo dialect.[16] Republican era[edit] During World War II
World War II
in 1940, Japan bombed Ningbo
Ningbo
with ceramic bombs full of fleas carrying the bubonic plague.[17] According to Daniel Barenblatt, Prince Tsuneyoshi Takeda
Tsuneyoshi Takeda
received, with Prince Mikasa, a special screening by Shiro Ishii
Shiro Ishii
of a film showing imperial planes loading germ bombs for bubonic dissemination over Ningbo
Ningbo
in 1940.[18]

"It has been said of the Ningbo
Ningbo
fishermen that, 'no people in the world apparently made so great an advance in the art of fishing; and for centuries past no people have made so little further progress.'"[19]

Geography[edit]

Yuehu Mosque of Ningbo

The Cathedral of the Sacred Heart of Jesus was built between 1872 and 1876, was closed by the government in 1963, and was reopened and renamed in 1980. It was recognized as a national heritage site in 2006.

Ningbo
Ningbo
ranges in latitude from 28° 51' to 30° 33' N and in longitude from 120° 55' to 122° 16' E, bounded on the east by the East China Sea and Zhoushan
Zhoushan
Archipelago, on the north by Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Bay, across which it faces Jiaxing
Jiaxing
and Shanghai, on the west by Shaoxing, and on the south by Taizhou. Its land area is 9,816 square kilometres (3,790 sq mi), while oceanic territory amounts to 9,758 km2 (3,768 sq mi); there is a total 1,562 km (971 mi) of coastline including 788 km (490 mi) of mainland coastline and 774 km (481 mi) of island coastline, together accounting for one-third of the entire provincial coastline. There are 531 islands accounting for 524 km2 (202 sq mi) under the city's administration. The city proper of Ningbo
Ningbo
is sandwiched between the ocean and low-lying mountains to the southwest, with coastal plain and valleys in between. Important peninsulas include the Chuanshan Peninsula (穿山半岛), located in Beilun District
Beilun District
and containing mainland Zhejiang's easternmost point, and the Xiangshan Peninsula (象山半岛) in Xiangshan County. The Siming Mountains (四明山) run north from Mount Tiantai and within Ningbo
Ningbo
City, traverse Yuyao City, Haishu District, and Fenghua
Fenghua
District, reaching a height of 979 m (3,212 ft). Climate[edit] Ningbo
Ningbo
has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) with four distinctive seasons, characterised by hot, humid summers and chilly, cloudy and drier winters (with occasional snow). The mean annual temperature is 16.53 °C (61.8 °F), with monthly daily averages ranging from 4.9 °C (40.8 °F) in January to 28.1 °C (82.6 °F) in July. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −8.8 °C (16 °F) on 12 January 1955 to 42.1 °C (108 °F) on 8 August 2013.[20] The city receives an average annual rainfall of 1,440 millimetres (56.7 in) and is affected by the plum rains of the Asian monsoon in June, when average relative humidity also peaks. From August to October, Ningbo
Ningbo
experiences the effects of typhoons, and is affected by an average 1.8 storms annually, though the city is not often struck directly by these systems. A 2012 OECD study lists Ningbo
Ningbo
among the top 20 cities worldwide most at risk of flooding due to anthropogenic climate change.[21]

Climate data for Ningbo
Ningbo
(1971–2000)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 24.4 (75.9) 28.9 (84) 34.0 (93.2) 34.3 (93.7) 36.3 (97.3) 38.0 (100.4) 39.0 (102.2) 39.5 (103.1) 38.8 (101.8) 34.5 (94.1) 29.5 (85.1) 25.0 (77) 39.5 (103.1)

Average high °C (°F) 8.8 (47.8) 10.1 (50.2) 13.6 (56.5) 20.0 (68) 24.6 (76.3) 28.0 (82.4) 32.6 (90.7) 31.9 (89.4) 27.6 (81.7) 23.0 (73.4) 17.6 (63.7) 12.0 (53.6) 20.8 (69.5)

Daily mean °C (°F) 4.9 (40.8) 6.0 (42.8) 9.5 (49.1) 15.2 (59.4) 20.2 (68.4) 24.0 (75.2) 28.1 (82.6) 27.8 (82) 23.7 (74.7) 18.7 (65.7) 13.0 (55.4) 7.2 (45) 16.5 (61.7)

Average low °C (°F) 1.8 (35.2) 3.0 (37.4) 6.2 (43.2) 11.4 (52.5) 16.7 (62.1) 21.0 (69.8) 24.8 (76.6) 24.7 (76.5) 20.8 (69.4) 15.3 (59.5) 9.3 (48.7) 3.6 (38.5) 13.2 (55.8)

Record low °C (°F) −7.9 (17.8) −6.2 (20.8) −3.7 (25.3) 0.7 (33.3) 7.4 (45.3) 12.7 (54.9) 18.2 (64.8) 18.4 (65.1) 11.0 (51.8) 1.4 (34.5) −3.0 (26.6) −8.5 (16.7) −8.5 (16.7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 66.8 (2.63) 75.3 (2.965) 127.8 (5.031) 115.3 (4.539) 130.5 (5.138) 204.7 (8.059) 176.9 (6.965) 165.9 (6.531) 174.8 (6.882) 89.4 (3.52) 66.4 (2.614) 49.3 (1.941) 1,443.1 (56.815)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 12.6 12.3 16.9 15.3 14.7 16.4 13.1 14.5 14.1 10.3 8.9 8.5 157.6

Average relative humidity (%) 76 78 80 81 82 86 83 83 83 80 77 75 80.3

Mean monthly sunshine hours 123.7 108.4 121.7 142.4 156.7 147.8 243.8 238.0 171.5 166.5 143.4 146.1 1,910

Percent possible sunshine 38 35 33 37 37 35 57 58 46 47 45 46 42.8

Source #1: China
China
Weather (temperatures, precipitation) [22]

Source #2: Ningbo
Ningbo
Climate Studies (humidity, sunshine)[23]

Administrative structure[edit] The mayor of Ningbo
Ningbo
is Liu Qi. Wang Huizhong is the secretary of CPC in Ningbo, who is first-in-charge of the city. The Communist Party Secretary is always the highest official in cities in China
China
and outranks all other officials. Ningbo
Ningbo
Local Government Offices

Ningbo
Ningbo
Foreign Affairs Office[24] Ningbo
Ningbo
Foreign Trade & Economic Cooperation Bureau[25] Ningbo
Ningbo
Govt.[26]

The sub-provincial city of Ningbo
Ningbo
is as whole a group urban with one central group, one northern group, and one southern group. It has direct jurisdiction over six districts (central group), two county-level cities (northern group) and two counties (southern group):

Map

Haishu Jiangbei Beilun Zhenhai Yinzhou Fenghua Xiangshan County Ninghai County Yuyao (city) Cixi (city)

Subdivision Simplified Chinese Pinyin Population (2010) Area (km2) Density

Central Group

Primary urban core & affiliated rural (Tri-river Area)

Haishu District 海曙区 Hǎishǔ Qū 373,742 290.38 1268

Yinzhou District 鄞州区 Yínzhōu Qū 1,359,198 1,345.54 1,010

Jiangbei District 江北区 Jiangbei Qū 361,242 208.16 1,735

Secondary urban cores & affiliated rural

Beilun District 北仑区 Běilún Qū 612,267 599.03 1,022.09

Zhenhai District 镇海区 Zhènhǎi Qū 418,500 245.90 1,701.91

Fenghua
Fenghua
District 奉化区 Fènghuà Qū 491,697 1,267.60 387.89

Southern Group

Xiangshan County 象山县 Xiàngshān Xiàn 503,279 1,382.18 364.11

Ninghai County 宁海县 Nínghǎi Xiàn 646,074 1,843.26 350.50

Northern Group

Yuyao 余姚市 Yúyáo Shì 1,010,659 1,500.80 673.41

Cixi 慈溪市 Cíxī Shì 1,462,383 1,360.63 1,074.78

Defunct: Jiangdong District

Economy[edit]

The bustling downtown of Ningbo
Ningbo
City with the nationwide famous shopping complex Tianyi Square, named after the Tianyi Ge (Chamber), the oldest private library in China.

Ningbo
Ningbo
along rivers

Ningbo
Ningbo
is an important port city located 220 kilometres (140 mi) south of Shanghai. The city's export industry dates back to the 7th century. Today Ningbo
Ningbo
is a major exporter of electrical products, textiles, food, and industrial tools. The private economy of the city is especially well-developed, contributing 80 percent of total GDP in 2013.[27] Historically Ningbo
Ningbo
was geographically isolated from other major cities. In 2007 the Hangzhou Bay
Hangzhou Bay
Bridge was built, cutting highway transit time between Ningbo
Ningbo
and Shanghai
Shanghai
to two and a half hours from four. The city now serves as the economic center for the southern Yangtze River Delta
Yangtze River Delta
and has been ranked among the most competitive cities in China.[27] In 2009, Ningbo's economic activity reached USD 60.8 billion, down 10.4% from 2008. The exports totaled USD 38.65 billion, down 16.6% from the previous year. In addition, Ningbo
Ningbo
imported USD 22.16 billion of goods, up 3.1% from the previous year.[28] Ningbo's economy grew 9.26 percent in 2013 to 712.89 billion yuan (US$115.12 billion).[27] In 2009, the city's per capita output was US$10,833, about three times the national average.[29] Ningbo
Ningbo
is famous for the Si Lan Nong Xiang flower. Used for dyeing cloth, 2008 exports were responsible for 3% of the Ningbo
Ningbo
economic growth. Foreign investment[edit] With several important development zones established in or around Ningbo, the city has received considerable foreign investment.[30] Over 60 domestic and foreign-invested financial institutions have established operations in the city, which has also attracted more than 10,000 foreigners. The municipal government offers preferential policies designed to encourage investment in international trade, new strategic industries, manufacturing, information services, and creative industries.[27] Economic and technological development zones[edit] Ningbo
Ningbo
Economic & Technological Development Zone[edit] Located in the north-east of Ningbo, behind Beilun Port, NETD is 27 km (17 mi) away from the city center. With more than 20 years of great effort, NETD has already formed the general framework for large scale construction and development, and established perfect investment environment. It is situated close to the Ningbo
Ningbo
Port and Ningbo
Ningbo
Lishe International Airport. Major Investors include Exxon Mobile, Dupont and Dow Chemical.[31] Ningbo
Ningbo
Daxie Development Zone[edit] The Ningbo
Ningbo
Daxie Development Zone was approved in 1993 and covers an area of 5.92 km2 (2.29 sq mi). Over more than ten years of development and construction, industrial and logistical foundations have been established in the zone for the transshipment of energy, liquid chemicals and containers.[31] Ningbo
Ningbo
National Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone[edit] Ningbo
Ningbo
National Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was founded in 1999 and was upgraded to a national level zone in January 2007. It is 10 km (6.2 mi) from Ningbo
Ningbo
International Airport and 18 km (11 mi) away from Ningbo
Ningbo
Port. The zone serves as the important technical innovation base of Yangtze River Delta. Industries encouraged include chemicals production and processing, biotechnology and pharmaceuticals, raw material processing, Research and Development.[32] Ningbo
Ningbo
Free Trade Zone[edit] Ningbo
Ningbo
Free Trade Zone is one of the 15 free trade zones authorized by the State Council of China, and is the only free trade zone in Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Province. It was established by State Council in 1992, covering the area of 2.3 km2 (0.89 sq mi). It lies in the middle of the coastline of Mainland China, at the south of Yangtze River Delta. In 2008, its industrial output value was RMB 53.33 billion and grew at 19.8% as compared to 2007.[33] Nordic Industrial Park[edit] The Nordic Industrial Park Co. Ltd. (NIP) is one of the first wholly foreign-owned industrial parks in China
China
located in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province. NIP is managed and operated by a Scandinavian management team.[34] Ningbo
Ningbo
Advertising Park[edit] The Ningbo
Ningbo
Advertising Park is a national level pilot park aimed located in the Ningbo
Ningbo
Southern Business District. The financial incentives have attracted over 300 relevant firms to establish operations.[35] Ningbo
Ningbo
Port[edit] Main article: Port of Ningbo Ningbo
Ningbo
is not just an ordinary city—it has the same authority as provincial governments for economic administration—and has a port second only to Shanghai
Shanghai
around the world in terms of annual cargo throughput. Unlike Shanghai, the port is deep-water and capable of handling 300,000 tonne vessels. The port is located mainly in Beilun district and Zhenhai district. In 2006, Ningbo
Ningbo
Port started its expansion to the neighbouring island City of Zhoushan
Zhoushan
for the purpose of building an even larger port with higher capacity to compete with neighbouring ports in the region, such as Shanghai's Yangshan Deep-Water Port. The statistics in 2010 showed that total cargo throughput was 627,000,000 tonnes and container throughput 13,144,000 TEUs. With bulk container breakdowns, hugely improved logistics, and massive chemical and foodstuff, processing developments, Ningbo
Ningbo
could yet win the race with Shanghai
Shanghai
as port of choice for servicing the Chinese east coast.[36]

Tourism[edit]

The Zunjing Hall (尊经阁) located within the Tianyi Chamber

King Ashoka Temple

The monument to victory in the Battle of Zhenhai (Sino-French War)

Statue of Dante in Ningbo

Tianyi Pavilion
Tianyi Pavilion
(Tianyi Ge), one of Ningbo's most popular tourist attractions, is in the vicinity of Moon Lake (Yuehu). Built in 1516 and said to be the oldest surviving library in China, it was founded by Ming official Fan Qin, whose collection went back to the 11th century and included woodblock and handwritten copies of the Confucian classics, rare local histories and lists of the candidates successful in imperial examinations. Today you can visit the library's garden and outhouses, some of which contain small displays of old books and tablets. Baoguo Temple, the oldest intact wooden structure in eastern China, is located in Jiangbei District, 15 km (9.3 mi) north of Ningbo city proper. Qita Temple, a Zen Buddhist temple complex first consecrated during the Tang Dynasty. Tianhou Temple, a former temple of Mazu as the "Empress of Heaven" once used by Fujianese merchants as their guild hall (Qing'an Huiguan). In the 19th century, it was accounted by S. Wells Williams as the most beautiful place in Ningbo
Ningbo
and by John Thomson as one of the most beautiful temples in China, but that structure was destroyed during the Chinese Civil War. It has been reconstructed with many of its original works of art, however, to form the East Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Maritime Affairs and Folk Customs Museum. Tianfeng Pagoda Ashoka Temple Tiantong Temple Tianyi Square Yushan Islands Dongqian Lake Xuedou Temple Hemudu Relics Jiulong Lake Zhaobao Mountain Mount Phoenix Theme Park Romon U-Park

Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people from Ningbo Many well known Chinese came from Ningbo
Ningbo
or their ancestral home was Ningbo.

People in mainland China

Zhang Jianhong, freelance writer, playwright, poet, and also a democracy activist Pan Tianshou, artist in Chinese painting Zhou Xinfang, artist in Peking Opera Sha Menghai, the Master Calligrapher Tu Youyou, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine achieved scientist

People in Hong Kong

Run Run Shaw Tung Chee Hwa Tung Chao Yung Chen Din Hwa Stephen Chow Sammo Hung

People in Taiwan

Chiang Kai-shek, political and military leader of 20th century China Chiang Ching-kuo Morris Chang

People overseas

Shien Biau Woo Yo Yo Ma Kin Yamei

Transportation[edit] See also: Ningbo
Ningbo
Lishe International Airport

Zhao bao shan Bridge, Zhenhai District, Ningbo

Ningbo
Ningbo
New Railway Station was reopened in December 2013 after years of on-site restoration to accommodate high speed rails and increasing passengers.

Bridge[edit] As there are three main rivers running through Ningbo, it is crucial to build bridges to improve the efficiency of transport network in Ningbo. The Ling Bridge which connects Haishu district and Jiangdong District is the earliest modern bridge built in Ningbo, designed by German engineers. Since the late 1980s, 16 bridges have been built on the three rivers. Currently another 27 bridges are under construction. The Hangzhou Bay
Hangzhou Bay
Bridge, a combination cable-stayed bridge and causeway across Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Bay, opened to the public on May 1, 2008. This bridge connects the municipalities of Shanghai
Shanghai
and Ningbo, and is considered the longest trans-oceanic bridge in the world. It is the world's second-longest bridge, after the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway in Louisiana, United States. The Jintang Bridge, linking Jintang Island of Zhoushan
Zhoushan
and the Zhenhai district, is a 27 km (17 mi) long, 4 lane sea crossing bridge which opened on December 26, 2009. The Xiangshan Harbor Bridge
Xiangshan Harbor Bridge
opened to traffic on December 29, 2012, connecting Ningbo
Ningbo
with Xiangshan. The 47 km long project includes 22 km as the main body of the bridge plus an 8-kilometre-long tunnel.[37] Sea[edit] The port of Ningbo
Ningbo
is one of the world's busiest ports. It was ranked number 7 in total Cargo Volume and number 6 in total container traffic in 2011.[38] Air[edit] Ningbo Lishe International Airport
Ningbo Lishe International Airport
connects Ningbo
Ningbo
by air to the rest of China, with regularly scheduled domestic and international flights. In 2009, new air routes between Ningbo
Ningbo
and Taiwan
Taiwan
were opened. Jetstar Asia launched a new route between Ningbo
Ningbo
and Singapore in September 2011. Tiger Air planned to begin flying this route from 26 December 2013.[needs update] Railway[edit] Three railway lines intersect in Ningbo: the Xiaoshan– Ningbo
Ningbo
Railway (Xiaoyong Line), which runs west to Hangzhou, the Ningbo–Taizhou– Wenzhou
Wenzhou
(Yongtaiwen) Railway, which runs south to Wenzhou, and the Hangzhou– Ningbo
Ningbo
High-Speed Railway, which runs parallel to the Xiaoyong Line providing high-speed railway service. With the booming economy in the region, the Xiaoyong Railway, a conventional railway built in the 1950s, cannot meet the demand for railway travel between Zhejiang's two largest cities, so construction of a new high-speed railway line between Hangzhou
Hangzhou
and Ningbo
Ningbo
started in 2009. The new railway line was finished by 2013 and reduced travel time between Ningbo
Ningbo
and Hangzhou
Hangzhou
to 50 minutes. The Ningbo–Taizhou–Wenzhou Railway
Ningbo–Taizhou–Wenzhou Railway
is a high-speed railway that opened in September 2009. It connects Ningbo
Ningbo
with cities along the coast to the south to Fujian
Fujian
Province. High-speed trains on this line operate at speeds of up to 250 km/h (160 mph). Ningbo
Ningbo
re-opened the Ningbo
Ningbo
Railway Station after three years of construction on December 28, 2013. With a construction area of more than 120,000 m2,[39] it is one of the largest railway stations in China. Expressway[edit] Seven expressways connect Ningbo
Ningbo
with its surrounding cities:

The Hangyong expressway, built in the 1990s, connects Hangzhou
Hangzhou
and Ningbo, now part of Hangzhou Bay
Hangzhou Bay
ring expressway (G9211). The Yongtaiwen expressway (G15), opened in 2000, connects Ningbo
Ningbo
with Taizhou and Wenzhou. The Yongjin expressway (G1512) connects Ningbo
Ningbo
and Jinhua. The Huyong expressway (G15) connects Ningbo
Ningbo
and Shanghai
Shanghai
via the Hangzhou Bay
Hangzhou Bay
bridge. The Yongzhou
Yongzhou
expressway (G9211) via Jintang Bridge.[40] The G1501 Ningbo
Ningbo
Ring Expressway The G15W2 Ningbo– Dongguan
Dongguan
Expressway

Rapid transit[edit] Main article: Ningbo
Ningbo
Rail Transit

Line 1 train leaving Xujiacao Changle
Changle
Station

Ningbo
Ningbo
has two metro lines in service consisting of Line 1, which is 46.2 kilometers in length and has 29 stations, and Line 2, which is 28.4 kilometers in length and has 22 stations. More lines are under construction. Line 3 is scheduled to be finished in the year 2019 and Line 4 in 2020. Future plans are for 7 metro lines serving Ningbo. Military[edit] Ningbo
Ningbo
is the headquarters of the East Sea Fleet
East Sea Fleet
of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy. Its responsibility includes projecting force in the region around the Republic of China
China
(Taiwan), which the People's Republic of China
China
views as a renegade province. Culture[edit] As a city with giant ports, Ningbo
Ningbo
influenced many countries near China, such as Japan. Language[edit] Ningbo
Ningbo
speech is a dialect of Wu Chinese
Wu Chinese
that has preserved many aspects of ancient Chinese phonology. Its original wording mode can be found in classical reference books. It can be found that the trisyllable and tetrasyllable phrases or proverbs in Ningbo
Ningbo
dialect make it most unusual and dynamic. Moreover, the onomatopoeia, assonance words, collocations, inversions, and other language characteristics within Ningbo dialect
Ningbo dialect
all add spice to people's[who?] life. After port-opening, the western culture gradually permeated Ningbo, thus the prefix "洋yang" before the nouns of imported goods is a special language phenomenon of Ningbo
Ningbo
dialect.[41] Food[edit] Ningbo
Ningbo
is known for Ningbo
Ningbo
Tangyuan, small stuffed buns which are boiled. The stuffing is usually ground sesame mixed with sugar. It can also be mixed with pork. The stuffing is wrapped with sticky rice powder. Even more so, Ningbo
Ningbo
is famous throughout China
China
for its seafood. Seafood markets are abundant, carrying countless varieties of fish, crabs/lobsters/shrimp, shellfish, snails, jellyfish and other invertebrates, and sea vegetables in all stages of preparation from "still swimming," to cleaned and ready to cook, to fully cooked. Festival[edit] Ningbo
Ningbo
has many traditional Han Chinese festivals same as other provinces in China. However, the date of Mid-Autumn Festival is different with others. Han Chinese will have Mid-Autumn Festival on Lunar Calendar August 15th, but Ningbo
Ningbo
will have on August 16th. The most creditable history is long long ago, whole city waited for Shi Hao, a prime minister. Education[edit] By the end of 2013, there were 2,097 schools of all levels in total, with 1,334,000 students. Among them there are 16 colleges and universities, with 153,000 students; 81 secondary schools, with 97,000 students; 55 vocational schools, with 78,000 students; 216 junior schools, with 189,000 students; 465 primary schools, with 487,000 students; 1,254 kindergartens, with 276,000 children. Besides, there are 2,500 international students in universities in Ningbo, up 56% from last year. All talents in Ningbo
Ningbo
increased by 112,000 people (8.6%) in 2013, and the total amount came to 1,413,000.[42] By the end of 2014, there were 2,082 schools of all levels in total, with 1,320,700 students. Among them there are 14 colleges and universities, with 150,900 students; 83 secondary schools, with 90,300 students; 52 vocational schools, with 72,8000 students; 209 junior schools, with 189,8000 students; 457 primary schools, with 482,600 students; 1,254 kindergartens, with 278,400 children.[43] Universities and colleges[edit]

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Ningbo
Ningbo
has 16 colleges and universities. University of Nottingham Ningbo
Ningbo
China
China
is China's very first Sino-Foreign University – a joint venture between the University of Nottingham
University of Nottingham
and the Wanli Education Group. UNNC has built a very high reputation in China
China
for the quality of its undergraduate education and graduated its first PhD students in 2013.[44] Toward the north of the city is Ningbo
Ningbo
University, while the Ningbo
Ningbo
Higher Education Zone (Yinzhou district) is home to Zhejiang Wanli University, affiliated to Zhejiang
Zhejiang
University, Ningbo
Ningbo
Institute of Technology, Zhejiang
Zhejiang
University, which was ranked as the eleventh best of independent colleges in China
China
in 2011,[45] is also in this education zone. Secondary and primary education[edit] Compulsory education (basic education in Chinese terms) is from the ages 6 to 15. Students are catered for in a variety of state and private schools. Studying for the gaokao (university entrance test) is optional.[46] International education[edit] Several schools are permitted to operate educational programmes instead of the Chinese National curriculum and accept international students into their schools. Access International Academy Ningbo
Access International Academy Ningbo
(AIAN) offers a US curriculum with the College Boarrd Advanced Placement
Advanced Placement
examinations. Ningbo
Ningbo
Zhicheng School International is an IB World School
IB World School
and offers an international curriculum through the IB Diploma Programme, Ningbo
Ningbo
International School[47] offers the South Australian Curriculum Standards and Accountability framework[48] (SACSA) for the toddler grades up to and including grade 5 and provides accredited Cambridge International University[49] programmes for grades 6–12 inclusive. Huamao Multicultural Education Academy[50] is an IB World School
IB World School
and offers an international curriculum through the IB Primary Years Programme for students ages 3–12 and the IB Diploma Programme
IB Diploma Programme
for students ages 16–19. See also[edit]

List of twin towns and sister cities in China Jiangnan Ningbo
Ningbo
People Sacred Heart Cathedral, Ningbo

References[edit]

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Ningbo
their chief trading outlet. In the late 1540s, there were more than 3,000 people there, some 1,200 of them Portuguese. From this base the latter raided neighbouring coastal cities, pillaging and taking people into slavery. The Chinese authorities responded with armed expeditions against them and, finally, the Portuguese had to abandon the factory  ^ appleton's new practical cyclopedia. NEW YORK. 1910. p. 432. Retrieved 18 July 2011. (Original from Harvard University) ^ Marcus Benjamin; Arthur Elmore Bostwick; Gerald Van Casteel; George Jotham Hagar, eds. (1910). Appleton's new practical cyclopedia: a new work of reference based upon the best authorities, and systematically arranged for use in home and school. Volume 4 of Appleton's New Practical Cyclopedia. NEW YORK: D. Appleton and company,. p. 432. Retrieved 18 July 2011. (Original from the University of Michigan) ^ Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. (1867). The Home and foreign record of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, Volume 18. PHILADELPHIA: PETER WALKER, AGENT, 821 CHESTNUT STREET: Presbyterian Board of Publication. p. 140.  ^ New-York observer, Volume 83. Morse, Hallock & Co. April 27, 1905. p. 533.  ^ Alexander Wylie (1867). Memorials of Protestant missionaries to the Chinese: giving a list of their publications, and obituary notices of the deceased. With copious indexes. SHANGHAE: American Presbyterian Mission Press. p. 247.  ^ "BBC News - ASIA-PACIFIC - 'Japan bombed China
China
with plague-fleas'". news.BBC.co.uk. Retrieved 26 May 2017.  ^ Daniel Barenblatt, A Plague upon Humanity, 2004, p. 32. ^ Worchester, G R G (1971). The Junks and Sampans of the Yangtze. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-87021-335-9. OCLC 216526.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-03-18. Retrieved 18 February 2013.  ^ "Ranking of the world's cities most exposed to coastal flooding today and in the future. Executive Summary" (PDF). OECD. OECD. Retrieved 8 December 2015.  ^ 鄞州城市介绍 (in Chinese). China
China
Weather. Retrieved 2013-01-11.  ^ Ningbo
Ningbo
Climate Studies (in Chinese). Weather Publishing House, China. June 2001. ISBN 7-5029-3175-9.  ^ Ningbo
Ningbo
Foreign Affairs Office[dead link] ^ " Ningbo
Ningbo
Foreign Trade & Economic Cooperation Bureau". NBFET.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 22 April 2009. Retrieved 26 May 2017.  ^ 大汉网络. " Ningbo
Ningbo
Govt". English.Ningbo.gov.cn. Retrieved 29 March 2011.  ^ a b c d "Investment Opportunities in Ningbo, China", China
China
Briefing, Shanghai, 16 May 2014. ^ "Market Profiles on Chinese Cities and Provinces (hktdc.com)". info.HKTDC.com. Retrieved 26 May 2017.  ^ Chiang, Langi (9 July 2007). "Bridge to Shanghai
Shanghai
should give Ningbo's economy a lift". International Herald Tribune. Paris: The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2 May 2008.  ^ "CORPORATE SERVICE_Reindeer Station Ningbo
Ningbo
– Expat Services for Easy Relocation to Ningbo". ReindeerStation.com. Retrieved 26 May 2017.  ^ a b " Ningbo
Ningbo
Economic & Technological Development Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 29 March 2011.  ^ " Ningbo
Ningbo
National Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 29 March 2011.  ^ " Ningbo
Ningbo
Free Trade Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 29 March 2011.  ^ "Nordic Industrial Park". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 29 March 2011.  ^ " Ningbo
Ningbo
Advertising Industry Park begins to show its cluster effect". English.Ningbo.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-02-25.  ^ " China
China
Briefing Developing Cities: Ningbo" (PDF). China-briefing.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 29 March 2011.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-06-21. Retrieved 2014-07-18.  ^ "Ports & World Trade". www.AAPA-ports.org. Retrieved 26 May 2017.  ^ Straughan, David. "New Year, New Beginnings New Railway Station Opens Its Doors". Ningbo
Ningbo
Focus. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2014.  ^ Jintang Bridge ^ "宁波老话概述". gtoc.ningbo.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 2015-10-17. Retrieved 2015-09-09.  ^ 网易. "2013年宁波市国民经济和社会发展统计公报(组图)_网易新闻中心". news.163.com. Retrieved 9 September 2015.  ^ "2014年宁波市国民经济和社会发展统计公报". gtog.Ningbo.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 20 February 2015. Retrieved 9 September 2015.  ^ Ntia, Obio. "An Interview with UNNC's First PhD Graduate Zhou Tongyu". Ningbo
Ningbo
Focus. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2014.  ^ 2011年中国独立学院排行榜100强发布_新浪教育_新浪网. Edu.sina.com.cn. access-date=17 July 2013. ^ Libing Wang, Basic Education in China, Zhejiang
Zhejiang
University Press, 2009 ^ " Ningbo
Ningbo
International School". www.NBIS.net.cn. Retrieved 26 May 2017.  ^ "SACSA". www.SACSA.SA.edu.au. Retrieved 26 May 2017.  ^ "Cambridge International Examinations Official Website". www.CIE.org.uk. Retrieved 26 May 2017.  ^ "Mea-international.com". www.MEA-International.com. Archived from the original on 8 May 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2017. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ningbo.

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Nanjing* Wuxi* Xuzhou* Changzhou Suzhou* Nantong Lianyungang2 Huai'an Yancheng Yangzhou Zhenjiang Tàizhou Suqian

Zhejiang

Hangzhou* Ningbo* Wenzhou2 Jiaxing Huzhou Shaoxing Jinhua Quzhou Zhoushan Tāizhou Lìshui

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Hefei* Wuhu Bengbu Huainan* Ma'anshan Huaibei Tongling Anqing Huangshan Chuzhou Fùyang Sùzhou Lu'an Bozhou Chizhou Xuancheng

Fujian

Fúzhou* Xiamen* Putian Sanming Quanzhou Zhangzhou Nanping Longyan Ningde

Jiangxi

Nanchang* Jingdezhen Píngxiang Jiujiang Xinyu Yingtan Ganzhou Jí'ān Yíchun Fǔzhou Shangrao

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Jinan* Qingdao* Zibo* Zaozhuang Dongying Yantai2 Weifang Jĭning Tai'an Weihai Rizhao Laiwu Linyi Dezhou Liaocheng Binzhou Heze

Henan

Zhengzhou* Kaifeng Luoyang* Pingdingshan Anyang Hebi Xinxiang Jiaozuo Puyang Xuchang Luohe Sanmenxia Nanyang Shangqiu Xinyang Zhoukou Zhumadian

Hubei

Wuhan* Huangshi Shiyan Yichang Xiangyang Ezhou Jingmen Xiaogan Jinzhou Huanggang Xianning Suizhou

Hunan

Changsha* Zhuzhou Xiangtan Hengyang Shaoyang Yueyang Changde Zhangjiajie Yiyang Chenzhou Yongzhou Huaihua Loudi

Guangdong

Guangzhou* Shaoguan Shenzhen* Zhuhai1 Shantou1 Foshan Jiangmen Zhanjiang2 Maoming Zhaoqing Huizhou Meizhou Shanwei Heyuan Yangjiang Qingyuan Dongguan Zhongshan Chaozhou Jieyang Yunfu

Guangxi

Nanning* Liuzhou Guilin Wuzhou Beihai2 Fangchenggang Qinzhou Guigang Yùlin Baise Hezhou Hechi Laibin Chongzuo

Hainan1

Haikou* Sanya Sansha4 Danzhou

Sichuan

Chengdu* Zigong Panzhihua Luzhou Deyang Mianyang Guangyuan Suining Neijiang Leshan Nanchong Meishan Yibin Guang'an Dazhou Ya'an Bazhong Ziyang

Guizhou

Guiyang* Liupanshui Zunyi Anshun Bijie Tongren

Yunnan

Kunming* Qujing Yuxi Baoshan Zhaotong Lìjiang Pu'er Lincang

Tibet

Lhasa* Shigatse Chamdo Nyingchi Shannan

Shaanxi

Xi'an* Tongchuan Baoji Xianyang Weinan Yan'an Hanzhong Yúlin Ankang Shangluo

Gansu

Lanzhou* Jiayuguan Jinchang Baiyin Tianshui Wuwei Zhangye Pingliang Jiuquan Qingyang Dingxi Longnan

Qinghai

Xining* Haidong

Ningxia

Yinchuan* Shizuishan Wuzhong Guyuan Zhongwei

Xinjiang

Ürümqi* Karamay Turpan Hami

Taiwan5

(none)

Other cities (partly shown below)

Prefecture-level capitals (County-level)

(Inner Mongolia: Ulanhot Xilinhot) Jiagedaqi3, Heilongjiang Enshi, Hubei Jishou, Hunan (Sichuan:Xichang Kangding Barkam) (Guizhou: Xingyi Kaili Duyun) (Yunnan: Chuxiong Mengzi Wenshan Jinghong Dali Mangshi Shangri-La Lushui) (Gansu: Linxia Hezuo) (Qinghai: Yushu Delingha) (Xinjiang: Changji Bole Korla Yining Artux Aksu Kashgar1 Hotan Tacheng Altay)

Province-governed cities (Sub-prefecture-level)

Jiyuan, Henan (Hubei: Xiantao Qiánjiang Tianmen Shennongjia) (Hainan1: Wuzhishan Qionghai Wenchang Wanning Dongfang) ( Xinjiang
Xinjiang
- XPCC(Bingtuan) cities: Shihezi Aral Tumxuk Wujiaqu Beitun Tiemenguan Shuanghe Kokdala Kunyu)

Former Prefecture-level cities

Chaohu, Anhui Yumen,Gansu Dongchuan, Yunnan Shashi, Hubei (Sichuan: Fuling Wanxian) (Jilin: Meihekou Gongzhuling)

Sub-prefecture-level cities (Prefecture-governed)

Qian'an, Hebei Manzhouli, Inner Mongolia Erenhot, Inner Mongolia Golmud, Qinghai

County-level cities
County-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Xinji Jinzhou Xinle Zunhua Qian'an* Wu'an Nangong Shahe Zhuozhou Dingzhou Anguo Gaobeidian Botou Renqiu Huanghua Hejian Bazhou Sanhe Shenzhou

Shanxi

Gujiao Lucheng Gaoping Jiexiu Yongji Hejin Yuanping Houma Huozhou Xiaoyi Fenyang

Inner Mongolia

Holingol Manzhouli* Yakeshi Zhalantun Ergun Genhe Fengzhen Ulanhot* Arxan Erenhot* Xilinhot*

Liaoning

Xinmin Wafangdian Zhuanghe Haicheng Donggang Fengcheng Linghai Beizhen Gaizhou Dashiqiao Dengta Diaobingshan Kaiyuan Beipiao Lingyuan Xingcheng

Jilin

Yushu Dehui Jiaohe Huadian Shulan Panshi Gongzhuling Shuangliao Meihekou Ji'an Linjiang Fuyu Taonan Da'an Yanji Tumen Dunhua Hunchun Longjing Helong

Heilongjiang

Shangzhi Wuchang Nehe Hulin Mishan Tieli Tongjiang Fujin Fuyuan Suifenhe Hailin Ning'an Muling Dongning Bei'an Wudalianchi Anda Zhaodong Hailun

Jiangsu

Jiangyin Yixing Xinyi Pizhou Liyang Changshu Zhangjiagang Kunshan Taicang Qidong Rugao Haimen Dongtai Yizheng Gaoyou Danyang Yangzhong Jurong Jingjiang Taixing Xinghua

Zhejiang

Jiande Lin'an Yuyao Cixi Fenghua Rui'an Yueqing Haining Pinghu Tongxiang Zhuji Shengzhou Lanxi Yiwu Dongyang Yongkang Jiangshan Wenling Linhai Longquan

Anhui

Chaohu Jieshou Tongcheng Tianchang Mingguang Ningguo

Fujian

Fuqing Changle Yong'an Shishi Jinjiang Nan'an Longhai Shaowu Wuyishan Jian'ou Zhangping Fu'an Fuding

Jiangxi

Leping Ruichang Gongqingcheng Lushan Guixi Ruijin Jinggangshan Fengcheng Zhangshu Gao'an Dexing

Shandong

Zhangqiu Jiaozhou Jimo Pingdu Laixi Tengzhou Longkou Laiyang Laizhou Penglai Zhaoyuan Qixia Haiyang Qingzhou Zhucheng Shouguang Anqiu Gaomi Changyi Qufu Zoucheng Xintai Feicheng Rongcheng Rushan Laoling Yucheng Linqing

Henan

Gongyi Xingyang Xinmi Xinzheng Dengfeng Yanshi Wugang Ruzhou Linzhou Weihui Huixian Qinyang Mengzhou Yuzhou Changge Yima Lingbao Dengzhou Yongcheng Xiangcheng Jiyuan*

Hubei

Daye Danjiangkou Yidu Dangyang Zhijiang Laohekou Zaoyang Yicheng Zhongxiang Yingcheng Anlu Hanchuan Shishou Honghu Songzi Macheng Wuxue Chibi Guangshui Enshi* Lichuan Xiantao* Qianjiang* Tianmen*

Hunan

Liuyang Liling Xiangxiang Shaoshan Leiyang Changning Wugang Miluo Linxiang Jinshi Yuanjiang Zixing Hongjiang Lengshuijiang Lianyuan Jishou*

Guangdong

Lechang Nanxiong Taishan Kaiping Heshan Enping Lianjiang Leizhou Wuchuan Gaozhou Huazhou Xinyi Sihui Xingning Lufeng Yangchun Yingde Lianzhou Puning Luoding

Guangxi

Cenxi Dongxing Guiping Beiliu Jingxi Yizhou Heshan Pingxiang

Hainan

Wuzhishan* Qionghai* Wenchang* Wanning* Dongfang*

Sichuan

Dujiangyan Pengzhou Qionglai Chongzhou Jianyang Guanghan Shifang Mianzhu Jiangyou Emeishan Langzhong Huaying Wanyuan Barkam* Kangding* Xichang*

Guizhou

Qingzhen Chishui Renhuai Xingyi* Kaili* Duyun* Fuquan

Yunnan

Anning Xuanwei Tengchong Chuxiong* Mengzi* Gejiu Kaiyuan Mile Wenshan* Jinghong* Dali* Ruili Mangshi* Lushui* Shangri-La*

Tibet

(none)

Shaanxi

Xingping Hancheng Huayin

Gansu

Yumen Dunhuang Linxia* Hezuo*

Qinghai

Yushu* Golmud* Delingha*

Ningxia

Lingwu Qingtongxia

Xinjiang

Changji* Fukang Bole* Alashankou Korla* Aksu* Artux* Kashgar* Hotan* Yining* Kuytun Korgas Tacheng* Wusu Altay* Shihezi* Aral* Tumxuk* Wujiaqu* Beitun* Tiemenguan* Shuanghe* Kokdala* Kunyu*

Taiwan5

(none)

Notes

* Indicates this city has already occurred above. aDirect-controlled Municipalities. bSub-provincial cities as provincial capitals. cSeparate state-planning cities. 1Special Economic Zone Cities. 2Coastal development cities. 3Prefecture capital status established by Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
Province and not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
as part of it. 4Only administers islands and waters in South China
China
Sea and have no urban core comparable to typical cities in China. 5The claimed province of Taiwan
Taiwan
no longer have any internal division announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual jurisdiction. See Template:Administrative divisions of the Republic of China
China
instead. All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by province.

Authority control

GND: 4264941-9 BNF: cb12248424n (d

.