Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa KOGF GCB
(French: [nikɔla saʁkɔzi] ( listen); born 28 January
1955) is a French politician who served as
President of France
President of France and ex
Co-Prince of Andorra
Co-Prince of Andorra from 16 May 2007 until 15 May 2012.
Born in Paris, his family is of Greek Jewish, French, and Hungarian
origin. Mayor of
Neuilly-sur-Seine from 1983 to 2002, he was Minister
of the Budget under Prime Minister
Édouard Balladur (1993–1995)
during François Mitterrand's second term. During Jacques Chirac's
second presidential term he served as Minister of the Interior and as
Minister of Finances. He was the leader of the Union for a Popular
Movement (UMP) party from 2004 to 2007.
He won the
French presidential election, 2007
French presidential election, 2007 by a 53.1% to 46.9%
margin to Socialist Ségolène Royal. During his term, he faced the
late-2000s financial crisis (causing a recession and the European
sovereign debt crisis) and the
Arab Spring (especially in Tunisia,
Libya, and Syria). He initiated the reform of French universities
(2007) and the pension reform (2010). He married Italian-French
Carla Bruni in 2008 at the
Élysée Palace in Paris.
In the 2012 election, François Hollande, candidate of the Socialist
Party, defeated Sarkozy by a 3.2% margin. After leaving the
presidential office, Sarkozy vowed to retire from public life before
coming back in 2014, being subsequently reelected as UMP leader
(renamed The Republicans in 2015). Being defeated at the Republican
presidential primary in 2016, he retired from public life. He is
currently charged with corruption by French prosecutors in two cases,
notably concerning the alleged Libyan interference in the 2007 French
1 Personal life
1.1 Family background
1.2 Early life
1.4.1 Marie-Dominique Culioli
1.4.2 Cécilia Ciganer-Albéniz
1.4.3 Carla Bruni
1.5 Personal wealth
2 Early political career
2.1 In Government: 1993–1995
2.2 First term as Minister of the Interior: 2002–2004
2.3 Minister of Finance: 2004
2.4 Second term as Minister of the Interior: 2005–2007
2.5 UMP leader: 2004–2007
2.6 Presidential election: 2007
3 Presidency (2007–2012)
3.2 Release of hostages
3.3 Green policy
3.4 Economic policy
3.5 Security policy
3.6 Constitutional reform
3.7 International affairs
3.8 Military intervention in Libya
3.9 2012 presidential campaign
4 After his defeat
4.1 Temporary retirement: 2012–2014
4.2 Return to politics: 2014–2016
5 Public image
6.1 Views on religions
6.2 Controversial statements
6.3 "Casse-toi, pauv'con"
6.4 Position on the Iraq war
6.5 Fake presence at the fall of the Berlin Wall
6.6 Accusations of nepotism
6.7 Political and financial scandals
6.8 Alleged Libyan agent of influence
6.8.2 Initial allegations
6.8.3 Inquiry and arrests
6.8.4 Police custody and indiction
7 Political career
8 Awards and honours
8.1 French Honours
8.2 Foreign Honours
8.3 Other Honours
10 Further reading
11 External links
11.1 Official websites
11.3 Related contents
Main article: Family history of Nicolas Sarkozy
Sarkozy was born in Paris, and is the son of Pál István Ernő
Sárközy de Nagy-Bócsa (Hungarian: nagybócsai Sárközy Pál;
[ˈnɒɟboːt͡ʃɒi ˈʃaːrkøzi ˈpaːl] ( listen)—in
some sources Nagy-Bócsay Sárközy Pál István Ernő), a
Protestant Hungarian aristocrat, and Andrée Jeanne "Dadu" Mallah (12
October 1925 – 12 December 2017), whose Greek Jewish father
converted to Catholicism to marry Sarkozy's
French Catholic maternal
grandmother. They were married in the Saint-François-de-Sales
church, 17th arrondissement of Paris, on 8 February 1950, and divorced
During Sarkozy's childhood, his father founded his own advertising
agency and became wealthy. The family lived in a mansion owned by
Sarkozy's maternal grandfather, Benedict Mallah, in the 17th
Arrondissement of Paris. The family later moved to Neuilly-sur-Seine,
one of the wealthiest communes of the Île-de-
immediately west of Paris. According to Sarkozy, his staunchly
Gaullist grandfather was more of an influence on him than his father,
whom he rarely saw. Sarkozy was raised Catholic.
Sarkozy said that being abandoned by his father shaped much of who he
is today. He also has said that, in his early years, he felt inferior
in relation to his wealthier and taller classmates. "What made me
who I am now is the sum of all the humiliations suffered during
childhood", he said later.
Sarkozy was enrolled in the Lycée Chaptal, a well regarded public
middle and high school in Paris' 8th arrondissement, where he failed
his sixième. His family then sent him to the Cours Saint-Louis de
Monceau, a private Catholic school in the 17th arrondissement, where
he was reportedly a mediocre student, but where he nonetheless
obtained his baccalauréat in 1973.
Sarkozy enrolled at the Université
Paris X Nanterre, where he
graduated with an M.A. in private law and, later, with a D.E.A. degree
in business law.
Paris X Nanterre had been the starting place for the
May '68 student movement and was still a stronghold of leftist
students. Described as a quiet student, Sarkozy soon joined the
right-wing student organization, in which he was very active.[citation
needed] He completed his military service as a part-time Air Force
After graduating from university, Sarkozy entered Sciences Po, where
he studied between 1979 and 1981, but failed to graduate due to an
insufficient command of the English language.
After passing the bar, Sarkozy became a lawyer specializing in
business and family law and was one of Silvio Berlusconi's French
Sarkozy married his first wife, Marie-Dominique Culioli, on 23
September 1982; her father was a pharmacist from Vico (a village north
of Ajaccio, Corsica), her uncle was Achille Peretti, the mayor of
Neuilly-sur-Seine from 1947–1983 and Sarkozy's political mentor.
They had two sons, Pierre (born in 1985), now a hip-hop producer,
and Jean (born in 1986) now a local politician in the city of
Neuilly-sur-Seine where Sarkozy started his own political career.
Sarkozy's best man was the prominent right-wing politician Charles
Pasqua, later to become a political opponent. Sarkozy divorced
Culioli in 1996, after they had been separated for several years.
As mayor of Neuilly-sur-Seine, Sarkozy met former fashion model and
public relations executive Cécilia Ciganer-Albéniz
(great-granddaughter of composer
Isaac Albéniz and daughter of a
Moldovan father), when he officiated at her wedding to television
host Jacques Martin. In 1988, she left her husband for Sarkozy, and
divorced Martin one year later. Sarkozy married her in October 1996,
Martin Bouygues and Bernard Arnault. They have one
son, Louis, born 23 April 1997.
Between 2002 and 2005, the couple often appeared together on public
occasions, with Cécilia Sarkozy acting as the chief aide for her
husband. On 25 May 2005, however, the Swiss newspaper Le Matin
revealed that she had left Sarkozy for French-Moroccan national
Richard Attias, head of
Publicis in New York. There were other
accusations of a private nature in Le Matin, which led to Sarkozy
suing the paper. In the meantime, he was said to have had an
affair with a journalist of Le Figaro, Anne Fulda.
Sarkozy and Cécilia ultimately divorced on 15 October 2007, soon
after his election as President.
Sarkozy and his wife
Carla Bruni greet President
Barack Obama at the
G8 Summit dinner in Deauville, France, 26 May 2011.
Less than a month after separating from Cécilia, Sarkozy met
Italian-born singer, songwriter and former fashion model Carla Bruni
at a dinner party, and soon entered a relationship with her. They
married on 2 February 2008 at the
Élysée Palace in Paris.
The couple have a daughter, Giulia, born on 19 October 2011. It
was the first time a French president has publicly had a child while
Sarkozy declared to the Constitutional Council a net worth of
€2 million, most of the assets being in the form of life
insurance policies. As the French President, one of his first
actions was to give himself a pay raise: his yearly salary went from
€101,000 to €240,000 to match his European[clarification
needed]. He is also entitled to a mayoral, parliamentarian and
presidential pension as a former Mayor of Neuilly-sur-Seine, member of
the National Assembly and President of France.
Early political career
Sarkozy is recognized by French parties on both the Right and Left as
a skilled politician and striking orator. His supporters within
France emphasize his charisma, political innovation and willingness to
"make a dramatic break" amid mounting disaffection against "politics
as usual". Overall, he is considered more pro-American and pro-Israeli
than most French politicians.
From 2004 to 2007, Sarkozy was president of the Union pour un
Mouvement Populaire (UMP), France's major right-wing political party,
and he was Minister of the Interior in the government of Prime
Minister Dominique de Villepin, with the honorific title of Minister
of State, making him effectively the number three official in the
French State after President
Jacques Chirac and Villepin. His
ministerial responsibilities included law enforcement and working to
co-ordinate relationships between the national and local governments,
as well as Minister of Worship (in this role he created the French
Council of the Muslim Faith (CFCM). Previously, he was a deputy to the
French National Assembly. He was forced to resign this position in
order to accept his ministerial appointment. He previously also held
several ministerial posts, including Finance Minister.
In Government: 1993–1995
Sarkozy's political career began when he was 23, when he became a city
councillor in Neuilly-sur-Seine. A member of the Neo-
RPR, he went on to be elected mayor of that town, after the death of
the incumbent mayor Achille Peretti. Sarkozy had been close to
Peretti, as his mother was Peretti's secretary. A more senior RPR
councillor, Charles Pasqua, wanted to become mayor, and asked Sarkozy
to organize his campaign. Instead Sarkozy took that opportunity to
propel himself into the office of mayor. He was the youngest mayor
of any town in
France with a population of over 50,000. He served from
1983 to 2002. In 1988, he became a deputy in the National Assembly.
In 1993, Sarkozy was in the national news for personally negotiating
with the "Human Bomb", a man who had taken small children hostage in a
kindergarten in Neuilly. The "Human Bomb" was killed after two
days of talks by policemen of the RAID, who entered the school
stealthily while the attacker was resting.
At the same time, from 1993 to 1995, he was Minister for the Budget
and spokesman for the executive in the cabinet of Prime Minister
Édouard Balladur. Throughout most of his early career, Sarkozy had
been seen as a protégé of Jacques Chirac. During his tenure, he
increased France's public debt more than any other French Budget
Minister, by the equivalent of €200 billion
(USD260 billion) (FY 1994–1996). The first two budgets he
submitted to the parliament (budgets for FY1994 and FY1995) assumed a
yearly budget deficit equivalent to six percent of GDP. According
to the Maastricht Treaty, the French yearly budget deficit may not
exceed three percent of France's GDP.
In 1995, he spurned Chirac and backed
Édouard Balladur for President
of France. After Chirac won the election, Sarkozy lost his position as
Minister for the Budget, and found himself outside the circles of
However, he returned after the right-wing defeat at the 1997
parliamentary election, as the number two candidate of the RPR. When
the party leader
Philippe Séguin resigned, in 1999, he took the
leadership of the Neo-
Gaullist party. But it obtained its worst result
at the 1999 European Parliament election, winning 12.7% of the votes,
less than the dissident Rally for
France of Charles Pasqua. Sarkozy
lost the RPR leadership.
Sarkozy speaking at the congress of his party, 28 November 2004
In 2002, however, after his re-election as President of the French
Republic (see French presidential election, 2002), Chirac appointed
Sarkozy as French Minister of the Interior in the cabinet of Prime
Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin, despite Sarkozy's support of Edouard
Balladur for French President in 1995. Following Chirac's 14 July
keynote speech on road safety, Sarkozy as interior minister pushed
through new legislation leading to the mass purchase of speed cameras
and a campaign to increase the awareness of dangers on the roads.
In the cabinet reshuffle of 30 April 2004, Sarkozy became Finance
Minister. Tensions continued to build between Sarkozy and Chirac and
within the UMP party, as Sarkozy's intentions of becoming head of the
party after the resignation of
Alain Juppé became clear.
In party elections of 10 November 2004, Sarkozy became leader of the
UMP with 85% of the vote. In accordance with an agreement with Chirac,
he resigned as Finance Minister. Sarkozy's ascent was marked by the
division of UMP between sarkozystes, such as Sarkozy's "first
lieutenant", Brice Hortefeux, and Chirac loyalists, such as Jean-Louis
Sarkozy was made Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur (Knight of the
Legion of Honour) by President Chirac in February 2005. He was
re-elected on 13 March 2005 to the National Assembly. (As required by
the constitution, he had to resign as a deputy when he became
minister in 2002.)
On 31 May 2005 the main French news radio station
France Info reported
a rumour that Sarkozy was to be reappointed Minister of the Interior
in the government of
Dominique de Villepin
Dominique de Villepin without resigning from the
UMP leadership. This was confirmed on 2 June 2005, when the members of
the government were officially announced.
First term as Minister of the Interior: 2002–2004
Towards the end of his first term as Minister of the Interior, in
2004, Sarkozy was the most divisive conservative politician in France,
according to polls conducted at the beginning of 2004.
Sarkozy has sought to ease the sometimes tense relationships between
the general French population and the Muslim community. Unlike the
Catholic Church in
France with their official leaders or Protestants
with their umbrella organisations, the French Muslim community had a
lack of structure with no group that could legitimately deal with the
French government on their behalf. Sarkozy supported the foundation in
May 2003 of the private non-profit Conseil français du culte musulman
("French Council of the Muslim Faith"), an organisation meant to be
representative of French Muslims. In addition, Sarkozy has
suggested amending the 1905 law on the separation of Church and State,
mostly in order to be able to finance mosques and other Muslim
institutions with public funds so that they are less reliant on
money from outside France. It was not followed by any concrete
Minister of Finance: 2004
During his short appointment as Minister of Finance, Sarkozy was
responsible for introducing a number of policies. The degree to which
this reflected libéralisme (a hands-off approach to running the
economy) or more traditional French state dirigisme (intervention) is
controversial. He resigned the day following his election as president
of the UMP.
In September 2004, Sarkozy oversaw the reduction of the government
ownership stake in
France Télécom from 50.4 percent to 41
Sarkozy backed a partial nationalisation of the large engineering
Alstom decided by his predecessor when the company was exposed
to bankruptcy in 2003.
In June 2004, Sarkozy reached an agreement with the major retail
France to concertedly lower prices on household goods by an
average of two percent; the success of this measure is disputed, with
studies suggesting that the decrease was close to one percent in
Taxes: Sarkozy avoided taking a position on the ISF (solidarity tax on
wealth). This is considered an ideological symbol by many on the left
and right. Some in the business world and on the liberal right, such
as Alain Madelin, wanted it abolished. For Sarkozy, that would have
risked being categorised by the left as a gift to the richest classes
of society at a time of economic difficulties.
Second term as Minister of the Interior: 2005–2007
Sarkozy as Minister of the Interior with U.S. Secretary of State
Condoleezza Rice, after their bilateral meeting in Washington, D.C.,
12 September 2006
During his second term at the Ministry of the Interior, Sarkozy was
initially more discreet about his ministerial activities: instead of
focusing on his own topic of law and order, many of his declarations
addressed wider issues, since he was expressing his opinions as head
of the UMP party.
Main article: Response to the 2005 civil unrest in France
However, the civil unrest in autumn 2005 put law enforcement in the
spotlight again. Sarkozy was accused of having provoked the unrest by
calling young delinquents from housing projects a "rabble"
Argenteuil near Paris, and controversially suggested
cleansing the minority suburbs with a Kärcher. After the accidental
death of two youths, which sparked the riots, Sarkozy first blamed it
on "hoodlums" and gangsters. These remarks were sharply criticised by
many on the left wing and by a member of his own government, Delegate
Minister for Equal Opportunities Azouz Begag.
After the rioting, he made a number of announcements on future policy:
selection of immigrants, greater tracking of immigrants, and a reform
on the 1945 ordinance government justice measures for young
UMP leader: 2004–2007
Nicolas Sarkozy in 2006 with Cypriot opposition leader Nicos
Before he was elected President of France, Sarkozy was president of
UMP, the French conservative party, elected with 85 percent of the
vote. During his presidency, the number of members has significantly
increased. In 2005, he supported a "yes" vote in the French referendum
on the European Constitution, but the "No" vote won.
Throughout 2005, Sarkozy called for radical changes in France's
economic and social policies. These calls culminated in an interview
Le Monde on 8 September 2005, during which he claimed that the
French had been misled for 30 years by false promises. Among other
he called for a simplified and "fairer" taxation system, with fewer
loopholes and a maximum taxation rate (all direct taxes combined) at
50 percent of revenue;
he approved measures reducing or denying social support to unemployed
workers who refuse work offered to them;
he pressed for a reduction in the budget deficit, claiming that the
French state has been living off credit for some time.
Such policies are what are called in
France libéral (that is, in
favour of laissez-faire economic policies) or, with a pejorative
undertone, ultra-libéral. Sarkozy rejects this label of libéral and
prefers to call himself a pragmatist.
Sarkozy opened another avenue of controversy by declaring that he
wanted a reform of the immigration system, with quotas designed to
admit the skilled workers needed by the French economy. He also wants
to reform the current French system for foreign students, saying that
it enables foreign students to take open-ended curricula in order to
obtain residency in France; instead, he wants to select the best
students to the best curricula in France.
In early 2006, the
French parliament adopted a controversial bill
known as DADVSI, which reforms French copyright law. Since his party
was divided on the issue, Sarkozy stepped in and organised meetings
between various parties involved. Later, groups such as the Odebi
League and EUCD.info alleged that Sarkozy personally and unofficially
supported certain amendments to the law, which enacted strong
penalties against designers of peer-to-peer systems.
Presidential election: 2007
Ségolène Royal was Sarkozy's final opponent during the 2007
Main article: French presidential election, 2007
Sarkozy was a likely candidate for the presidency in 2007; in an
oft-repeated comment made on television channel
France 2, when asked
by a journalist whether he thought about the presidential election
when he shaved in the morning, Sarkozy commented, "Not just when I
On 14 January 2007, Sarkozy was chosen by the UMP to be its candidate
in the 2007 presidential election. Sarkozy, who was running unopposed,
won 98 percent of the votes. Of the 327,000 UMP members who could
vote, 69 percent participated in the online ballot.
In February 2007, Sarkozy appeared on a televised debate on
he expressed his support for affirmative action and the freedom to
work overtime. Despite his opposition to same-sex marriage, he
advocated civil unions and the possibility for same-sex partners to
inherit under the same regime as married couples. The law was voted in
On 7 February, Sarkozy decided in favour of a projected second,
non-nuclear, aircraft carrier for the national Navy (adding to the
nuclear Charles de Gaulle), during an official visit in
Defence Minister Michèle Alliot-Marie. "This would allow permanently
having an operational ship, taking into account the constraints of
maintenance", he explained.
On 21 March, President
Jacques Chirac announced his support for
Sarkozy. Chirac pointed out that Sarkozy had been chosen as
presidential candidate for the ruling UMP party, and said: "So it is
totally natural that I give him my vote and my support." To focus on
his campaign, Sarkozy stepped down as interior minister on 26
During the campaign, rival candidates had accused Sarkozy of being a
"candidate for brutality" and of presenting hard-line views about
France's future. Opponents also accused him of courting
conservative voters in policy-making in a bid to capitalise on
right-wing sentiments among some communities. However, his popularity
was sufficient to see him polling as the frontrunner throughout the
later campaign period, consistently ahead of rival Socialist
candidate, Ségolène Royal.
Demonstrations in Paris, 6 May 2007, following the election of Nicolas
The first round of the presidential election was held on 22 April
2007. Sarkozy came in first with 31.18 percent of the votes, ahead of
Ségolène Royal of the Socialists with 25.87 percent. In the second
round, Sarkozy came out on top to win the election with 53.06 percent
of the votes ahead of
Ségolène Royal with 46.94 percent. In his
speech immediately following the announcement of the election results,
Sarkozy stressed the need for France's modernisation, but also called
for national unity, mentioning that Royal was in his thoughts. In that
speech, he claimed "The French have chosen to break with the ideas,
habits and behaviour of the past. I will restore the value of work,
authority, merit and respect for the nation."
Main article: Presidency of Nicolas Sarkozy
Sarkozy greets U.S. First Lady
Laura Bush in Germany, June 2007
On 6 May 2007,
Nicolas Sarkozy became the sixth person to be elected
President of the Fifth Republic (which was established in 1958), and
the 23rd President in French history.
The official transfer of power from Chirac to Sarkozy took place on 16
May at 11:00 am (9:00 UTC) at the Élysée Palace, where he was
given the authorization codes of the French nuclear arsenal. In
the afternoon, the new President flew to Berlin to meet with German
Chancellor Angela Merkel.
Under Sarkozy's government,
François Fillon replaced Dominique de
Villepin as Prime Minister. Sarkozy appointed Bernard Kouchner,
the left-wing founder of Médecins Sans Frontières, as his Foreign
Minister, leading to Kouchner's expulsion from the Socialist Party. In
addition to Kouchner, three more Sarkozy ministers are from the left,
including Éric Besson, who served as Ségolène Royal's economic
adviser at the beginning of her campaign. Sarkozy also appointed seven
women to form a total cabinet of 15; one, Justice Minister Rachida
Dati, is the first woman of Northern African origin to serve in a
French cabinet. Of the 15, two attended the elite École nationale
d'administration (ENA). The ministers were reorganised, with the
controversial creation of a 'Ministry of Immigration, Integration,
National Identity and Co-Development'—given to his right-hand man
Brice Hortefeux—and of a 'Ministry of Budget, Public Accounts and
Civil Administration'—handed out to Éric Wœrth, supposed to
prepare the replacement of only a third of all civil servants who
retire. However, after 17 June parliamentary elections, the Cabinet
was adjusted to 15 ministers and 16 deputy ministers, totalling 31
Sarkozy broke with the custom of amnestying traffic tickets and of
releasing thousands of prisoners from overcrowded jails on Bastille
Day, a tradition that
Napoleon had started in 1802 to commemorate the
storming of the Bastille during the French Revolution.
Nicolas Sarkozy and General Jean-Louis Georgelin, Chief of the Defence
Staff, reviewing troops during the
Bastille Day 2008 military parade
on the Champs-Élysées, Paris
In the 2007 and 2008, French President Nicolas Sarkozy, Canadian
Prime Minister Stephen Harper, and Quebec Premier Jean Charest all
spoke in favour of a Canada – EU free trade agreement. In October
2008, Sarkozy became the first French President to address the
National Assembly of Quebec. In his speech he spoke out against Quebec
separatism, but recognized Quebec as a nation within Canada. He said
that, to France, Canada was a friend, and Quebec was family.
Release of hostages
Shortly after taking office, Sarkozy began negotiations with Colombian
Álvaro Uribe and the left-wing guerrilla FARC, regarding
the release of hostages held by the rebel group, especially
Franco-Colombian politician Ingrid Betancourt. According to some
sources, Sarkozy himself asked for Uribe to release FARC's
"chancellor" Rodrigo Granda.
Furthermore, he announced on 24 July 2007, that French and European
representatives had obtained the extradition of the Bulgarian nurses
Libya to their country. In exchange, he signed with
Muammar Gaddafi security, health care and immigration pacts—and a
$230 million (168 million euros)
MILAN antitank missile
sale. The contract was the first made by
Libya since 2004, and was
negotiated with MBDA, a subsidiary of EADS. Another 128 million euro
contract would have been signed, according to Tripoli, with
EADS for a
TETRA radio system. The Socialist Party (PS) and the Communist Party
(PCF) criticised a "state affair" and a "barter" with a "Rogue
state". The leader of the PS, François Hollande, requested the
opening of a parliamentary investigation.
On 8 June 2007, during the
33rd G8 summit
33rd G8 summit in Heiligendamm, Sarkozy set
a goal of reducing French CO2 emissions by 50 percent by 2050 in order
to prevent global warming. He then pushed forward Socialist Dominique
Strauss-Kahn as European nominee to the International Monetary Fund
(IMF). Critics alleged that Sarkozy proposed to nominate
Strauss-Kahn as managing director of the IMF to deprive the Socialist
Party of one of its more popular figures.
In 2010, a study of
Yale and Columbia universities ranked
most respectful country of the
G20 concerning the environment.
Union for a Popular Movement
Union for a Popular Movement (UMP), Sarkozy's party, won a
majority at the June 2007 legislative election, although by less than
expected. In July, the UMP majority, seconded by the Nouveau Centre,
ratified one of Sarkozy's electoral promises, which was to partially
revoke the inheritance tax. The inheritance tax formerly
brought eight billion euros into state coffers.
Sarkozy (at left) attending the G-8 Summit in 2009
Sarkozy's UMP majority prepared a budget that reduced taxes, in
particular for upper middle-class people, allegedly in an effort to
boost GDP growth, but did not reduce state expenditures. He was
criticised by the European Commission for doing so.
On 23 July 2008, parliament voted the "loi de modernisation de
l'économie" (Modernization of the Economy Law) which loosened
restrictions on retail prices and reduced limitations on the creation
of businesses. The Government has also made changes to long-standing
French work-hour regulations, allowing employers to negotiate overtime
with employees and making all hours worked past the traditional French
35-hour week tax-free.
Nicolas Sarkozy addresses the E-G8 Forum in
Paris in 2011
However, as a result of the global financial crisis that came to a
head in September 2008, Sarkozy has returned to the state
interventionism of his predecessors, declaring that "laissez-faire
capitalism is over" and denouncing the "dictatorship of the market".
Confronted with the suggestion that he had become a socialist, he
responded: "Have I become socialist? Perhaps." He has also pledged to
create 100,000 state-subsidised jobs. This reversion to dirigisme
is seen as an attempt to stem the growing popularity of revolutionary
socialist leader Olivier Besancenot.
Sarkozy's government issued a decree on 7 August 2007 to generalise a
voluntary biometric profiling program of travellers in airports. The
program, called 'Parafes', was to use fingerprints. The new database
would be interconnected with the
Schengen Information System
Schengen Information System (SIS) as
well as with a national database of wanted persons (FPR). The
Commission nationale de l'informatique et des libertés (CNIL)
protested against this new decree, opposing itself to the recording of
fingerprints and to the interconnection between the SIS and the
On 21 July 2008, the
French parliament passed constitutional reforms
which Sarkozy had made one of the key pledges of his presidential
campaign. The vote was 539 to 357, one vote over the three-fifths
majority required; the changes are not yet finalized. They would
introduce a two-term limit for the presidency, and end the president's
right of collective pardon. They would allow the president to address
parliament in-session, and parliament, to set its own agenda. They
would give parliament a veto over some presidential appointments,
while ending government control over parliament's committee system. He
has claimed that these reforms strengthen parliament, while some
opposition socialist lawmakers have described it as a "consolidation
of a monocracy".
Nicolas Sarkozy with
President of Brazil
President of Brazil Dilma Rousseff
During his 2007 presidential campaign, Sarkozy promised a
strengthening of the entente cordiale with the United Kingdom and
closer cooperation with the United States.
Sarkozy wielded special international power when
France held the
rotating EU Council Presidency from July 2008 through December 2008.
Sarkozy has publicly stated his intention to attain EU approval of a
progressive energy package before the end of his EU Presidency. This
energy package would clearly define climate change objectives for the
EU and hold members to specific reductions in emissions. In further
support of his collaborative outlook on climate change, Sarkozy has
led the EU into a partnership with China. On 6 December 2008,
Nicolas Sarkozy, as part of France's then presidency of the Council of
the EU, met the Dalai Lama in Poland and outraged China, which has
announced that it would postpone the China-EU summit indefinitely.
On 3 April 2009, at the
NATO Summit in Strasbourg, Sarkozy announced
France would offer asylum to a former Guantanamo captive.
"We are on the path to failure if we continue to act as we have",
Nicolas Sarkozy cautioned at the U.N. Climate Summit
on 22 September 2009.
On 5 January 2009, Sarkozy called for a ceasefire plan for the Gaza
Strip Conflict. The plan, which was jointly proposed by Sarkozy
and Egyptian ex-President
Hosni Mubarak envisions the continuation of
the delivery of aid to Gaza and talks with Israel on border security,
a key issue for Israel as it says
Hamas smuggles its rockets into Gaza
through the Egyptian border. Welcoming the proposal, US Secretary of
Condoleezza Rice called for a "ceasefire that can endure and
that can bring real security".
Military intervention in Libya
Muammar Gaddafi's official visit to
Nicolas Sarkozy in December 2007
has triggered a strong wave of protests against the President in
Sarkozy at the
Paris Summit of 19 March 2011, which marked the start
of a military intervention in Libya
In March 2011, after having been criticized for his unwillingness to
support the Egyptian and Tunisian revolutions, and persuaded by the
Bernard-Henri Levy to have
France actively engage against
the forces of the Libyan leader, Muammar Gaddafi,
Nicolas Sarkozy was
amongst the first Heads of State to demand the resignation of Gaddafi
and his government, which was then fighting a civil war in Libya. On
10 March 2011,
Nicolas Sarkozy welcomed to the Elysee Palace, three
emissaries from the Libyan
National Transitional Council
National Transitional Council (NTC),
brought to him by
Bernard-Henri Levy who mediated at the meeting.
Nicolas Sarkozy promised them a no-fly zone would be imposed on
Gaddafi's aeroplanes. He also promised them French military
assistance. On 17 March 2011, at the behest of France, resolution 1973
was adopted by the Security Council of the United Nations, permitting
the creation of a "no fly" zone over Libya, and for the undertaking of
"necessary measures" for the protection of the country's civilian
population. On 19 March 2011,
Nicolas Sarkozy officially announced the
beginning of a military intervention in Libya, with France's
participation. These actions of
Nicolas Sarkozy were favorably
received by the majority of the French political class and public
In 2016, the Foreign Affairs Committee of the British Parliament
published a report stating that the military intervention "was based
on erroneous assumptions" that the threat of a massacre of civilian
populations has been "overvalued" and that the coalition is " Has not
"verified the real threat to civilians"; He also believes that the
true motivations of
Nicolas Sarkozy were to serve French interests and
to "improve his political situation in France".
2012 presidential campaign
Popularity polls during his presidency
Main article: French presidential election, 2012
Sarkozy was one of ten candidates who qualified for the first round of
voting. François Hollande, the Socialist Party candidate,
received the most votes in the first round held on 22 April election,
with Sarkozy coming second, meaning that both progressed to the second
round of voting on 5–6 May 2012. Sarkozy lost in the runoff and
conceded to Hollande. He received an estimated 48.38% compared to
After his defeat
Temporary retirement: 2012–2014
After his defeat at the 2012 election,
Nicolas Sarkozy asked his
supporters to respect Hollande's victory. He invited his successor to
attend his last 8 May
Victory in Europe Day
Victory in Europe Day commemoration in office.
His last day as President of the French Republic was 15 May.
Return to politics: 2014–2016
The Republicans (France)
The Republicans (France) presidential primary,
Nicolas Sarkozy's rally, Belfort, 12 March 2015
On 19 September 2014, Sarkozy announced that he was returning to
politics and would run for chairman of the UMP party. and was
elected to the post on 29 November 2014. Led by Sarkozy, UMP won
over two-thirds of the 102 local departements in the nationwide
elections on 29 March 2015. On 13 December, the Republicans won
the majority of regional office races, another set of national
elections. (On 30 May the UMP's name was changed to the
In January 2016, Sarkozy published the book La
France pour la vie. In
August 2016, he announced his candidacy for 2016 Republican
presidential primary in November 2016, but only came in third place
François Fillon and Alain Juppé. He decided to endorse Fillon
and to retire from politics.
Sarkozy was named the 68th best-dressed person in the world by Vanity
David Beckham and Brad Pitt. However, Sarkozy has
also been named as the third worst-dressed person in the world by
GQ, a listing that has been disputed. Beside publicizing, at
times, and at others, refusing to publicise his ex-wife Cécilia
Ciganer-Albéniz's image, Sarkozy takes care of his own personal
image, sometimes to the point of censorship—such as in the Paris
Match affair, when he allegedly forced its director to resign
following an article on his ex-wife and her affair with Publicis
executive Richard Attias, or pressures exercised on the Journal du
dimanche, which was preparing to publish an article concerning
Ciganer-Albéniz's decision not to vote in the second round of the
2007 presidential election. In its edition of 9 August 2007, Paris
Match retouched a photo of Sarkozy in order to erase a love
handle. His official portrait destined for all French
town halls was done by
Sipa Press photographer Philippe Warrin, better
known for his paparazzi work.
Daily Telegraph journalist Colin Randall has highlighted
Sarkozy's tighter control of his image and frequent interventions in
the media: "he censors a book, or fires the chief editor of a
weekly." Sarkozy is reported by
Reuters to be sensitive about his
height (believed to be 165 cm (5 ft 5 in)). The
French media have pointed out that
Carla Bruni frequently wears flats
when in public with him. In 2009, a worker at a factory where Sarkozy
gave a speech said she was asked to stand next to him because she was
of a similar height to Sarkozy. (This story was corroborated by some
trade union officials.) This was the subject of a political row: the
president's office called the accusation "completely absurd and
grotesque", while the Socialist Party mocked his fastidious
Sarkozy lost a suit against a manufacturer of Sarkozy voodoo dolls, in
which he claimed that he had a right to his own image.
Sarkozy was nicknamed as Hyper-president or hyperpresident by some
French media after his 2007 election as President. It is a
portmanteau of hyper and president to insist on the desire of Sarkozy
to control everything. Whereas in the history of the Fifth
Republic, the successive presidents were traditionally focused on the
foreign policy of the country and on international relations, leaving
the Prime Minister and the government to determine the domestic
policy, as the Constitution states it,
Nicolas Sarkozy appeared
to determine both the foreign and domestic policy.
Nicolas Sarkozy to
Napoléon Bonaparte and Louis
XIV. Indeed, he appointed a very close friend of his, François
Fillon, as a Prime Minister.
François Fillon was accused of
being an instrument of the President's power.
The biopic The Conquest is a 2011 film that dramatizes Sarkozy's rise
to power, with candid portrayals of Sarkozy himself, Chirac and
Villepin. It was shown at the 2011 Cannes Film Festival.
This article's Criticism or Controversy section may compromise the
article's neutral point of view of the subject. Please integrate the
section's contents into the article as a whole, or rewrite the
material. (May 2011)
Sarkozy is generally disliked by the left and has been criticised by
some on the right, most vocally by moderate
Gaullist supporters of
Jacques Chirac and Dominique de Villepin. The
L'Humanité accused Sarkozy of
Views on religions
Many on the left distrust Sarkozy; specific "anti-Sarko" movements
have been started.
In 2004 Sarkozy co-authored a book, La République, les religions,
l'espérance (The Republic, Religions, and Hope), in which he
argued that the young should not be brought up solely on secular or
republican values. He advocated reducing the separation of church and
state, arguing for the government subsidies for mosques to encourage
Islamic integration into French society. He has opposed financing
of religious institutions with funds from outside France. After
meeting with Tom Cruise, Sarkozy was criticized by some for meeting
with a member of the Church of Scientology, which has been seen by
some as a cult. Sarkozy was criticized by some Christians after
he claimed "the roots of
France are essentially Christian" at a
December 2007 speech in Rome. Similarly, he drew criticism from
Christians after he called Islam "one of the greatest and most
beautiful civilizations the world has known" at a speech in
In the midst of a tense period and following the accidental death of
an 11-year-old boy in the
Paris suburb of
La Courneuve in June 2005,
Sarkozy quoted a local resident and vowed to clean the area out "with
a Kärcher" (a high-pressure hose). Two days before the 2005 Paris
riots he referred to young criminals of nearby housing projects as
"voyous" ("thugs") and "racaille", a slang term which can be
translated into English as "rabble", "scum" or "riff-raff", in answer
to resident who addressed Sarkozy with "Quand nous débarrassez-vous
de cette racaille?" ("When will you rid us of these dregs?") The
French Communist Party
French Communist Party publication, L'Humanité, branded this language
as inappropriate. Following Sarkozy's use of the word racaille
many people in the banlieues identified him as a politician of the far
right. His period as Interior Minister saw the use of police as shock
troops in the "banlieues", and a police "raid" on the suburb of
Clichy-sous-Bois in October 2005 led to two boys being electrocuted in
a power sub-station. The riots began that night.
In September 2005 Sarkozy was accused of pushing for a hasty inquiry
into an arson attack on a police station in Pau, of which the alleged
perpetrators were acquitted for lack of proof. On 22 June 2005
Sarkozy told law enforcement officials that he had questioned the
Minister of Justice about the future of "the judge" who had freed a
man on parole who had later committed a murder.
A few weeks before the first round of the 2007 presidential elections,
Sarkozy had an interview with philosopher Michel Onfray. Sarkozy
stated that disorders such as paedophilia and depression have a
genetic as well as social basis, saying "... I'd be inclined to think
that one is born a paedophile, and it is actually a problem that we do
not know how to cure this disease"; he claimed that suicides among
youth were linked to genetic predispositions by stating, "I don't want
to give parents a complex. It's not exclusively the parents' fault
every time a youngster commits suicide." These statements were
criticised by some scientists, including geneticist Axel
Kahn. Sarkozy later added, "What part is innate and what
part is acquired? At least let's debate it, let's not close the door
to all debate."
On 27 July 2007, Sarkozy delivered a speech in Dakar, Senegal, written
by Henri Guaino, in which he claimed that "the African has never
really entered into history". The controversial remarks were
widely condemned by Africans, with some viewing them as
racist. South African president
Thabo Mbeki praised
Sarkozy's speech, which raised criticism by some in the South African
On 30 July 2010, Sarkozy suggested a new policy of security, and he
proposed "stripping foreign-born French citizens who opted to acquire
their nationality at their majority of their citizenship if they are
convicted of threatening the life of a police officer or other serious
crimes". This policy has been criticized for example by the US
newspaper The New York Times, by Sarkozy's political opponents,
including the Socialist Party leader Martine Aubry, and by
experts of French law, including the ex-member of the Constitutional
Council of France, Robert Badinter, who said that such action would be
He called for coercive methods to promote "métissage," cultural
mixing (which can sometimes include genetic mixing), which he called
an "obligation" during a press conference on 17 December 2008.
On 23 February 2008, Sarkozy was filmed by a reporter for French
Le Parisien having the following exchange while visiting the
Paris International Agricultural Show:
While quickly crossing the hall Saturday morning, in the middle of the
crowd, Sarkozy encounters a recalcitrant visitor who refuses to shake
his hand. "Ah no, don't touch me!", said the man. The president
retorted immediately: "Get lost, then." "You're making me dirty",
yelled the man. With a frozen smile, Sarkozy says, his teeth
glistening, a refined "Get lost, then, poor dumb-ass, go."
It should be noted that a precise translation into English has many
On 28 August 2008, Hervé Eon, from Laval came to an anti-Sarkozy
demonstration with a sign bearing the words Casse-toi pov' con, the
exact words Sarkozy had uttered. Eon was arrested for causing offence
to the presidential function and the prosecutor, who in France
indirectly reports to the president, requested a fine of
€1000. The court eventually imposed a symbolic €30
suspended fine, which has generally been interpreted as a defeat for
the prosecution side. This incident was widely reported on, in
particular as Sarkozy, as president of the Republic, is immune from
prosecution, notably restricting Eon's rights to sue Sarkozy for
Position on the Iraq war
Sarkozy opposed the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq. However, he was
critical of the way Chirac and his foreign minister Dominique de
Villepin expressed France's opposition to the war. Talking at the
French-American Foundation in
Washington, D.C. on 12 September 2006,
he denounced what he called the "French arrogance" and said: "It is
bad manners to embarrass one's allies or sound like one is taking
delight in their troubles." He added: "We must never again turn
our disagreements into a crisis." Chirac reportedly said in private
that Sarkozy's speech was "appalling" and "a shameful act".
Fake presence at the fall of the Berlin Wall
On 8 November 2009, Sarkozy posted on his
Facebook page a picture
supposedly showing him chipping away at the
Berlin Wall during its
fall. However, the dates were inconsistent and the picture was proven
to be fake – and later archived footage confirmed this. This news of
forgery spread in France, and later evolved into a meme, "Sarkozy Was
There", where Sarkozy is photoshopped into historical events.[citation
Accusations of nepotism
In October 2009, Sarkozy was accused of nepotism for helping his son,
Jean, try to become head of the public body running France's biggest
business district EPAD. On 3 July 2012, French police
raided Sarkozy's residence and office as part of a probe into claims
that Sarkozy was involved in illegal political campaign
Political and financial scandals
On 5 July 2010, following its investigations on the Bettencourt
affair, online newspaper
Mediapart ran an article in which Claire
Thibout, a former accountant of billionairess Liliane Bettencourt,
accused Sarkozy and
Eric Woerth of receiving illegal campaign
donations in 2007, in cash.
On 1 July 2014 Sarkozy was detained for questioning by police over
claims he had promised a prestigious role in
Monaco to a high-ranking
judge, Gilbert Azibert, in exchange for information about the
investigation into alleged illegal campaign funding. Mr Azibert, one
of the most senior judges at the Court of Appeal, was called in for
questioning on 30 June 2014. It is believed to be the first time
a former French president has been held in police custody, although
his predecessor, Jacques Chirac, was found guilty of embezzlement and
breach of trust while he was mayor of
Paris and given a suspended
prison sentence in 2011. After 15 hours in police custody,
Sarkozy was put under official investigation for "active corruption",
"misuse of influence" and "obtained through a breach of professional
secrecy" on 2 July 2014. Mr Azibert and Sarkozy's lawyer, Thierry
Herzog, are also now under official investigation. The two accusations
carry sentences of up to 10 years in prison. The developments
were seen as a blow to Sarkozy's attempts to challenge for the
presidency in 2017. Nevertheless, he later stood as a
candidate for the Republican party nomination, but was eliminated
from the contest in November 2016.
On 16 February 2016, Sarkozy was indicted on "illegal financing of
political campaign" charges related to overspending in his 2012
presidential campaign and retained as witness in connection with the
In April 2016, Arnaud Claude, former law partner of Sarkozy, was named
in the Panama Papers.
Alleged Libyan agent of influence
Main article: Alleged Libyan influence in the 2007 French elections
Shortly after Sarkozy's inauguration as
President of France
President of France in 2007,
he invited Libyan leader
Muammar Gaddafi to
France over the objections
of both the political opposition, and members of his own
government. The visit marked the first time Gaddafi had been to
France in more than 35 years and, during it,
France agreed to sell
Airbus aircraft and signed a nuclear cooperation
agreement. Negotiations for the purchase of more than a dozen
Dassault Rafale fighter jets, plus military helicopters, were also
initiated during the trip.
The government of former Libyan leader
Muammar Gaddafi allegedly paid
€50 million to Sarkozy in exchange for access.
2011 Libyan Civil War
2011 Libyan Civil War – a conflict in which France
Saif-al-Islam Gaddafi said in an interview with
euronews that the Libyan state had donated €50 million to Sarkozy's
2007 presidential campaign in exchange for access and favors by
We funded it and we have all the details and are ready to reveal
everything. The first thing we want this clown to do is to give the
money back to the Libyan people. He was given assistance so that he
could help them. But he’s disappointed us: give us back our
Saif al-Islam Gaddafi's claim was later repeated by former Libyan
Baghdadi Mahmudi in October of that year, though
Sarkozy denied its veracity. Investigative website Mediapart
subsequently published several documents appearing to prove a payment
of €50 million, and also published a claim by
Ziad Takieddine that
he had personally handed three briefcases stuffed with cash to
Sarkozy. French magistrates later acquired diaries of former
Libyan oil minister
Shukri Ghanem in which payments to Sarkozy were
mentioned. Shortly thereafter, however, Ghanem was found dead,
floating in the
Austria and thereby preventing his
corroboration of the diaries.
Inquiry and arrests
A judicial investigation against then-unidentified persons was
initiated in April 2013 in Paris.
In January 2018, British police arrested Alexandre Djouhri on a
European Arrest Warrant. Djouhri was an associate of Sarkozy and
had refused to respond to a French judicial summons for questioning
over allegations he had helped launder Libyan funds on behalf of
Sarkozy. The following month,
Asharq Al-Awsat quoted a source who
alleged Sarkozy had promised Libyan representatives improved relations
Libya should he be elected president, and that he
would wrap-up the matter of the bombing of UTA Flight 772.
On 20 March, Sarkozy was arrested by French police and held for
questioning concerning the various allegations about a Libyan
connection, the first time he had been interrogated in relation to the
Brice Hortefeux was also brought in by police for
Following Sarkozy's arrest, Saif al-Islam expressed a willingness to
testify in any future trial. He also claimed that a former
officer of the Libyan intelligence service was in possession of a
recording of a meeting between his father and Sarkozy in Tripoli in
2007 at which payments were discussed. The Republicans,
meanwhile, issued a statement in which the party said the former
president had their full support. Spokesman Christian Jacob later
suggested that the accusations against Sarkozy were politically
Police custody and indiction
On 20 and 21 March 2018, Sarkozy was put into police custody and held
for questioning concerning the Libyan connection. He was formally
charged with bribery and accepting illegal campaign contributions at
the issue of this custody.
President of the French Republic: 2007–2012.
Member of the Constitutional Council of France: since 2012.
Minister of Budget and government's spokesman: 1993–1995.
Minister of Communication and government's spokesman: 1994–1995.
Minister of State, minister of Interior, of the Internal Security and
Local Freedoms: 2002–2004.
Minister of State, minister of Economy, Finance and Industry:
March–November 2004 (resignation).
Minister of State, minister of Interior and Land Planning: 2005–2007
Member of the European Parliament: July–September 1999
(resignation). Elected in 1999.
National Assembly of France
Member of the National Assembly of
constituency): 1988–1993 (became minister in 1993) / 1995–2002
(became minister in 2002) / March–June 2005 (became minister in June
2005). Elected in 1988, reelected in 1993, 1995, 1997, 2002, 2005.
Regional councillor of Île-de-France: 1983–1988 (resignation).
Elected in 1986.
President of the General Council of Hauts-de-Seine: 2004–2007
(resignation, became President of the French Republic in 2007).
Vice-president of the General Council of Hauts-de-Seine: 1986–1988
General councillor of Hauts-de-Seine, elected in the canton of
Neuilly-sur-Seine-Nord: 1985–1988 / 2004–2007 (Resignation, became
President of the French Republic in 2007).
Mayor of Neuilly-sur-Seine: 1983–2002 (resignation). Reelected in
1989, 1995, and 2001.
Deputy-mayor of Neuilly-sur-Seine: 2002–2005 (resignation).
Municipal councillor of Neuilly-sur-Seine: 1977–2005 (resignation).
Reelected in 1983, 1989, 1995, and 2001.
President of the Union for a Popular Movement: 2004–2007
(resignation, became President of the French Republic in 2007).
Elected in 2004.
President of the Rally for the Republic: April–October 1999.
General secretary of the Rally for the Republic: 1998–1999.
Deputy general secretary of the Rally for the Republic: 1992–1993.
Awards and honours
Legion of Honour
Grand Cross (2007—automatic when taking office)
Grand Cross of the National Order of Merit (2007—automatic when
Commander of the Order of Leopold (Belgium)
Order of Stara Planina, first class (Bulgaria)
Grand Cross of the Order of the Southern Cross (Brazil)
St. George's Order of Victory (Georgia)
Grand Cross of the
Order of Saint-Charles
Order of Saint-Charles (Monaco) – 25 April
Knight of the
Order of the Golden Fleece
Order of the Golden Fleece (Spain) – 2011
Grand Cross of the
Order of Charles III
Order of Charles III (Spain) – 2004
Collar of the
Order of Charles III
Order of Charles III (Spain) – 2009
Commander of the Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise, first class
(Ukraine) – 2010
Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the
Order of the Bath
Order of the Bath (United Kingdom)
Holy See: Proto-canon of the Papal Basilicas of St. John Lateran
and St. Peter's (2007–2012; the post is held ex officio by the
French Head of State)
Italy: Premio Mediterraneo
^ "Sarkozy" is the westernized, or internationalized, version of his
Hungarian name. In Hungarian the given name comes last rather than
first. The French aristocratic particle "de" is also used instead of
the Hungarian aristocratic ending "-i". This westernization of
Hungarian names is frequent, particularly for people with an
aristocratic name. For example the leader of Hungary from 1920 to
1944, whose Hungarian name is nagybányai Horthy Miklós, is known in
Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya. The French name of Pál
Sárközy de Nagy-Bócsa changed in 1948 to Paul Étienne Arnaud
Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa, when Pál was translated as Paul in French,
and the acute accents on the "a" of Sarközy and the "o" of Bocsa were
dropped as these letters never carry an acute accent (accent aigu) in
French. The trema on the "o" of Sárközy was kept, probably because
French typewriters allow this combination, whereas it is impossible to
write "a" or "o" with an acute accent using a French typewriter.
^ Schmemann, Serge (15 May 2007). "The New French President's Roots
Are Worth Remembering". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 September
^ a b "Profile: Nicolas Sarkozy". BBC News. 26 July 2009. Retrieved 9
^ "A Greek book on Nicolas Sarkozy". The European Jewish Press.
Archived from the original on 17 April 2008. Retrieved 12 April
^ "Ancestry of Nicolas Sarkozy". William Addams Reitwiesner. Retrieved
9 March 2010.
^ a b see Catherine Nay's semi-official biography
^ Un pouvoir nommé désir, Catherine Nay, 2007
^ "Le service militaire de Sakozy". Nousnours. 22 February 1999.
Archived from the original on 14 February 2010. Retrieved 9 March
^ Augustin Scalbert, Un soupçon de vantardise sur les CV
ministériels, Rue 89, 18 September 2007 (in French)
^ a b See Catherine Nay's semi-official biography
^ "Berlusconi : le "bon Nicolas Sarkozy" a été mon avocat". Le
Nouvel Observateur (in French). 29 June 2009. Retrieved 9 March
^ "Corfù, il vertice del disgelo "Riparte collaborazione Nato-Russia"
Il Cavaliere: "Mandai il mio avvocato Sarkozy da lui per la
Georgia..."" (in Italian). la Repubblica. Retrieved 9 March
^ "Berlusconi al vertice Nato-Russia "Quando mandai l'avvocato
Sarkozy"" (in Italian). L'Unione Sarda. 27 June 2009. Retrieved 9
^ Indrisek, Scott (7 January 2008). "Pierre Sarkozy: Hip-Hop
Producer". Rhapsody Blog. Archived from the original on 24 March 2010.
Retrieved 9 March 2010.
^ Sarkozy Closes in on his Goal: Ambition and Honesty on the French
Campaign Trail Spiegel.de, 4 September 2007
^ "Cécilia Sarkozy: The First Lady vanishes". The Independent.
London. 24 June 2007. Archived from the original on 17 May 2008.
Retrieved 31 March 2010.
^ "Cecilia Sarkozy Biography". NetGlimse.com. Archived from the
original on 14 March 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
^ Wyatt, Caroline (15 May 2007). "Sarkozy soap opera grips Paris". BBC
News. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
Nicolas Sarkozy divorce official". HULIQ. 18 October 2007.
Retrieved 9 March 2010.
^ "Globaljournalist.org". Global Journalist. Archived from the
original on 31 July 2012. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
^ Willsher, Kim (19 February 2006). "The Sarkozy saga". The Daily
Telegraph. UK. Retrieved 12 August 2007.
^ AFX News Limited (18 October 2007). "French president Sarkozy
separation is 'divorce' – official UPDATE". Forbes. Archived from
the original on 5 August 2011.
France begins to grow weary with the Sarkozy soap opera. The
Guardian, 13 January 2008
^ French President Marries Former Model, ABC News, Associated Press, 2
^ Samuel, Henry (20 October 2011). "Carla Bruni-Sarkozy confirms name
of daughter: Giulia". The Daily Telegraph. London.
^ "France's first couple welcomes their baby girl Giulia after
low-profile pregnancy". The Washington Post. Retrieved 23 October
2011. [dead link]
^ AFP (11 May 2007). "L'homme qui valait 2 millions" [The man worth 2
Libération (in French). France. Retrieved 18 March
^ Boyle, Jon (31 October 2007). "Jokes and anger in
Sarkozy pay rise".
Reuters UK. Retrieved 12 March 2010.
^ "French Populism", by Ignacio Ramonet,
Le Monde Diplomatique, June
2007 Edition, French version (in French), English translation Archived
12 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Le Parisien, 11 January 2007
^ Craig S. Smith (7 May 2007). "Sarkozy Wins the Chance to Prove His
Critics Wrong". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 January 2008.
^ Dette publique de la
France (in French)
^ Sauced Sarkozy Archived 2 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
Felice E. Baker, The Dartmouth Independent, 31 October 2007
^ "French Constitution, article 23". Assemblee Nationale. Retrieved 9
^ JO associations, 28 May 2003
^ WorldWide Religious News Archived 24 December 2008 at the Wayback
^ Thorel, Jerome (1 September 2004). "Le gouvernement finalise la
France Télécom" (in French). ZDNet France.
Retrieved 18 March 2010.
^ "Bruxelles valide le sauvetage d'Alstom".
L'Expansion (in French).
France: L'Express. 22 September 2003. Retrieved 18 March 2010.
^ "Grande distribution : l'accord Sarkozy à moitié appliqué".
L'Expansion (in French). France. 30 September 2004. Archived from the
original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 18 March 2010.
^ Martine, Gilson (20 May 2004). "ISF, la tentation des députés"
Le Nouvel Observateur
Le Nouvel Observateur (in French). France. Archived
from the original on 8 February 2005.
^ Azouz Begag, principal opposant à Nicolas Sarkozy, Le Monde, 2
November 2005 (in French)
^ "Interview with Le Monde, 8 September 2005". Sarkozy Blog. 19
September 2004. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
^ Broadcast of "
France 2" Archived 27 April 2005 at the Wayback
Machine., 19 November 2003
^ "Sarkozy nod for presidential run", BBC News, 14 January 2007.
Retrieved 14 January 2007.
^ It was included in the paquet fiscal that has been one of the first
laws passed in Parliament
^ Sarkozy pour un deuxième porte-avions français (AFP)
Jacques Chirac Backs Nicolas Sarkozy. 21 March 2007.
^ French confused over the real Sarkozy. 18 April 2007
^ Élection présidentielle de 2007—résultats définitifs French
Ministry of the Interior
^ Samuel, Henry (17 May 2007). "Radiant Cécilia puts Sarkozy in the
shade". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
^ Communiqué de la Présidence de la République concernant la
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candidato a las presidenciales de 2007", in Epoca ([Madrid] :
Difusora de Informacion Periodica S.A., DINPESA, 9 July 2004), number
1012, p. 46(2), 3 pages, 829 words, available online"¿Quién
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Wikiquote has quotations related to: Nicolas Sarkozy
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nicolas Sarkozy.
(in French) President of France
(in French) Website of the UMP, Sarkozy's party
(in French) Official personal website[permanent dead link]
(in French) 2012 campaign website
(in English) (in French) Address to the General Assembly of the United
Nations during the General Debate of the 63rd Session, 23 September
Nicolas Sarkozy addressed the Assembly both as President of
France and as President of the European Union
France International feature Sarkozy's 90-minute address to the
nation, 6 February 2009
"Hosing Sarkozy" an article in the TLS by Sudhir Hazareesingh, 28
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Nicolas Sarkozy (BBC News)
Nicolas Sarkozy: French Choose the American Way? by David Storobin
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Letter From Europe- Round 1 Jane Kramer, The New Yorker, 23 April 2007
On the so-called "rupture" by Sarkozy, Mathieu Potte-Bonneville &
Pierre Zaoui, Vacarme n°41, Winter 2007
Operation Sarkozy, English version of the famous article published by
the Russian news magazine Profile 16 June 2008
The Bettencourt/L'Oréal scandal Radio
France Internationale in
French politics no stranger to scandals Radio
France Internationale in
L'Oréal, scandals and the far right Radio
France Internationale in
Articles and Coverage (Guardian UK)
(in Spanish) Extended biography by CIDOB Foundation
(in French) Sarkozy's opinion poll tracker
(in French) Some of Sarkozy's quotations
Nicolas Sarkozy on Facebook
Nicolas Sarkozy on IMDb
Appearances on C-SPAN
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Ségolène Royal (PS)
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Jean-Marie Le Pen
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Lost in runoff
Nicolas Sarkozy (UMP; incumbent)
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