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NEWFOUNDLAND (/njuːfənˈlænd/ (_ listen ) new-fən-LAND_ ; Spanish : _Terranova_, French : _Terre-Neuve_, Mi\'kmaq : _Taqamkuk_, Irish : _Talamh an Éisc_, Inuttitut : _Kallunasillik_ / _Ikkarumikluak_ ) is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
. It has 29 percent of the province's land area. The island is separated from the Labrador Peninsula by the Strait of Belle Isle
Strait of Belle Isle
and from Cape Breton Island by the Cabot Strait
Cabot Strait
. It blocks the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River , creating the Gulf of Saint Lawrence , the world's largest estuary . Newfoundland's nearest neighbour is the French overseas community of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon .

With an area of 108,860 square kilometres (42,031 sq mi), Newfoundland
Newfoundland
is the world\'s 16th-largest island , Canada\'s fourth-largest island , and the largest Canadian island outside the North . The provincial capital, St. John\'s , is located on the southeastern coast of the island; Cape Spear , just south of the capital, is the easternmost point of North America
North America
, excluding Greenland. It is common to consider all directly neighbouring islands such as New World, Twillingate , Fogo and Bell Island to be 'part of Newfoundland' (as distinct from Labrador). By that classification, Newfoundland
Newfoundland
and its associated small islands have a total area of 111,390 square kilometres (43,008 sq mi).

According to 2006 official Census Canada
Canada
statistics, 57% of responding Newfoundland
Newfoundland
and Labradorians claim British or Irish ancestry, with 43.2% claiming at least one English parent, 21.5% at least one Irish parent, and 7% at least one parent of Scottish origin. Additionally 6.1% claimed at least one parent of French ancestry. The island's total population as of the 2006 census was 479,105.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 First inhabitants * 1.2 European contact, colonisation and settlement

* 2 Flags of Newfoundland
Newfoundland
* 3 Points of interest and major settlements

* 4 Geography

* 4.1 Climate * 4.2 Geology

* 5 Fauna and flora * 6 Newfoundlanders

* 7 Representation in fiction

* 7.1 Novels * 7.2 Television

* 8 Representation in art

* 9 In Popular Culture

* 9.1 Theater

* 10 See also * 11 References

* 12 Further reading

* 12.1 Modern histories * 12.2 Vintage accounts

* 13 External links

HISTORY

Long settled by indigenous peoples of the Dorset culture , the island was visited by the Icelandic Viking Leif Eriksson in the 11th century, who called the new land " Vinland
Vinland
". The next European visitors to Newfoundland
Newfoundland
were Portuguese, Basque, Spanish, French and English migratory fishermen. The island was visited by the Genoese navigator John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto), working under contract to King Henry VII of England on his expedition from Bristol
Bristol
in 1497. In 1501, Portuguese explorers Gaspar Corte-Real and his brother Miguel Corte-Real charted part of the coast of Newfoundland
Newfoundland
in a failed attempt to find the Northwest Passage . (After European settlement, colonists first called the island _Terra Nova_, from "New Land" in Portuguese and Latin .) Plaque commemorating Gilbert's founding of the British Empire
British Empire

On August 5, 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert claimed Newfoundland
Newfoundland
as England\'s first overseas colony under Royal Charter of Queen Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England
, thus officially establishing a fore-runner to the much later British Empire. Newfoundland
Newfoundland
is considered Britain's oldest colony. At the time of English settlement, the Beothuk inhabited the island.

While there is archaeological evidence of ancient indigenous peoples on the island, it was abandoned when the Norse arrived from Scandinavia
Scandinavia
. L\'Anse aux Meadows was a Norse settlement near the northernmost tip of Newfoundland
Newfoundland
(Cape Norman), which has been dated to be approximately 1,000 years old. The site is considered the only undisputed evidence of Pre-Columbian contact between the Old and New Worlds, if the Norse- Inuit
Inuit
contact on Greenland
Greenland
is not counted. There is a second suspected Norse site in Point Rosee . The island is a likely location of Vinland
Vinland
, mentioned in the _Viking Chronicles _, although this has been disputed.

The indigenous people on the island at the time of European settlement were the Beothuk , who spoke an Amerindian language of the same name . Later immigrants developed a variety of dialects associated with settlement on the island: Newfoundland English , Newfoundland French . In the 19th century, it also had a dialect of Irish known as Newfoundland Irish . Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
was spoken on the island during the 19th and early 20th centuries, particularly in the Codroy Valley area, chiefly by settlers from Cape Breton Island , Nova Scotia . The Gaelic names reflected the association with fishing: in Scottish Gaelic, it was called _Eilean a' Trosg,_ or literally, "Island of the Cod". Similarly, the Irish Gaelic name _Talamh an Éisc_ means "Land of the Fish".

FIRST INHABITANTS

The first inhabitants of Newfoundland
Newfoundland
were the Paleo-Eskimo , who have no known link to other groups in Newfoundland
Newfoundland
history. Little is known about them beyond archeological evidence of early settlements. Evidence of successive cultures have been found. The Late Paleo-Eskimo, or Dorset culture , settled there about 4,000 years ago. They were descendants of migrations of ancient prehistoric peoples across the High Arctic thousands of years ago, after crossing from Siberia
Siberia
via the Bering land bridge . The Dorset died off or abandoned the island prior to the arrival of the Norse .

After this period, the Beothuk settled Newfoundland, migrating from Labrador
Labrador
on the mainland. There is no evidence that the Beothuk inhabited the island prior to Norse settlement. Scholars believe that the Beothuk are related closely to the Innu of Labrador. The tribe later became extinct although people of partial Beothuk descent have been documented. The name _ Beothuk _ means "people" in their own language which is a member of the Algonquian language family which itself is common to many Atlantic coastal tribes.

The tribe is now extinct but evidence of its culture is preserved in museum, historical and archaeological records. Shanawdithit , a woman who is often regarded as the last full-blood Beothuk, died in St. John's in 1829 of tuberculosis . However, Santu Toney, who was born around 1835 and died in 1910, was a woman of mixed Mi'kmaq and Beothuk descent which means that some Beothuk must have lived on beyond 1829. Her father was a Beothuk and mother a Mi'kmaq, both from Newfoundland. The Beothuk may have intermingled and assimilated with Innu in Labrador
Labrador
and Mi'kmaq in Newfoundland. Oral histories also suggest potential historical competition and hostility between the Beothuk and Mi'kmaq. The Mi'kmaq, Innu and Inuit
Inuit
all hunted and fished around Newfoundland
Newfoundland
before the arrival of Europeans but no evidence indicates that they lived on the island for long periods of time and would only travel to Newfoundland
Newfoundland
temporarily. Inuit
Inuit
have been documented on the Great Northern Peninsula as late as the 18th-Century. Newfoundland
Newfoundland
was historically the southernmost part of the Inuit's territorial range.

When Europeans arrived from 1497 and later, starting with John Cabot , they established contact with the Beothuk. Estimates of the number of Beothuk on the island at this time vary, ranging from 700 to 5,000.

Later both the English and French settled the island. They were followed by the Mi\'kmaq , an Algonquian -speaking indigenous people from eastern Canada
Canada
and present-day Nova Scotia. As European and Mi'kmaq settlement became year-round and expanded to new areas of the coast, the area available to the Beothuk to harvest the marine resources they relied upon was diminished. By the beginning of the 19th century, few Beothuk remained. Most died due to infectious diseases carried by Europeans, to which they had no immunity , and starvation. Government attempts to engage with the Beothuk and aid them came too late. The Beothuk were exceptionally hostile to foreigners, unlike the Mi'kmaq. The latter readily traded with Europeans and became established in settlements in Newfoundland.

EUROPEAN CONTACT, COLONISATION AND SETTLEMENT

Main article: History of Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador

_ This section IS TOO LONG TO READ COMFORTABLY, AND NEEDS SUBSECTIONS . Please format the article according to the guidelines laid out in the Manual of Style . (November 2016)_

Newfoundland
Newfoundland
is the site of the only authenticated Norse (mostly Greenlandic Icelanders) settlement in North America. This archeological site was discovered by Norwegian explorer Helge Ingstad and his wife, archaeologist Anne Stine Ingstad , at L\'Anse aux Meadows in 1960. The site has been the subject of multi-year archaeological digs in the 1960s and 1970s.

These have revealed that the settlement dated to more than 500 years before John Cabot ; it contains the earliest-known European structures in North America. Designated as a World Heritage site
World Heritage site
by UNESCO
UNESCO
, it is believed to be the Vinland
Vinland
settlement of explorer Leif Eiriksson . (The Icelandic Skálholt Vinland
Vinland
Map of 1570 refers to the area as "Promontorium Winlandiæ" and correctly shows it on a 51°N parallel with Bristol
Bristol
, England). The Norse stayed for a relatively short period of time, believed to be between 999 and 1001 AD. Cabot Tower located in St John\'s

After the departure of the Norse, the island was inhabited by aboriginal populations for nearly 500 years. In 1497, the Italian navigator John Cabot (Zuan/Giovanni Cabotto) became the first European since the Norse settlers to set foot on Newfoundland, working under commission of King Henry VII of England . His landing site is unknown but popularly believed to be Cape Bonavista , along the island's East coast., Another site claimed is Cape Bauld , at the tip of the Great Northern Peninsula . A document found in the Spanish National Archives, written by a Bristol
Bristol
merchant, reports that Cabot's crew landed 1,800 miles (2,900 km) west of Dursey Head , Ireland (latitude 51° 35'N), which would put Cabot within sight of Cape Bauld. This document mentions an island that Cabot sailed past to go ashore on the mainland. This description fits with the Cape Bauld theory, as Belle Isle is not far offshore.

After Cabot, the first European visitors to Newfoundland
Newfoundland
were Portuguese, Basque, Spanish, French and English migratory fishermen. In 1501, Portuguese explorers Gaspar Corte-Real and his brother Miguel Corte-Real charted part of the coast of Newfoundland
Newfoundland
in a failed attempt to find the Northwest Passage . Late in the 17th century came Irish fishermen, who named the island TALAMH AN ÉISC, meaning "land of the fish", or "the fishing grounds" in Irish Gaelic . This reflected the abundance of fisheries.

In 1583, when Sir Humphrey Gilbert formally claimed Newfoundland
Newfoundland
as a colony of England, he found numerous English, French and Portuguese vessels at St. John's. There was no permanent population. Gilbert was lost at sea during his return voyage, and plans of settlement were postponed.

On July 5, 1610, John Guy set sail from Bristol
Bristol
, England with 39 other colonists for Cuper\'s Cove . This, and other early attempts at permanent settlement failed to make a profit for the English investors, but some settlers remained, forming the very earliest modern European population on the island. By 1620, the fishermen of England's West Country dominated the east coast of Newfoundland. French fishermen dominated the island's south coast and Northern Peninsula. James Cook 's 1775 Chart of Newfoundland
Newfoundland

After 1713, with the Treaty of Utrecht , the French ceded control of south and north shores of the island to the British. They kept only the nearby islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon , located in the fish-rich Grand Banks off the south coast. Despite some early settlements by the English, the Crown discouraged permanent, year-round settlement of Newfoundland
Newfoundland
by migratory fishery workers. Thomas Nash was an Irish Catholic fisherman who permanently settled in Newfoundland
Newfoundland
despite English rule. He established the fishing town of Branch . He and his cousin Father Patrick Power of Callan , County Kilkenny , spread Catholicism in Newfoundland. This settlement attracted a major migration of Irish Catholic immigrants to Newfoundland
Newfoundland
in the early eighteenth century.

By the late 18th century, permanent settlement increased, peaking in the early years of the 19th century.

The French name for the island is TERRE NEUVE. The name "Newfoundland"' is one of the oldest European place names in Canada
Canada
in continuous geographical and cartographical use, dating from a 1502 letter. It was stated in the following 1628 poem:

_A Skeltonicall continued ryme, in praise of my New-found-Land_ Although in cloaths, company, buildings faire With England, New-found-land cannot compare: Did some know what contentment I found there, Alwayes enough, most times somewhat to spare, With little paines, lesse toyle, and lesser care, Exempt from taxings, ill newes, Lawing, feare, If cleane, and warme, no matter what you weare, Healthy, and wealthy, if men careful are, With much-much more, then I will now declare, (I say) if some wise men knew what this were (I doe beleeue) they'd live no other where. From 'The First Booke of _Qvodlibets'_ Composed and done at _Harbor-Grace_ in _Britaniola_, anciently called _Newfound-Land_ by Governor Robert Hayman – 1628. A Newfoundland
Newfoundland
fishing outport

The European immigrants, mostly English, Scots, Irish and French, built a society in the New World unlike the ones they had left. It was also different from those other immigrants would build on the North American mainland. As a fish-exporting society, Newfoundland
Newfoundland
was in contact with many ports and societies around the Atlantic rim. But its geographic location and political distinctiveness isolated it from its closest neighbours, Canada
Canada
and the United States. Internally, most of its population was spread widely around a rugged coastline in small outport settlements. Many were distant from larger centres of population and isolated for long periods by winter ice or bad weather. These conditions had an effect on the cultures of the immigrants. They generated new ways of thinking and acting. Newfoundland
Newfoundland
and Labrador developed a wide variety of distinctive customs, beliefs, stories, songs and dialects.

The First World War
First World War
had a powerful and lasting effect on the society. From a population of about a quarter of a million, 5,482 men went overseas. Nearly 1,500 were killed and 2,300 wounded. On July 1, 1916, at Beaumont-Hamel, France, 753 men of the Royal Newfoundland
Newfoundland
Regiment went over the top of a trench. The next morning, only 68 men answered the roll-call. Even now, when the rest of Canada
Canada
celebrates the founding of the country on July 1, many Newfoundlanders take part in solemn ceremonies of remembrance.

The Second World War
Second World War
also had a lasting effect on Newfoundland. In particular, the United States assigned forces to the military bases at Argentia, Gander, Stephenville, Goose Bay and St. John's. Joseph Smallwood signing the document bringing Newfoundland
Newfoundland
into Confederation .

Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
is the youngest province in Canada. Newfoundland
Newfoundland
was organised as a colony in 1825, was self-governing from 1855–1934, and held dominion status from 1907–1949 (see Dominion of Newfoundland ). In late 1948, the population of the colony voted 52.3% to 47.7% in favour of joining Canada
Canada
as a province. Opposition was concentrated among residents of the capital St. John's, and on the Avalon Peninsula .

Newfoundland
Newfoundland
joined Canada
Canada
on March 31, 1949. Union with Canada
Canada
has done little to reduce Newfoundlanders' self-image as a unique group. In 2003, 72% of residents responding identified first as Newfoundlanders, secondarily as Canadians. Separatist sentiment is low, though, less than 12% in the same 2003 study.

The referendum campaign of 1948 was bitterly fought, and interests in both Canada
Canada
and Britain favoured and supported confederation with Canada. Jack Pickersgill , a western Canadian native and politician, worked with the confederation camp during the campaign. The Catholic Church, whose members were a minority on the island, lobbied for continued independence. Canada
Canada
offered financial incentives, including a "baby bonus" for each child in a family. The Confederates were led by the charismatic Joseph Smallwood , a former radio broadcaster, who had developed socialist political inclinations while working for a socialist newspaper in New York City
New York City
. His policies as premier were closer to liberalism than socialism.

Following confederation, Smallwood led Newfoundland
Newfoundland
for decades as the elected premier. He was said to have a "cult of personality" among his many supporters. Some residents featured photographs of "Joey" in their living rooms in a place of prominence.

FLAGS OF NEWFOUNDLAND

The Newfoundland
Newfoundland
Blue Ensign, Newfoundland's colonial government flag from 1870 to 1904 The "updated" Newfoundland
Newfoundland
Blue Ensign, government ensign from 1904 to 1965 The Newfoundland
Newfoundland
Red Ensign, Newfoundland's civil ensign from 1904 to 1965

The first flag to specifically represent Newfoundland
Newfoundland
is thought to have been an image of a green fir tree on a pink background that was in use in the early 19th century. The first official flag identifying Newfoundland, flown by vessels in service of the colonial government, was the Newfoundland
Newfoundland
Blue Ensign, adopted in 1870 and used until 1904, when it was modified slightly. In 1904, the crown of the Blue Ensign was replaced with the Great Seal of Newfoundland
Newfoundland
(having been given royal approval in 1827) and the British Parliament designated Newfoundland
Newfoundland
Red and Blue ensigns as official flags specifically for Newfoundland. The Red and Blue ensigns with the Great Seal of Newfoundland
Newfoundland
in the fly were used officially from 1904 until 1965, with the Red Ensign being flown as civil ensign by merchant shipping, and the Blue being flown by governmental ships (after the British tradition of having different flags for merchant/naval and government vessel identification).

On September 26, 1907, King Edward VII of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
declared the Colony of Newfoundland, as an independent Dominion
Dominion
within the British Empire, and from that point until 1965, the Newfoundland
Newfoundland
Red Ensign was used as the civil ensign of the Dominion
Dominion
of Newfoundland with the Blue Ensign, again, reserved for government shipping identification. In 1931 the Newfoundland
Newfoundland
National Assembly adopted the Union Jack as the official national flag, with the Red and Blue Ensigns retained as ensigns for shipping identification. The Union Flag
Union Flag
, official flag of both the Dominion
Dominion
and province of Newfoundland
Newfoundland
from 1931 to 1980 Flag of Newfoundland
Newfoundland
and Labrador
Labrador
, legislated as the provincial flag on May 28, 1980

On March 31, 1949, Newfoundland
Newfoundland
became a province of Canada
Canada
but retained the Union Jack in legislature, still designating it as the "national" flag. This was later reaffirmed by the Revised Statutes Act of 1952, and the Union Jack remained the official flag of Newfoundland until 1980, when it was replaced by the current provincial flag. (See Province of Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
for continued discussion of provincial flags.)

POINTS OF INTEREST AND MAJOR SETTLEMENTS

Topography of Newfoundland
Newfoundland
Cod, the traditional mainstay of Newfoundland
Newfoundland
fisheries

Newfoundland
Newfoundland
has the most Dorset culture archeological sites. The Beothuk and Mi'kmaq did not leave as much evidence of their cultures.

As one of the first places in the New World where Europeans settled, Newfoundland
Newfoundland
also has a history of European colonization. St. John\'s is considered to be the oldest city in Canada
Canada
and the oldest continuously settled location in English-speaking North America.

The St. John\'s census metropolitan area includes 12 suburban communities, the largest of which are the city of Mount Pearl and the towns of Conception Bay South and Paradise . The province's third-largest city is Corner Brook , which is situated on the Bay of Islands on the west coast of the island. This was recorded as a discovery by Captain James Cook .

The island of Newfoundland
Newfoundland
has numerous provincial parks such as Barachois Pond Provincial Park , considered to be a model forest, as well as two national parks.

* Gros Morne National Park
Gros Morne National Park
is located on the west coast; it was designated as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage site
World Heritage site
in 1987 due to its complex geology and remarkable scenery. It is the largest national park in Atlantic Canada
Canada
at 1,805 km2 (697 sq mi) and is a popular tourist destination. * Terra Nova National Park , on the island's east side, preserves the rugged geography of the Bonavista Bay region. It allows visitors to explore the historic interplay of land, sea and man. * L\'Anse aux Meadows is an archaeological site located near the northernmost tip of the island (Cape Norman). It is the only known site of a Norse village in North America
North America
outside of Greenland, and is designated as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage site
World Heritage site
. It is the only widely accepted site of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact. It has associations with the attempted colony of Vinland
Vinland
established by Leif Ericson around 1003.

The island has many tourism opportunities, ranging from sea kayaking, camping, fishing and hunting, to hiking. The International Appalachian Trail (IAT) is being extended along the island's mountainous west coast. On the east coast, the East Coast Trail extends through the Avalon Peninsula for 220 km (140 mi), beginning near Fort Amherst in St. John\'s and ending in Cappahayden , with an additional 320 km (200 mi) of trail under construction.

The Marble Mountain Ski Resort near Corner Brook is a major attraction in the winter for skiers in eastern Canada.

Other major communities include the following towns:

* Gander , home to the Gander International Airport . * Grand Falls-Windsor , a service centre for the central part of the island. * Channel-Port aux Basques , the "Gateway to Newfoundland
Newfoundland
", as it is the closest point on the island to the province of Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
, as well as the location of the Marine Atlantic ferry terminal connecting the island to the rest of Canada. * Stephenville , former location of the Ernest Harmon Air Force Base and currently the Stephenville Airport .

Island of Newfoundland
Newfoundland

Educational institutions include the provincial university, Memorial University of Newfoundland
Newfoundland
whose main campus is situated in St. John's, along with the Grenfell Campus in Corner Brook, in addition to the College of the North Atlantic based in Stephenville and other communities.

Bonavista , Placentia and Ferryland are all historic locations for various early European settlement or discovery activities. Tilting Harbour on Fogo Island is a Provincial Heritage District, as well as a National Cultural Landscape District of Canada. This is one of only two national historic sites in Canada
Canada
so recognized for their Irish heritage.

Entertainment opportunities abound in the island's three cities and numerous towns, particularly during summer festivals. For nightlife, George Street , located in downtown St. John's, is closed to traffic 20 hours per day, and is widely understood to have the most pubs per square foot of any street in North America. The Mile One Stadium in St. John's is the venue for large sporting and concert events in the province.

In March, the annual seal hunt (of the harp seal ) takes place.

LARGEST MUNICIPALITIES (2011 population)

* St. John\'s (106,172) * Conception Bay South (24,848) * Mount Pearl (24,284) * Corner Brook (20,886) * Paradise (17,695) * Grand Falls-Windsor (13,725) * Gander (11,054) * Torbay (7,397) * Portugal Cove-St. Philip\'s (7,366) * Stephenville (6,719) * Clarenville (6,036) * Marystown (5,506) * Bay Roberts (5,818)

GEOGRAPHY

View of Conception Bay Main article: Geography of Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador

CLIMATE

Köppen climate types of Newfoundland
Newfoundland

Newfoundland
Newfoundland
is primarily characterized by having a subarctic (Köppen Dfc) or a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb). Locations on the extreme southeast of the island receive sufficient maritime influence to qualify as having a subpolar oceanic climate (Köppen Cfc).

GEOLOGY

Main article: Geography of Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
§ Geology

The Terreneuvian Epoch that begins the Cambrian
Cambrian
Period of geological time is named for _Terre Neuve_ (the French term for Newfoundland).

FAUNA AND FLORA

Main article: Geography of Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
§ Biosphere See also: List of mammals of Newfoundland

NEWFOUNDLANDERS

Main category: People from Newfoundland
Newfoundland
(island) See also: Category:Pre-Confederation Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
people .

REPRESENTATION IN FICTION

NOVELS

Newfoundland
Newfoundland
has been the setting for numerous modern novels:

* Michael Crummey , _Galore_, 2011 * Kenneth J. Harvey , _Blackstrap Hawco_, 2008 * Wayne Johnston , _ The Colony of Unrequited Dreams _, 1998 * Bernice Morgan , _ Random Passage _, 1992 * Bernice Morgan , _Waiting for Time_, 1995 * Bernice Morgan , _The Topography of Love_, 2000 * Peter Neary, and Patrick O'Flaherty, eds. _By Great Waters: A Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
Anthology_ (1974) * E. Annie Proulx , _ The Shipping News _, 1993, adapted as a film of the same name , released in 2001.

TELEVISION

The show Republic of Doyle (2010-2014) is set in St John's and many of the stars are from Newfoundland.

REPRESENTATION IN ART

Newfoundland
Newfoundland
has been depicted in paintings and art

* Frederic Edwin Church
Frederic Edwin Church
, _The Icebergs_, 1861

IN POPULAR CULTURE

THEATER

The musical _ Come From Away _ takes place in Newfoundland. The show tells the story of Operation Yellow Ribbon
Operation Yellow Ribbon
, the effort to help passengers stranded in Gander, Newfoundland in the aftermath of the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks .

SEE ALSO

* British Empire
British Empire
portal * Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
portal * Islands portal

* Baccalieu Island * Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
* Heritage Foundation of Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
* Category: Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador

REFERENCES

* ^ Dekel, Jon (22 July 2014). "Shaun Majumder brings Burlington, Newfoundland, to the world with Majumder Manor". _ National Post _. Archived from the original on 29 July 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014. After all, it’s not every day the a famous native son of The Rock returns to its capital. * ^ Gunn, Malcolm (10 July 2014). "The term "go anywhere" has been redefined with the redesign of a family favorite". _Milwaukee Journal Sentinel _. Archived from the original on 29 July 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014. Canada's 10th province is called "The Rock" for good reason. * ^ "2006 Statistics Canada
Canada
National Census". Statistics Canada. July 28, 2009. * ^ "Atlas of Canada
Canada
– Rivers". Natural Resources Canada. October 26, 2004. Retrieved April 19, 2007. * ^ George Morley Story, W. J. Kirwin, and John David Allison Widdowson, eds. (1990). _Dictionary of Newfoundland
Newfoundland
English_. University of Toronto Press. p. 343. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link ) * ^ Both names can be found in this document."Ikkarumikluak" means "_place of many shoals_" while "Kallunasillik" means "_place of many white people_". It is thought the "Ikkarumiklua" was used before the colonization of Newfoundland
Newfoundland
and was later replaced by "Kallunasillik". It is also thought that "Ikkarumiklua" may have been a term for the Great Northern Peninsula and not the island as a whole. * ^ "Atlas of Canada, Islands". Retrieved July 19, 2006. * ^ "NL Government website: Areas". Retrieved August 26, 2007. * ^ "2006 Statistics Canada
Canada
National Census: Newfoundland
Newfoundland
and Labrador". Statistics Canada. July 28, 2009. * ^ GILBERT (Saunders Family), SIR HUMPHREY" (history), _Dictionary of Canadian Biography_ Online, University of Toronto , May 2, 2005 * ^ "The British Empire: The Map Room". Retrieved June 21, 2010. * ^ Bennett, Margaret (1989). _The Last Stronghold: Scottish Gaelic Traditions of Newfoundland_, Canongate, 11 May 1989. * ^ Dwelly, Edward (1920). _Illustrated Gaelic - English Dictionary_, September 2001. * ^ _A_ _B_ Kevin Major (August 2002). _As Near to Heaven by Sea: A History of Newfoundland
Newfoundland
and Labrador_. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-027864-8 . * ^ Intangible Cultural Heritage Branch. Mun.ca (2011-06-14). Retrieved on 2013-07-12. * ^ Jerry Bannister (2003). _The Rule of the Admirals: Law, Custom and Naval Government in Newfoundland, 1699-1