NEWFOUNDLAND (/njuːfənˈlænd/ ( listen ) new-fən-LAND ; French
: Terre-Neuve ) is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the
North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian
Newfoundland and Labrador . It has 29 percent of the
province's land area. The island is separated from the Labrador
Peninsula by the
Strait of Belle Isle
Strait of Belle Isle and from
Cape Breton Island
Cape Breton Island by
Cabot Strait . It blocks the mouth of the
Saint Lawrence River ,
Gulf of Saint Lawrence , the world's largest estuary .
Newfoundland's nearest neighbour is the French overseas community of
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon .
With an area of 108,860 square kilometres (42,031 sq mi),
Newfoundland is the world\'s 16th-largest island , Canada\'s
fourth-largest island , and the largest Canadian island outside the
North . The provincial capital, St. John\'s , is located on the
southeastern coast of the island;
Cape Spear , just south of the
capital, is the easternmost point of
North America , excluding
Greenland. It is common to consider all directly neighbouring islands
such as New World,
Twillingate , Fogo and Bell Island to be 'part of
Newfoundland' (as distinct from Labrador). By that classification,
Newfoundland and its associated small islands have a total area of
111,390 square kilometres (43,008 sq mi).
According to 2006 official Census
Canada statistics, 57% of
Newfoundland and Labradorians claim British or Irish
ancestry, with 43.2% claiming at least one English parent, 21.5% at
least one Irish parent, and 7% at least one parent of Scottish origin.
Additionally 6.1% claimed at least one parent of French ancestry. The
island's total population as of the 2006 census was 479,105.
* 1 History
* 1.1 First inhabitants
* 1.2 European contact, colonisation and settlement
* 2 Flags of
* 3 Points of interest and major settlements
* 4 Geography
* 4.1 Climate
* 4.2 Geology
* 5 Fauna and flora
* 6 Newfoundlanders
* 7 Representation in fiction
* 7.1 Novels
* 7.2 Television
* 8 Representation in art
* 9 In Popular Culture
* 9.1 Theater
* 10 See also
* 11 References
* 12 Further reading
* 12.1 Modern histories
* 12.2 Vintage accounts
* 13 External links
Long settled by indigenous peoples of the
Dorset culture , the island
was visited by the Icelandic Viking
Leif Eriksson in the 11th century,
who called the new land "
Vinland ". The next European visitors to
Newfoundland were Portuguese, Basque, Spanish, French and English
migratory fishermen. The island was visited by the Genoese navigator
John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto), working under contract to King Henry VII
of England on his expedition from
Bristol in 1497. In 1501, Portuguese
Gaspar Corte-Real and his brother
Miguel Corte-Real charted
part of the coast of
Newfoundland in a failed attempt to find the
Northwest Passage . (After European settlement, colonists first called
the island Terra Nova, from "New Land" in Portuguese and Latin .)
Plaque commemorating Gilbert's founding of the
On August 5, 1583, Sir
Humphrey Gilbert claimed
England\'s first overseas colony under Royal Charter of Queen
Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England , thus officially establishing a fore-runner to
the much later British Empire.
Newfoundland is considered Britain's
oldest colony. At the time of English settlement, the Beothuk
inhabited the island.
While there is archaeological evidence of ancient indigenous peoples
on the island, it was abandoned when the Norse arrived from
Scandinavia . L\'Anse aux Meadows was a Norse settlement near the
northernmost tip of
Newfoundland (Cape Norman), which has been dated
to be approximately 1,000 years old. The site is considered the only
undisputed evidence of Pre-Columbian contact between the Old and New
Worlds, if the Norse-
Inuit contact on Greenland is not counted. There
is a second suspected Norse site in
Point Rosee . The island is a
likely location of
Vinland , mentioned in the Viking Chronicles ,
although this has been disputed.
The indigenous people on the island at the time of European
settlement were the
Beothuk , who spoke an Amerindian language of the
same name . Later immigrants developed a variety of dialects
associated with settlement on the island:
Newfoundland English ,
Newfoundland French . In the 19th century, it also had a dialect of
Irish known as
Newfoundland Irish .
Scottish Gaelic was spoken on the
island during the 19th and early 20th centuries, particularly in the
Codroy Valley area, chiefly by settlers from
Cape Breton Island
Cape Breton Island , Nova
Scotia . The Gaelic names reflected the association with fishing: in
Scottish Gaelic, it was called Eilean a' Trosg, or literally, "Island
of the Cod". Similarly, the Irish Gaelic name Talamh an Éisc means
"Land of the Fish".
The first inhabitants of
Newfoundland were the
Paleo-Eskimo , who
have no known link to other groups in
Newfoundland history. Little is
known about them beyond archeological evidence of early settlements.
Evidence of successive cultures have been found. The Late
Dorset culture , settled there about 4,000 years ago.
They were descendants of migrations of ancient prehistoric peoples
across the High Arctic thousands of years ago, after crossing from
Siberia via the
Bering land bridge . The Dorset died off or abandoned
the island prior to the arrival of the Norse .
After this period, the
Beothuk settled Newfoundland, migrating from
Labrador on the mainland. There is no evidence that the Beothuk
inhabited the island prior to Norse settlement. Scholars believe that
Beothuk are related closely to the
Innu of Labrador. The tribe
later became extinct although people of partial
Beothuk descent have
been documented. The name
Beothuk means "people" in their own language
which is a member of the Algonquian language family which itself is
common to many Atlantic coastal tribes.
The tribe is now extinct but evidence of its culture is preserved in
museum, historical and archaeological records.
Shanawdithit , a woman
who is often regarded as the last full-blood Beothuk, died in St.
John's in 1829 of tuberculosis . However, Santu Toney, who was born
around 1835 and died in 1910, was a woman of mixed
Mi'kmaq and Beothuk
descent which means that some
Beothuk must have lived on beyond 1829.
Her father was a
Beothuk and mother a Mi'kmaq, both from Newfoundland.
Beothuk may have intermingled and assimilated with
Mi'kmaq in Newfoundland. Oral histories also suggest
potential historical competition and hostility between the
Mi'kmaq. The Mi'kmaq,
Inuit all hunted and fished around
Newfoundland before the arrival of
Europeans but no evidence indicates
that they lived on the island for long periods of time and would only
Inuit have been documented on the
Great Northern Peninsula as late as the 18th-Century.
historically the southernmost part of the Inuit's territorial range.
Europeans arrived from 1497 and later, starting with John Cabot
, they established contact with the Beothuk. Estimates of the number
Beothuk on the island at this time vary, ranging from 700 to 5,000.
Later both the English and French settled the island. They were
followed by the Mi\'kmaq , an Algonquian -speaking indigenous people
Canada and present-day Nova Scotia. As European and
Mi'kmaq settlement became year-round and expanded to new areas of the
coast, the area available to the
Beothuk to harvest the marine
resources they relied upon was diminished. By the beginning of the
19th century, few
Beothuk remained. Most died due to infectious
diseases carried by Europeans, to which they had no immunity , and
starvation. Government attempts to engage with the
Beothuk and aid
them came too late. The
Beothuk were exceptionally hostile to
foreigners, unlike the Mi'kmaq. The latter readily traded with
Europeans and became established in settlements in Newfoundland.
EUROPEAN CONTACT, COLONISATION AND SETTLEMENT
Main article: History of
Newfoundland and Labrador
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SUBSECTIONS . Please format the article according to the guidelines
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Newfoundland is the site of the only authenticated Norse settlement
in North America. This archeological site was discovered by Norwegian
Helge Ingstad and his wife, archaeologist Anne Stine Ingstad
, at L\'Anse aux Meadows in 1960. The site has been the subject of
multi-year archaeological digs in the 1960s and 1970s.
These have revealed that the settlement dated to more than 500 years
John Cabot ; it contains the earliest-known European structures
in North America. Designated as a
World Heritage site by
UNESCO , it
is believed to be the
Vinland settlement of explorer Leif Eiriksson .
(The Icelandic Skálholt
Vinland Map of 1570 refers to the area as
"Promontorium Winlandiæ" and correctly shows it on a 51°N parallel
Bristol , England). The Norse stayed for a relatively short
period of time, believed to be between 999 and 1001 AD. Cabot
Tower located in St John\'s
Before and after the departure of the Norse, the island was inhabited
by aboriginal populations. About 500 years later, in 1497, the Italian
John Cabot (Zuan/Giovanni Cabotto) became the first European
since the Norse settlers to set foot on Newfoundland, working under
commission of King
Henry VII of England . His landing site is unknown
but popularly believed to be
Cape Bonavista , along the island's East
coast., Another site claimed is
Cape Bauld , at the tip of the Great
Northern Peninsula . A document found in the Spanish National
Archives, written by a
Bristol merchant, reports that Cabot's crew
landed 1,800 miles (2,900 km) west of Dursey Head , Ireland (latitude
51° 35'N), which would put Cabot within sight of Cape Bauld. This
document mentions an island that Cabot sailed past to go ashore on the
mainland. This description fits with the
Cape Bauld theory, as Belle
Isle is not far offshore.
After Cabot, the first European visitors to
Portuguese, Basque, Spanish, French and English migratory fishermen.
In 1501, Portuguese explorers
Gaspar Corte-Real and his brother Miguel
Corte-Real charted part of the coast of
Newfoundland in a failed
attempt to find the
Northwest Passage . Late in the 17th century came
Irish fishermen, who named the island TALAMH AN ÉISC, meaning "land
of the fish", or "the fishing grounds" in Irish Gaelic . This
reflected the abundance of fisheries.
In 1583, when Sir
Humphrey Gilbert formally claimed
Newfoundland as a
colony of England, he found numerous English, French and Portuguese
vessels at St. John's. There was no permanent population. Gilbert was
lost at sea during his return voyage, and plans of settlement were
On July 5, 1610, John Guy set sail from
Bristol , England with 39
other colonists for Cuper\'s Cove . This, and other early attempts at
permanent settlement failed to make a profit for the English
investors, but some settlers remained, forming the very earliest
modern European population on the island. By 1620, the fishermen of
West Country dominated the east coast of Newfoundland.
French fishermen dominated the island's south coast and Northern
James Cook 's 1775 Chart of
After 1713, with the
Treaty of Utrecht , the French ceded control of
south and north shores of the island to the British. They kept only
the nearby islands of
St. Pierre and Miquelon
St. Pierre and Miquelon , located in the
Grand Banks off the south coast. Despite some early
settlements by the English, the Crown discouraged permanent,
year-round settlement of
Newfoundland by migratory fishery workers.
Thomas Nash was an
Irish Catholic fisherman who permanently settled in
Newfoundland despite English rule. He established the fishing town of
Branch . He and his cousin Father Patrick Power of Callan , County
Kilkenny , spread Catholicism in Newfoundland. This settlement
attracted a major migration of
Irish Catholic immigrants to
Newfoundland in the early eighteenth century.
By the late 18th century, permanent settlement increased, peaking in
the early years of the 19th century.
The French name for the island is TERRE NEUVE. The name
"Newfoundland"' is one of the oldest European place names in
continuous geographical and cartographical use, dating from a 1502
letter. It was stated in the following 1628 poem:
A Skeltonicall continued ryme, in praise of my New-found-Land
Although in cloaths, company, buildings faire With England,
New-found-land cannot compare: Did some know what contentment I found
there, Alwayes enough, most times somewhat to spare, With little
paines, lesse toyle, and lesser care, Exempt from taxings, ill newes,
Lawing, feare, If cleane, and warme, no matter what you weare,
Healthy, and wealthy, if men careful are, With much-much more, then I
will now declare, (I say) if some wise men knew what this were (I doe
beleeue) they'd live no other where. From 'The First Booke of
Qvodlibets' Composed and done at Harbor-Grace in Britaniola, anciently
called Newfound-Land by Governor
Robert Hayman – 1628. A
Newfoundland fishing outport
The European immigrants, mostly English, Scots, Irish and French,
built a society in the
New World unlike the ones they had left. It was
also different from those other immigrants would build on the North
American mainland. As a fish-exporting society,
Newfoundland was in
contact with many ports and societies around the Atlantic rim. But its
geographic location and political distinctiveness isolated it from its
Canada and the United States. Internally, most of
its population was spread widely around a rugged coastline in small
outport settlements. Many were distant from larger centres of
population and isolated for long periods by winter ice or bad weather.
These conditions had an effect on the cultures of the immigrants. They
generated new ways of thinking and acting.
Newfoundland and Labrador
developed a wide variety of distinctive customs, beliefs, stories,
songs and dialects.
First World War had a powerful and lasting effect on the society.
From a population of about a quarter of a million, 5,482 men went
overseas. Nearly 1,500 were killed and 2,300 wounded. On July 1, 1916,
at Beaumont-Hamel, France, 753 men of the Royal
went over the top of a trench. The next morning, only 68 men answered
the roll-call. Even now, when the rest of
Canada celebrates the
founding of the country on July 1, many Newfoundlanders take part in
solemn ceremonies of remembrance.
Second World War also had a lasting effect on Newfoundland. In
particular, the United States assigned forces to the military bases at
Argentia, Gander, Stephenville, Goose Bay and St. John's. Joseph
Smallwood signing the document bringing
Newfoundland and Labrador is the youngest province in Canada.
Newfoundland was organised as a colony in 1825, was self-governing
from 1855–1934, and held dominion status from 1907–1949 (see
Dominion of Newfoundland ). In late 1948, the population of the colony
voted 52.3% to 47.7% in favour of joining
Canada as a province.
Opposition was concentrated among residents of the capital St. John's,
and on the
Avalon Peninsula .
Canada on March 31, 1949. Union with
done little to reduce Newfoundlanders' self-image as a unique group.
In 2003, 72% of residents responding identified first as
Newfoundlanders, secondarily as Canadians. Separatist sentiment is
low, though, less than 12% in the same 2003 study.
The referendum campaign of 1948 was bitterly fought, and interests in
Canada and Britain favoured and supported confederation with
Jack Pickersgill , a western Canadian native and politician,
worked with the confederation camp during the campaign. The Catholic
Church, whose members were a minority on the island, lobbied for
Canada offered financial incentives, including
a "baby bonus" for each child in a family. The Confederates were led
by the charismatic
Joseph Smallwood , a former radio broadcaster, who
had developed socialist political inclinations while working for a
socialist newspaper in
New York City
New York City . His policies as premier were
closer to liberalism than socialism.
Following confederation, Smallwood led
Newfoundland for decades as
the elected premier. He was said to have a "cult of personality" among
his many supporters. Some residents featured photographs of "Joey" in
their living rooms in a place of prominence.
FLAGS OF NEWFOUNDLAND
Newfoundland Blue Ensign, Newfoundland's colonial government
flag from 1870 to 1904 The "updated"
Newfoundland Blue Ensign,
government ensign from 1904 to 1965 The
Ensign, Newfoundland's civil ensign from 1904 to 1965
The first flag to specifically represent
Newfoundland is thought to
have been an image of a green fir tree on a pink background that was
in use in the early 19th century. The first official flag identifying
Newfoundland, flown by vessels in service of the colonial government,
Newfoundland Blue Ensign, adopted in 1870 and used until 1904,
when it was modified slightly. In 1904, the crown of the Blue Ensign
was replaced with the Great Seal of
Newfoundland (having been given
royal approval in 1827) and the British Parliament designated
Newfoundland Red and Blue ensigns as official flags specifically for
Newfoundland. The Red and Blue ensigns with the Great Seal of
Newfoundland in the fly were used officially from 1904 until 1965,
with the Red Ensign being flown as civil ensign by merchant shipping,
and the Blue being flown by governmental ships (after the British
tradition of having different flags for merchant/naval and government
On September 26, 1907, King Edward VII of the
United Kingdom declared
the Colony of Newfoundland, as an independent
Dominion within the
British Empire, and from that point until 1965, the
Ensign was used as the civil ensign of the
Dominion of Newfoundland
with the Blue Ensign, again, reserved for government shipping
identification. In 1931 the
Newfoundland National Assembly adopted the
Union Jack as the official national flag, with the Red and Blue
Ensigns retained as ensigns for shipping identification. The
Union Flag , official flag of both the
Dominion and province of
Newfoundland from 1931 to 1980 Flag of
Labrador , legislated as the provincial flag on May 28, 1980
On March 31, 1949,
Newfoundland became a province of
retained the Union Jack in legislature, still designating it as the
"national" flag. This was later reaffirmed by the Revised Statutes Act
of 1952, and the Union Jack remained the official flag of Newfoundland
until 1980, when it was replaced by the current provincial flag. (See
Newfoundland and Labrador for continued discussion of
POINTS OF INTEREST AND MAJOR SETTLEMENTS
Newfoundland Cod, the traditional mainstay
Newfoundland has the most
Dorset culture archeological sites. The
Mi'kmaq did not leave as much evidence of their cultures.
As one of the first places in the
New World where
Newfoundland also has a history of European colonization. St. John\'s
is considered to be the oldest city in
Canada and the oldest
continuously settled location in English-speaking North America.
The St. John\'s census metropolitan area includes 12 suburban
communities, the largest of which are the city of
Mount Pearl and the
Conception Bay South
Conception Bay South and Paradise . The province's
third-largest city is
Corner Brook , which is situated on the Bay of
Islands on the west coast of the island. This was recorded as a
discovery by Captain
James Cook .
The island of
Newfoundland has numerous provincial parks such as
Barachois Pond Provincial Park , considered to be a model forest, as
well as two national parks.
Gros Morne National Park is located on the west coast; it was
designated as a
World Heritage site in 1987 due to its complex
geology and remarkable scenery. It is the largest national park in
Canada at 1,805 km2 (697 sq mi) and is a popular tourist
Terra Nova National Park , on the island's east side, preserves
the rugged geography of the
Bonavista Bay region. It allows visitors
to explore the historic interplay of land, sea and man.
* L\'Anse aux Meadows is an archaeological site located near the
northernmost tip of the island (Cape Norman). It is the only known
site of a Norse village in
North America outside of Greenland, and is
designated as a
World Heritage site . It is the only widely
accepted site of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact. It has
associations with the attempted colony of
Vinland established by Leif
Ericson around 1003.
The island has many tourism opportunities, ranging from sea kayaking,
camping, fishing and hunting, to hiking. The International Appalachian
Trail (IAT) is being extended along the island's mountainous west
coast. On the east coast, the
East Coast Trail extends through the
Avalon Peninsula for 220 km (140 mi), beginning near Fort Amherst in
St. John\'s and ending in Cappahayden , with an additional 320 km (200
mi) of trail under construction.
The Marble Mountain Ski Resort near
Corner Brook is a major
attraction in the winter for skiers in eastern Canada.
Other major communities include the following towns:
* Gander , home to the
Gander International Airport .
Grand Falls-Windsor , a service centre for the central part of the
Channel-Port aux Basques , the "Gateway to
Newfoundland ", as it
is the closest point on the island to the province of
Nova Scotia , as
well as the location of the
Marine Atlantic ferry terminal connecting
the island to the rest of Canada.
* Stephenville , former location of the Ernest Harmon Air Force Base
and currently the
Stephenville Airport .
Educational institutions include the provincial university, Memorial
Newfoundland whose main campus is situated in St.
John's, along with the
Grenfell Campus in Corner Brook, in addition to
College of the North Atlantic based in Stephenville and other
Bonavista , Placentia and
Ferryland are all historic locations for
various early European settlement or discovery activities. Tilting
Harbour on Fogo Island is a Provincial Heritage District, as well as a
National Cultural Landscape District of Canada. This is one of only
two national historic sites in
Canada so recognized for their Irish
Entertainment opportunities abound in the island's three cities and
numerous towns, particularly during summer festivals. For nightlife,
George Street , located in downtown St. John's, is closed to traffic
20 hours per day, and is widely understood to have the most pubs per
square foot of any street in North America. The
Mile One Stadium
Mile One Stadium in
St. John's is the venue for large sporting and concert events in the
In March, the annual seal hunt (of the harp seal ) takes place.
LARGEST MUNICIPALITIES (2011 population)
* St. John\'s (106,172)
Conception Bay South
Conception Bay South (24,848)
Mount Pearl (24,284)
Corner Brook (20,886)
* Paradise (17,695)
Grand Falls-Windsor (13,725)
* Gander (11,054)
* Torbay (7,397)
* Portugal Cove-St. Philip\'s (7,366)
* Stephenville (6,719)
* Bay Roberts (5,818)
Conception Bay Main article: Geography of
Newfoundland and Labrador
Köppen climate types of
Newfoundland is primarily characterized by having a subarctic
(Köppen Dfc) or a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb). Locations
on the extreme southeast of the island receive sufficient maritime
influence to qualify as having a subpolar oceanic climate (Köppen
Main article: Geography of
Newfoundland and Labrador § Geology
Terreneuvian Epoch that begins the
Cambrian Period of geological
time is named for Terre Neuve (the French term for Newfoundland).
FAUNA AND FLORA
Main article: Geography of
Newfoundland and Labrador § Biosphere
List of mammals of Newfoundland
Main category: People from
Newfoundland (island) See also:
Newfoundland and Labrador people .
REPRESENTATION IN FICTION
Newfoundland has been the setting for numerous modern novels:
Michael Crummey , Galore, 2011
Kenneth J. Harvey , Blackstrap Hawco, 2008
* Wayne Johnston ,
The Colony of Unrequited Dreams , 1998
Bernice Morgan ,
Random Passage , 1992
Bernice Morgan , Waiting for Time, 1995
Bernice Morgan , The Topography of Love, 2000
* Peter Neary, and Patrick O'Flaherty, eds. By Great Waters: A
Newfoundland and Labrador Anthology (1974)
E. Annie Proulx ,
The Shipping News , 1993, adapted as a film of
the same name , released in 2001.
Republic of Doyle
Republic of Doyle (2010-2014) is set in St John's and many
of the stars are from Newfoundland.
REPRESENTATION IN ART
Newfoundland has been depicted in paintings and art
Frederic Edwin Church
Frederic Edwin Church , The Icebergs, 1861
IN POPULAR CULTURE
Come From Away takes place in Newfoundland. The show
tells the story of
Operation Yellow Ribbon
Operation Yellow Ribbon , the effort to help
passengers stranded in
Gander, Newfoundland in the aftermath of the
9/11 Terrorist Attacks .
British Empire portal
Newfoundland and Labrador portal
* Islands portal
* Flag of
Newfoundland and Labrador
* Heritage Foundation of
Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
* ^ Dekel, Jon (22 July 2014). "Shaun Majumder brings Burlington,
Newfoundland, to the world with Majumder Manor".
National Post .
Archived from the original on 29 July 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
After all, it’s not every day the a famous native son of The Rock
returns to its capital.
* ^ Gunn, Malcolm (10 July 2014). "The term "go anywhere" has been
redefined with the redesign of a family favorite". Milwaukee Journal
Sentinel . Archived from the original on 29 July 2014. Retrieved 29
July 2014. Canada's 10th province is called "The Rock" for good
* ^ "2006 Statistics
Canada National Census". Statistics Canada.
July 28, 2009.
* ^ "Atlas of
Canada – Rivers". Natural Resources Canada. October
26, 2004. Retrieved April 19, 2007.
* ^ George Morley Story, W. J. Kirwin, and John David Allison
Widdowson, eds. (1990). Dictionary of
Newfoundland English. University
of Toronto Press. p. 343. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link )
* ^ Both names can be found in this document."Ikkarumikluak" means
"place of many shoals" while "Kallunasillik" means "place of many
white people". It is thought the "Ikkarumiklua" was used before the
Newfoundland and was later replaced by
"Kallunasillik". It is also thought that "Ikkarumiklua" may have been
a term for the
Great Northern Peninsula and not the island as a whole.
* ^ "Atlas of Canada, Islands". Retrieved July 19, 2006.
* ^ "NL Government website: Areas". Retrieved August 26, 2007.
* ^ "2006 Statistics
Canada National Census:
Labrador". Statistics Canada. July 28, 2009.
* ^ GILBERT (Saunders Family), SIR HUMPHREY" (history), Dictionary
of Canadian Biography Online,
University of Toronto , May 2, 2005
* ^ "The British Empire: The Map Room". Retrieved June 21, 2010.
* ^ Bennett, Margaret (1989). The Last Stronghold: Scottish Gaelic
Traditions of Newfoundland, Canongate, 11 May 1989.
* ^ Dwelly, Edward (1920). Illustrated Gaelic - English Dictionary,
* ^ A B
Kevin Major (August 2002). As Near to Heaven by Sea: A
Newfoundland and Labrador. Penguin Books. ISBN
* ^ Intangible Cultural Heritage Branch. Mun.ca (2011-06-14).
Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
* ^ Jerry Bannister (2003). The Rule of the Admirals: Law, Custom
and Naval Government in Newfoundland, 1699-1832. University of Toronto
Press. p. 235. ISBN 9780802086136 .
* ^ Ninette Kelley; M. Trebilcock (2010). The Making of the Mosaic:
A History of Canadian Immigration Policy.
University of Toronto Press.
p. 40. ISBN 9781442690813 .
* ^ Baker, Melvin (1987). "The Tenth Province:
Canada, 1949". Horizon. 10 (11): 2641–67. Retrieved April 25, 2007.
* ^ Ryan Research and Communications (April 2003). "Provincial
Opinion Survey" (PDF). Government of
Newfoundland and Labrador's Royal
Commission on Renewing and Strengthening Our Place in Canada.
Retrieved April 25, 2007.
* ^ "THE PROVINCES Chap XIX: Newfoundland". Retrieved June 22,
* ^ "God Guard Thee, Newfoundland". September 2007. Retrieved June
* ^ "Historic Flags of
Newfoundland (Canada)". October 2005.
Retrieved June 22, 2010.
* ^ Landing, E., Peng, S., Babcock, L. E., Geyer, G., also
* Moyles, Robert Gordon, ed. "Complaints is Many and Various, But
the Odd Divil Likes It": Nineteenth Century Views of Newfoundland
* Pedley, Charles.History of Newfoundland, (London, 1863) complete
* Prowse, D. W. , A History of
Newfoundland (1895), current edition
2002, Portugal Cove, Newfoundland: Boulder Publications. complete text
* Tocque, Philip.
Newfoundland as It Was and Is, (London, 1878)
complete text online