The Info List - Newfoundland (island)

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(/ˈnjuːfən(d)lənd, -lænd, njuːˈfaʊndlənd/;[5] French: Terre-Neuve)[6] is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland
and Labrador. It has 29 percent of the province's land area. The island is separated from the Labrador Peninsula by the Strait of Belle Isle
Strait of Belle Isle
and from Cape Breton Island
Cape Breton Island
by the Cabot Strait. It blocks the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River, creating the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the world's largest estuary. Newfoundland's nearest neighbour is the French overseas community of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon. With an area of 108,860 square kilometres (42,031 sq mi),[7] Newfoundland
is the world's 16th-largest island, Canada's fourth-largest island, and the largest Canadian island outside the North. The provincial capital, St. John's, is located on the southeastern coast of the island; Cape Spear, just south of the capital, is the easternmost point of North America, excluding Greenland. It is common to consider all directly neighbouring islands such as New World, Twillingate, Fogo and Bell Island to be 'part of Newfoundland' (as distinct from Labrador). By that classification, Newfoundland
and its associated small islands have a total area of 111,390 square kilometres (43,008 sq mi).[8] According to 2006 official Census Canada
statistics, 57% of responding Newfoundland
and Labradorians claim British or Irish ancestry, with 43.2% claiming at least one English parent, 21.5% at least one Irish parent, and 7% at least one parent of Scottish origin. Additionally 6.1% claimed at least one parent of French ancestry.[9] The island's total population as of the 2006 census was 479,105.


1 History

1.1 First inhabitants

2 European contact, colonisation and settlement 3 Discovery by Cabot 4 Other European explorers

4.1 Colonization 4.2 A new society 4.3 Effects of World Wars 4.4 Union with Canada

5 Flags of Newfoundland 6 Points of interest and major settlements 7 Geography

7.1 Climate 7.2 Geology

8 Fauna and flora 9 Newfoundlanders 10 Representation in fiction

10.1 Novels 10.2 Television

11 Representation in art 12 In popular culture

12.1 Theatre

13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading

15.1 Modern histories 15.2 Vintage accounts

16 External links

History[edit] Long settled by indigenous peoples of the Dorset culture, the island was visited by the Icelandic Viking Leif Eriksson
Leif Eriksson
in the 11th century, who called the new land "Vinland".[citation needed] The next European visitors to Newfoundland
were Portuguese, Basque, Spanish, French and English migratory fishermen. The island was visited by the Genoese navigator John Cabot
John Cabot
(Giovanni Caboto), working under contract to King Henry VII of England
Henry VII of England
on his expedition from Bristol
in 1497. In 1501, Portuguese explorers Gaspar Corte-Real
Gaspar Corte-Real
and his brother Miguel Corte-Real charted part of the coast of Newfoundland
in a failed attempt to find the Northwest Passage. (After European settlement, colonists first called the island Terra Nova, from "New Land" in Portuguese and Latin.)

Plaque commemorating Gilbert's founding of the British Empire

On August 5, 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert
Humphrey Gilbert
claimed Newfoundland
as England's first overseas colony under Royal Charter of Queen Elizabeth I of England, thus officially establishing a forerunner to the much later British Empire.[10] Newfoundland
is considered Britain's oldest colony.[11] At the time of English settlement, the Beothuk
inhabited the island. While there is archaeological evidence of ancient indigenous peoples on the island, it was abandoned when the Norse arrived from Scandinavia.[citation needed] L'Anse aux Meadows
L'Anse aux Meadows
was a Norse settlement near the northernmost tip of Newfoundland
(Cape Norman), which has been dated to be approximately 1,000 years old. The site is considered the only undisputed evidence of Pre-Columbian contact between the Old and New Worlds, if the Norse- Inuit
contact on Greenland is not counted. There is a second suspected Norse site in Point Rosee. The island is a likely location of Vinland, mentioned in the Viking Chronicles, although this has been disputed. The indigenous people on the island at the time of European settlement were the Beothuk, who spoke an Amerindian language of the same name. Later immigrants developed a variety of dialects associated with settlement on the island: Newfoundland
English, Newfoundland French.[citation needed] In the 19th century, it also had a dialect of Irish known as Newfoundland
Irish.[citation needed] Scottish Gaelic was spoken on the island during the 19th and early 20th centuries, particularly in the Codroy Valley
Codroy Valley
area, chiefly by settlers from Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia.[12] The Gaelic names reflected the association with fishing: in Scottish Gaelic, it was called Eilean a' Trosg, or literally, "Island of the Cod".[13] Similarly, the Irish Gaelic name Talamh an Éisc means "Land of the Fish". First inhabitants[edit] The first inhabitants of Newfoundland
were the Paleo-Eskimo, who have no known link to other groups in Newfoundland
history. Little is known about them beyond archeological evidence of early settlements. Evidence of successive cultures have been found. The Late Paleo-Eskimo, or Dorset culture, settled there about 4,000 years ago. They were descendants of migrations of ancient prehistoric peoples across the High Arctic thousands of years ago, after crossing from Siberia
via the Bering land bridge. The Dorset died off or abandoned the island prior to the arrival of the Norse.[citation needed] After this period, the Beothuk
settled Newfoundland, migrating from Labrador
on the mainland. There is no evidence that the Beothuk inhabited the island prior to Norse settlement. Scholars believe that the Beothuk
are related closely to the Innu
of Labrador.[citation needed] The tribe later became extinct although people of partial Beothuk
descent have been documented[citation needed]. The name Beothuk
means "people" in their own language which is a member of the Algonquian language family which itself is common to many Atlantic coastal tribes. The tribe is now extinct but evidence of its culture is preserved in museum, historical and archaeological records. Shanawdithit, a woman who is often regarded as the last full-blood Beothuk, died in St. John's in 1829 of tuberculosis. However, Santu Toney, who was born around 1835 and died in 1910, was a woman of mixed Mi'kmaq
and Beothuk descent which means that some Beothuk
must have lived on beyond 1829. Her father was a Beothuk
and mother a Mi'kmaq, both from Newfoundland. The Beothuk
may have intermingled and assimilated with Innu
in Labrador
and Mi'kmaq
in Newfoundland. Oral histories also suggest potential historical competition and hostility between the Beothuk
and Mi'kmaq.[citation needed] The Mi'kmaq, Innu
and Inuit
all hunted and fished around Newfoundland
before the arrival of Europeans
but no evidence indicates that they lived on the island for long periods of time and would only travel to Newfoundland
temporarily. Inuit
have been documented on the Great Northern Peninsula
Great Northern Peninsula
as late as the 18th-Century. Newfoundland
was historically the southernmost part of the Inuit's territorial range. When Europeans
arrived from 1497 and later, starting with John Cabot, they established contact with the Beothuk. Estimates of the number of Beothuk
on the island at this time vary, ranging from 700 to 5,000.[citation needed] Later both the English and French settled the island. They were followed by the Mi'kmaq, an Algonquian-speaking indigenous people from eastern Canada
and present-day Nova Scotia. As European and Mi'kmaq settlement became year-round and expanded to new areas of the coast, the area available to the Beothuk
to harvest the marine resources they relied upon was diminished. By the beginning of the 19th century, few Beothuk
remained. Most died due to infectious diseases carried by Europeans, to which they had no immunity, and starvation. Government attempts to engage with the Beothuk
and aid them came too late. The Beothuk
were exceptionally hostile to foreigners, unlike the Mi'kmaq. The latter readily traded with Europeans
and became established in settlements in Newfoundland. European contact, colonisation and settlement[edit] Main article: History of Newfoundland
and Labrador Newfoundland
is the site of the only authenticated Norse settlement in North America. This archeological site was discovered by Norwegian explorer Helge Ingstad
Helge Ingstad
and his wife, archaeologist Anne Stine Ingstad, at L'Anse aux Meadows
L'Anse aux Meadows
in 1960. The site has been the subject of multi-year archaeological digs in the 1960s and 1970s. These have revealed that the settlement dated to more than 500 years before John Cabot; it contains the earliest-known European structures in North America. Designated as a World Heritage site
World Heritage site
by UNESCO, it is believed to be the Vinland
settlement of explorer Leif Eiriksson. (The Icelandic Skálholt Vinland
Map of 1570 refers to the area as "Promontorium Winlandiæ" and correctly shows it on a 51°N parallel with Bristol, England). The Norse stayed for a relatively short period of time, believed to be between 999 and 1001 AD.

Cabot Tower located in St John's

Before and after the departure of the Norse, the island was inhabited by aboriginal populations. Discovery by Cabot[edit] About 500 years later, in 1497, the Italian navigator John Cabot (Zuan/Giovanni Cabotto) became the first European since the Norse settlers to set foot on Newfoundland, working under commission of King Henry VII of England. His landing site is unknown but popularly believed to be Cape Bonavista, along the island's East coast.,[14] Another site claimed is Cape Bauld, at the tip of the Great Northern Peninsula. A document found in the Spanish National Archives, written by a Bristol
merchant, reports that Cabot's crew landed 1,800 miles (2,900 km) west of Dursey Head, Ireland (latitude 51° 35'N), which would put Cabot within sight of Cape Bauld. This document mentions an island that Cabot sailed past to go ashore on the mainland. This description fits with the Cape Bauld
Cape Bauld
theory, as Belle Isle is not far offshore.[14] Other European explorers[edit] After Cabot, the first European visitors to Newfoundland
were Portuguese, Basque, Spanish, French and English migratory fishermen. In 1501, Portuguese explorers Gaspar Corte-Real
Gaspar Corte-Real
and his brother Miguel Corte-Real charted part of the coast of Newfoundland
in a failed attempt to find the Northwest Passage. Late in the 17th century came Irish fishermen, who named the island Talamh an Éisc, meaning "land of the fish", or "the fishing grounds" in Irish Gaelic. This reflected the abundance of fisheries. Colonization[edit] In 1583, when Sir Humphrey Gilbert
Humphrey Gilbert
formally claimed Newfoundland
as a colony of England, he found numerous English, French and Portuguese vessels at St. John's. There was no permanent population. Gilbert was lost at sea during his return voyage, and plans of settlement were postponed. On July 5, 1610, John Guy set sail from Bristol, England with 39 other colonists for Cuper's Cove. This, and other early attempts at permanent settlement failed to make a profit for the English investors, but some settlers remained, forming the very earliest modern European population on the island. By 1620, the fishermen of England's West Country
West Country
dominated the east coast of Newfoundland. French fishermen dominated the island's south coast and Northern Peninsula.

James Cook's 1775 Chart of Newfoundland

After 1713, with the Treaty of Utrecht, the French ceded control of south and north shores of the island to the British. They kept only the nearby islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon, located in the fish-rich Grand Banks
Grand Banks
off the south coast. Despite some early settlements by the English, the Crown discouraged permanent, year-round settlement of Newfoundland
by migratory fishery workers. Thomas Nash was an Irish Catholic
Irish Catholic
fisherman who permanently settled in Newfoundland
despite English rule. He established the fishing town of Branch.[15] He and his cousin Father Patrick Power of Callan, County Kilkenny, spread Catholicism in Newfoundland. This settlement attracted a major migration of Irish Catholic
Irish Catholic
immigrants to Newfoundland
in the early eighteenth century.[16] By the late 18th century, permanent settlement increased, peaking in the early years of the 19th century.[17] The French name for the island is Terre Neuve. The name "Newfoundland"' is one of the oldest European place names in Canada
in continuous geographical and cartographical use, dating from a 1502 letter. It was stated in the following 1628 poem: A Skeltonicall continued ryme, in praise of my New-found-Land

Although in cloaths, company, buildings faire With England, New-found-land cannot compare: Did some know what contentment I found there, Alwayes enough, most times somewhat to spare, With little paines, lesse toyle, and lesser care, Exempt from taxings, ill newes, Lawing, feare, If cleane, and warme, no matter what you weare, Healthy, and wealthy, if men careful are, With much-much more, then I will now declare, (I say) if some wise men knew what this were (I doe beleeue) they'd live no other where.

From 'The First Booke of Qvodlibets' Composed and done at Harbor-Grace in Britaniola, anciently called Newfound-Land by Governor Robert Hayman
Robert Hayman
– 1628.

A Newfoundland
fishing outport

A new society[edit] The European immigrants, mostly English, Scots, Irish and French, built a society in the New World
New World
unlike the ones they had left. It was also different from those other immigrants would build on the North American mainland. As a fish-exporting society, Newfoundland
was in contact with many ports and societies around the Atlantic rim. But its geographic location and political distinctiveness isolated it from its closest neighbours, Canada
and the United States. Internally, most of its population was spread widely around a rugged coastline in small outport settlements. Many were distant from larger centres of population and isolated for long periods by winter ice or bad weather. These conditions had an effect on the cultures of the immigrants. They generated new ways of thinking and acting. Newfoundland
and Labrador developed a wide variety of distinctive customs, beliefs, stories, songs and dialects. Effects of World Wars[edit] The First World War
First World War
had a powerful and lasting effect on the society. From a population of about a quarter of a million, 5,482 men went overseas. Nearly 1,500 were killed and 2,300 wounded. On July 1, 1916, at Beaumont-Hamel, France, 753 men of the Royal Newfoundland
Regiment went over the top of a trench. The next morning, only 68 men answered the roll-call. Even now, when the rest of Canada
celebrates the founding of the country on July 1, many Newfoundlanders take part in solemn ceremonies of remembrance. The Second World War
Second World War
also had a lasting effect on Newfoundland. In particular, the United States assigned forces to the military bases at Argentia, Gander, Stephenville, Goose Bay and St. John's.

Joseph Smallwood
Joseph Smallwood
signing the document bringing Newfoundland
into Confederation.

Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
is the youngest province in Canada. Newfoundland
was organised as a colony in 1825, was self-governing from 1855–1934, and held dominion status from 1907–1949 (see Dominion
of Newfoundland). In late 1948, the population of the colony voted 52.3% to 47.7%[18] in favour of joining Canada
as a province. Opposition was concentrated among residents of the capital St. John's, and on the Avalon Peninsula. Union with Canada[edit] Newfoundland
joined Canada
on March 31, 1949. Union with Canada
has done little to reduce Newfoundlanders' self-image as a unique group. In 2003, 72% of residents responding identified first as Newfoundlanders, secondarily as Canadians.[19] Separatist sentiment is low, though, less than 12% in the same 2003 study. The referendum campaign of 1948 was bitterly fought, and interests in both Canada
and Britain favoured and supported confederation with Canada. Jack Pickersgill, a western Canadian native and politician, worked with the confederation camp during the campaign. The Catholic Church, whose members were a minority on the island, lobbied for continued independence. Canada
offered financial incentives, including a "baby bonus" for each child in a family. The Confederates were led by the charismatic Joseph Smallwood, a former radio broadcaster, who had developed socialist political inclinations while working for a socialist newspaper in New York City. His policies as premier were closer to liberalism than socialism. Following confederation, Smallwood led Newfoundland
for decades as the elected premier. He was said to have a "cult of personality" among his many supporters. Some residents featured photographs of "Joey" in their living rooms in a place of prominence. Flags of Newfoundland[edit]

The Newfoundland
Blue Ensign, Newfoundland's colonial government flag from 1870 to 1904

The "updated" Newfoundland
Blue Ensign, government ensign from 1904 to 1965

The Newfoundland
Red Ensign, Newfoundland's civil ensign from 1904 to 1965

The first flag to specifically represent Newfoundland
is thought to have been an image of a green fir tree on a pink background that was in use in the early 19th century.[20] The first official flag identifying Newfoundland, flown by vessels in service of the colonial government, was the Newfoundland
Blue Ensign, adopted in 1870 and used until 1904, when it was modified slightly. In 1904, the crown of the Blue Ensign was replaced with the Great Seal of Newfoundland
(having been given royal approval in 1827) and the British Parliament designated Newfoundland
Red and Blue ensigns as official flags specifically for Newfoundland. The Red and Blue ensigns with the Great Seal of Newfoundland
in the fly were used officially from 1904 until 1965, with the Red Ensign being flown as civil ensign by merchant shipping, and the Blue being flown by governmental ships (after the British tradition of having different flags for merchant/naval and government vessel identification). On September 26, 1907, King Edward VII of the United Kingdom declared the Colony of Newfoundland, as an independent Dominion
within the British Empire,[21] and from that point until 1965, the Newfoundland Red Ensign was used as the civil ensign of the Dominion
of Newfoundland
with the Blue Ensign, again, reserved for government shipping identification. In 1931 the Newfoundland
National Assembly adopted the Union Jack as the official national flag, with the Red and Blue Ensigns retained as ensigns for shipping identification.[22]

The Union Flag, official flag of both the Dominion
and province of Newfoundland
from 1931 to 1980

Flag of Newfoundland
and Labrador, legislated as the provincial flag on May 28, 1980

On March 31, 1949, Newfoundland
became a province of Canada
but retained the Union Jack in legislature, still designating it as the "national" flag. This was later reaffirmed by the Revised Statutes Act of 1952, and the Union Jack remained the official flag of Newfoundland until 1980, when it was replaced by the current provincial flag. (See Province of Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
for continued discussion of provincial flags.) Points of interest and major settlements[edit]

Cod, the traditional mainstay of Newfoundland

has the most Dorset culture
Dorset culture
archeological sites. The Beothuk
and Mi'kmaq
did not leave as much evidence of their cultures. As one of the first places in the New World
New World
where Europeans
settled, Newfoundland
also has a history of European colonization. St. John's is considered to be the oldest city in Canada
and the oldest continuously settled location in English-speaking North America. The St. John's census metropolitan area includes 12 suburban communities, the largest of which are the city of Mount Pearl
Mount Pearl
and the towns of Conception Bay South
Conception Bay South
and Paradise. The province's third-largest city is Corner Brook, which is situated on the Bay of Islands on the west coast of the island. This was recorded as a discovery by Captain James Cook. The island of Newfoundland
has numerous provincial parks such as Barachois Pond Provincial Park, considered to be a model forest, as well as two national parks.

Gros Morne National Park
Gros Morne National Park
is located on the west coast; it was designated as a UNESCO
World Heritage site
World Heritage site
in 1987 due to its complex geology and remarkable scenery. It is the largest national park in Atlantic Canada
at 1,805 km2 (697 sq mi) and is a popular tourist destination. Terra Nova National Park, on the island's east side, preserves the rugged geography of the Bonavista Bay
Bonavista Bay
region. It allows visitors to explore the historic interplay of land, sea and man. L'Anse aux Meadows
L'Anse aux Meadows
is an archaeological site located near the northernmost tip of the island (Cape Norman). It is the only known site of a Norse village in North America
North America
outside of Greenland, and is designated as a UNESCO
World Heritage site. It is the only widely accepted site of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact. It has associations with the attempted colony of Vinland
established by Leif Ericson around 1003.

The island has many tourism opportunities, ranging from sea kayaking, camping, fishing and hunting, to hiking. The International Appalachian Trail (IAT) is being extended along the island's mountainous west coast. On the east coast, the East Coast Trail
East Coast Trail
extends through the Avalon Peninsula
Avalon Peninsula
for 220 km (140 mi), beginning near Fort Amherst in St. John's and ending in Cappahayden, with an additional 320 km (200 mi) of trail under construction. The Marble Mountain Ski Resort near Corner Brook
Corner Brook
is a major attraction in the winter for skiers in eastern Canada. Other major communities include the following towns:

Gander, home to the Gander International Airport. Grand Falls-Windsor, a service centre for the central part of the island. Channel-Port aux Basques, the "Gateway to Newfoundland", as it is the closest point on the island to the province of Nova Scotia, as well as the location of the Marine Atlantic
Marine Atlantic
ferry terminal connecting the island to the rest of Canada. Stephenville, former location of the Ernest Harmon Air Force Base
Ernest Harmon Air Force Base
and currently the Stephenville Airport.

Island of Newfoundland

Educational institutions include the provincial university, Memorial University of Newfoundland
whose main campus is situated in St. John's, along with the Grenfell Campus
Grenfell Campus
in Corner Brook, in addition to the College of the North Atlantic
College of the North Atlantic
based in Stephenville and other communities. Bonavista, Placentia and Ferryland
are all historic locations for various early European settlement or discovery activities. Tilting Harbour on Fogo Island is a Provincial Heritage District, as well as a National Cultural Landscape District of Canada. This is one of only two national historic sites in Canada
so recognized for their Irish heritage. Entertainment opportunities abound in the island's three cities and numerous towns, particularly during summer festivals. For nightlife, George Street, located in downtown St. John's, is closed to traffic 20 hours per day, and is widely understood to have the most pubs per square foot of any street in North America. The Mile One Stadium
Mile One Stadium
in St. John's is the venue for large sporting and concert events in the province. In March, the annual seal hunt (of the harp seal) takes place. Largest Municipalities (2011 population)

St. John's (106,172) Conception Bay South
Conception Bay South
(24,848) Mount Pearl
Mount Pearl
(24,284) Corner Brook
Corner Brook
(20,886) Paradise (17,695) Grand Falls-Windsor
Grand Falls-Windsor
(13,725) Gander (11,054) Torbay (7,397) Portugal Cove-St. Philip's
Portugal Cove-St. Philip's
(7,366) Stephenville (6,719) Clarenville
(6,036) Marystown
(5,506) Bay Roberts (5,818)


Köppen climate types of Newfoundland

Topography of Newfoundland

View of Conception Bay

Main article: Geography of Newfoundland
and Labrador Newfoundland
is roughly triangular, with each side being approximately 500 kilometres (310 mi), and having an area of 108,860 square kilometres (42,030 sq mi). Newfoundland
and its associated small islands have a total area of 111,390 square kilometres (43,010 sq mi). Newfoundland
extends between latitudes 46°36'N and 51°38'N. Climate[edit] Newfoundland
is primarily characterized by having a subarctic (Köppen Dfc) or a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb). Locations on the extreme southeast of the island receive sufficient maritime influence to qualify as having a subpolar oceanic climate (Köppen Cfc). Geology[edit] Main article: Geography of Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
§ Geology The Terreneuvian
Epoch that begins the Cambrian
Period of geological time is named for Terre Neuve (the French term for Newfoundland).[23] Fauna and flora[edit] Main article: Geography of Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
§ Biosphere See also: List of mammals of Newfoundland Newfoundlanders[edit] Main category: People from Newfoundland
(island) See also: Category:Pre-Confederation Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
people. Representation in fiction[edit] Novels[edit] Newfoundland
has been the setting for numerous modern novels:

Michael Crummey, Galore, 2011 Kenneth J. Harvey, Blackstrap Hawco, 2008 Wayne Johnston, The Colony of Unrequited Dreams, 1998 Bernice Morgan, Random Passage, 1992 Bernice Morgan, Waiting for Time, 1995 Bernice Morgan, The Topography of Love, 2000 Peter Neary, and Patrick O'Flaherty, eds. By Great Waters: A Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
Anthology (1974) E. Annie Proulx, The Shipping News, 1993, adapted as a film of the same name, released in 2001

Television[edit] The show Republic of Doyle
Republic of Doyle
(2010-2014) is set in St John's and many of its stars are from Newfoundland. Representation in art[edit] Newfoundland
has been depicted in paintings and art.

Frederic Edwin Church, The Icebergs, 1861

In popular culture[edit] Theatre[edit] The musical Come From Away
Come From Away
takes place in Newfoundland. The show tells the story of Operation Yellow Ribbon, the effort to help passengers stranded in Gander, Newfoundland
Gander, Newfoundland
in the aftermath of the 9/11 terrorist attacks.[24] The island is home to many theatre festivals, including: Rising Tide Theatre Festival[25], Gros Morne Theatre Festival[26], and Grand Bank Theatre Festival[27]. See also[edit]

British Empire
British Empire
portal Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
portal Islands portal

Baccalieu Island Flag of Newfoundland
and Labrador Heritage Foundation of Newfoundland
and Labrador Category: Newfoundland
and Labrador


^ Dekel, Jon (22 July 2014). "Shaun Majumder brings Burlington, Newfoundland, to the world with Majumder Manor". National Post. Archived from the original on 29 July 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014. After all, it’s not every day the a famous native son of The Rock returns to its capital.  ^ Gunn, Malcolm (10 July 2014). "The term "go anywhere" has been redefined with the redesign of a family favorite". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Archived from the original on 29 July 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014. Canada's 10th province is called "The Rock" for good reason.  ^ "2016 Statistics Canada
National Census". Statistics Canada. October 18, 2017.  ^ "Atlas of Canada
– Rivers". Natural Resources Canada. October 26, 2004. Retrieved April 19, 2007.  ^ "Newfoundland". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. ^ Both names can be found in this document."Ikkarumikluak" means "place of many shoals" while "Kallunasillik" means "place of many white people". It is thought the "Ikkarumiklua" was used before the colonization of Newfoundland
and was later replaced by "Kallunasillik". It is also thought that "Ikkarumiklua" may have been a term for the Great Northern Peninsula
Great Northern Peninsula
and not the island as a whole. ^ "Atlas of Canada, Islands". Retrieved July 19, 2006.  ^ "NL Government website: Areas". Retrieved August 26, 2007.  ^ "2006 Statistics Canada
National Census: Newfoundland
and Labrador". Statistics Canada. July 28, 2009.  ^ GILBERT (Saunders Family), SIR HUMPHREY" (history), Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, University of Toronto, May 2, 2005 ^ "The British Empire: The Map Room". Retrieved June 21, 2010.  ^ Bennett, Margaret (1989). The Last Stronghold: Scottish Gaelic Traditions of Newfoundland, Canongate, 11 May 1989. ^ Dwelly, Edward (1920). Illustrated Gaelic - English Dictionary, September 2001. ^ a b Kevin Major (August 2002). As Near to Heaven by Sea: A History of Newfoundland
and Labrador. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-027864-8.  ^ Intangible Cultural Heritage Branch. Mun.ca (2011-06-14). Retrieved on 2013-07-12. ^ Jerry Bannister (2003). The Rule of the Admirals: Law, Custom and Naval Government in Newfoundland, 1699-1832. University of Toronto Press. p. 235. ISBN 9780802086136.  ^ Ninette Kelley; M. Trebilcock (2010). The Making of the Mosaic: A History of Canadian Immigration Policy. University of Toronto
University of Toronto
Press. p. 40. ISBN 9781442690813.  ^ Baker, Melvin (1987). "The Tenth Province: Newfoundland
joins Canada, 1949". Horizon. 10 (11): 2641–67. Retrieved April 25, 2007.  ^ Ryan Research and Communications (April 2003). "Provincial Opinion Survey" (PDF). Government of Newfoundland
and Labrador's Royal Commission on Renewing and Strengthening Our Place in Canada. Retrieved April 25, 2007.  ^ "THE PROVINCES Chap XIX: Newfoundland". Retrieved June 22, 2010.  ^ "God Guard Thee, Newfoundland". September 2007. Retrieved June 22, 2010.  ^ "Historic Flags of Newfoundland
(Canada)". October 2005. Retrieved June 22, 2010.  ^ Landing, E., Peng, S., Babcock, L. E., Geyer, G., & Moczydlowska-Vidal, M. (2007). Global standard names for the lowermost Cambrian
series and stage. Episodes, 30(4), 287 ^ comefromaway.com ^ "ArtsNL - Rising Tide Theatre". www.nlac.ca. Retrieved 2018-03-23.  ^ "ArtsNL - Theatre Newfoundland
Labrador". www.nlac.ca. Retrieved 2018-03-23.  ^ " Grand Bank
Grand Bank
Regional Theatre - Grand Bank". Newfoundland
and Labrador, Canada
– Official Tourism Website. Retrieved 2018-03-23. 

Further reading[edit] Modern histories[edit]

Sean T. Cadigan. Newfoundland
and Labrador: A History (2009) search and text excerpt Peter Neary. 1996. Newfoundland
in the North Atlantic World, 1929–1949. McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal, Quebec. Henry K. Gibbons. 1997. The Myth and Mystery of John Cabot: The Discoverer of North America, Marten Cat Publishers, Port Aux Basques, Newfoundland. Michael Harris. 1992. Rare Ambition: The Crosbies of Newfoundland. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-023220-6 Kevin Major, As Near To Heaven by Sea, (Toronto, 2001) John Gimlette, Theatre of Fish, (Hutchinson, London, 2005). ISBN 0-09-179519-2 Wayne Johnston. 1999. The Colony Of Unrequited Dreams, Vintage Canada, Toronto, Ontario. ISBN 978-0-676-97215-3 (0-676-97215-2)

Vintage accounts[edit]

Barnes, Capt. William Morris. When Ships Were Ships (And Not Tin Pots), 1931. Available in digital format at Memorial University site here. Birkenhead, Lord. The Story of Newfoundland
(2nd ed., 1920) 192pp edition Hatton, Joseph and Moses Harvey, Newfoundland: Its History and Present Condition, (London, 1883) complete text online* MacKay, R. A. Newfoundland: Economic, Diplomatic, and Strategic Studies, (1946) online edition Millais, John Guille. The Newfoundland
Guide Book, 1911: Including Labrador
and St. Pierre (1911)? online edition; also reprinted 2009 Moyles, Robert Gordon, ed. "Complaints is Many and Various, But the Odd Divil Likes It": Nineteenth Century Views of Newfoundland
(1975). Pedley, Charles.History of Newfoundland, (London, 1863) complete text online Prowse, D. W., A History of Newfoundland
(1895), current edition 2002, Portugal Cove, Newfoundland: Boulder Publications. complete text online Tocque, Philip. Newfoundland
as It Was and Is, (London, 1878) complete text online

External links[edit]

Look up newfoundland (island) in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Newfoundland.

Government of Newfoundland
and Labrador. Religion, Society, and Culture in Newfoundland
and Labrador

v t e

Subdivisions of Newfoundland
and Labrador

Newfoundland Labrador Nunatsiavut Other islands

Census divisions

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11


Corner Brook Mount Pearl St. John's

Other communities

Bishop's Falls Bonavista Botwood Carbonear Channel-Port aux Basques Clarenville Conception Bay
Conception Bay
South Deer Lake Ferryland Fogo Island Gander Grand Bank Grand Falls-Windsor Happy Valley-Goose Bay Harbour Grace Hopedale Labrador
City Makkovik Marystown Nain Norris Arm Pasadena Peterview Placentia Red Bay St. Anthony Stephenville Twillingate Torbay Woody Point

Category: Newfoundland
and Labrador Portal: Newfoundland
and Labrador WikiProject: Newfoundland
and Labrador

v t e

British Empire

Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth realm Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations Historical flags of the British Empire


1542–1800 Ireland (integrated into UK) 1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802 Minorca Since 1713 Gibraltar 1800–1813 Malta (Protectorate) 1813–1964 Malta (Colony) 1807–1890 Heligoland 1809–1864 Ionian Islands 1878–1960 Cyprus 1921–1937 Irish Free State

North America

17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

1579 New Albion 1583–1907 Newfoundland 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia 1607–1776 Virginia Since 1619 Bermuda 1620–1691 Plymouth 1623–1883 Saint Kitts 1624–1966 *Barbados 1625–1650 Saint Croix 1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1628–1883 Nevis 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay 1632–1776 Maryland since 1632 Montserrat 1632–1860 Antigua 1635–1644 Saybrook 1636–1776 Connecticut 1636–1776 Rhode Island 1637–1662 New Haven

1643–1860 Bay Islands Since 1650 Anguilla 1655–1850 Mosquito Coast 1655–1962 *Jamaica 1663–1712 Carolina 1664–1776 New York 1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New Jersey Since 1666 Virgin Islands Since 1670 Cayman Islands 1670–1973 *Bahamas 1670–1870 Rupert's Land 1671–1816 Leeward Islands 1674–1702 East Jersey 1674–1702 West Jersey 1680–1776 New Hampshire 1681–1776 Pennsylvania 1686–1689 New England 1691–1776 Massachusetts Bay

1701–1776 Delaware 1712–1776 North Carolina 1712–1776 South Carolina 1713–1867 Nova Scotia 1733–1776 Georgia 1754–1820 Cape Breton Island 1762–1974 *Grenada 1763–1978 Dominica 1763–1873 Prince Edward Island 1763–1791 Quebec 1763–1783 East Florida 1763–1783 West Florida 1784–1867 New Brunswick 1791–1841 Lower Canada 1791–1841 Upper Canada Since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands

1818–1846 Columbia District/Oregon Country1 1833–1960 Windward Islands 1833–1960 Leeward Islands 1841–1867 Canada 1849–1866 Vancouver Island 1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands 1858–1866 British Columbia 1859–1870 North-Western Territory 1860–1981 *British Antigua
and Barbuda 1862–1863 Stickeen 1866–1871 British Columbia 1867–1931 * Dominion
of Canada2 1871–1964 Honduras 1882–1983 * Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago 1907–1949 Newfoundland3 1958–1962 West Indies Federation

1. Occupied jointly with the United States. 2. In 1931, Canada
and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of Canada. 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada
in 1949.

South America

1631–1641 Providence Island 1651–1667 Willoughbyland 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands4 1831–1966 Guiana Since 1833 Falkland Islands5 Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands5

4. Now a department of Colombia. 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War
Falklands War
of April–June 1982.


17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 1792–1961 Sierra Leone 1795–1803 Cape Colony

Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope 1807–1808 Madeira 1810–1968 Mauritius 1816–1965 The Gambia 1856–1910 Natal 1862–1906 Lagos 1868–1966 Basutoland 1874–1957 Gold Coast 1882–1922 Egypt

1884–1900 Niger Coast 1884–1966 Bechuanaland 1884–1960 Somaliland 1887–1897 Zululand 1890–1962 Uganda 1890–1963 Zanzibar 1891–1964 Nyasaland 1891–1907 Central Africa 1893–1968 Swaziland 1895–1920 East Africa 1899–1956 Sudan

1900–1914 Northern Nigeria 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria 1900–1910 Orange River 1900–1910 Transvaal 1903–1976 Seychelles 1910–1931 South Africa 1914–1960 Nigeria 1915–1931 South-West Africa 1919–1961 Cameroons6 1920–1963 Kenya 1922–1961 Tanganyika6 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia7 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia

6. League of Nations mandate. 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement. After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.


17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

1685–1824 Bencoolen 1702–1705 Pulo Condore 1757–1947 Bengal 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite 1781–1784 and 1795–1819 Padang 1786–1946 Penang 1795–1948 Ceylon 1796–1965 Maldives

1811–1816 Java 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton 1819–1826 Malaya 1824–1948 Burma 1826–1946 Straits Settlements 1839–1967 Aden 1839–1842 Afghanistan 1841–1997 Hong Kong 1841–1946 Sarawak 1848–1946 Labuan 1858–1947 India 1874–1963 Borneo

1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) 1882–1963 North Borneo 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States 1888–1984 Brunei 1891–1971 Muscat
and Oman 1892–1971 Trucial States 1895–1946 Federated Malay States 1898–1930 Weihai 1878–1960 Cyprus

1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) 1918–1961 Kuwait 1920–1932 Mesopotamia8 1921–1946 Transjordan8 1923–1948 Palestine8 1945–1946 South Vietnam 1946–1963 North Borneo 1946–1963 Sarawak 1946–1963 Singapore 1946–1948 Malayan Union 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(before as part of Cyprus) Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
(before as part of Mauritius and the Seychelles)

8 League of Nations mandate. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty


18th and 19th centuries 20th century

1788–1901 New South Wales 1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania 1807–1863 Auckland Islands9 1824–1980 New Hebrides 1824–1901 Queensland 1829–1901 Swan River/Western Australia 1836–1901 South Australia since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

1841–1907 New Zealand 1851–1901 Victoria 1874–1970 Fiji10 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories 1884–1949 Papua 1888–1901 Rarotonga/Cook Islands9 1889–1948 Union Islands9 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11 1893–1978 Solomon Islands12

1900–1970 Tonga 1900–1974 Niue9 1901–1942 *Australia 1907–1947 *New Zealand 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru 1919–1949 New Guinea 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea13

9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand. 10. Suspended member. 11. Now Kiribati
and *Tuvalu. 12. Now the *Solomon Islands. 13. Now *Papua New Guinea.

Antarctica and South Atlantic

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory15 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia) 1841–1947 Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(transferred to the Realm of New Zealand)

14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
(1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).

v t e

French overseas empire


v t e

Former French colonies in Africa and the Indian Ocean

French North Africa

Algeria Morocco Tunisia

French West Africa

Côte d'Ivoire Dahomey French Sudan Guinea Mauritania


Niger Senegal Upper Volta


French Togoland James Island Albreda

French Equatorial Africa

Chad Gabon Middle Congo Ubangi-Shari French Cameroons

French Comoros

Anjouan Grande Comore Mohéli


French Somaliland
French Somaliland
(Djibouti) Madagascar Isle de France

v t e

Former French colonies in the Americas

New France

Acadia Louisiana Canada Terre Neuve

French Caribbean

Dominica Grenada The Grenadines Saint-Domingue

Haïti, Dominican Republic

Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
& Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent Tobago Virgin Islands

Equinoctial France

Berbice France Antarctique Inini

French colonization of the Americas French West India Company

v t e

Former French colonies in Asia and Oceania

French India

Chandernagor Coromandel Coast Madras Mahé Pondichéry Karaikal Yanaon

Indochinese Union

Cambodia Laos Vietnam

Cochinchina Annam Tonkin

Kouang-Tchéou-Wan, China

French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon

State of Syria

Aleppo Damascus

Alawite State Greater Lebanon Jabal al-Druze Sanjak of Alexandretta


New Hebrides


Port Louis-Philippe (Akaroa)

France–Asia relations French East India Company


v t e

Overseas France

Inhabited areas

Overseas departments1

French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte2 Réunion

Overseas collectivities

French Polynesia St. Barthélemy St. Martin St. Pierre and Miquelon Wallis and Futuna

Sui generis
Sui generis

New Caledonia

Uninhabited areas

Pacific Ocean

Clipperton Island

Overseas territory (French Southern and Antarctic Lands)

Île Amsterdam Île Saint-Paul Crozet Islands Kerguelen Islands Adélie Land

Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean

Bassas da India3 Europa Island3 Glorioso Islands2, 3 Juan de Nova Island3 Tromelin Island4

1 Also known as overseas regions 2 Claimed by Comoros 3 Claimed by Madagascar 4 Claimed by Mauritius

v t e

Portuguese overseas empire

North Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta

1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)

1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah)

1471–1662 Tangier

1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1487–16th century Ouadane

1488–1541 Safim (Safi)

1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)

1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira)

1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima)

1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour)

1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya)

1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim

1462–1975 Cape Verde

1470–1975 São Tomé1

1471–1975 Príncipe1

1474–1778 Annobón

1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko)

1482–1637 Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina)

1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast

1508–15472 Madagascar3

1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi

1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique

1502–1659 Saint Helena

1503–1698 Zanzibar

1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)

1506–1511 Socotra

1557–1578 Accra

1575–1975 Portuguese Angola

1588–1974 Cacheu4

1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor

1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá

1687–1974 Bissau4

18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa)

1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe

19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea

1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
from 1753. 2 Or 1600. 3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases. 4 Part of Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
from 1879. 5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Portuguese Angola
from the 1920s.

Middle East [Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama)

1521–1529? Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm

1623–? Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba

1624–? Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century


Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

 • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

 • 1502–1658  1659–1661

Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

 • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)

 • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

 • 1510–1961 Goa

 • 1512–1525  1750

Calicut (Kozhikode)

 • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

 • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1523–1662 Mylapore

 • 1528–1666

Chittagong (Porto Grande De Bengala)

 • 1531–1571 Chaul

 • 1531–1571 Chalé

 • 1534–1601 Salsette Island

 • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)

 • 1535 Ponnani

 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

 • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

 • 1540–1612 Surat

 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)

 • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu

 • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1579–1632 Hugli

 • 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives

17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore

18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca

1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]

 • 1522–1575  Ternate

 • 1576–1605  Ambon

 • 1578–1650  Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar

1557–1999 Macau [China]

1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]

17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane

 • 1851–1999 Taipa

 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde

20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

North America
North America
& North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira

1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil

 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil

 • 1549–1572  Brazil

 • 1572–1578  Bahia

 • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro

 • 1578–1607  Brazil

 • 1621–1815  Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru

Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

Coordinates: 49°00′N 56°00′W / 49.000°N 56.000°W / 49.000; -56.000

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 134766632 GND: 4075364-5 BNF: