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The Info List - Muhammad Ali





Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
(/ɑːˈliː/;[8] born Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr.;[9] January 17, 1942 – June 3, 2016) was an American professional boxer and activist. He is widely regarded as one of the most significant and celebrated sports figures of the 20th century. From early in his career, Ali
Ali
was known as an inspiring, controversial, and polarizing figure both inside and outside the ring.[10][11] Cassius Clay was born and raised in Louisville, Kentucky, and began training as an amateur boxer when he was 12 years old. At age 18, he won a gold medal in the light heavyweight division at the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome and turned professional later that year. At age 22 in 1964, he won the WBA, WBC, and lineal heavyweight titles from Sonny Liston in a major upset. Clay then converted to Islam
Islam
and changed his name from Cassius Clay, which he called his "slave name", to Muhammad Ali. He set an example of racial pride for African Americans
African Americans
and resistance to white domination during the Civil Rights Movement.[12][13] In 1966, two years after winning the heavyweight title, Ali
Ali
further antagonized the white establishment by refusing to be drafted into the U.S. military, citing his religious beliefs and opposition to American involvement in the Vietnam War.[12][14] He was eventually arrested, found guilty of draft evasion charges, and stripped of his boxing titles. He successfully appealed the decision to the U.S. Supreme Court, which overturned his conviction in 1971, by which time he had not fought for nearly four years and thereby lost a period of peak performance as an athlete. Ali's actions as a conscientious objector to the war made him an icon for the larger counterculture generation.[15][16] Ali
Ali
is regarded as one of the leading heavyweight boxers of the 20th century, and remains the only three-time lineal heavyweight champion. During 1964, Ali
Ali
reigned as the undisputed heavyweight champion. His records of the most wins in unified championship bouts in the history of professional boxing and the most wins in heavyweight title bouts in the post-war era were unbeaten for 38 and 35 years respectively. Ali is the only boxer to be named The Ring magazine Fighter of the Year six times. He was also ranked as the greatest athlete of the 20th century by Sports Illustrated, the Sports Personality of the Century by the BBC, and the third greatest athlete of the 20th century by ESPN SportsCentury. Nicknamed "the Greatest", he was involved in several historic boxing matches.[17] Notable among these were the first Liston fight; the "Fight of the Century", "Super Fight II" and the "Thrilla in Manila" against his rival Joe Frazier; and "The Rumble in the Jungle" against George Foreman. At a time when most fighters let their managers do the talking, Ali thrived in and indeed craved the spotlight, where he was often provocative and outlandish.[18][19][20] He was known for trash talking, and often freestyled with rhyme schemes and spoken word poetry, both for his trash talking in boxing and as political poetry for his activism, anticipating elements of rap and hip hop music.[21][22][23] As a musician, Ali
Ali
recorded two spoken word albums and a rhythm and blues song, and received two Grammy Award nominations.[23] As an actor, he performed in several films and a Broadway musical. Additionally, Ali
Ali
wrote two autobiographies, one during and one after his boxing career. As a Muslim, Ali
Ali
was initially affiliated with Elijah Muhammad's Nation of Islam
Islam
(NOI) and advocated their black separatist ideology. He later disavowed the NOI, adhering to Sunni Islam, practicing Sufism, and supporting racial integration, like his former mentor Malcolm X. After retiring from boxing at age 39 in 1981, Ali
Ali
focused on religion and charity. In 1984, Ali
Ali
was diagnosed with Parkinson's syndrome, which his doctors attributed to boxing-related brain injuries.[citation needed] As his condition worsened, Ali
Ali
made limited public appearances and was cared for by his family until his death on June 3, 2016, in Scottsdale, Arizona.

Contents

1 Early life and amateur career 2 Professional boxing

2.1 Early career 2.2 Heavyweight
Heavyweight
champion 2.3 Exile and comeback

2.3.1 Fantasy fight against Rocky Marciano 2.3.2 Legal vindication 2.3.3 First fight against Joe Frazier 2.3.4 Fights against Wilt Chamberlain, Jerry Quarry, Floyd Patterson, Bob Foster, and Ken Norton 2.3.5 Second fight against Joe Frazier

2.4 Heavyweight
Heavyweight
champion (second reign) 2.5 Later career 2.6 Ali
Ali
Beatles
Beatles
history

3 Personal life

3.1 Marriages and children 3.2 Religion and beliefs

3.2.1 Affiliation with the Nation of Islam 3.2.2 Later beliefs

4 Vietnam War
Vietnam War
and resistance to the draft

4.1 Impact of Ali's draft refusal 4.2 NSA and FBI
FBI
monitoring of Ali's communications

5 Later years

5.1 Illness and death 5.2 Tributes 5.3 Memorial

6 Boxing style

6.1 Trash-talk

7 Ali
Ali
and his contemporaries

7.1 Ali
Ali
and Frazier

7.1.1 Friendship 7.1.2 Opponents 7.1.3 Trash talk and altercations 7.1.4 Finale

8 Legacy

8.1 Ranking in boxing history 8.2 Spoken word poetry and music 8.3 In the media and popular culture

9 Professional boxing record 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Early life and amateur career Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr. (/ˈkæʃəs/) was born on January 17, 1942, in Louisville, Kentucky.[24] He had a sister and four brothers.[25][26] He was named for his father, Cassius Marcellus Clay Sr. (1912–1990), who himself was named in honor of the 19th-century Republican politician and staunch abolitionist, Cassius Marcellus Clay, also from the state of Kentucky. Clay's father's paternal grandparents were John Clay and Sallie Anne Clay; Clay's sister Eva claimed that Sallie was a native of Madagascar.[27] He was a descendant of slaves of the antebellum South, and was predominantly of African descent, with smaller amounts of Irish[28] and English heritage.[29][30] His father painted billboards and signs,[24] and his mother, Odessa O'Grady Clay (1917–1994), was a domestic helper. Although Cassius Sr. was a Methodist, he allowed Odessa to bring up both Cassius Jr. and his younger brother Rudolph "Rudy" Clay (later renamed Rahman Ali) as Baptists.[31] Cassius Jr. attended Central High School in Louisville.[2] Clay grew up amid racial segregation. His mother recalled one occasion when he was denied a drink of water at a store—"They wouldn't give him one because of his color. That really affected him."[12] He was also affected by the 1955 murder of Emmett Till, which led to young Clay and a friend's taking out their frustration by vandalizing a local railyard.[32][33]

Cassius Clay (second from right and later Ali) at the 1960 Olympics

Clay was first directed toward boxing by Louisville police officer and boxing coach Joe E. Martin,[34] who encountered the 12-year-old fuming over a thief's having taken his bicycle. He told the officer he was going to "whup" the thief. The officer told Clay he had better learn how to box first.[35] Initially, Clay did not take up Martin's offer, but after seeing amateur boxers on a local television boxing program called Tomorrow's Champions, Clay was interested in the prospect of fighting.[citation needed] He then began to work with trainer Fred Stoner, whom he credits with giving him the "real training", eventually moulding "my style, my stamina and my system". For the last four years of Clay's amateur career he was trained by boxing cutman Chuck Bodak.[36] Clay made his amateur boxing debut in 1954 against local amateur boxer Ronnie O'Keefe. He won by split decision.[37] He went on to win six Kentucky
Kentucky
Golden Gloves
Golden Gloves
titles, two national Golden Gloves
Golden Gloves
titles, an Amateur Athletic Union
Amateur Athletic Union
national title, and the Light Heavyweight
Heavyweight
gold medal in the 1960 Summer Olympics
1960 Summer Olympics
in Rome.[38] Clay's amateur record was 100 wins with five losses. Ali
Ali
said in his 1975 autobiography that shortly after his return from the Rome Olympics, he threw his gold medal into the Ohio River
Ohio River
after he and a friend were refused service at a "whites-only" restaurant and fought with a white gang. The story was later disputed, and several of Ali's friends, including Bundini Brown and photographer Howard Bingham, denied it. Brown told Sports Illustrated writer Mark Kram, "Honkies sure bought into that one!" Thomas Hauser's biography of Ali
Ali
stated that Ali
Ali
was refused service at the diner but that he lost his medal a year after he won it.[39] Ali
Ali
received a replacement medal at a basketball intermission during the 1996 Olympics in Atlanta, where he lit the torch to start the games. Professional boxing Early career

On-site poster for Cassius Clay's fifth professional bout

Clay made his professional debut on October 29, 1960, winning a six-round decision over Tunney Hunsaker. From then until the end of 1963, Clay amassed a record of 19–0 with 15 wins by knockout. He defeated boxers that included Tony Esperti, Jim Robinson, Donnie Fleeman, Alonzo Johnson, George Logan, Willi Besmanoff, LaMar Clark, Doug Jones and Henry Cooper. Clay also beat his former trainer and veteran boxer Archie Moore
Archie Moore
in a 1962 match.[40][41] These early fights were not without trials. Clay was knocked down both by Sonny Banks and Cooper. In the Cooper fight, Clay was floored by a left hook at the end of round four and was saved by the bell, going on to win in the predicted 5th round due to Cooper's severely cut eye. The fight with Doug Jones on March 13, 1963 was Clay's toughest fight during this stretch. The number-two and -three heavyweight contenders respectively, Clay and Jones fought on Jones' home turf at New York's Madison Square Garden. Jones staggered Clay in the first round, and the unanimous decision for Clay was greeted by boos and a rain of debris thrown into the ring (watching on closed-circuit TV, heavyweight champ Sonny Liston
Sonny Liston
quipped that if he fought Clay he might get locked up for murder). The fight was later named "Fight of the Year" by The Ring magazine.[42] In each of these fights, Clay vocally belittled his opponents and vaunted his abilities. He called Jones "an ugly little man" and Cooper a "bum". He was embarrassed to get in the ring with Alex Miteff. Madison Square Garden
Madison Square Garden
was "too small for me".[43] Clay's behavior provoked the ire of many boxing fans.[44] His provocative and outlandish behavior in the ring was inspired by professional wrestler "Gorgeous George" Wagner.[45] Ali
Ali
stated in a 1969 interview with the Associated Press' Hubert Mizel that he met with Gorgeous George
Gorgeous George
in Las Vegas in 1961 and that the wrestler inspired him to use wrestling jargon when he did interviews.[46] After Clay left Moore's camp in 1960, partially due to Clay's refusing to do chores such as dish-washing and sweeping, he hired Angelo Dundee, whom he had met in February 1957 during Ali's amateur career,[47] to be his trainer. Around this time, Clay sought longtime idol Sugar Ray Robinson
Sugar Ray Robinson
to be his manager, but was rebuffed.[48] Heavyweight
Heavyweight
champion See also: Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
vs. Sonny Liston By late 1963, Clay had become the top contender for Sonny Liston's title. The fight was set for February 25, 1964, in Miami Beach. Liston was an intimidating personality, a dominating fighter with a criminal past and ties to the mob. Based on Clay's uninspired performance against Jones and Cooper in his previous two fights, and Liston's destruction of former heavyweight champion Floyd Patterson
Floyd Patterson
in two first-round knock outs, Clay was a 7–1 underdog. Despite this, Clay taunted Liston during the pre-fight buildup, dubbing him "the big ugly bear". "Liston even smells like a bear", Clay said. "After I beat him I'm going to donate him to the zoo."[49] Clay turned the pre-fight weigh-in into a circus, shouting at Liston that "someone is going to die at ringside tonight". Clay's pulse rate was measured at 120, more than double his normal 54.[50] Many of those in attendance thought Clay's behavior stemmed from fear, and some commentators wondered if he would show up for the bout. The outcome of the fight was a major upset. At the opening bell, Liston rushed at Clay, seemingly angry and looking for a quick knockout, but Clay's superior speed and mobility enabled him to elude Liston, making the champion miss and look awkward. At the end of the first round, Clay opened up his attack and hit Liston repeatedly with jabs. Liston fought better in round two, but at the beginning of the third round Clay hit Liston with a combination that buckled his knees and opened a cut under his left eye. This was the first time Liston had ever been cut. At the end of round four, Clay was returning to his corner when he began experiencing blinding pain in his eyes and asked his trainer Angelo Dundee
Angelo Dundee
to cut off his gloves. Dundee refused. It has been speculated that the problem was due to ointment used to seal Liston's cuts, perhaps deliberately applied by his corner to his gloves.[50] Though unconfirmed, Bert Sugar
Bert Sugar
claimed that two of Liston's opponents also complained about their eyes "burning".[51][52] Despite Liston's attempts to knock out a blinded Clay, Clay was able to survive the fifth round until sweat and tears rinsed the irritation from his eyes. In the sixth, Clay dominated, hitting Liston repeatedly. Liston did not answer the bell for the seventh round, and Clay was declared the winner by TKO. Liston stated that the reason he quit was an injured shoulder. Following the win, a triumphant Clay rushed to the edge of the ring and, pointing to the ringside press, shouted: "Eat your words!" He added, "I am the greatest! I shook up the world. I'm the prettiest thing that ever lived."[53] At ringside post fight, Ali
Ali
appeared unconvinced that the fight was stopped due to a Liston shoulder injury, indicating, rather, that the injury Liston had was "an open eye, a big cut eye!" Ali
Ali
however, when told by Joe Louis
Joe Louis
that the injury was a "left arm thrown out of its socket" quipped, "Yeah, swinging at nothing, who wouldn't!" [54] In winning this fight, Clay became at age 22 the youngest boxer to take the title from a reigning heavyweight champion, though Floyd Patterson was the youngest to win the heavyweight championship at 21, during an elimination bout following Rocky Marciano's retirement. Mike Tyson broke both records in 1986 when he defeated Trevor Berbick to win the heavyweight title at age 20. Soon after the Liston fight, Clay changed his name to Cassius X, and then later to Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
upon converting to Islam
Islam
and affiliating with the Nation of Islam. Ali
Ali
then faced a rematch with Liston scheduled for May 1965 in Lewiston, Maine. It had been scheduled for Boston the previous November, but was postponed for six months due to Ali's emergency surgery for a hernia three days before.[55] The fight was controversial. Midway through the first round, Liston was knocked down by a difficult-to-see blow the press dubbed a "phantom punch". Ali
Ali
refused to retreat to a neutral corner, and referee Jersey Joe Walcott did not begin the count. Liston rose after he had been down about 20 seconds, and the fight momentarily continued. But a few seconds later Walcott stopped the match, declaring Ali
Ali
the winner by knockout. The entire fight lasted less than two minutes.[56] It has since been speculated that Liston purposely dropped to the ground. Proposed motivations include threats on his life from the Nation of Islam, that he had bet against himself and that he "took a dive" to pay off debts. Slow-motion replays show that Liston was jarred by a chopping right from Ali, although it is unclear whether the blow was a genuine knockout punch.[57] Ali
Ali
defended his title against former heavyweight champion Floyd Patterson on November 22, 1965. Before the match, Ali
Ali
mocked Patterson, who was widely known to call him by his former name Cassius Clay, as an "Uncle Tom", calling him "The Rabbit". Although Ali clearly had the better of Patterson, who appeared injured during the fight, the match lasted 12 rounds before being called on a technical knockout. Patterson later said he had strained his sacroiliac. Ali
Ali
was criticized in the sports media for appearing to have toyed with Patterson during the fight.[58]

Ali
Ali
in 1966

Ali
Ali
and then-WBA heavyweight champion boxer Ernie Terrell
Ernie Terrell
had agreed to meet for a bout in Chicago
Chicago
on March 29, 1966 (the WBA, one of two boxing associations, had stripped Ali
Ali
of his title following his joining the Nation of Islam). But in February Ali
Ali
was reclassified by the Louisville draft board as 1-A from 1-Y, and he indicated that he would refuse to serve, commenting to the press, "I ain't got nothing against no Viet Cong; no Viet Cong
Viet Cong
never called me nigger."[59] Amidst the media and public outcry over Ali's stance, the Illinois Athletic Commission refused to sanction the fight, citing technicalities.[60] Instead, Ali
Ali
traveled to Canada
Canada
and Europe and won championship bouts against George Chuvalo, Henry Cooper, Brian London
Brian London
and Karl Mildenberger. Ali
Ali
returned to the United States
United States
to fight Cleveland Williams in the Houston Astrodome
Astrodome
on November 14, 1966. The bout drew a record-breaking indoor crowd of 35,460 people. Williams had once been considered among the hardest punchers in the heavyweight division, but in 1964 he had been shot at point-blank range by a Texas policeman, resulting in the loss of one kidney and 10 feet (3.0 m) of his small intestine. Ali
Ali
dominated Williams, winning a third-round technical knockout in what some consider the finest performance of his career. Ali
Ali
fought Terrell in Houston on February 6, 1967. Terrell was billed as Ali's toughest opponent since Liston—unbeaten in five years and having defeated many of the boxers Ali
Ali
had faced. Terrell was big, strong and had a three-inch reach advantage over Ali. During the lead up to the bout, Terrell repeatedly called Ali
Ali
"Clay", much to Ali's annoyance ( Ali
Ali
called Cassius Clay his "slave name"). The two almost came to blows over the name issue in a pre-fight interview with Howard Cosell. Ali
Ali
seemed intent on humiliating Terrell. "I want to torture him", he said. "A clean knockout is too good for him."[61] The fight was close until the seventh round when Ali
Ali
bloodied Terrell and almost knocked him out. In the eighth round, Ali
Ali
taunted Terrell, hitting him with jabs and shouting between punches, "What's my name, Uncle Tom... what's my name?" Ali
Ali
won a unanimous 15-round decision. Terrell claimed that early in the fight Ali
Ali
deliberately thumbed him in the eye—forcing Terrell to fight half-blind—and then, in a clinch, rubbed the wounded eye against the ropes. Because of Ali's apparent intent to prolong the fight to inflict maximum punishment, critics described the bout as "one of the ugliest boxing fights". Tex Maule later wrote: "It was a wonderful demonstration of boxing skill and a barbarous display of cruelty." Ali
Ali
denied the accusations of cruelty but, for Ali's critics, the fight provided more evidence of his arrogance. After Ali's title defense against Zora Folley
Zora Folley
on March 22, he was stripped of his title due to his refusal to be drafted to army service.[24] His boxing license was also suspended by the state of New York. He was convicted of draft evasion on June 20 and sentenced to five years in prison and a $10,000 fine. He paid a bond and remained free while the verdict was being appealed. Exile and comeback In March 1966, Ali
Ali
refused to be inducted into the armed forces. He was systematically denied a boxing license in every state and stripped of his passport. As a result, he did not fight from March 1967 to October 1970—from ages 25 to almost 29—as his case worked its way through the appeals process before his conviction was overturned in 1971. During this time of inactivity, as opposition to the Vietnam War began to grow and Ali's stance gained sympathy, he spoke at colleges across the nation, criticizing the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
and advocating African American pride and racial justice. Fantasy fight against Rocky Marciano Main article: The Super Fight While banned from sanctioned bouts, Ali
Ali
settled a $1 million lawsuit against radio producer Murray Woroner by accepting $10,000 to appear in a privately staged fantasy fight against retired champion Rocky Marciano.[62] In 1969 the boxers were filmed sparring for about 75 one-minute rounds; they acted out several different endings.[63] A computer program purportedly determined the winner, based on data about the fighters. Edited versions of the bout were shown in movie theaters in 1970. In the U.S. version Ali
Ali
lost in a simulated 13th-round knockout, but in the European version Marciano lost due to cuts, also simulated.[64] Ali
Ali
jokingly suggested that prejudice actually determined his defeat in the U.S. version. He was reported to say, "That computer was made in Alabama."[62] Legal vindication On August 11, 1970, with his case still in appeal, Ali
Ali
was granted a license to box by the City of Atlanta Athletic Commission, thanks to State Senator Leroy R. Johnson.[65] Ali's first return bout was against Jerry Quarry on October 26, resulting in a win after three rounds after Quarry was cut. A month earlier, a victory in federal court forced the New York State Boxing Commission to reinstate Ali's license.[66] He fought Oscar Bonavena at Madison Square Garden
Madison Square Garden
in December, an uninspired performance that ended in a dramatic technical knockout of Bonavena in the 15th round. The win left Ali
Ali
as a top contender against heavyweight champion Joe Frazier. First fight against Joe Frazier Main article: Fight of the Century Ali
Ali
and Frazier's first fight, held at the Garden on March 8, 1971, was nicknamed the "Fight of the Century", due to the tremendous excitement surrounding a bout between two undefeated fighters, each with a legitimate claim as heavyweight champions. Veteran boxing writer John Condon called it "the greatest event I've ever worked on in my life". The bout was broadcast to 35 foreign countries; promoters granted 760 press passes.[39] Adding to the atmosphere were the considerable pre-fight theatrics and name calling. Ali
Ali
portrayed Frazier as a "dumb tool of the white establishment". "Frazier is too ugly to be champ", Ali
Ali
said. "Frazier is too dumb to be champ." Ali
Ali
also frequently called Frazier an "Uncle Tom". Dave Wolf, who worked in Frazier's camp, recalled that, " Ali
Ali
was saying 'the only people rooting for Joe Frazier
Joe Frazier
are white people in suits, Alabama sheriffs, and members of the Ku Klux Klan. I'm fighting for the little man in the ghetto.' Joe was sitting there, smashing his fist into the palm of his hand, saying, 'What the fuck does he know about the ghetto?'"[39] Ali
Ali
began training at a farm near Reading, Pennsylvania, in 1971 and, finding the country setting to his liking, sought to develop a real training camp in the countryside. He found a five-acre site on a Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
country road in the village of Deer Lake, Pennsylvania. On this site, Ali
Ali
carved out what was to become his training camp, the camp where he lived and trained for all the many fights he had from 1972 on to the end of his career in the 1980s. The Monday night fight lived up to its billing. In a preview of their two other fights, a crouching, bobbing and weaving Frazier constantly pressured Ali, getting hit regularly by Ali
Ali
jabs and combinations, but relentlessly attacking and scoring repeatedly, especially to Ali's body. The fight was even in the early rounds, but Ali
Ali
was taking more punishment than ever in his career. On several occasions in the early rounds he played to the crowd and shook his head "no" after he was hit. In the later rounds—in what was the first appearance of the "rope-a-dope strategy"— Ali
Ali
leaned against the ropes and absorbed punishment from Frazier, hoping to tire him. In the 11th round, Frazier connected with a left hook that wobbled Ali, but because it appeared that Ali
Ali
might be clowning as he staggered backwards across the ring, Frazier hesitated to press his advantage, fearing an Ali counter-attack. In the final round, Frazier knocked Ali
Ali
down with a vicious left hook, which referee Arthur Mercante said was as hard as a man can be hit. Ali
Ali
was back on his feet in three seconds.[39] Nevertheless, Ali
Ali
lost by unanimous decision, his first professional defeat. Fights against Wilt Chamberlain, Jerry Quarry, Floyd Patterson, Bob Foster, and Ken Norton In 1971, basketball star Wilt Chamberlain
Wilt Chamberlain
challenged Ali
Ali
to a fight, and a bout was scheduled for July 26. Although the seven foot two inch tall Chamberlain had formidable physical advantages over Ali—weighing 60 pounds more and able to reach 14 inches further— Ali
Ali
was able to intimidate Chamberlain into calling off the bout by taunting him with calls of "Timber!" and "The tree will fall" during a shared interview. These statements of confidence unsettled his taller opponent to the point that he called off the bout.[67] After the loss to Frazier, Ali
Ali
fought Jerry Quarry, had a second bout with Floyd Patterson
Floyd Patterson
and faced Bob Foster in 1972, winning a total of six fights that year. In 1973, Ken Norton
Ken Norton
broke Ali's jaw while giving him the second loss of his career. After initially considering retirement, Ali
Ali
won a controversial decision against Norton in their second bout. This led to a rematch with Joe Frazier
Joe Frazier
at Madison Square Garden on January 28, 1974; Frazier had recently lost his title to George Foreman. Second fight against Joe Frazier Main article: Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
vs. Joe Frazier
Joe Frazier
II Ali
Ali
was strong in the early rounds of the fight, and staggered Frazier in the second round. Referee Tony Perez mistakenly thought he heard the bell ending the round and stepped between the two fighters as Ali was pressing his attack, giving Frazier time to recover. However, Frazier came on in the middle rounds, snapping Ali's head in round seven and driving him to the ropes at the end of round eight. The last four rounds saw round-to-round shifts in momentum between the two fighters. Throughout most of the bout, however, Ali
Ali
was able to circle away from Frazier's dangerous left hook and to tie Frazier up when he was cornered, the latter a tactic that Frazier's camp complained of bitterly. Judges awarded Ali
Ali
a unanimous decision. Heavyweight
Heavyweight
champion (second reign) Main articles: The Rumble in the Jungle
The Rumble in the Jungle
and Thrilla in Manila The defeat of Frazier set the stage for a title fight against heavyweight champion George Foreman
George Foreman
in Kinshasa, Zaire, on October 30, 1974—a bout nicknamed "The Rumble in the Jungle". Foreman was considered one of the hardest punchers in heavyweight history. In assessing the fight, analysts pointed out that Joe Frazier
Joe Frazier
and Ken Norton—who had given Ali
Ali
four tough battles and won two of them—had been both devastated by Foreman in second-round knockouts. Ali
Ali
was 32 years old, and had clearly lost speed and reflexes since his twenties. Contrary to his later persona, Foreman was at the time a brooding and intimidating presence. Almost no one associated with the sport, not even Ali's long-time supporter Howard Cosell, gave the former champion a chance of winning.

Ali
Ali
in 1974

As usual, Ali
Ali
was confident and colorful before the fight. He told interviewer David Frost, "If you think the world was surprised when Nixon resigned, wait 'til I whup Foreman's behind!"[68] He told the press, "I've done something new for this fight. I done wrestled with an alligator, I done tussled with a whale; handcuffed lightning, thrown thunder in jail; only last week, I murdered a rock, injured a stone, hospitalized a brick; I'm so mean I make medicine sick."[69] Ali
Ali
was wildly popular in Zaire, with crowds chanting "Ali, bomaye" ("Ali, kill him") wherever he went. Ali
Ali
opened the fight moving and scoring with right crosses to Foreman's head. Then, beginning in the second round—and to the consternation of his corner— Ali
Ali
retreated to the ropes and invited Foreman to hit him while covering up, clinching and counter-punching, all while verbally taunting Foreman. The move, which would later become known as the "Rope-a-dope", so violated conventional boxing wisdom—letting one of the hardest hitters in boxing strike at will—that at ringside writer George Plimpton
George Plimpton
thought the fight had to be fixed.[39] Foreman, increasingly angered, threw punches that were deflected and did not land squarely. Midway through the fight, as Foreman began tiring, Ali
Ali
countered more frequently and effectively with punches and flurries, which electrified the pro- Ali
Ali
crowd. In the eighth round, Ali
Ali
dropped an exhausted Foreman with a combination at center ring; Foreman failed to make the count. Against the odds, and amidst pandemonium in the ring, Ali
Ali
had regained the title by knockout. In reflecting on the fight, George Foreman
George Foreman
later said: "I thought Ali
Ali
was just one more knockout victim until, about the seventh round, I hit him hard to the jaw and he held me and whispered in my ear: 'That all you got, George?' I realized that this ain't what I thought it was."[70]

President Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
greets Ali
Ali
at a White House dinner, 1977

Ali's next opponents included Chuck Wepner, Ron Lyle, and Joe Bugner. Wepner, a journeyman known as "The Bayonne Bleeder", stunned Ali
Ali
with a knockdown in the ninth round; Ali
Ali
would later say he tripped on Wepner's foot. It was a bout that would inspire Sylvester Stallone
Sylvester Stallone
to create the acclaimed film, Rocky. Ali
Ali
then agreed to a third match with Joe Frazier
Joe Frazier
in Manila. The bout, known as the "Thrilla in Manila", was held on October 1, 1975,[24] in temperatures approaching 100 °F (38 °C). In the first rounds, Ali
Ali
was aggressive, moving and exchanging blows with Frazier. However, Ali
Ali
soon appeared to tire and adopted the "rope-a-dope" strategy, frequently resorting to clinches. During this part of the bout Ali
Ali
did some effective counter-punching, but for the most part absorbed punishment from a relentlessly attacking Frazier. In the 12th round, Frazier began to tire, and Ali
Ali
scored several sharp blows that closed Frazier's left eye and opened a cut over his right eye. With Frazier's vision now diminished, Ali
Ali
dominated the 13th and 14th rounds, at times conducting what boxing historian Mike Silver called "target practice" on Frazier's head. The fight was stopped when Frazier's trainer, Eddie Futch, refused to allow Frazier to answer the bell for the 15th and final round, despite Frazier's protests. Frazier's eyes were both swollen shut. Ali, in his corner, winner by TKO, slumped on his stool, clearly spent. An ailing Ali
Ali
said afterwards that the fight "was the closest thing to dying that I know", and, when later asked if he had viewed the fight on videotape, reportedly said, "Why would I want to go back and see Hell?" After the fight he cited Frazier as "the greatest fighter of all times next to me". Later career

Ali
Ali
being interviewed by WBAL-TV's Curt Anderson, 1978, Baltimore, Maryland

Following the Manila
Manila
bout, Ali
Ali
fought Jean-Pierre Coopman, Jimmy Young, and Richard Dunn, winning the last by knockout. On June 1, 1976, Ali
Ali
removed his shirt and jacket and confronted professional wrestler Gorilla Monsoon
Gorilla Monsoon
in the ring after his match at a World Wide Wrestling Federation
World Wide Wrestling Federation
show in Philadelphia Arena. After dodging a few punches, Monsoon put Ali
Ali
in an airplane spin and dumped him to the mat. Ali
Ali
stumbled to the corner, where his associate Butch Lewis convinced him to walk away.[71] On June 26, 1976, Ali
Ali
participated in an exhibition bout in Tokyo against Japanese professional wrestler and martial artist Antonio Inoki.[72] Though the fight was a publicity stunt, Inoki's kicks caused bruises, two blood clots and an infection in Ali's legs.[72] The match was ultimately declared a draw.[72] After Ali's death, The New York Times declared it his least memorable fight.[73] In hindsight, CBS Sports
CBS Sports
said the attention the mixed-style bout received "foretold the arrival of standardized MMA years later."[74] Ali
Ali
fought Ken Norton
Ken Norton
for the third time in September 1976. The bout, which was held at Yankee Stadium, resulted in Ali
Ali
winning a heavily contested decision that was loudly booed by the audience. Afterwards, he announced he was retiring from boxing to practice his faith, having converted to Sunni Islam
Islam
after falling out with the Nation of Islam the previous year.[75] After returning to beat Alfredo Evangelista in May 1977, Ali
Ali
struggled in his next fight against Earnie Shavers
Earnie Shavers
that September, getting pummeled a few times by punches to the head. Ali
Ali
won the fight by another unanimous decision, but the bout caused his longtime doctor Ferdie Pacheco to quit after he was rebuffed for telling Ali
Ali
he should retire. Pacheco was quoted as saying, "the New York State Athletic Commission gave me a report that showed Ali's kidneys were falling apart. I wrote to Angelo Dundee, Ali's trainer, his wife and Ali himself. I got nothing back in response. That's when I decided enough is enough."[39] In February 1978, Ali
Ali
faced Leon Spinks
Leon Spinks
at the Hilton Hotel in Las Vegas. At the time, Spinks had only seven professional fights to his credit, and had recently fought a draw with journeyman Scott LeDoux. Ali
Ali
sparred less than two dozen rounds in preparation for the fight, and was seriously out of shape by the opening bell. He lost the title by split decision. A rematch followed shortly thereafter in New Orleans, which broke attendance records. Ali
Ali
won a unanimous decision in an uninspiring fight, making him the first heavyweight champion to win the belt three times.[76] Following this win, on July 27, 1979, Ali
Ali
announced his retirement from boxing. His retirement was short-lived, however; Ali
Ali
announced his comeback to face Larry Holmes
Larry Holmes
for the WBC belt in an attempt to win the heavyweight championship an unprecedented fourth time. The fight was largely motivated by Ali's need for money. Boxing writer Richie Giachetti said, "Larry didn't want to fight Ali. He knew Ali had nothing left; he knew it would be a horror." It was around this time that Ali
Ali
started struggling with vocal stutters and trembling hands.[77] The Nevada Athletic Commission (NAC) ordered that he undergo a complete physical in Las Vegas before being allowed to fight again. Ali
Ali
chose instead to check into the Mayo Clinic, who declared him fit to fight. Their opinion was accepted by the NAC on July 31, 1980, paving the way for Ali's return to the ring.[78] The fight took place on October 2, 1980, in Las Vegas Valley, with Holmes easily dominating Ali, who was weakened from thyroid medication he had taken to lose weight. Giachetti called the fight "awful ... the worst sports event I ever had to cover". Actor Sylvester Stallone
Sylvester Stallone
was at ringside and said that it was like watching an autopsy on a man who is still alive.[39] In the eleventh round, Angelo Dundee
Angelo Dundee
told the referee to stop the fight, making it the only time that Ali
Ali
ever lost by stoppage. The Holmes fight is said to have contributed to Ali's Parkinson's syndrome.[79] Despite pleas to definitively retire, Ali fought one last time on December 11, 1981, in Nassau, Bahamas, against Trevor Berbick, losing a ten-round decision.[80][81][82] By the end of his boxing career Ali
Ali
had absorbed 200,000 hits.[83] Ali
Ali
Beatles
Beatles
history In 1976 Alan Amron
Alan Amron
created The international committee to reunite the Beatles[84]partnering with world famous sports legend Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali asking everyone in the world for a dollar.[85]The notion of a Beatles reunion under Ali’s sponsorship came from Alan Amron
Alan Amron
and Joel Sacher, two Long Island, New York businessmen who formed the International Committee to Reunite the Beatles
Beatles
last year “They were the catalysts,” said Spiros Anthony.[86] Personal life Marriages and children Ali
Ali
was married four times and had seven daughters and two sons. Ali was introduced to cocktail waitress Sonji Roi by Herbert Muhammad
Muhammad
and asked her to marry him after their first date. They were wed approximately one month later on August 14, 1964.[87] They quarrelled over Sonji's refusal to adhere to strict Islamic dress and behavior codes, and her questioning of Elijah Muhammad's teachings. According to Ali, "She wouldn't do what she was supposed to do. She wore lipstick; she went into bars; she dressed in clothes that were revealing and didn't look right."[88] The marriage was childless and they divorced on January 10, 1966. Just before the divorce was finalized, Ali
Ali
sent Sonji a note: "You traded heaven for hell, baby."[89] On August 17, 1967, Ali
Ali
married Belinda Boyd. After the wedding, she, like Ali, converted to Islam. She changed her name to Khalilah Ali, though she was still called Belinda by old friends and family. They had four children: Maryum "May May" (born 1968), twins Jamillah and Rasheda (born 1970; Rasheda married Robert Walsh and has a son Biaggio Ali, born in 1998), and Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
Jr. (born 1972).[90] Maryum has a career as an author and rapper.[91] Ali
Ali
was a resident of Cherry Hill, New Jersey, in the early 1970s.[92] At age 32 in 1974, Ali
Ali
began an illicit extramarital relationship with 16-year-old Wanda Bolton (who subsequently changed her name to Aaisha Ali) with whom he fathered another daughter, Khaliah (born 1974). While still married to Belinda, Ali
Ali
married Aaisha in an Islamic ceremony that was not legally recognized. According to Khaliah, she and her mother lived at Ali's Deer Lake training camp alongside Belinda and her children.[93] In January 1985 Aaisha sued Ali
Ali
for unpaid palimony. The case was settled when Ali
Ali
agreed to set up a $200,000 trust fund for Khaliah.[94] In 2001 Khaliah was quoted as saying she believed her father viewed her as "a mistake".[93] He also had another daughter, Miya, from an extramarital relationship.[90][95] In 1975, Ali
Ali
began an affair with Veronica Porché, an actress and model. While Ali
Ali
was in the Philippines
Philippines
for the "Thrilla in Manila" bout vs. Joe Frazier, Belinda was enraged when she saw Ali
Ali
on television introducing Veronica to Ferdinand Marcos. She flew out to Manila
Manila
to confront Ali
Ali
and scratched his face when they argued. Belinda later said that her marriage to Ali
Ali
was a "rollercoaster ride—it had its ups and its downs but it was fun". Referring to his infidelities, she said: " Tiger Woods
Tiger Woods
and Arnold Schwarzenegger
Arnold Schwarzenegger
didn't have nothing on Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali". She believed he had "many more" illegitimate children.[96] By the summer of 1977, his second marriage was over and he had married Porché.[97] At the time of their marriage, they had a baby girl, Hana, and Veronica was pregnant with their second child. Their second daughter, Laila Ali, was born in December 1977. By 1986, Ali
Ali
and Porché were divorced.[97] On November 19, 1986, Ali
Ali
married Yolanda ("Lonnie") Williams. They had been friends since 1964 in Louisville. Together they adopted a son, Asaad Amin, when Amin was five months old. Kiiursti Mensah- Ali
Ali
claims to be Ali's biological daughter with Barbara Mensah, with whom he had a 20-year relationship,[90][98][99][100][101] citing photographs and a paternity test conducted in 1988. She said he accepted responsibility and took care of her, but all contacts with him were cut off after he married his fourth wife Lonnie. Kiiursti claims to have a relationship with his other children. After his death she again made passionate appeals to be allowed to mourn at his funeral.[102][103][104] Ali
Ali
then lived in Scottsdale, Arizona, with Lonnie.[105] In January 2007 it was reported that they had put their home in Berrien Springs, Michigan, up for sale and had purchased a home in eastern Jefferson County, Kentucky
Kentucky
for $1,875,000.[106] Lonnie converted to Islam
Islam
from Catholicism in her late twenties.[107] Ali's daughter Laila was a professional boxer from 1999 until 2007,[108] despite her father's 1978 comments against female boxing: "Women are not made to be hit in the breast, and face like that... the body's not made to be punched right here [patting his chest]. Get hit in the breast... hard... and all that."[109] Ali's daughter Hana is married to UFC middleweight fighter Kevin Casey.[110] Religion and beliefs Main article: Religious views of Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali Affiliation with the Nation of Islam Ali
Ali
said that he first heard of the Nation of Islam
Islam
when he was fighting in the Golden Gloves
Golden Gloves
tournament in Chicago
Chicago
in 1959, and attended his first Nation of Islam
Islam
meeting in 1961. He continued to attend meetings, although keeping his involvement hidden from the public. In 1962, Clay met Malcolm X, who soon became his spiritual and political mentor.[111] By the time of the first Liston fight, Nation of Islam
Islam
members, including Malcolm X, were visible in his entourage. This led to a story in The Miami Herald just before the fight disclosing that Clay had joined the Nation of Islam, which nearly caused the bout to be canceled.

Ali
Ali
(seen in background) at an address by Elijah Muhammad
Elijah Muhammad
in 1964

In fact, Clay was initially refused entry to the Nation of Islam (often called the Black Muslims at the time) due to his boxing career. However, after he won the championship from Liston in 1964, the Nation of Islam
Islam
was more receptive and agreed to publicize his membership.[111] Shortly afterwards on March 6, Elijah Muhammad
Elijah Muhammad
gave a radio address that Clay would be renamed Muhammad
Muhammad
(one who is worthy of praise) Ali
Ali
(most high).[112] Around that time Ali
Ali
moved to the south side of Chicago
Chicago
and lived in a series of houses, always near the Nation of Islam's Mosque Maryam
Mosque Maryam
or Elijah Muhammad's residence. He stayed in Chicago
Chicago
for about 12 years.[113] Only a few journalists (most notably Howard Cosell) accepted the new name at that time. Ali
Ali
later announced: "Cassius Clay is my slave name."[114] Not afraid to antagonize the white establishment, Ali stated, "I am America. I am the part you won't recognize. But get used to me. Black, confident, cocky; my name, not yours; my religion, not yours; my goals, my own; get used to me."[115] Ali's friendship with Malcolm X
Malcolm X
ended as Malcolm split with the Nation of Islam
Islam
a couple of weeks after Ali
Ali
joined, and Ali
Ali
remained with the Nation of Islam.[116] Ali
Ali
later said that turning his back on Malcolm was one of the mistakes he regretted most in his life.[117]

Malcolm X
Malcolm X
photographs Ali
Ali
in February 1964, after Ali
Ali
had defeated Sonny Liston
Sonny Liston
to become world heavyweight champion.

Aligning himself with the Nation of Islam, its leader Elijah Muhammad, and a narrative that labeled the white race as the perpetrator of genocide against African Americans
African Americans
made Ali
Ali
a target of public condemnation. The Nation
The Nation
of Islam
Islam
was widely viewed by whites and some African Americans
African Americans
as a black separatist "hate religion" with a propensity toward violence; Ali
Ali
had few qualms about using his influential voice to speak Nation of Islam
Islam
doctrine.[118] In a press conference articulating his opposition to the Vietnam War, Ali
Ali
stated, "My enemy is the white people, not Viet Cong
Viet Cong
or Chinese or Japanese."[119] In relation to integration, he said: "We who follow the teachings of Elijah Muhammad
Elijah Muhammad
don't want to be forced to integrate. Integration is wrong. We don't want to live with the white man; that's all".[120][121] Writer Jerry Izenberg once noted that, "the Nation became Ali's family and Elijah Muhammad
Elijah Muhammad
became his father. But there is an irony to the fact that while the Nation branded white people as devils, Ali
Ali
had more white colleagues than most African American people did at that time in America, and continued to have them throughout his career."[39] Later beliefs In a 2004 autobiography, Ali
Ali
attributed his conversion to mainstream Sunni Islam
Islam
to Warith Deen Muhammad
Muhammad
who gained control of the Nation of Islam, upon the death of Elijah Muhammad, and persuaded the Nation's followers to become adherents of Sunni Islam.[122] Ali
Ali
had gone on the Hajj
Hajj
pilgrimage to Mecca
Mecca
in 1972, which inspired him in a similar manner to Malcolm X, meeting people of different colors from all over the world giving him a different outlook and greater spiritual awareness.[123] In 1977, he said that, after he retired, he would dedicate the rest of his life to getting "ready to meet God" by helping people, charitable causes, uniting people and helping to make peace.[124] He went on another Hajj
Hajj
pilgrimage to Mecca
Mecca
in 1988.[125] After the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
in 2001, he stated that " Islam
Islam
is a religion of peace" and "does not promote terrorism or killing people", and that he was "angry that the world sees a certain group of Islam followers who caused this destruction, but they are not real Muslims. They are racist fanatics who call themselves Muslims". In December 2015, he stated that "True Muslims know that the ruthless violence of so-called Islamic jihadists goes against the very tenets of our religion", that "We as Muslims have to stand up to those who use Islam to advance their own personal agenda", and that "political leaders should use their position to bring understanding about the religion of Islam, and clarify that these misguided murderers have perverted people's views on what Islam
Islam
really is."[126] In later life, Ali
Ali
developed an interest in Sufism, which he referenced in his autobiography, The Soul of a Butterfly.[117] Around 2005, Ali
Ali
converted to Sufi Islam
Islam
and announced that out of all Islamic sects, he felt most strongly inclined towards Sufism.[127][128][129][130] According to Ali's daughter, Hana Yasmeen Ali, who co-authored The Soul of a Butterfly with him, Ali
Ali
was attracted to Sufism
Sufism
after reading the books of Inayat Khan, which contain Sufi teachings.[131][132] Ali
Ali
later moved away from Inayat Khan's teachings of Universal Sufism after traditional Sunni-Sufis criticized the movement as being contrary to the actual teachings of Sunni Islam. Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
received guidance from Sunni-Sufi Islamic scholars such as Grand Mufti of Syria Almarhum Asy-Syaikh Ahmed Kuftaro, Shaykh Hisham Kabbani, Imam Zaid Shakir, Shaykh Hamza Yusuf, and Dr. Timothy J. Gianotti, who was at Ali's bedside during his last days and ensured that his funeral was in accordance with Islamic rites and rituals.[133][134] Vietnam War
Vietnam War
and resistance to the draft See also: Clay v. United States

My enemy is the white people, not Viet Cong
Viet Cong
or Chinese or Japanese. You my opposer when I want freedom. You my opposer when I want justice. You my opposer when I want equality. You won't even stand up for me in America
America
for my religious beliefs—and you want me to go somewhere and fight, but you won't even stand up for me here at home?

Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
to a crowd of college students during his exile[119]

Ali
Ali
registered for conscription in the United States
United States
military on his 18th birthday and was listed as 1-A in 1962.[135] In 1964, he was reclassified as Class 1-Y (fit for service only in times of national emergency) after he failed the U.S. Armed Forces qualifying test because his writing and spelling skills were sub-standard.[136] (He was quoted as saying, "I said I was the greatest, not the smartest!")[135][137] By early 1966, the army lowered its standards to permit soldiers above the 15th percentile and Ali
Ali
was again classified as 1-A.[24][135][137] This classification meant he was now eligible for the draft and induction into the U.S. Army at a time when the U.S. was involved in the Vietnam War, a war which put him further at odds with the white establishment.[14] When notified of this status, Ali
Ali
declared that he would refuse to serve in the army and publicly considered himself a conscientious objector.[24] Ali
Ali
stated: "War is against the teachings of the Qur'an. I'm not trying to dodge the draft. We are not supposed to take part in no wars unless declared by Allah
Allah
or The Messenger. We don't take part in Christian wars or wars of any unbelievers." He stated: "Man, I ain't got no quarrel with them Viet Cong."[138] Ali
Ali
elaborated: "Why should they ask me to put on a uniform and go ten thousand miles from home and drop bombs and bullets on brown people in Vietnam while so-called Negro people in Louisville are treated like dogs and denied simple human rights?"[139] On April 28, 1967, Ali
Ali
appeared in Houston for his scheduled induction into the U.S. Armed Forces, but he refused three times to step forward when his name was called. An officer warned him that he was committing a felony punishable by five years in prison and a fine of $10,000. Once more, Ali
Ali
refused to budge when his name was called, and he was arrested. Later that same day, the New York State Athletic Commission suspended his boxing license and stripped him of his title. Other boxing commissions followed suit. Ali
Ali
would not be able to obtain a license to box in any state for over three years.[140][page needed] At the trial on June 20, 1967, the jury found Ali
Ali
guilty after only 21 minutes of deliberation.[24] After a Court of Appeals upheld the conviction, the case was reviewed by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1971.[141] Ali
Ali
remained free in the years between the Appellate Court decision and the Supreme Court ruling. As public opinion began turning people against the war and the Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
continued to gather momentum, Ali
Ali
became a popular speaker at colleges and universities across the country; this itinerary was rare if not unprecedented for a prizefighter. At Howard University, for example, he gave his popular "Black Is Best" speech to 4,000 cheering students and community intellectuals, after he was invited to speak by sociology professor Nathan Hare
Nathan Hare
on behalf of the Black Power Committee, a student protest group.[142] On June 28, 1971, the Supreme Court of the United States
United States
in Clay v. United States
United States
overturned Ali's conviction by a unanimous 8–0 decision (Justice Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
recused himself, as he had been the U.S. Solicitor General at the time of Ali's conviction).[143] The decision was not based on, nor did it address, the merits of Ali's claims per se; rather, the Court held that since the appeal board gave no reason for the denial of a conscientious objector exemption to Ali, and that it was therefore impossible to determine which of the three basic tests for conscientious objector status offered in the Justice Department's brief that the appeal board relied on, Ali's conviction must be reversed.[144] Impact of Ali's draft refusal Ali's example inspired countless black Americans and others. The New York Times columnist William Rhoden wrote, "Ali's actions changed my standard of what constituted an athlete's greatness. Possessing a killer jump shot or the ability to stop on a dime was no longer enough. What were you doing for the liberation of your people? What were you doing to help your country live up to the covenant of its founding principles?"[16] Recalling Ali's anti-war position, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar
Kareem Abdul-Jabbar
said: "I remember the teachers at my high school didn't like Ali
Ali
because he was so anti-establishment and he kind of thumbed his nose at authority and got away with it. The fact that he was proud to be a black man and that he had so much talent ... made some people think that he was dangerous. But for those very reasons I enjoyed him."[145] Civil rights figures came to believe that Ali
Ali
had an energizing effect on the freedom movement as a whole. Al Sharpton
Al Sharpton
spoke of his bravery at a time when there was still widespread support for the Vietnam War. "For the heavyweight champion of the world, who had achieved the highest level of athletic celebrity, to put all of that on the line—the money, the ability to get endorsements—to sacrifice all of that for a cause, gave a whole sense of legitimacy to the movement and the causes with young people that nothing else could have done. Even those who were assassinated, certainly lost their lives, but they didn't voluntarily do that. He knew he was going to jail and did it anyway. That's another level of leadership and sacrifice."[146] In speaking of the cost on Ali's career of his refusal to be drafted, his trainer Angelo Dundee
Angelo Dundee
said, "One thing must be taken into account when talking about Ali: He was robbed of his best years, his prime years."[147] Ali's resistance to the draft was covered in the 2013 documentary The Trials of Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali.[148] NSA and FBI
FBI
monitoring of Ali's communications In a secret operation code-named "Minaret", the National Security Agency (NSA) intercepted the communications of leading Americans, including Ali, Senators Frank Church
Frank Church
and Howard Baker, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., prominent U.S. journalists, and others who criticized the U.S. war in Vietnam.[149][150] A review by the NSA of the Minaret program concluded that it was "disreputable if not outright illegal".[150] In 1971, his Fight of the Century with Frazier provided cover for an activist group, the Citizens' Commission to Investigate the FBI, to successfully pull off a burglary at an FBI
FBI
office in Pennsylvania, which exposed the COINTELPRO
COINTELPRO
operations that included illegal spying on activists involved with the civil rights and anti-war movements. One of the COINTELPRO
COINTELPRO
targets was Ali, which included the FBI
FBI
gaining access to his records as far back as elementary school; one such record mentioned him loving art as a child.[151] Later years Ali
Ali
began visiting Africa
Africa
starting in 1964, when he visited Ghana.[152] In 1974, he visited a Palestinian refugee
Palestinian refugee
camp in Southern Lebanon, where Ali
Ali
declared "support for the Palestinian struggle to liberate their homeland".[153][154] In 1978, following his loss to Spinks and before winning the rematch, Ali
Ali
visited Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and received honorary citizenship there.[155] The same year, he participated in The Longest Walk, a protest march in the United States in support of Native American rights, along with singer Stevie Wonder and actor Marlon Brando.[156] In 1980, he visited Kenya
Kenya
and successfully convinced the government to boycott the Moscow Olympics
Moscow Olympics
(in response to the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan).[157] On January 19, 1981, in Los Angeles, Ali
Ali
talked a suicidal man down from jumping off a ninth-floor ledge, an event that made national news.[158][159] In 1984, Ali
Ali
was diagnosed with Parkinson's syndrome, a disease that sometimes results from head trauma from violent physical activities such as boxing.[160][161][162] Ali
Ali
still remained active during this time, later participating as a guest referee at WrestleMania I.[163][164]

President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
clowning with Ali
Ali
in the Oval Office
Oval Office
in 1983

In 1984, Ali
Ali
announced his support for the re-election of United States President Ronald Reagan. When asked to elaborate on his endorsement of Reagan, Ali
Ali
told reporters, "He's keeping God in schools and that's enough."[165] In 1985, he visited Israel
Israel
to request the release of Muslim
Muslim
prisoners at Atlit detainee camp, which Israel declined.[166] Around 1987, the California Bicentennial Foundation for the U.S. Constitution selected Ali
Ali
to personify the vitality of the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights. Ali
Ali
rode on a float at the following year's Tournament of Roses Parade, launching the U.S. Constitution's 200th birthday commemoration.[167] In 1988, during the First Intifada, Ali
Ali
participated in a Chicago
Chicago
rally in support of Palestine.[154] The same year, he visited Sudan
Sudan
to raise awareness about the plight of famine victims.[168] In 1989, he participated in an Indian charity event with the Muslim
Muslim
Educational Society in Kozhikode, Kerala, along with Bollywood
Bollywood
actor Dilip Kumar.[125] In 1990, Ali
Ali
traveled to Iraq
Iraq
prior to the Gulf War, and met with Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
in an attempt to negotiate the release of American hostages. Ali
Ali
successfully secured the release of the hostages, in exchange for promising Hussein that he'd bring America
America
"an honest account" of Iraq. Despite rescuing hostages, he received criticism from President George H. W. Bush, diplomat Joseph C. Wilson, and The New York Times.[169][170] Ali
Ali
published an oral history, Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali: His Life and Times by Thomas Hauser, in 1991. In 1996, he had the honor of lighting the flame at the 1996 Summer Olympics
1996 Summer Olympics
in Atlanta, Georgia. Ali's bout with Parkinson's led to a gradual decline in his health, though he was still active into the early years of the millennium, promoting his own biopic, Ali, in 2001. That year he also contributed an on-camera segment to the America: A Tribute to Heroes benefit concert.[171]

Ali
Ali
and Michael J. Fox
Michael J. Fox
testify before a Senate committee on providing government funding to combat Parkinson's

In 1998, Ali
Ali
began working with actor Michael J Fox, who has Parkinson's disease, to raise awareness and fund research for a cure. They made a joint appearance before Congress to push the case in 2002. In 2000, Ali
Ali
worked with the Michael J Fox
Michael J Fox
Foundation for Parkinson's Disease to raise awareness and encourage donations for research.[172]

Ali
Ali
in his later years

On November 17, 2002, Ali
Ali
went to Afghanistan as the "U.N. Messenger of Peace".[173] He was in Kabul for a three-day goodwill mission as a special guest of the UN.[174] On September 1, 2009, Ali
Ali
visited Ennis, County Clare, Ireland, the home of his great-grandfather, Abe Grady, who emigrated to the U.S. in the 1860s, eventually settling in Kentucky.[175] A crowd of 10,000 turned out for a civic reception, where Ali
Ali
was made the first Honorary Freeman of Ennis.[176] On July 27, 2012, Ali
Ali
was a titular bearer of the Olympic Flag during the opening ceremonies of the 2012 Summer Olympics
2012 Summer Olympics
in London. He was helped to his feet by his wife Lonnie to stand before the flag due to his Parkinson's rendering him unable to carry it into the stadium.[177] In 2014, Ali
Ali
tweeted in support of Trayvon Martin
Trayvon Martin
and the Black Lives Matter
Black Lives Matter
movement.[178] Illness and death

Wikinews has related news: Boxing great Muhammed Ali
Ali
dies aged 74

In February 2013, Ali's brother Rahman Ali said Muhammad
Muhammad
could no longer speak and could be dead within days.[179] Ali's daughter May May Ali
Ali
responded to the rumors, stating that she had talked to him on the phone the morning of February 3 and he was fine.[180] On December 20, 2014, Ali
Ali
was hospitalized for a mild case of pneumonia.[181] Ali
Ali
was once again hospitalized on January 15, 2015, for a urinary tract infection after being found unresponsive at a guest house in Scottsdale, Arizona.[182][183] He was released the next day.[184] Ali
Ali
was hospitalized in Scottsdale on June 2, 2016, with a respiratory illness. Though his condition was initially described as "fair", it worsened, and he died the following day at age 74 from septic shock.[185][186][187][188] Following Ali's death, he was the number one trending topic on Twitter
Twitter
for over 12 hours and on Facebook
Facebook
for several days. BET
BET
played their documentary Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali: Made In Miami. ESPN
ESPN
played four hours of non-stop commercial-free coverage of Ali. News networks, such as ABC News, BBC, CNN, and Fox News, also covered him extensively. Tributes Ali
Ali
was mourned globally, and a family spokesman said the family "certainly believes that Muhammad
Muhammad
was a citizen of the world … and they know that the world grieves with him."[189] Politicians such as Barack Obama, Hillary Clinton, Bill Clinton, Donald Trump, David Cameron and more paid tribute to Ali. Ali
Ali
also received numerous tributes from the world of sports including Michael Jordan, Tiger Woods, Floyd Mayweather, Mike Tyson, the Miami Marlins, LeBron James, Steph Curry
Steph Curry
and more. Louisville Mayor Greg Fischer
Greg Fischer
stated, "Muhammad Ali
Ali
belongs to the world. But he only has one hometown."[189] Memorial

External video

" Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
Memorial Service", C-SPAN[190]

Ali's funeral had been preplanned by himself and others for several years prior to his actual death.[191] The services began in Louisville on June 9, 2016, with an Islamic Janazah prayer service at Freedom Hall on the grounds of the Kentucky
Kentucky
Exposition Center. On June 10, 2016, the funeral procession went through the streets of Louisville and ended at Cave Hill Cemetery, where Ali
Ali
was interred during a private ceremony. His grave is marked with a simple granite marker that bears only his name. A public memorial service for Ali
Ali
at downtown Louisville's KFC Yum! Center
KFC Yum! Center
was held in the afternoon of June 10.[192][193][194] The pallbearers included Will Smith, Lennox Lewis and Mike Tyson, with honorary pallbearers including George Chuvalo, Larry Holmes
Larry Holmes
and George Foreman.[195] Boxing style

Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali's boxing gloves are preserved in the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History.

Ali
Ali
had a highly unorthodox boxing style for a heavyweight, epitomized by his catchphrase "float like a butterfly, sting like a bee". Never an overpowering puncher, Ali
Ali
relied early in his career on his superior hand speed, superb reflexes and constant movement, dancing and circling opponents for most of the fight, holding his hands low and lashing out with a quick, cutting left jab that he threw from unpredictable angles. His footwork was so strong that it was extremely difficult for opponents to cut down the ring and corner Ali
Ali
against the ropes. He was also able to quickly dodge punches with his head movement and footwork.[citation needed] One of Ali's greatest tricks was to make opponents overcommit by pulling straight backward from punches. Disciplined, world-class boxers chased Ali
Ali
and threw themselves off balance attempting to hit him because he seemed to be an open target, only missing and leaving themselves exposed to Ali's counter punches, usually a chopping right.[196] Slow motion replays show that this was precisely the way Sonny Liston
Sonny Liston
was hit and apparently knocked out by Ali
Ali
in their second fight.[197] Ali
Ali
often flaunted his movement by dancing the "Ali Shuffle", a sort of center-ring jig.[198] Ali's early style was so unusual that he was initially discounted because he reminded boxing writers of a lightweight, and it was assumed he would be vulnerable to big hitters like Sonny Liston.[citation needed] Jimmy Jacobs, who co-managed Mike Tyson, used a synchronizer to measure young Ali's punching speed versus Sugar Ray Robinson, a welter/middleweight who was considered pound-for-pound the best fighter in history. Ali
Ali
was 25% faster than Robinson, even though Ali was 45–50 pounds heavier.[199] Ali's punches produced approximately 1,000 pounds of force.[200] "No matter what his opponents heard about him, they didn't realize how fast he was until they got in the ring with him", Jacobs said.[201] The effect of Ali's punches was cumulative. Charlie Powell, who fought Ali
Ali
early in Ali's career and was knocked out in the third round, said: "When he first hit me I said to myself, 'I can take two of these to get one in myself.' But in a little while I found myself getting dizzier and dizzier every time he hit me. He throws punches so easily that you don't realize how much they hurt you until it's too late."[43] Commenting on fighting the young Ali, George Chuvalo
George Chuvalo
said: "He was just so damn fast. When he was young, he moved his legs and hands at the same time. He threw his punches when he was in motion. He'd be out of punching range, and as he moved into range he'd already begun to throw the punch. So if you waited until he got into range to punch back, he beat you every time."[39] Floyd Patterson
Floyd Patterson
said, "It's very hard to hit a moving target, and (Ali) moved all the time, with such grace, three minutes of every round for fifteen rounds. He never stopped. It was extraordinary."[39] Darrell Foster, who trained Will Smith
Will Smith
for the movie Ali, said: "Ali's signature punches were the left jab and the overhand right. But there were at least six different ways Ali
Ali
used to jab. One was a jab that Ali
Ali
called the 'snake lick', like cobra striking that comes from the floor almost, really low down. Then there was Ali's rapid-fire jab—three to five jabs in succession rapidly fired at his opponents' eyes to create a blur in his face so he wouldn't be able to see the right hand coming behind it."[202] In the opinion of many observers, Ali
Ali
became a different fighter after the 3½-year layoff. Ferdie Pacheco, Ali's corner physician, noted that he had lost his ability to move and dance as before.[39] This forced Ali
Ali
to become more stationary and exchange punches more frequently, exposing him to more punishment while indirectly revealing his tremendous ability to take a punch. This physical change led in part to the "rope-a-dope" strategy, where Ali
Ali
would lie back on the ropes, cover up to protect himself and conserve energy, and tempt opponents to punch themselves out. Ali
Ali
often taunted opponents in the process and lashed back with sudden, unexpected combinations. The strategy was dramatically successful in the George Foreman
George Foreman
fight, but less so in the first Joe Frazier
Joe Frazier
bout when it was introduced.[citation needed] Of his later career, Arthur Mercante said: " Ali
Ali
knew all the tricks. He was the best fighter I ever saw in terms of clinching. Not only did he use it to rest, but he was big and strong and knew how to lean on opponents and push and shove and pull to tire them out. Ali
Ali
was so smart. Most guys are just in there fighting, but Ali
Ali
had a sense of everything that was happening, almost as though he was sitting at ringside analyzing the fight while he fought it."[39] Trash-talk Ali
Ali
regularly taunted and baited his opponents—including Liston, Frazier, and Foreman—before the fight and often during the bout itself. He said Frazier was "too dumb to be champion", that he would whip Liston "like his Daddy did", that Terrell was an "Uncle Tom" for refusing to call Ali
Ali
by his name and continuing to call him Cassius Clay, and that Patterson was a "rabbit". In speaking of how Ali
Ali
stoked Liston's anger and overconfidence before their first fight, one writer commented that "the most brilliant fight strategy in boxing history was devised by a teenager who had graduated 376 in a class of 391."[199] Ali
Ali
typically portrayed himself as the "people's champion" and his opponent as a tool of the (white) establishment (despite the fact that his entourage often had more white faces than his opponents'[citation needed]). During the early part of his career, he built a reputation for predicting rounds in which he would finish opponents, often vowing to crawl across the ring or to leave the country if he lost the bout.[24] Ali
Ali
adopted the latter practice from "Gorgeous" George Wagner, a professional wrestling champion who drew thousands of fans to his matches as "the man you love to hate".[24] When Ali
Ali
was 19, Wagner, who was in town to wrestle Freddie Blassie
Freddie Blassie
and had crossed paths with Clay,[46] told the boxer before a bout with Duke Sabedong in Las Vegas,[46] "A lot of people will pay to see someone shut your mouth. So keep on bragging, keep on sassing and always be outrageous."[45] ESPN
ESPN
columnist Ralph Wiley called Ali
Ali
"The King of Trash Talk".[203] In 2013, The Guardian
The Guardian
said Ali
Ali
exemplified boxing's "golden age of trash talking".[204] Bleacher Report
Bleacher Report
called Clay's description of Sonny Liston
Sonny Liston
smelling like a bear and his vow to donate him to a zoo after he beat him the greatest trash talk line in sports history.[205] Ali
Ali
and his contemporaries Ali
Ali
and Frazier Friendship In an interview published in 2002, Joe Frazier
Joe Frazier
recalled that he had first met Ali
Ali
around 1968. At this time Ali
Ali
was continuing his legal fight to get his boxing license back, and Frazier was the undisputed heavyweight champion of the world. Frazier stated that he had campaigned vigorously for Ali
Ali
to get his license; this included going to Washington and meeting the president to lobby on Ali's behalf. Frazier also lent Ali
Ali
some money at this time.[206] According to Dave Wolf, former sports editor of Life and a member of Frazier's entourage, Frazier was keen for Ali's return to boxing, because he believed that beating Ali
Ali
would win him unambiguous acknowledgement as the "best".[207] According to Wolf, Frazier was also kind to Ali
Ali
during this time—agreeing to participate in staged confrontations, which enabled Ali
Ali
to get publicity and earn money giving lectures. Wolf states that Frazier had deep respect for Ali's religious beliefs, and even participated in Muslim
Muslim
services at Ali's suggestion. Until Ali
Ali
got "nasty" before their first fight, Frazier endorsed Ali's refusal to be drafted; Wolf recalls: "I remember [Frazier] telling me, 'If Baptists weren't allowed to fight, I wouldn't fight either'."[207] Ali
Ali
and Frazier knew they would become wealthy if Ali
Ali
returned to the ring.[208][209] Prior to their first fight, both had expressed a liking for each other.[210] In 1970, Ali
Ali
had stated: "Me and Joe Frazier will be buddies. I just want it to go down in history that I didn't sell out or Uncle Tom
Uncle Tom
when I got famous, and I don't think Joe Frazier's going to do that either. He ain't dumb."[210] Opponents Ali
Ali
and Frazier fought three fights in the span of five years; the first and third of these are widely regarded to be among the greatest of all boxing bouts, and the Ali-Frazier rivalry has been hailed as one of the greatest any sport has seen.[211][212] Writing in Sports Illustrated, William Nack
William Nack
commented:

Of all the names joined forever in the annals of boxing—from Dempsey-Tunney to Louis-Schmeling, from Zale-Graziano to Leonard-Hearns—none are more fiercely bound by a hyphen than Ali-Frazier. Not Palmer-Nicklaus in golf nor Borg-McEnroe in tennis, as ardently competitive as these rivalries were, conjure up anything remotely close to the epic theater of Ali-Frazier.[212]

According to Ali, Frazier's style of boxing made him a tougher opponent for him than Liston or Foreman because he was vulnerable to Frazier's in-close left hook. Had he fought with Frazier before his three-and-half year break from boxing, when he was younger, "I'd have danced for fifteen rounds, and Joe wouldn't have ever caught me."[213][a] After Thrilla in Manila, Frazier called Ali
Ali
"a great champion",[214] and, referring to Ali, graciously stated that "[m]y man fought a good fight";[215] while Ali
Ali
declared Frazier to be "the greatest fighter of all time next to me."[216] Trash talk and altercations In the buildup to their three bouts, Ali
Ali
called Frazier "dumb" and an "Uncle Tom" before their first fight, "ignorant" before the second, and a "gorilla" before the third.[217][218] Dennis and Atyeo have noted that given Ali's warm words for Frazier in the past, his jibes about Frazier sounded hollow.[210] On January 23, 1974, five days before their second fight, Ali
Ali
and Frazier had a public altercation captured on television. ABC Sports's Howard Cosell
Howard Cosell
had arranged for the two to come to the studio to comment on their first fight. Things went smoothly until Frazier commented about Ali
Ali
having to visit a hospital after the fight. Ali immediately responded by claiming he had gone to a hospital for ten minutes whereas Frazier had been hospitalized for three weeks after the fight,[b] and concluded by calling Frazier "ignorant."[220][221] Frazier then snapped; removing his studio earplug, Frazier reached across to Ali
Ali
protesting the usage of the word "ignorant".[219][220] Soon the two were wrestling on the floor till they were separated by onlookers.[220][222][c] According to veteran boxing commentator Ronnie Nathanielsz, during the buildup to Thrilla in Manilla, Ali
Ali
once awakened Frazier in the middle of the night by constantly screaming. When Frazier appeared on the balcony of his hotel room, Ali
Ali
pointed a toy gun at him and shouted: "I am going to shoot you."[215] Immediately after Thrilla in Manilla, Ali
Ali
summoned Frazier's son Marvis to his dressing room and apologized for the things he had said about Frazier.[224][d] When Marvis conveyed Ali's contrition to him, Frazier commented that Ali
Ali
should have communicated this to him directly.[224] After returning to the US, Ali
Ali
called Butch Lewis, and asked for Frazier's private number, saying he wanted to apologize to Frazier. Lewis then conveyed this request to Frazier, but was told not to share it with Ali, according to Lewis.[212] Finale In 1988, Ali
Ali
and Frazier joined Foreman, Larry Holmes, and Ken Norton in Las Vegas for the making of the film Champions Forever. At a local gym, Frazier came across Ali
Ali
before a crowd of spectators, and said: "Look at Ali. Look what's happened to him. All your talkin', man. I'm faster than you are now. You're damaged goods."[212] Ali, already afflicted with Parkinson's, insisted that he remained faster than Frazier and pointing to a heavy bag suggested a contest of who can hit the bag the fastest. Frazier immediately took off his coat, and moving to the bag, threw a dozen rapid punches at it accompanied by loud grunts. Without removing his coat, Ali
Ali
strolled towards the bag, held the ready stance, mimicked a Frazier grunt without throwing a punch, and then addressed Frazier with the words "Wanna see it again, Joe?"[212] Everyone laughed, except Frazier.[212] Later that day, Frazier started walking towards Ali
Ali
after having one drink too many. Thomas Hauser, who was present, recalled that for the next 10 minutes Larry Holmes
Larry Holmes
positioned himself between Ali
Ali
and Frazier, preventing Frazier from reaching Ali. George Foreman
George Foreman
then took over and acted as Ali's shield for the next 10 minutes. Throughout this incident, Ali
Ali
remained oblivious to what was going on.[212] In his 1996 autobiography, in which he always refers to Ali
Ali
as Cassius Clay,[225] Frazier wrote:

Truth is, I'd like to rumble with that sucker [Ali] again—beat him up piece by piece and mail him back to Jesus.... Now people ask me if I feel bad for him, now that things aren't going so well for him. Nope. I don't. Fact is, I don't give a damn. They want me to love him, but I'll open up the graveyard and bury his ass when the Lord chooses to take him.[212][226]

Commenting on Ali
Ali
lighting the Olympic flame in 1996, Frazier stated that it would have been good if Ali
Ali
had fallen into the cauldron after lighting the flame, and that he would have pushed Ali
Ali
in himself if he had the chance to do so.[212][227][228] In a press conference held on July 30, 1996, Frazier accused Ali
Ali
of being a "draft dodger", and a racist;[e] and claimed he would have been a better choice to light the Olympic flame than Ali.[212] Also in 1996, Frazier claimed Ali
Ali
was suffering from "Joe Frazier-itis" and "left-hook-itis".[212] In a 1997 interview, Frazier expressed no regret for the words he had used for Ali
Ali
at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics. According to Frazier:

We weren't animals. We were human beings. He called me a gorilla. An Uncle Tom. Uncle Tom? I grew up so poor and so black in South Carolina, even the water we drank was colored. The only guy I 'tommed' for was him, giving in to him. God gave him so many gifts. Fast. Pretty. Smart. Strong. He didn't have to do what he did.[228]

In a 2001 interview with The New York Times, Ali
Ali
again apologized to Frazier for calling him names which, Ali
Ali
claimed, was done to promote their fights. Frazier initially accepted the apology saying it was time to put this issue behind them.[229] However, subsequently Frazier commented that Ali
Ali
should apologize directly to him instead of apologizing through a newspaper. Reacting to this, Ali
Ali
stated: "If you see Frazier, you tell him he's still a gorilla."[230] In his interview in Stephen Brunt's 2002 book Facing Ali, Frazier, referring to how he had contributed to Ali's infirmity, claimed he was sure Ali
Ali
thinks of him whenever he gets out of bed, and that whatever Ali
Ali
was undergoing was the will of God.[231][f] In a 2008 interview, Frazier stated he had forgiven Ali, but was unable to comment on whether Ali's present condition was due to divine punishment, as he had earlier stated, since "God works in a mysterious way."[232] In 2011, on the eve of the 40th anniversary of his first fight with Ali, and the year of his death, Frazier reiterated that he had forgiven Ali.[228][g] Frazier's funeral service was attended by Ali who reportedly stood and clapped vigorously when the Rev. Jesse Jackson asked the mourners to stand and bring their hands together one last time for Frazier.[233] Legacy

As Mrs. Lonnie Ali
Ali
looks on, President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
embraces Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
after presenting him with the Presidential Medal of Freedom on November 9, 2005, during ceremonies at the White House.

Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
defeated every top heavyweight in his era, which has been called the golden age of heavyweight boxing. Ali
Ali
was named "Fighter of the Year" by The Ring magazine more times than any other fighter, and was involved in more Ring "Fight of the Year" bouts than any other fighter. He was an inductee into the International Boxing Hall of Fame and held wins over seven other Hall of Fame inductees. He was one of only three boxers to be named "Sportsman of the Year" by Sports Illustrated. In 1978, three years before Ali's permanent retirement, the Louisville Board of Aldermen in his hometown of Louisville, Kentucky, voted 6–5 to rename Walnut Street to Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
Boulevard. This was controversial at the time, as within a week 12 of the 70 street signs were stolen. Earlier that year, a committee of the Jefferson County Public Schools (Kentucky) considered renaming Ali's alma mater, Central High School, in his honor, but the motion failed to pass. In time, Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
Boulevard—and Ali
Ali
himself—came to be well accepted in his hometown.[234] In 1993, the Associated Press
Associated Press
reported that Ali
Ali
was tied with Babe Ruth as the most recognized athlete, out of over 800 dead or living athletes, in America. The study found that over 97% of Americans over 12 years of age identified both Ali
Ali
and Ruth.[235] He was the recipient of the 1997 Arthur Ashe
Arthur Ashe
Courage Award. In 1999, Time magazine named Ali
Ali
one of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th Century.[236] He was crowned Sportsman of the Century by Sports Illustrated.[237] Named Sports Personality of the Century in a BBC
BBC
poll, he received more votes than the other contenders (which included Pelé, Jesse Owens
Jesse Owens
and Jack Nicklaus) combined.[238] On September 13, 1999, Ali
Ali
was named " Kentucky
Kentucky
Athlete of the Century" by the Kentucky
Kentucky
Athletic Hall of Fame in ceremonies at the Galt House East.[239] On January 8, 2001, Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
was presented with the Presidential Citizens Medal by President Bill Clinton.[240] In November 2005, he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom
from President George W. Bush,[241][242] followed by the Otto Hahn Peace Medal in Gold of the UN Association of Germany (DGVN) in Berlin for his work with the civil rights movement and the United Nations
United Nations
(December 17, 2005).[243]

The Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
Center, alongside Interstate 64 on Louisville, Kentucky's riverfront

On November 19, 2005 (Ali's 19th wedding anniversary), the $60 million non-profit Muhammad Ali Center
Muhammad Ali Center
opened in downtown Louisville. In addition to displaying his boxing memorabilia, the center focuses on core themes of peace, social responsibility, respect, and personal growth. On June 5, 2007, he received an honorary doctorate of humanities at Princeton University's 260th graduation ceremony.[244] Ali
Ali
Mall, located in Araneta Center, Quezon City, Philippines, is named after him. Construction of the mall, the first of its kind in the Philippines, began shortly after Ali's victory in a match with Joe Frazier in nearby Araneta Coliseum
Araneta Coliseum
in 1975. The mall opened in 1976 with Ali
Ali
attending its opening.[245] The 1976 Muhammad Ali vs. Antonio Inoki fight played a role in the history of mixed martial arts, particularly in Japan. The match inspired Inoki's students Masakatsu Funaki
Masakatsu Funaki
and Minoru Suzuki
Minoru Suzuki
to found Pancrase
Pancrase
in 1993, which in turn inspired the foundation of Pride Fighting Championships in 1997. Pride was later acquired by its rival Ultimate Fighting Championship
Ultimate Fighting Championship
in 2007.[246][247] The Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
Boxing Reform Act was introduced in 1999 and passed in 2000, to protect the rights and welfare of boxers in the United States. In May 2016, a bill was introduced to United States
United States
Congress by Markwayne Mullin, a politician and former MMA fighter, to extend the Ali
Ali
Act to mixed martial arts.[248] In June 2016, US senator Rand Paul proposed an amendment to the US draft laws named after Ali, a proposal to eliminate the Selective Service System.[249] Ranking in boxing history Ali
Ali
is regarded by boxing commentators and historians as one of the greatest fighters of all time. Ring Magazine, a prominent boxing magazine, named him number 1 in a 1998 ranking of greatest heavyweights from all eras.[250] In 1999, The Associated Press
Associated Press
voted Ali
Ali
the No. 1 heavyweight of the 20th century.[251] In December 2007, ESPN
ESPN
listed Ali
Ali
second in its choice of the greatest heavyweights of all time, behind Joe Louis.[252] Ali
Ali
was named the second greatest pound for pound fighter in boxing history by ESPN, behind only welterweight and middleweight great Sugar Ray Robinson.[253] Spoken word poetry and music Ali
Ali
often used rhyme schemes and spoken word poetry, both for when he was trash talking in boxing and as political poetry for his activism outside of boxing. He played a role in the shaping of the black poetic tradition, paving the way for The Last Poets in 1968, Gil Scott-Heron in 1970, and the emergence of rap music in the 1970s.[21] In 1963, Ali
Ali
released an album of spoken word music on Columbia Records titled I Am the Greatest, and in 1964, he recorded a cover version of the rhythm and blues song "Stand by Me".[254][255] I Am the Greatest reached number 61 on the album chart and was nominated for a Grammy Award. He later received a second Grammy nomination, for "Best Recording for Children", with his 1976 spoken word novelty record, The Adventures of Ali
Ali
and His Gang vs. Mr. Tooth Decay.[23] Ali
Ali
was an influential figure in the world of hip hop music. As a "rhyming trickster", he was noted for his "funky delivery", "boasts", "comical trash talk", and "endless quotables".[22] According to Rolling Stone, his "freestyle skills" and his "rhymes, flow, and braggadocio" would "one day become typical of old school MCs" like Run–D.M.C.
Run–D.M.C.
and LL Cool J, and his "outsized ego foreshadowed the vainglorious excesses of Kanye West, while his Afrocentric consciousness and cutting honesty pointed forward to modern bards like Rakim, Nas, Jay-Z, and Kendrick Lamar."[23] Ali
Ali
has been cited as an inspiration by rappers such as LL Cool J,[22] Public Enemy's Chuck D,[256] Jay-Z, Eminem, Sean Combs, Slick Rick, Nas
Nas
and MC Lyte.[257] Ali
Ali
has been referenced in a number of hip hop songs, including The Sugarhill Gang's "Rapper's Delight", the Fugees' "Ready or Not", EPMD's "You're a Customer" and Will Smith's "Gettin' Jiggy wit It".[257] In the media and popular culture Main article: Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
in media and popular culture As a world champion boxer, social activist, and pop culture icon, Ali was the subject of numerous books, films, music, video games, TV shows, and other creative works.

Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
pop art painting by John Stango

Ali
Ali
appeared on the cover of Sports Illustrated
Sports Illustrated
on 37 different occasions, second only to Michael Jordan.[258][needs update?] He also appeared on the cover of Time Magazine
Time Magazine
5 times, the most of any athlete.[citation needed] Ali
Ali
had a cameo role in the 1962 film version of Requiem for a Heavyweight, and during his exile, he starred in the short-lived Broadway musical, Buck White (1969). Ali
Ali
appeared in the documentary film Black Rodeo (1972) riding both a horse and a bull. His autobiography The Greatest: My Own Story, written with Richard Durham, was published in 1975.[259] In 1977 the book was adapted into a film called The Greatest, in which Ali
Ali
played himself and Ernest Borgnine
Ernest Borgnine
played Angelo Dundee. The film Freedom Road, made in 1978, features Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
in a rare acting role as Gideon Jackson, a former slave and Union (American Civil War) soldier in 1870s Virginia, who gets elected to the U.S. Senate and battles other former slaves and white sharecroppers to keep the land they have tended all their lives. On the set of Freedom Road Ali
Ali
met Canadian singer-songwriter Michel (also known as Robert Williams, a co-founder of The Kindness Offensive[260]), and subsequently helped create Michel's album entitled The First Flight of the Gizzelda Dragon and an unaired television special featuring them both.[261] Ali
Ali
was the subject of This Is Your Life (UK TV series) in 1978 when he was surprised by Eamonn Andrews.[262] Ali
Ali
was featured in Superman vs. Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali, a 1978 DC Comics comic book pitting the champ against the superhero. In 1979, Ali
Ali
guest-starred as himself in an episode of the NBC sitcom Diff'rent Strokes. He also wrote several best-selling books about his career, including The Greatest: My Own Story and The Soul of a Butterfly. The Muhammad Ali
Ali
Effect, named after Ali, is a term that came into use in psychology in the 1980s, as he stated in his autobiography The Greatest: My Own Story: "I only said I was the greatest, not the smartest."[259] According to this effect, when people are asked to rate their intelligence and moral behavior in comparison to others, people will rate themselves as more moral, but not more intelligent than others.[263][264] When We Were Kings, a 1996 documentary about the Rumble in the Jungle, won an Academy Award,[265] and the 2001 biopic Ali
Ali
garnered an Oscar nomination for Will Smith's portrayal of the lead role.[266] The latter film was directed by Michael Mann, with mixed reviews, the positives given to Smith's portrayal of Ali. Prior to making the film, Smith rejected the role until Ali
Ali
requested that he accept it. Smith said the first thing Ali
Ali
told him was: "Man you're almost pretty enough to play me."[267] In 2002, Ali
Ali
was honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
Hollywood Walk of Fame
for his contributions to the entertainment industry.[268] His star is the only one to be mounted on a vertical surface, out of deference to his request that the name Muhammad—a name he shares with the Islamic prophet—not be walked upon.[269][270] The Trials of Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali, a documentary directed by Bill Siegel that focuses on Ali's refusal of the draft during the Vietnam War, opened in Manhattan on August 23, 2013.[148][271] A made-for-TV movie called Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali's Greatest Fight, also in 2013, dramatized the same aspect of Ali's life. Professional boxing record

Professional record summary

61 fights 56 wins 5 losses

By knockout 37 1

By decision 19 4

No. Result Record Opponent Type Round, time Date Age Location Notes

61 Loss 56–5 Trevor Berbick UD 10 Dec 11, 1981 39 years, 328 days Queen Elizabeth Sports Centre, Nassau, Bahamas

60 Loss 56–4 Larry Holmes RTD 10 (15), 3:00 Oct 2, 1980 38 years, 259 days Caesars Palace, Paradise, Nevada, U.S. For WBC, vacant The Ring and lineal heavyweight titles

59 Win 56–3 Leon Spinks UD 15 Sep 15, 1978 36 years, 241 days Superdome, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S. Won WBA, The Ring, and lineal heavyweight titles

58 Loss 55–3 Leon Spinks SD 15 Feb 15, 1978 36 years, 29 days Las Vegas Hilton, Winchester, Nevada, U.S. Lost WBA, WBC, The Ring, and lineal heavyweight titles

57 Win 55–2 Earnie Shavers UD 15 Sep 29, 1977 35 years, 255 days Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S. Retained WBA, WBC, The Ring, and lineal heavyweight titles

56 Win 54–2 Alfredo Evangelista UD 15 May 16, 1977 35 years, 119 days Capital Centre, Landover, Maryland, U.S. Retained WBA, WBC, The Ring, and lineal heavyweight titles

55 Win 53–2 Ken Norton UD 15 Sep 28, 1976 34 years, 255 days Yankee Stadium, New York City, New York, U.S. Retained WBA, WBC, The Ring, and lineal heavyweight titles

54 Win 52–2 Richard Dunn TKO 5 (15), 2:05 May 24, 1976 34 years, 128 days Olympiahalle, Munich, West Germany Retained WBA, WBC, The Ring, and lineal heavyweight titles

53 Win 51–2 Jimmy Young UD 15 Apr 30, 1976 34 years, 104 days Capital Centre, Landover, Maryland, U.S. Retained WBA, WBC, The Ring, and lineal heavyweight titles

52 Win 50–2 Jean-Pierre Coopman KO 5 (15), 2:46 Feb 20, 1976 34 years, 34 days Roberto Clemente Coliseum, San Juan, Puerto Rico Retained WBA, WBC, The Ring, and lineal heavyweight titles

51 Win 49–2 Joe Frazier TKO 14 (15), 3:00 Oct 1, 1975 33 years, 257 days Philippine Coliseum, Quezon City, Philippines Retained WBA, WBC, The Ring, and lineal heavyweight titles; RTD according to some contemporary sources

50 Win 48–2 Joe Bugner UD 15 Jun 30, 1975 33 years, 164 days Stadium Merdeka, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Retained WBA, WBC, The Ring, and lineal heavyweight titles

49 Win 47–2 Ron Lyle TKO 11 (15), 1:08 May 16, 1975 33 years, 119 days Las Vegas Convention Center, Winchester, Nevada, U.S. Retained WBA, WBC, The Ring, and lineal heavyweight titles

48 Win 46–2 Chuck Wepner TKO 15 (15), 2:41 Mar 24, 1975 33 years, 66 days Coliseum, Richfield, Ohio, U.S. Retained WBA, WBC, The Ring, and lineal heavyweight titles

47 Win 45–2 George Foreman KO 8 (15), 2:58 Oct 30, 1974 32 years, 286 days Stade du 20 Mai, Kinshasa, Zaire Won WBA, WBC, The Ring, and lineal heavyweight titles

46 Win 44–2 Joe Frazier UD 12 Jan 28, 1974 32 years, 11 days Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S. Retained NABF heavyweight title

45 Win 43–2 Rudie Lubbers UD 12 Oct 20, 1973 31 years, 276 days Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, Jakarta, Indonesia

44 Win 42–2 Ken Norton SD 12 Sep 10, 1973 31 years, 236 days The Forum, Inglewood, California, U.S. Won NABF heavyweight title

43 Loss 41–2 Ken Norton SD 12 Mar 31, 1973 31 years, 73 days Sports Arena, San Diego, California, U.S. Lost NABF heavyweight title

42 Win 41–1 Joe Bugner UD 12 Feb 14, 1973 31 years, 28 days Las Vegas Convention Center, Winchester, Nevada, U.S.

41 Win 40–1 Bob Foster KO 8 (12), 0:40 Nov 21, 1972 30 years, 309 days Sahara Tahoe, Stateline, Nevada, U.S. Retained NABF heavyweight title

40 Win 39–1 Floyd Patterson RTD 7 (12), 3:00 Sep 20, 1972 30 years, 247 days Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S. Retained NABF heavyweight title

39 Win 38–1 Alvin Lewis TKO 11 (12), 1:15 Jul 19, 1972 30 years, 184 days Croke Park, Dublin, Ireland

38 Win 37–1 Jerry Quarry TKO 7 (12), 0:19 Jun 27, 1972 30 years, 162 days Las Vegas Convention Center, Winchester, Nevada, U.S. Retained NABF heavyweight title

37 Win 36–1 George Chuvalo UD 12 May 1, 1972 30 years, 105 days Pacific Coliseum, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Retained NABF heavyweight title

36 Win 35–1 Mac Foster UD 15 Apr 1, 1972 30 years, 75 days Nippon Budokan, Tokyo, Japan

35 Win 34–1 Jürgen Blin KO 7 (12), 2:12 Dec 26, 1971 29 years, 343 days Hallenstadion, Zürich, Switzerland

34 Win 33–1 Buster Mathis UD 12 Nov 17, 1971 29 years, 304 days Astrodome, Houston, Texas, U.S. Retained NABF heavyweight title

33 Win 32–1 Jimmy Ellis TKO 12 (12), 2:10 Jul 26, 1971 29 years, 190 days Astrodome, Houston, Texas, U.S. Won vacant NABF heavyweight title

32 Loss 31–1 Joe Frazier UD 15 Mar 8, 1971 29 years, 50 days Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S. For WBA, WBC, The Ring, and lineal heavyweight titles

31 Win 31–0 Oscar Bonavena TKO 15 (15), 2:03 Dec 7, 1970 28 years, 324 days Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.

30 Win 30–0 Jerry Quarry RTD 3 (15), 3:00 Oct 26, 1970 28 years, 282 days Municipal Auditorium, Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.

29 Win 29–0 Zora Folley KO 7 (15), 1:48 Mar 22, 1967 25 years, 64 days Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S. Retained WBA, WBC, The Ring, and lineal heavyweight titles

28 Win 28–0 Ernie Terrell UD 15 Feb 6, 1967 25 years, 20 days Astrodome, Houston, Texas, U.S. Retained WBC, The Ring, and lineal heavyweight titles; Won WBA heavyweight title

27 Win 27–0 Cleveland Williams TKO 3 (15), 1:08 Nov 14, 1966 24 years, 301 days Astrodome, Houston, Texas, U.S. Retained WBC, The Ring, and lineal heavyweight titles

26 Win 26–0 Karl Mildenberger TKO 12 (15), 1:30 Sep 10, 1966 24 years, 236 days Waldstadion, Frankfurt, West Germany Retained WBC, The Ring, and lineal heavyweight titles

25 Win 25–0 Brian London KO 3 (15), 1:40 Aug 6, 1966 24 years, 201 days Earls Court Exhibition Centre, London, England Retained WBC, The Ring, and lineal heavyweight titles

24 Win 24–0 Henry Cooper TKO 6 (15), 1:38 May 21, 1966 24 years, 124 days Arsenal Stadium, London, England Retained WBC, The Ring, and lineal heavyweight titles

23 Win 23–0 George Chuvalo UD 15 Mar 29, 1966 24 years, 71 days Maple Leaf Gardens, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Retained WBC, The Ring, and lineal heavyweight titles

22 Win 22–0 Floyd Patterson TKO 12 (15), 2:18 Nov 22, 1965 23 years, 309 days Las Vegas Convention Center, Winchester, Nevada, U.S. Retained WBC, The Ring, and lineal heavyweight titles

21 Win 21–0 Sonny Liston KO 1 (15), 2:12 May 25, 1965 23 years, 128 days Civic Center, Lewiston, Maine, U.S. Retained WBC, The Ring, and lineal heavyweight titles

20 Win 20–0 Sonny Liston RTD 6 (15), 3:00 Feb 25, 1964 22 years, 39 days Convention Center, Miami Beach, Florida, U.S. Won WBA, WBC, The Ring, and lineal heavyweight titles

19 Win 19–0 Henry Cooper TKO 5 (10), 2:15 Jun 18, 1963 21 years, 152 days Wembley Stadium, London, England

18 Win 18–0 Doug Jones UD 10 Mar 13, 1963 21 years, 55 days Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.

17 Win 17–0 Charlie Powell KO 3 (10), 2:04 Jan 24, 1963 21 years, 7 days Civic Arena, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.

16 Win 16–0 Archie Moore TKO 4 (10), 1:35 Nov 15, 1962 20 years, 302 days Memorial Sports Arena, Los Angeles, California, U.S.

15 Win 15–0 Alejandro Lavorante KO 5 (10), 1:48 Jul 20, 1962 20 years, 184 days Memorial Sports Arena, Los Angeles, California, U.S.

14 Win 14–0 Billy Daniels TKO 7 (10), 2:21 May 19, 1962 20 years, 122 days St. Nicholas Arena, New York City, New York, U.S.

13 Win 13–0 George Logan TKO 4 (10), 1:34 Apr 23, 1962 20 years, 96 days Memorial Sports Arena, Los Angeles, California, U.S.

12 Win 12–0 Don Warner TKO 4 (10), 0:34 Feb 28, 1962 20 years, 70 days Convention Center, Miami Beach, Florida, U.S.

11 Win 11–0 Sonny Banks TKO 4 (10), 0:26 Feb 10, 1962 20 years, 24 days Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.

10 Win 10–0 Willi Besmanoff TKO 7 (10), 1:55 Nov 29, 1961 19 years, 316 days Freedom Hall, Louisville, Kentucky, U.S.

9 Win 9–0 Alex Miteff TKO 6 (10), 1:45 Oct 7, 1961 19 years, 263 days Freedom Hall, Louisville, Kentucky, U.S.

8 Win 8–0 Alonzo Johnson UD 10 Jul 22, 1961 19 years, 186 days Freedom Hall, Louisville, Kentucky, U.S.

7 Win 7–0 Duke Sabedong UD 10 Jun 26, 1961 19 years, 160 days Las Vegas Convention Center, Winchester, Nevada, U.S.

6 Win 6–0 LaMar Clark KO 2 (8), 1:27 Apr 19, 1961 19 years, 92 days Freedom Hall, Louisville, Kentucky, U.S.

5 Win 5–0 Donnie Fleeman RTD 6 (8) Feb 21, 1961 19 years, 35 days Municipal Auditorium, Miami Beach, Florida, U.S.

4 Win 4–0 Jim Robinson KO 1 (8), 1:34 Feb 7, 1961 19 years, 21 days Convention Center, Miami Beach, Florida, U.S.

3 Win 3–0 Tony Esperti TKO 3 (8), 1:30 Jan 17, 1961 19 years, 0 days Municipal Auditorium, Miami Beach, Florida, U.S.

2 Win 2–0 Herb Siler TKO 4 (8), 1:00 Dec 27, 1960 18 years, 345 days Municipal Auditorium, Miami Beach, Florida, U.S.

1 Win 1–0 Tunney Hunsaker UD 6 Oct 29, 1960 18 years, 286 days Freedom Hall, Louisville, Kentucky, U.S. Professional debut

See also

African American portal Biography portal Islam
Islam
portal Sports portal

Book: Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali

List of lineal boxing world champions List of heavyweight boxing champions List of WBA world champions List of WBC world champions List of The Ring world champions List of undisputed boxing champions Conscientious objector Notable boxing families List of people from the Louisville metropolitan area List of North American Muslims

Notes

^

[Frazier] was harder for me than Liston or Foreman, because he had what I was vulnerable to—a good in-close left hook. Foreman wasn't an infighter or a hooker. He was an uppercutter with a right hand and a jab, always looking you in the eye. Liston was scarier than Frazier, but I fought Liston when I was young. Joe stayed on me, always on my chest, and from out of nowhere he'd throw the hook. If I was young, I'd have danced for fifteen rounds, and Joe wouldn't have ever caught me. But the first time we fought, I was three-and-half years out of shape. —  Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali[213]

^ According to Dave Wolf, the reason for Frazier's hospitalization was hypertension from which he had been suffering before the fight.[219] ^ Larry Holmes
Larry Holmes
commented that instead of letting Ali's words upset him, Frazier's response to Ali
Ali
calling him ignorant should have been: 'Yeah, okay, I might be ignorant, but this ignorant man is going to kick your ass.'[223] ^

Ali
Ali
asked for me to come to his dressing room before any of the press arrived. I went in there and Ali
Ali
was real tired and he hugged me and apologized for what he'd said about my father before the fight. He said, 'Tell your father he's a great man'. — Marvis Frazier[224]

^ In the 1996 press conference, Frazier stated that "[Ali] didn't like his white brothers." [212] Prior to their first fight, Frazier had questioned Ali's commitment to blacks, given "a lot of guys around him are white."[210] ^ In his book, Brunt notes Frazier's struggle of revealing his genuine beliefs about Ali, and being savvy, because by now he had people looking after his commercial interests, and "somebody probably had a talk with him about image and public relations and how they relate to earning potential...Still, even the new, polished, packaged Frazier has his moments."[231] ^ In a column in the Hartford Courant, published the day after Frazier's death, Jeff Jacobs wrote: "I hope Smokin' Joe did [forgave Ali]. I hope he let every inch of hate go. The Greatest and The Greatest Opponent deserve to join gloves and walk together into immortality.[228]

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was, still is 'The Greatest'". ESPN. January 17, 2012. Retrieved November 5, 2013.  ^ a b Rapold, Nicolas (August 22, 2013). "One of His Biggest Fights Was Outside of the Ring". The New York Times. Retrieved August 29, 2016.  ^ Zirin, Dave (June 4, 2016). "The Hidden History of Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali". Jacobin. Retrieved April 17, 2017.  ^ a b Pilkington, Ed (September 26, 2013). "Declassified NSA files show agency spied on Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
and MLK". The Guardian. Retrieved April 16, 2017.  ^ Medsger, Betty (June 6, 2016). "In 1971, Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
Helped Undermine the FBI's Illegal Spying on Americans". The Intercept. Retrieved April 17, 2017.  ^ "In pictures: Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali's love affair with Africa". BBC
BBC
News. June 9, 2016.  ^ Catron, Joe (June 7, 2016). "Millions Mourn The Death Of Muhammad Ali
Ali
As The Black-Palestinian Solidarity He Championed Continues". MintPress News. Retrieved September 4, 2016.  ^ a b Zirin, Dave (June 8, 2016). "Andrew Cuomo Would Have Blacklisted Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali". The Nation. Retrieved September 4, 2016.  ^ Rahman, Mizan (June 6, 2016). " Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali's forgotten land in Bangladesh". Gulf Times. Retrieved September 4, 2016.  ^ Schilling, Vincent (June 4, 2016). "'The Greatest' Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali Walks On". Indian Country Today Media Network. Retrieved September 4, 2016.  ^ Cuddihy, Martin (June 9, 2016). " Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali: Africa
Africa
remembers the boxing legend". ABC News
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(Australia). Retrieved September 4, 2016.  ^ Levin, Josh (June 4, 2016). "The Time Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
Stopped a Man From Leaping to His Death". Slate.  ^ " Ali
Ali
Talks Would-Be Jumper Off Ninth-Floor Fire Escape". The Blade / Associated Press. January 20, 1981.  ^ Thomas, Robert McG. Jr. (September 20, 1984). "Change In Drug Helps Ali
Ali
Improve". The New York Times. pp. D–29. Retrieved March 9, 2009.  ^ " Ali
Ali
Leaves Hospital Vowing to take better care of himself and get more sleep". The New York Times. September 22, 1984. Retrieved March 9, 2009.  ^ Friedman, J. H. (1989). "Progressive parkinsonism in boxers". Southern Medical Journal. 82 (5): 543–546. doi:10.1097/00007611-198905000-00002. PMID 2655100.  ^ "WrestleMania I: Celebrities". Wwe.com. March 31, 1985. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved January 29, 2012.  ^ McAvennie, Mike (January 17, 2007). "Happy Birthday to 'The Greatest'". WWE.com. Retrieved February 16, 2009.  ^ "CAMPAIGN NOTES; Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
Switches His Support to Reagan". The New York Times. UPI. October 3, 1984. Retrieved September 4, 2016.  ^ " Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
Steps into Ring". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. June 28, 1985. Retrieved September 4, 2016.  ^ " Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
2012 Liberty Medal Ceremony". National Constitution Center. Retrieved January 17, 2018.  ^ Khaled, Ali
Ali
(June 4, 2016). "How Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
became a sporting hero to the Arab world". Al Arabiya. Retrieved September 4, 2016.  ^ Callahan, Maureen (November 29, 2015). "How Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
secured the release of 15 US hostages in Iraq". New York Post. Retrieved September 4, 2016.  ^ " Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali". Heroism.org. January 17, 1942. Retrieved December 5, 2010.  ^ "60 Million Watch America: A Tribute to Heroes". ABC News. September 23, 2001. Retrieved January 17, 2018.  ^ Bulman, May (June 5, 2016). " Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
dead: Michael J Fox
Michael J Fox
pays tribute to fellow Parkinson's disease
Parkinson's disease
sufferer and their 'common fight'". The Independent. Retrieved September 4, 2016.  ^ "UN Messenger of Peace Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
arrives in Afghanistan". UN News Centre. December 13, 2002. Archived from the original on December 13, 2002. Retrieved January 29, 2012.  ^ " Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
visits Kabul". Getty Images. Archived from the original on March 16, 2010. Retrieved May 20, 2008.  ^ McDonald, Brian (August 12, 2009). "Fightin' talk as Ennis
Ennis
awaits Muhammed Ali". Irish Independent. Retrieved August 26, 2009.  ^ Wilkes, David (September 2, 2009). "Welcome back to Ireland, Muhammad
Muhammad
O'Ali: Boxing legend thrills 10,000 with visit to home of his Irish great-grandfather". Daily Mail. Retrieved November 1, 2013.  ^ Wilson, Stan (July 28, 2012). " Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
returns to the Olympic stage, once again, in London". CNN. Retrieved July 29, 2012.  ^ "Remembering Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali's legacy as a radical, and peaceful, Muslim". Quartz. June 7, 2016.  ^ Chasmar, Jessica (February 3, 2013). "Brother: Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
'could be dead in days'". The Washington Times. Retrieved September 4, 2016.  ^ " Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali's daughter: Father watching Super Bowl, not near death". CBS News. February 5, 2013. Retrieved September 4, 2016.  ^ " Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
hospitalized with pneumonia". The Journal. Associated Press. Archived from the original on December 21, 2014. Retrieved December 21, 2014.  ^ Bucktin, Christopher (January 16, 2015). "Boxing legend Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali in hospital after being found 'unresponsive' at his home". The Mirror. Retrieved January 16, 2015.  ^ " Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
back in hospital after he was found 'unresponsive in his bed' – just days after the boxing great's 73rd birthday". Daily Mail. January 15, 2015. Retrieved January 16, 2015.  ^ " Ali
Ali
out of hospital in time for 73rd birthday". MSN. Archived from the original on January 20, 2015. Retrieved January 17, 2015.  ^ Martin, Jill (June 2, 2016). " Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
hospitalized with respiratory issue". CNN. Retrieved June 3, 2016.  ^ " Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
Dies: 'The Greatest' Boxer Dead at 74". ABC News. June 4, 2016. Retrieved June 6, 2016.  ^ Lipsyte, Robert (June 3, 2016). " Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
Dies at 74: Titan of Boxing and the 20th Century". The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2016.  ^ Schuppe, Jon (June 4, 2016). " Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
Died of Septic Shock, Will Be Honored at Public Funeral: Spokesman". NBC News. Retrieved June 6, 2016.  ^ a b "Ali: 'Citizen' of the world'". Columbian. June 6, 2016.  ^ " Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
Memorial Service". C-SPAN. June 10, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2016.  ^ Schreiner, Bruce; Galofaro, Claire (June 7, 2016). "Will Smith, Lennox Lewis
Lennox Lewis
among pallbearers for Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali, who scripted his own funeral in final days". nationalpost.com. Retrieved July 31, 2016.  ^ " Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
To Be Buried In Louisville Friday". WFPL. June 4, 2016. Retrieved June 5, 2016.  ^ " Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali's funeral to be watched worldwide by billions". India.com. June 5, 2016. Retrieved June 5, 2016.  ^ " Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
Islamic Funeral Prayer Service Jenazah scheduled at Freedom Hall". WHAS-TV. June 6, 2016. Archived from the original on June 9, 2016. Retrieved June 9, 2016.  ^ Litman, Laken (June 10, 2016). "Will Smith, Mike Tyson
Mike Tyson
among those serving as pallbearers at Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali's funeral For The Win". ftw.usatoday.com. Retrieved July 31, 2016.  ^ Slack, Jack (January 24, 2013). "Pulling Back the Curtain on Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali". Bloody Elbow. Retrieved July 2, 2013.  ^ " Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
knockout Sonny Liston
Sonny Liston
in Slow Motion HD". YouTube. October 30, 1974. Retrieved September 3, 2013.  ^ "Float like a butterfly, sting like a bee. by Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali". Quotedb.com. Retrieved December 5, 2010.  ^ a b Paul Gallenger, Sonny Liston. ^ Starr, Phillip (2008). Martial Mechanics: Maximum Results with Minimum Effort in the Practice of Martial Arts. Blue Snake Books. p. 13. ISBN 1583942114.  ^ Hauser, Thomas (2012). Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali: His Life and Times (Enhanced Edition). Open Road Media. ISBN 1453250638.  ^ "How to...fight like Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali". The Observer. February 9, 2011. Retrieved July 2, 2013.  ^ Wiley, Ralph (September 13, 2001). "Jive trash talkin'". ESPN. Retrieved September 3, 2013.  ^ "Boxing trash talk that stings like a bee". The Guardian. September 28, 2007. Retrieved September 3, 2013.  ^ "The 50 Best Trash Talk
Talk
Lines in Sports History". Bleacher Report. Archived from the original on December 18, 2013. Retrieved September 3, 2013.  ^ Brunt, Stephen (2002). Facing Ali. The Lyons Press. pp. 115–116.  ^ a b Hauser, Thomas (1991). Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali: His Life and Times. Simon & Schuster. p. 217.  ^ Brunt, Stephen (2002). Facing Ali. The Lyons Press. p. 116.  ^ Dennis, Felix; Atyeo, Don (2003). Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali: The Glory Years. Miramax Books. p. 162.  ^ a b c d Dennis, Felix; Atyeo, Don (2003). Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali: The Glory Years. Miramax Books. p. 180.  ^ Hauser, Thomas (1991). Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali: His Life and Times. Simon & Schuster. p. 216.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "'The Fight's Over, Joe'". Sports Illustrated. 30 September 1996. Retrieved 25 October 2016.  ^ a b Hauser, Thomas (1991). Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali: His Life and Times. Simon & Schuster. p. 231.  ^ "'Lawdy, Lawdy He's Great'". Sports Illustrated. October 13, 1975. Retrieved October 29, 2016.  ^ a b "Marcos used Thrilla in Manila
Thrilla in Manila
fight as distraction from Filipinos' plight". Inter Aksyon. November 10, 2011. Archived from the original on October 3, 2016. Retrieved October 30, 2016.  ^ Brunt, Stephen (2002). Facing Ali. The Lyons Press. p. 123.  ^ "The unforgiven". The Guardian. September 3, 2005. Retrieved October 30, 2016.  ^ Brunt, Stephen (2002). Facing Ali. The Lyons Press. p. 121.  ^ a b Hauser, Thomas (1991). Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali: His Life and Times. Simon & Schuster. p. 256.  ^ a b c Dennis, Felix; Atyeo, Don (2003). Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali: The Glory Years. Miramax Books. p. 204.  ^ Hauser, Thomas (1991). Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali: His Life and Times. Simon & Schuster. p. 255.  ^ Hauser, Thomas (1991). Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali: His Life and Times. Simon & Schuster. pp. 256–57.  ^ Brunt, Stephen (2002). Facing Ali. The Lyons Press. p. 104.  ^ a b c Dennis, Felix; Atyeo, Don (2003). Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali: The Glory Years. Miramax Books. p. 244.  ^ "Smokin' Joe: The Autobiography of a Heavyweight
Heavyweight
Champion of the World, Smokin' Joe Frazier". Retrieved October 30, 2016.  ^ " Joe Frazier
Joe Frazier
hated Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali". ESPN. 9 November 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2016.  ^ Brunt, Stephen (2002). Facing Ali. The Lyons Press. p. 102.  ^ a b c d "Hoping Joe Frazier
Joe Frazier
Actually Forgave Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali". Hartford Courant. November 8, 2011. Retrieved October 30, 2016.  ^ "BOXING; No Floating, No Stinging: Ali
Ali
Extends Hand to Frazier". The New York Times. March 15, 2001. Retrieved October 30, 2016.  ^ "Frazier battled Ali
Ali
in timeless trilogy". ESPN. Retrieved October 30, 2016.  ^ a b Brunt, Stephen (2002). Facing Ali. The Lyons Press. pp. 102, 124.  ^ "Joe Frazier: Still Smokin' after all these years". The Telegraph. November 11, 2008. Retrieved October 30, 2016.  ^ " Ali
Ali
among 4,000 at Frazier funeral". New York Post. November 14, 2011. Retrieved October 30, 2016.  ^ Hill, Bob (November 19, 2005). " Ali
Ali
stirs conflicting emotions in hometown". The Courier-Journal. p. K5.  ^ Wilstein, Steve, Associated Press, "Retton, Hammill most popular American athletes in United States: poll"; The Daily Gazette, May 17, 1993. ^ Quittner, Joshua (June 14, 1999). "Ali— Time 100
Time 100
People of the Century". Time.  ^ " Sports Illustrated
Sports Illustrated
honors world's greatest athletes". CNN. December 3, 1999.  ^ " Ali
Ali
crowned Sportsman of Century". BBC
BBC
Sport. December 13, 1999. Retrieved June 6, 2016.  ^ Spears, Marc J. (September 14, 1999). "Ali: The Greatest of 20th century; Show stops when the champ arrives for awards dinner". The Courier-Journal. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ "President Clinton Awards the Presidential Citizens Medals". Today at The White House. National Archives and Records Administration. January 8, 2001. Retrieved June 5, 2016.  ^ " Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom
Recipients". White House Press Secretary. November 3, 2005. Archived from the original on March 6, 2008. Retrieved May 20, 2008.  ^ "Bush presents Ali
Ali
with Presidential Medal of Freedom". ESPN. November 14, 2005. Retrieved February 16, 2009.  ^ "Briefs: Ali
Ali
to receive Otto Hahn Medal today in Berlin". The Seattle Times. December 17, 2005. Retrieved June 5, 2016.  ^ Ryan, Joe (June 5, 2007). "Boxing legend Ali
Ali
gets Princeton degree". The Star-Ledger. Retrieved June 5, 2007.  ^ " Ali
Ali
Mall: First Ever Shopping Mall Makes A Comeback". Araneta Center. Archived from the original on September 2, 2016. Retrieved September 4, 2016.  ^ "What role did boxer Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
play in early MMA? Let ' Ali
Ali
vs. Inoki' author Josh Gross explain". MMAjunkie. June 13, 2016. Retrieved September 4, 2016.  ^ Grant, T. P. (May 2, 2013). "MMA Origins: Fighting For Pride". BloodyElbow. Retrieved September 4, 2016.  ^ Raimondi, Marc (June 12, 2016). "Click Debate: What's all this talk about the Ali
Ali
Act coming to MMA?". MMAjunkie. Retrieved September 4, 2016.  ^ Klimas, Jacqueline (June 7, 2016). "Rand Paul's amendment to knock out the draft named after Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali". Washington Examiner. Retrieved September 4, 2016.  ^ Donelson, Tom. "Was Ali
Ali
the Greatest Heavyweight?". Boxinginsider.com. Retrieved September 4, 2016.  ^ "AP Fighters of the Century list". Retrieved February 12, 2012.  ^ " ESPN
ESPN
Classic Ringside: Top 10 Heavyweights". Amazon.com. Retrieved January 29, 2012.  ^ " Sugar Ray Robinson
Sugar Ray Robinson
wins split decision from Ali". ESPN. September 6, 1999. Archived from the original on January 7, 2008. Retrieved April 26, 2009.  ^ "Song Stand By Me, recorded in 1964 by Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali, then known as Cassius Clay". YouTube. December 13, 2008. Retrieved February 20, 2013.  ^ "Different versions of 'Stand By Me'". Secondhandsongs.com. Retrieved February 20, 2013.  ^ " Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali: The original rapper – Legendary emcee Chuck D
Chuck D
of Public Enemy talks Ali's impact on hip-hop". The Undefeated. June 9, 2016. Retrieved September 4, 2016.  ^ a b "Jay Z, Eminem
Eminem
and more hip-hop luminaries remember Muhammad Ali". CBS News. June 9, 2016. Retrieved September 4, 2016.  ^ "Magazine of the Week (September 28, 2006): Sports Illustrated November 28, 1983". Dtmagazine.com. Retrieved January 29, 2012.  ^ a b Ali, Muhammad; Durham, Richard (October 1975). The Greatest: My Own Story. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0-394-46268-4. OCLC 1622063.  ^ Smith, Amy (June 9, 2016). "Meet the London
London
busker who worked as Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali's personal musician". Time Out. Retrieved June 12, 2016.  ^ Michel (January 4, 2014). "Experience: Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
was my mentor". The Guardian. Retrieved June 11, 2016.  ^ " Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali's appearance on This Is Your Life". Big Red Book
Book
– Celebrating television's This Is Your Life. Retrieved January 11, 2016.  ^ Allison, Scott T.; Messick, David M.; Goethals, George R. (1989). " On Being
On Being
Better but not Smarter than Others: The Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali Effect". Social Cognition. 7 (3): 275–295. doi:10.1521/soco.1989.7.3.275.  ^ Van Lange, P. A. M. (December 1, 1991). "Being Better but Not Smarter than Others: The Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
Effect at Work in Interpersonal Situations". Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 17 (6): 689–693. doi:10.1177/0146167291176012.  ^ When We Were Kings
When We Were Kings
(1996) on IMDb ^ Ali
Ali
(2001) on IMDb. ^ "FILM, Will Smith
Will Smith
peaks as Ali". BBC
BBC
News. December 25, 2001. Retrieved December 5, 2010.  ^ " Hollywood Walk of Fame
Hollywood Walk of Fame
database". HWOF.com. Archived from the original on July 1, 2010.  ^ Christian, Margena A. (April 16, 2007). "How Do You Really Get A Star On The Hollywood Walk Of Fame?". Jet. Vol. 111 no. 15. pp. 25, 29. Retrieved October 12, 2010 – via Google Books.  ^ "A Star for the Greatest". Jet. Vol. 101 no. 6. January 28, 2002. p. 52. Retrieved September 22, 2010 – via Google Books.  ^ "The Trials of Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali". Kartemquin Educational Films. Retrieved August 26, 2013. 

Further reading

Hauser, Thomas (2004). Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali: His Life and Times. Robson Books. ISBN 978-1-86105-738-9. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali

Official website Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
on IMDb Professional boxing record for Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
from BoxRec William Addams Reitwiesner Genealogical Services: Ancestry of Muhammad Ali Appearances on C-SPAN Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
discography at Discogs FBI
FBI
Records: The Vault – Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
at vault.fbi.gov

Photo essays

"Cassius Clay: Before He Was Ali". Life. Archived from the original on October 21, 2009. Retrieved October 22, 2009.  Berman, Eliza; Ronk, Liz (June 4, 2016). " Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali's Life in Photos; From his time in the ring to his more playful side". Life. time.com. Retrieved October 26, 2016. 

Sporting positions

Amateur boxing
Amateur boxing
titles

Previous: Kent Green U.S. Golden Gloves light heavyweight champion 1959 Next: Jefferson Davis

Previous: Sylvester Banks U.S. light heavyweight champion 1959, 1960 Next: Bob Christopherson

Previous: Jimmy Jones U.S. Golden Gloves heavyweight champion 1960 Next: Al Jenkins

Regional boxing titles

Vacant Title last held by Leotis Martin NABF heavyweight champion December 17, 1970 – March 8, 1971 Lost bid for world title Vacant Title next held by George Foreman

Vacant Title last held by George Foreman NABF heavyweight champion July 26, 1971 – March 31, 1973 Succeeded by Ken Norton

Preceded by Ken Norton NABF heavyweight champion September 10, 1973 – October 30, 1974 Won world title Vacant Title next held by Ken Norton

World boxing titles

Preceded by Sonny Liston WBC heavyweight champion February 25, 1964 – March 11, 1969 Stripped Vacant Title next held by Joe Frazier

The Ring heavyweight champion February 25, 1964 – February 3, 1971 Vacated

Undisputed heavyweight champion February 25, 1964 – February 3, 1971 Titles fragmented

Lineal heavyweight champion February 25, 1964 – February 3, 1971 Vacated

Preceded by Ernie Terrell WBA heavyweight champion February 6, 1967 – April 27, 1968 Stripped Vacant Title next held by Jimmy Ellis

Preceded by George Foreman WBA heavyweight champion October 30, 1974 – February 15, 1978 Succeeded by Leon Spinks

WBC heavyweight champion October 30, 1974 – February 15, 1978

The Ring heavyweight champion October 30, 1974 – February 15, 1978

Undisputed heavyweight champion October 30, 1974 – February 15, 1978

Lineal heavyweight champion October 30, 1974 – February 15, 1978

Preceded by Leon Spinks WBA heavyweight champion September 15, 1978 – October 18, 1979 Vacated Vacant Title next held by John Tate

The Ring heavyweight champion September 15, 1978 – September 6, 1979 Retired Vacant Title next held by Larry Holmes

Lineal heavyweight champion September 15, 1978 – September 6, 1979 Retired

Awards

Inaugural award United Press International Athlete of the Year 1974 Next: João Carlos de Oliveira

Previous: Olga Korbut BBC
BBC
Overseas Sports Personality of the Year 1973, 1974 Next: Arthur Ashe

Previous: Niki Lauda BBC
BBC
Overseas Sports Personality of the Year 1978 Next: Björn Borg

Records

Previous: Ernie Terrell Oldest living world heavyweight champion December 16, 2014 – June 3, 2016 Next: George Foreman

Olympic Games

Previous: Haakon, Crown Prince of Norway Final Olympic torchbearer Atlanta 1996 Next: Midori Ito

Previous: Antonio Rebollo Final Summer Olympic torchbearer Atlanta 1996 Next: Cathy Freeman

v t e

Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali

Fights

Boxing at the 1960 Summer Olympics Clay vs. Hunsaker Clay vs. Siler Clay vs. Esperti Clay vs. Robinson Clay vs. Fleeman Clay vs. Clark Clay vs. Sabedong Clay vs. Johnson Clay vs. Miteff Clay vs. Besmanoff Clay vs. Banks Clay vs. Warner Clay vs. Logan Clay vs. Daniels Clay vs. Lavorante Clay vs. Moore Clay vs. Powell Clay vs. Jones Ali
Ali
vs. Cooper Liston vs. Ali Ali
Ali
vs. Patterson Ali
Ali
vs. Chuvalo Ali
Ali
vs. London Ali
Ali
vs. Mildenberger Ali
Ali
vs. Terrell Ali
Ali
vs. Williams Ali
Ali
vs. Folley Ali
Ali
vs. Quarry Ali
Ali
vs. Bonavena Fight of the Century ( Ali
Ali
vs. Frazier I) Ali
Ali
vs. Ellis Ali
Ali
vs. Mathis Ali
Ali
vs. Blin Ali
Ali
vs. M. Foster Ali
Ali
vs. Lewis Ali
Ali
vs. B. Foster Ali
Ali
vs. Bugner Ali
Ali
vs. Norton Ali
Ali
vs. Lubbers Ali
Ali
vs. Frazier II The Rumble in the Jungle
The Rumble in the Jungle
( Ali
Ali
vs. Foreman) Ali
Ali
vs. Wepner Ali
Ali
vs. Lyle Thrilla in Manila
Thrilla in Manila
( Ali
Ali
vs. Frazier III) Ali
Ali
vs. Coopman Ali
Ali
vs. Young Ali
Ali
vs. Dunn Ali
Ali
vs. Evangelista Ali
Ali
vs. Shavers Ali
Ali
vs. Spinks Spinks vs. Ali
Ali
II Holmes vs. Ali Drama in Bahama ( Ali
Ali
vs. Berbick)

Media

Requiem for a Heavyweight
Heavyweight
(1962 film) The Super Fight
The Super Fight
(film) a.k.a. Cassius Clay (film) "Black Superman" (song) I Am the Greatest (album) The Adventures of Ali and His Gang vs. Mr. Tooth Decay
The Adventures of Ali and His Gang vs. Mr. Tooth Decay
(album) I Am the Greatest: The Adventures of Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
(animated series) Superman vs. Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
(comic book) The Greatest (film) Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
Heavyweight
Heavyweight
Boxing (video game) Foes of Ali
Foes of Ali
(video game) When We Were Kings
When We Were Kings
(film) King of the World (TV film) Ali: An American Hero (TV film) " Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali" (song) Ali
Ali
(film) "The World's Greatest" (song) Facing Ali
Ali
(film) When Ali
Ali
Came to Ireland (documentary) The Trials of Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
(documentary) Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali's Greatest Fight (TV film) I Am Ali
Ali
(documentary)

People

Cassius Marcellus Clay Sr. (father) Odessa Grady Clay
Odessa Grady Clay
(mother) Rahman Ali (brother) Khalilah Ali (first wife) Veronica Porché Ali
Veronica Porché Ali
(second wife) Laila Ali
Laila Ali
(daughter) Chuck Bodak
Chuck Bodak
(trainer and cutman) Angelo Dundee
Angelo Dundee
(cornerman) Drew Bundini Brown (trainer and cornerman) Ferdie Pacheco (personal physician and cornerman) Joe E. Martin (first trainer) Archie Moore
Archie Moore
(trainer) George Dillman (instructor) Jabir Herbert Muhammad
Muhammad
(manager) Luis Sarria (trainer, cutman, and masseur) Joe Frazier
Joe Frazier
(opponent and friend)

Books

The Greatest: My Own Story (1975 autobiography) The Fight (1975) Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali: His Life and Times (1991 biography) King of the World (1998 biography) Facing Ali
Ali
(2002) Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali: The Glory Years (2003 biography) The Soul of a Butterfly (2004 autobiography) Twelve Rounds to Glory (2007 biography)

Other

Religious views of Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali Rope-a-dope Ali
Ali
Mall Clay v. United States Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
vs. Antonio Inoki Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
Center Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
in India Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
in China

Articles related to Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali

v t e

Sports Illustrated
Sports Illustrated
Sportsperson of the Year

1954: Roger Bannister 1955: Johnny Podres 1956: Bobby Morrow 1957: Stan Musial 1958: Rafer Johnson 1959: Ingemar Johansson 1960: Arnold Palmer 1961: Jerry Lucas 1962: Terry Baker 1963: Pete Rozelle 1964: Ken Venturi 1965: Sandy Koufax 1966: Jim Ryun 1967: Carl Yastrzemski 1968: Bill Russell 1969: Tom Seaver 1970: Bobby Orr 1971: Lee Trevino 1972: Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
& John Wooden 1973: Jackie Stewart 1974: Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali 1975: Pete Rose 1976: Chris Evert 1977: Steve Cauthen 1978: Jack Nicklaus 1979: Terry Bradshaw
Terry Bradshaw
& Willie Stargell 1980: U.S. Olympic Hockey Team 1981: Sugar Ray Leonard 1982: Wayne Gretzky 1983: Mary Decker 1984: Edwin Moses
Edwin Moses
& Mary Lou Retton 1985: Kareem Abdul-Jabbar 1986: Joe Paterno 1987: Bob Bourne, Judi Brown King, Kipchoge Keino, Dale Murphy, Chip Rives, Patty Sheehan, Rory Sparrow, & Reggie Williams 1988: Orel Hershiser 1989: Greg LeMond 1990: Joe Montana 1991: Michael Jordan 1992: Arthur Ashe 1993: Don Shula 1994: Bonnie Blair
Bonnie Blair
& Johann Olav Koss 1995: Cal Ripken Jr. 1996: Tiger Woods 1997: Dean Smith 1998: Mark McGwire
Mark McGwire
& Sammy Sosa 1999: U.S. Women's Soccer Team 2000: Tiger Woods 2001: Curt Schilling
Curt Schilling
& Randy Johnson 2002: Lance Armstrong 2003: David Robinson & Tim Duncan 2004: Boston Red Sox 2005: Tom Brady 2006: Dwyane Wade 2007: Brett Favre 2008: Michael Phelps 2009: Derek Jeter 2010: Drew Brees 2011: Mike Krzyzewski
Mike Krzyzewski
& Pat Summitt 2012: LeBron James 2013: Peyton Manning 2014: Madison Bumgarner 2015: Serena Williams 2016: LeBron James 2017: José Altuve
José Altuve
& J. J. Watt

v t e

Associated Press
Associated Press
Male Athlete of the Year

1931: Pepper Martin 1932: Gene Sarazen 1933: Carl Hubbell 1934: Dizzy Dean 1935: Joe Louis 1936: Jesse Owens 1937: Don Budge 1938: Don Budge 1939: Nile Kinnick 1940: Tom Harmon 1941: Joe DiMaggio 1942: Frank Sinkwich 1943: Gunder Hägg 1944: Byron Nelson 1945: Byron Nelson 1946: Glenn Davis 1947: Johnny Lujack 1948: Lou Boudreau 1949: Leon Hart 1950: Jim Konstanty 1951: Dick Kazmaier 1952: Bob Mathias 1953: Ben Hogan 1954: Willie Mays 1955: Howard Cassady 1956: Mickey Mantle 1957: Ted Williams 1958: Herb Elliott 1959: Ingemar Johansson 1960: Rafer Johnson 1961: Roger Maris 1962: Maury Wills 1963: Sandy Koufax 1964: Don Schollander 1965: Sandy Koufax 1966: Frank Robinson 1967: Carl Yastrzemski 1968: Denny McLain 1969: Tom Seaver 1970: George Blanda 1971: Lee Trevino 1972: Mark Spitz 1973: O. J. Simpson 1974: Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali 1975: Fred Lynn 1976: Bruce Jenner 1977: Steve Cauthen 1978: Ron Guidry 1979: Willie Stargell 1980: U.S. Olympic Hockey Team 1981: John McEnroe 1982: Wayne Gretzky 1983: Carl Lewis 1984: Carl Lewis 1985: Dwight Gooden 1986: Larry Bird 1987: Ben Johnson 1988: Orel Hershiser 1989: Joe Montana 1990: Joe Montana 1991: Michael Jordan 1992: Michael Jordan 1993: Michael Jordan 1994: George Foreman 1995: Cal Ripken Jr. 1996: Michael Johnson 1997: Tiger Woods 1998: Mark McGwire 1999: Tiger Woods 2000: Tiger Woods 2001: Barry Bonds 2002: Lance Armstrong 2003: Lance Armstrong 2004: Lance Armstrong 2005: Lance Armstrong 2006: Tiger Woods 2007: Tom Brady 2008: Michael Phelps 2009: Jimmie Johnson 2010: Drew Brees 2011: Aaron Rodgers 2012: Michael Phelps 2013: LeBron James 2014: Madison Bumgarner 2015: Stephen Curry 2016: LeBron James 2017: José Altuve

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Olympic boxing champions – men's light heavyweight

1920-1936: 160-175 lb (72.6-79.4 kg), 1948: 73-80 kg 1952-2012: 75-81 kg

1920:  Eddie Eagan (USA) 1924:  Harry Mitchell (GBR) 1928:  Víctor Avendaño (ARG) 1932:  David Carstens (RSA) 1936:  Roger Michelot (FRA) 1948:  George Hunter (RSA) 1952:  Norvel Lee (USA) 1956:  James Boyd (USA) 1960:  Cassius Clay (USA) 1964:  Cosimo Pinto (ITA) 1968:  Danas Pozniakas (URS) 1972:  Mate Parlov (YUG) 1976:  Leon Spinks (USA) 1980:  Slobodan Kačar (YUG) 1984:  Anton Josipović (YUG) 1988:  Andrew Maynard (USA) 1992:  Torsten May (GER) 1996:  Vassiliy Jirov (KAZ) 2000:  Aleksandr Lebziak (RUS) 2004:  Andre Ward (USA) 2008:  Zhang Xiaoping (CHN) 2012:  Egor Mekhontsev (RUS) 2016:  Julio César La Cruz (CUB)

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1960 USA Olympic boxing team

Athletes

Humberto Barrera Jerry Armstrong Nicholas Spanakos Harry Campbell Quincey Daniels Arthur Baldwin Wilbert McClure Eddie Crook, Jr. Cassius Clay Percy Price

Coaches

Julie Menendez Joe Martin

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The Ring magazine Fighter of the Year

1928: Tunney 1929: Loughran 1930: Schmeling 1931: Loughran 1932: Sharkey 1933: No award 1934: Canzoneri & Ross 1935: Ross 1936: Louis 1937: Armstrong 1938: Louis 1939: Louis 1940: Conn 1941: Louis 1942: Robinson 1943: Apostoli 1944: Jack 1945: Pep 1946: Zale 1947: Lesnevich 1948: Williams 1949: Charles 1950: Charles 1951: Robinson 1952: Marciano 1953: Olson 1954: Marciano 1955: Marciano 1956: Patterson 1957: Basilio 1958: Johansson 1959: Johansson 1960: Patterson 1961: Brown 1962: Tiger 1963: Clay 1964: Griffith 1965: Tiger 1966: Ali 1967: Frazier 1968: Benvenuti 1969: Nápoles 1970: Frazier 1971: Frazier 1972: Ali
Ali
& Monzón 1973: Foreman 1974: Ali 1975: Ali 1976: Foreman 1977: Zárate 1978: Ali 1979: Leonard 1980: Hearns 1981: Leonard & Sánchez 1982: Holmes 1983: Hagler 1984: Hearns 1985: Hagler & Curry 1986: Tyson 1987: Holyfield 1988: Tyson 1989: Whitaker 1990: Chávez 1991: Toney 1992: Bowe 1993: Carbajal 1994: Jones Jr. 1995: De La Hoya 1996: Holyfield 1997: Holyfield 1998: Mayweather Jr. 1999: Ayala 2000: Trinidad 2001: Hopkins 2002: Forrest 2003: Toney 2004: Johnson 2005: Hatton 2006: Pacquiao 2007: Mayweather Jr. 2008: Pacquiao 2009: Pacquiao 2010: Martínez 2011: Ward 2012: Márquez 2013: Stevenson 2014: Kovalev 2015: Fury 2016: Frampton 2017: Lomachenko

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Sugar Ray Robinson
Sugar Ray Robinson
Award

1938: Dempsey 1939: Conn 1940: Armstrong 1941: Louis 1942: Ross 1943: Boxers of the Armed Forces 1944: B. Leonard 1945: Walker 1946: Zale 1947: Lesnevich 1948: Williams 1949: Charles 1950: Robinson 1951: Walcott 1952: Marciano 1953: Gavilán 1954: Olson 1955: Basilio 1956: Patterson 1957: Basilio 1958: Moore 1959: Johansson 1960: Patterson 1961: Fullmer 1962: Tiger 1963: Griffith 1964: Pastrano 1965: Ali 1966: Tiger 1967: Ortiz 1968: Foster 1969: Frazier 1970: Buchanan 1971: Frazier 1972: Monzón 1973: Foreman 1974: Ali 1975: Ali
Ali
& Frazier 1976: Davis Jr., S. R. Leonard, Randolph, L. Spinks & M. Spinks 1977: Norton 1978: Holmes 1979: S. R. Leonard 1980: Hearns 1981: S. R. Leonard 1982: Pryor 1983: Hagler 1984: Hearns 1985: Hagler 1986: Tyson 1987: Chávez 1988: Tyson 1989: Whitaker 1990: Holyfield 1991: Toney 1992: Bowe 1993: Whitaker 1994: Foreman 1995: De La Hoya 1996: Holyfield 1997: Holyfield 1998: Mosley 1999: Lewis 2000: Trinidad 2001: Hopkins 2002: Forrest 2003: Toney 2004: Johnson 2005: Hatton 2006: Pacquiao 2007: Mayweather Jr. 2008: Pacquiao 2009: Pacquiao 2010: Martínez 2011: Ward 2012: Donaire 2013: Mayweather Jr. 2014: Crawford 2015: Mayweather Jr. 2016: Frampton 2017: Lomachenko

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Hickok Belt
Hickok Belt
winners

1950: Phil Rizzuto 1951: Allie Reynolds 1952: Rocky Marciano 1953: Ben Hogan 1954: Willie Mays 1955: Otto Graham 1956: Mickey Mantle 1957: Carmen Basilio 1958: Bob Turley 1959: Ingemar Johansson 1960: Arnold Palmer 1961: Roger Maris 1962: Maury Wills 1963: Sandy Koufax 1964: Jim Brown 1965: Sandy Koufax 1966: Frank Robinson 1967: Carl Yastrzemski 1968: Joe Namath 1969: Tom Seaver 1970: Brooks Robinson 1971: Lee Trevino 1972: Steve Carlton 1973: O. J. Simpson 1974: Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali 1975: Pete Rose 1976: Ken Stabler 1977–2011 not awarded 2012: LeBron James 2013: LeBron James 2014: Madison Bumgarner 2015: Stephen Curry 2016: Michael Phelps 2017: José Altuve

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Arthur Ashe Courage Award
Arthur Ashe Courage Award
winners

Named after Arthur Ashe

1993: Valvano 1994: Palermo 1995: Cosell 1996: Claiborne 1997: Ali 1998: D. Smith 1999: King 2000: Sanders 2001: Freeman 2002:

Beamer Bingham Burnett Glick

2003: Pat & Kevin Tillman 2004: Weah 2005: MacLaren & Yeboah 2006: Ahmad & Kohestani 2007: Cullen & Ringland 2008: Carlos & T. Smith 2009: Mandela 2010: Thomas 2011: Bozella 2012: Summitt 2013: Roberts 2014: Sam 2015: Jenner 2016: Dobson 2017: Shriver

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Louisville, Kentucky
Louisville, Kentucky
(metro area)

History

Timeline George Rogers Clark–founder Civil War Historic places

Geography

Downtown Cityscape Climate Local landmarks Neighborhoods Parks Preservation districts (Old Louisville)

Government

Mayor (Greg Fischer) Metro Council (President: David James)

Transportation

Bowman Field Louisville International Airport McAlpine Locks and Dam Roads TARC

Other subject areas

Attractions and events Cuisine Economy Education Media People Performing arts Religion Sports

Top subjects

Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali

Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
Center

Cave Hill Cemetery Falls of the Ohio Farmington Kentucky
Kentucky
Derby (Festival) KFC

History Colonel Sanders

L&N Louisville Slugger Speed Art
Art
Museum University of Louisville
University of Louisville
(Cardinals)

National Historic Landmarks

Belle of Louisville Churchill Downs Historic Locust Grove Mayor Andrew Broaddus Old Bank Zachary Taylor House United States
United States
Marine Hospital Water Tower

Prominent suburbs (over 10K pop.)

Clarksville Jeffersontown Jeffersonville Lyndon New Albany St. Matthews Shelbyville Shepherdsville Shively

Category (city) Category (metro area) Portal WikiProject

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 36972485 LCCN: n79054611 ISNI: 0000 0001 2023 9631 GND: 118501976 SELIBR: 176042 SUDOC: 031126537 BNF: cb12240256s (data) BIBSYS: 2126485 MusicBrainz: 9127d17a-8005-46a9-bf9d-b46e92f2952f NLA: 35806242 NDL: 00431234 NKC: jn19981001869 BNE: XX1181021 SN

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