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The Military Frontier
Military Frontier
was a province straddling the southern borderland of the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
and later the Austrian and Austro-Hungarian Empire. It acted as the cordon sanitaire against incursions from the Ottoman Empire. When created in the 16th century by Ferdinand I, the region was divided into two districts under special military administration: the Croatian Military Frontier
Croatian Military Frontier
and the Slavonian Military Frontier. Initially, the Military Frontier
Military Frontier
came under the jurisdiction of the Croatian Sabor
Sabor
and ban but, in 1627, it was placed under the direct control of the Habsburg military. For more than two centuries, they would retain complete civilian and military authority over the area, up to the abolition of the Military Frontier
Military Frontier
in 1881. During the 17th century, the territory was expanded towards the East and new sections were created. By then, it stretched from Croatia proper in the west to eastern Transylvania
Transylvania
in the east and included parts of present-day Croatia, Serbia, Romania
Romania
and Hungary. During, this period, the defence system was also changed, from a conventional garrison model to one of 'soldier-settler' communities. The inhabitants of the area were known as the Grenzer, or 'Frontiersmen'. They were colonists, mostly ethnic Serbs, Croats
Croats
and Germans, who undertook to defend the Monarchy in return for their land-grants. Germans
Germans
had been recruited by Hungary
Hungary
in the late 18th century to resettle and develop the Danube
Danube
River Valley, and became known as Donauschwaben. The military regiments formed by the settlers had a vested reason to stand and fight and were familiar with local terrain and conditions. They soon gained a formidable military reputation.

Contents

1 Name 2 Background 3 History

3.1 16th century 3.2 17th century 3.3 18th century 3.4 19th century

4 Administration

4.1 Divisions 4.2 Maps

5 Demographics

5.1 1828 5.2 1846 5.3 1857

6 Legacy 7 See also 8 References 9 Sources 10 Bibliography 11 External links

Name[edit] It was known as the "Military Frontier" or Military Border (German: Militärgrenze; Serbo-Croatian: Vojna krajina; Hungarian: Katonai határőrvidék; Romanian: Graniţă militară) Background[edit] The Ottoman wars in Europe
Ottoman wars in Europe
caused the border of the Kingdom of Hungary – and subsequently that of the Habsburg Monarchy – to shift towards the northwest. Much of the old Croatian territory either became Ottoman land or bordered the new Ottoman domain. In 1435, in an attempt to strengthen the defences against the Ottomans and Venice, King Sigismund founded the so-called tabor, a military encampment, each in Croatia, Slavonia
Slavonia
and Usora. In 1463 King Matthias Corvinus founded the banovina of Jajce
Jajce
and Srebrenik, and in 1469 the military captaincy of Senj, modeled after the Ottoman captaincies in the Province of Bosnia. All these actions aimed to improve defence, but ultimately proved unsuccessful. But, they did lead to development of the Croatian Pandur infantry and the Serbian Hussar
Hussar
cavalry. History[edit] 16th century[edit] After 1526 the Croatian Parliament
Croatian Parliament
elected the Austrian Habsburgs as kings of Croatia,[1] and Emperor Ferdinand promised the Croatian Parliament that he would give them 200 cavalrymen and 200 infantrymen, and that he would pay for another 800 cavalrymen who would be commanded by the Croatians. Soon the Habsburg Empire
Habsburg Empire
founded another captaincy in Bihać. In the short term, all this was ineffective, as in 1529 the Ottomans swept through the area, captured Buda
Buda
and besieged Vienna, wreaking havoc throughout the Croatian border areas. The new military expenditures became a considerable concern, and the Congress of Inner Austrian lands in Bruck an der Mur
Bruck an der Mur
in 1578 defined the obligations of each land in covering the military expenses and defined the priorities in improving the defensive strategy. The nobility of Styria financed the Upper Slavonian Frontier while the others (Lower Austria, Upper Austria, Carniola, Carinthia and Salzburg) financed the Croatian Frontier. By the end of the 16th century, the Croatian Military Frontier
Croatian Military Frontier
became known as the Karlovac
Karlovac
generalat, and from the 1630s the Upper Slavonian Military Frontier
Slavonian Military Frontier
was known as the Varaždin
Varaždin
generalat. During the 16th and 17th centuries, the military administration of the Frontier was moved away from the Croatian ban and the Sabor (Parliament) and instead instated in the high command of Archduke Charles and the War Council in Graz[citation needed]. 17th century[edit] Despite the financial support of the Inner Austrian nobility, the financing of the Military Frontier
Military Frontier
was not efficient enough. The military leadership in Graz
Graz
decided to try solutions other than mercenary units. In the 1630s the Imperial Court decided to give land and certain privileges to immigrants into the Frontier (the uskok guerrillas as well as refugees from Ottoman-controlled lands) at the area of Žumberak. In return they would serve in the Imperial army. The remaining local population was also encouraged to remain by receiving the status of free peasants (rather than serfs) and other privileges. These new units were organized into ten or more voivodeships per each captaincy. In 1627, the Military Frontier
Military Frontier
was removed from the control of the Croatian Sabor
Sabor
and put under direct rule of the Habsburg military. It would have complete civilian and military authority over it until abolition of the Military Frontiers.[2] In November 1630, the Emperor Ferdinand II proclaimed the so-called Statuta Valachorum ("Vlach Statute"),[3] which regulated the status of so-called Vlach settlers (which included Croats, Serbs
Serbs
and Vlachs) from the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
with regard to military command, their obligations, and rights to internal self-administration. Over time, the population of the Frontier (as it was then) became mixed between the autochthonous Croats
Croats
and Croatian serfs who had fled the Ottoman territories, and the numerous minority of the Serb and Vlach (who were later assimilated into Croats
Croats
and Serbs) refugees who strove to expand their rights as a major contributor in the defense of the land. By creating the new military class in the Frontier, the territory of the Frontier eventually became fully detached from the Croatian Parliament and the ban. The Territory of the Frontier had a large Serb population, who fled from their south-eastern lands, and tried to fight the Ottoman forces, making a refuge in Habsburg Croatia. As freedom of faith was granted to them, they preserved their Orthodox faith in spite of their living in a Catholic country. Eventually, the whole male population of the Military Frontier
Military Frontier
became professional soldiers who served the Empire on several fronts and through many European wars, even after the relaxation of the Ottoman threat. During the 17th century territory of the Military Frontier
Military Frontier
was expanded towards the East and new sections were created. By then, it stretched from Croatia
Croatia
proper in the west to eastern Transylvania
Transylvania
in the east and included parts of present-day Croatia, Serbia, Romania and Hungary.[4] The area was settled primarily with Croatian, Serbian and German colonists (known as grenzer and graničari) who, in return for land grants, served in the military units defending the empire against Ottomans.[4] The majority of immigrants were Serbs, and some were ethnic Croats, mainly from Bosnia.[5] A large migration of Serbs to Habsburg lands was undertaken by Patriarch Arsenije III Čarnojević.[5] The large community of Serbs
Serbs
concentrated in Banat, southern Hungary, and the Military Frontier
Military Frontier
included merchants and craftsmen in the cities, but mainly refugees who were peasants.[5] The 17th century was a relatively peaceful period, during which only smaller raids were made from the Province of Bosnia. After the Ottoman army was repelled at the Battle of Vienna
Vienna
in 1683, the Great Turkish War ended with much of the former Croatian lands under Habsburg control. Despite this, the Frontier system was retained, and expanded onto former Ottoman territories in Lika, Kordun, Banija, lower Slavonia, Syrmia, Bačka, Banat, Pomorišje, and Transylvania. The Habsburg Empire
Habsburg Empire
valued the ability to centrally control the area and to draft cheap and numerous army units. After the Treaty of Karlowitz
Treaty of Karlowitz
of 1699, the Seressaner
Seressaner
troops were established with both military and police duties. They were not paid, but were exempted from taxes. Over the following century, each regiment had one section of Seressaners that organized border patrols towards Bosnia, particularly on difficult terrain, and stopped incursions of bandits. 18th century[edit] From 1718 to 1739 the Military Frontier
Military Frontier
also included the Habsburg-controlled northern parts of present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina.[6] In the mid-18th century the Frontier was once again reorganized and modelled after the Imperial army and its regular regiments. In 1737 the Vlach Statute was formally abolished. All previous captaincies and voivodships were discarded, and the area was instead subdivided into general-commands, regiments and companies:

Varaždin
Varaždin
general command

Križevci regiment Đurđevac
Đurđevac
regiment

Karlovac
Karlovac
general command

Lika
Lika
regiment Otočac
Otočac
regiment Ogulin
Ogulin
regiment Slunj
Slunj
regiment

Zagreb
Zagreb
general command

Glina regiment Petrinja
Petrinja
regiment

Slavonia
Slavonia
general command

Gradiška regiment Brod regiment Petrovaradin
Petrovaradin
regiment

Banat
Banat
general command

Serb (Illyrian) section German section Romanian (Vlach) section

Various Frontier troops, 1756.

After 1767, every twelfth inhabitant of the Military Frontier
Military Frontier
was a soldier - in contrast to every 62nd inhabitant in the rest of the Habsburg Monarchy. The Frontier soldiers became a professional military, ready to move to all European battlefields. Due to further immigration of refugees from the Ottoman domain, and to the expansion of the territory to places previously controlled by the Ottomans, the population of the Frontier became even more mixed. There were still many autochthonous Serbs
Serbs
and Croats
Croats
in Slavonia
Slavonia
and in parts of present-day Vojvodina (in Syrmia, Bačka
Bačka
and Banat). However, at this time they became outnumbered by the Serb, Croat
Croat
and Vlach refugees/immigrants. Some Germans, Poles, Magyars
Magyars
and Slovaks
Slovaks
also came to the Frontier, mostly as administrative personnel, and a number of other settlers and military personnel arrived from other parts of the Habsburg Empire
Habsburg Empire
- Czechs, Poles, Slovaks, Ukrainians, Rusyns and others. In 1783 the Croatian and Slavonian frontiers came under the unified control of the Croatian General Command headquartered in Zagreb.[7][8][9] The Serbian Free Corps
Serbian Free Corps
of 5,000 soldiers had been established in Banat, composed of refugees who had fled earlier conflicts in the Ottoman Empire.[10] The Corps would fight for the liberation of Serbia and for unification under Habsburg rule.[10] Several freikorps operated along the Habsburg-Ottoman frontier.[11] The Austrians used the Corps in two failed attempts to seize Belgrade, in late 1787 and in early 1788.[10] Serbia
Serbia
was subsequently liberated, and organized into a Habsburg protectorate. On 8 October 1789 Ernst Gideon von Laudon
Ernst Gideon von Laudon
took over Belgrade. Austrian forces occupied Serbia, and many Serbs
Serbs
fought in the Habsburg free corps, gaining organizational and military skills.[12] By 1791, however, the Austrians were forced into withdrawal across the Danube
Danube
and Sava
Sava
rivers, joined by thousands of Serb families who feared Ottoman persecution. The Treaty of Sistova (1791) ended the Austro-Turkish War of 1787. In 1787 the civil administration became separate from the military, but this was reversed in 1800. 19th century[edit] In 1848, Josip Jelačić, Ban of Croatia, became the commander of the Military Frontier. He pressed for the unification of Croatia, Slavonia, Dalmatia, and the Croatian-Slavonian Frontier. Although he did not have the power to abolish it, he secured approval for reforms and in 1848 the Military Frontier
Military Frontier
sent representatives to the Croatian Sabor.[13] However, this was revoked in the 1850s,[14] and despite the Emperor's address in 1850 that the Frontier, Croatia
Croatia
and Slavonia constituted a single land with separate administration,[15] there was no administrative merger of the Croatian-Slavonian Frontier with Croatia, but further separation of them.[14] By the Basic Law of the Frontier from 1850, the administration of Military Frontier
Military Frontier
was split and the land started to look like a state. The Main Command had its headquarters in Zagreb, but remained directly subordinate to the Ministry of War in Vienna.

Map of the Military Frontier
Military Frontier
in the middle of the 19th century (marked with a red outline)

The Croatian Parliament
Croatian Parliament
made numerous pleas to demilitarize the Frontier after the Turkish wars subsided. The demilitarization began in 1869 and on 8 August 1873, under Franz Joseph, the Banat
Banat
Frontier was abolished and incorporated into the Kingdom of Hungary, while part of the Croatian Frontier (Križevci and Đurđevac
Đurđevac
regiments) was already incorporated into Croatia- Slavonia
Slavonia
on 1 August 1871. The decree in which the rest of the Croatian and Slavonian frontiers were incorporated into Croatia- Slavonia
Slavonia
was proclaimed on 15 July 1881, while incorporation began on 1 August 1881, when Ban of Croatia Ladislav Pejačević
Ladislav Pejačević
took over from the Zagreb
Zagreb
General Command.[16] Administration[edit] Divisions[edit] In the 18th and 19th centuries, the frontier was divided into several districts:

Division Period Notes

Danube
Danube
Military Frontier 1702–1751 Comprised parts of southern Bačka
Bačka
(including Palanka, Petrovac, Petrovaradinski Šanac, Titel, etc.) and northern Syrmia
Syrmia
(including Petrovaradin, Šid, etc.). After the abolishment of this section of the Frontier, one part of its territory was placed under civil administration and another part was joined with other sections of the Frontier.

Tisa Military Frontier 1702–1751 Comprised parts of north-eastern Bačka
Bačka
(including Sombor, Subotica, Kanjiža, Senta, Bečej, etc.). After the abolishment of this section of the Frontier, most of its territory was placed under civil administration, while one small area in the south remained under military administration as part of the Šajkaš Battalion.

Mureș Military Frontier 1702–1751 This frontier included the region of Pomorišje, the area on the northern bank of the river Mureș. After the abolishment of this section, its entire territory was placed under civil administration.

Sava
Sava
Military Frontier 1702–1751 It was located along the Sava
Sava
river.

Banat
Banat
Military Frontier 1751–1873 It was located on the present-day Serbian-Romanian border. It was divided into Serbian (Illyrian), German (Volksdeutscher) and Romanian (Vlach) sections.

Slavonian Military Frontier 1745–1881 It was located along Posavina, from eastern Croatia, following the river Sava, along the border with Bosnia-Herzegovina
Bosnia-Herzegovina
and Serbia, and stretched into Syrmia, until inflow into Danube
Danube
near Zemun
Zemun
(today part of Belgrade). Its north-eastern border followed the Danube
Danube
up until the Petrovaradin.

Croatian Military Frontier 1553–1881 It was located on the border of Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia. This part of the Military Frontier
Military Frontier
included the geographic regions of Lika, Kordun, Banovina (named after "Banska krajina"), and bordered the Adriatic Sea to the west, Venetian Republic
Venetian Republic
to the south, Habsburg Croatia
Croatia
to the west, and the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
to the east. It extended onto the Slavonian Military Frontier
Slavonian Military Frontier
near the confluence of the rivers Una and Sava.

Šajkaš Battalion 1763–1873 It was a small part of the Frontier that was formed in 1763 from parts of the previously abolished Danube
Danube
and Tisa sections of the frontier. In 1852, Šajkaš battalion was transformed into Titel
Titel
infantry battalion. It was abolished in 1873, and its territory was incorporated into Bačka-Bodrog County.

Transylvanian Military Frontier 1762–1851 It was located in the eastern and southern parts of Transylvania. It was composed of two Székely
Székely
and two Romanian regiments. The establishment of the frontier was followed by the Mádéfalva
Mádéfalva
Massacre or Siculicidium.

Maps[edit]

Map of Military Frontier
Military Frontier
sections in Syrmia, Bačka, and Pomorišje
Pomorišje
in 1699-1718

Map of Military Frontier
Military Frontier
sections in Syrmia, Bačka, and Pomorišje
Pomorišje
in 1718-1744

Map of Military Frontier
Military Frontier
sections in Syrmia, Bačka, and Pomorišje
Pomorišje
in 1744-1750

Map of Military Frontier
Military Frontier
sections in Syrmia, Bačka, and Banat
Banat
in 1751-1873

Map of Military Frontier
Military Frontier
sections in Banat, Syrmia
Syrmia
and Bačka (18th-19th century)

Map of Military Frontier
Military Frontier
sections in Banat, Syrmia
Syrmia
and Bačka
Bačka
in 1849 - Banatian and Slavonian military frontier and Schajkasch Battalion

Map of Slavonian Military Frontier
Slavonian Military Frontier
in 1849

Map of Croatian Military Frontier
Croatian Military Frontier
in 1868

Demographics[edit] 1828[edit] In 1828 the population included:[17]

543,154 (50.60%) Eastern Orthodox 434,344 (40.46%) Roman Catholics 53,073 (4.95%) Greek Catholics 42,659 (3.98%) Protestants 450 (0.05%) Jews

1846[edit] An Austrian statistical yearbook for 1846 notes that 1,226,408 residents lived in the Military Frontier:[18]

598,603 (48.82%) Eastern Orthodox 514,545 (41.96%) Roman Catholics 62,743 (5.12%) Greek Catholics 49,980 (4.08%) Protestants 537 (0.05%) Jews

1857[edit] The first modern population census in the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
was conducted in 1857 and recorded the religion of the population. The population of the Military Frontier
Military Frontier
numbered 1,062,072 inhabitants,[19] while the religious structure of the Military Frontier was:

587,269 (55.30%) Eastern Orthodox 448,703 (42.26%) Roman Catholics 20,139 (1.91%) Protestants 5,533 (0.53%) Greek Catholics 404 (0.05%) Jews

Population data by divisions: Croatian- Slavonian Military Frontier
Slavonian Military Frontier
(Total 675,817)[20]

396,843 (58.72%) Roman Catholics 272,755 (40.36%) Eastern Orthodox 5,486 (0.81%) Greek Catholics 733 (0.11%) others

Banat
Banat
Military Frontier
Military Frontier
(Total 386,255)[21]

314,514 (81.43%) Eastern Orthodox 51,860 (13.43%) Roman Catholics 19,418 (5.03%) Evangelists 393 (0.1%) Jews 70 (0.01%) others

Legacy[edit] Many Serbs
Serbs
emigrated to the north toward the southern regions of Hungary
Hungary
during the period when the territory of Serbia
Serbia
was largely under Ottoman rule. In order to attract Serbs
Serbs
into Hungary, emperor Leopold I decreed that they would be allowed to elect their own ruler, or Vojvoda, from which the name Vojvodina derives. In 1690, about 30,000 to 70,000 Serbs
Serbs
settled eastern Slavonia, Bačka
Bačka
and Banat
Banat
in what became known as the Great Serbian Migrations. Later the Habsburgs did not allow Serbs
Serbs
to elect their own vojvoda; they incorporated the region into the military frontiers of eastern Slavonia
Slavonia
and the Banat. However, the strong Serb presence in the region resulted in Vojvodina serving as the cradle of the Serbian renaissance
Serbian renaissance
during the 19th century.[4] After the former Yugoslav Republic of Croatia
Croatia
declared independence (in 1991), the Serbs
Serbs
who lived in the region of the former Military Frontier (Vojna Krajina) adopted that name (Krajina) in the name of the Republic of Serbian Krajina. Serbian Krajina was virtually identical to the Military Frontier's territory in modern Croatia.[22] However, this Serb-dominated entity also included some territories that were not part of the former Military Frontier. Large tracts of territory that had constituted the Military Frontier
Military Frontier
outside the Serb region were largely Croat-populated areas of the Republic of Croatia. (See the Croatian War of Independence
Croatian War of Independence
for more information.) See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Habsburg Military Frontier.

Grenz infantry March (territorial entity) Buffer zone Hundred Years' Croatian–Ottoman War

References[edit]

^ John Van Antwerp Fine: The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest, 1994, p. 595 ^ Aleksa Djilas (1991). The Contested Country: Yugoslav Unity and Communist Revolution, 1919-1953. Harvard University Press. pp. 11–. ISBN 978-0-674-16698-1.  ^ " Statuta Valachorum (prevod)". Retrieved 2016-03-23. [better source needed] ^ a b c Historical Atlas of Central Europe, Paul Robert Magocsi, p. 34 ^ a b c Jelavich 1983, p. 145. ^ Plamen Mitev (2010). Empires and Peninsulas: Southeastern Europe Between Karlowitz and the Peace of Adrianople, 1699-1829. LIT Verlag Münster. pp. 171–. ISBN 978-3-643-10611-7.  ^ Fine, p. 370-371 ^ Karl Kaser: Freier Bauer und Soldat: die Militarisierung der agrarischen Gesellschaft and der kroatisch-slowanischen Militärgrenze (1535-1881), Böhlau Verlag Wien, 1997, p. 369 ^ Gunther Erich Rothenberg: The Military Border in Croatia, 1740-1881: a study of an imperial institution, University of Chicago Press, 1966, p. 63 ^ a b c Paul W. Schroeder (1996). The Transformation of European Politics, 1763-1848. Oxford University Press. pp. 58–59. ISBN 978-0-19-820654-5.  ^ Glasnik Srpskoga učenog društva. 20. 1866. pp. 69–.  ^ R. S. Alexander (30 January 2012). Europe's Uncertain Path 1814-1914: State Formation and Civil Society. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 19–. ISBN 978-1-4051-0052-6.  ^ Tanner, Marcus (2001). Croatia : A Nation Forged in War (2nd ed.). New Haven; London: Yale University Press, p. 86-87 ^ a b Tanner, (2001). Croatia, p. 104 ^ Horvat 1906, pp. 157. ^ Horvat 1906, pp. 289-290. ^ Versuch einer Darstellung der oesterreichischen Monarchie in statistischen Tafeln, p. 7 ^ Uebersichts-Tafeln zur Statistik der österreichischen Monarchie: besonderer Abdruck des X. und XI. Heftes der "Statistischen Mittheilungen". 1850, page 2 ^ Bundesministerium für Inneres 1859, p. 179. ^ Bundesministerium für Inneres 1859, p. 172. ^ Bundesministerium für Inneres 1859, p. 176. ^ Nicholas J. Miller, 1998, Between Nation and State: Serbian Politics in Croatia
Croatia
Before the First World War, p. 10

Sources[edit]

Horvat, Rudolf (1906). Najnovije doba hrvatske povjesti. Matica hrvatska.  (Wikisource) Bundesministerium für Inneres (1859). Statistische Übersichten Über Die Bevölkerung und Den Viehstand Von Österreich. Nach Der Zählung Vom 31. October 1857.  Jelavich, Barbara (1983). History of the Balkans. Cambridge University Press. pp. 145–151. ISBN 978-0-521-27458-6.  Kulauzov, Maša (2008). "The emergence, development and demilitarization of the military border of the Austrian Monarchy". Matica srpska.  (in Serbian)

Bibliography[edit]

This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (April 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Bataković, Dušan T., ed. (2005). Histoire du peuple serbe [History of the Serbian People] (in French). Lausanne: L’Age d’Homme.  Dragutin Pavličević (1984). Vojna krajina: povijesni pregled, historiografija, rasprave. Sveučilišna naklada Liber.  John Van Antwerp Fine, When ethnicity did not matter in the Balkans: a study of identity in pre-nationalist Croatia, Dalmatia, and Slavonia in the medieval and early-modern periods, University of Michigan Press, 2006 ISBN 0-472-11414-X. Walter Berger: Baut dem Reich einen Wall. Das Buch vom Entstehen der Militärgrenze wider die Türken. Leopold Stocker Verlag, 1979 ISBN 3-7020-0342-8 Jakob Amstadt: Die k.k. Militaergrenze 1522 - 1881 (mit einer Gesamtbibliographie). Dissertation, University of Wurzburg, 1969 Heeresgeschichtliches Museum (Hrsg.): Die k. k. Militärgrenze (Beiträge zu ihrer Geschichte). ÖBV, 1973 (Schriften des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums, 6) ISBN 3-215-73302-1 Mirko Valentić: Vojna krajina i pitanje njezina sjedinjenja s Hrvatskom 1849-1881, CHP, 1981, Zagreb Alexander Buczynski: Gradovi Vojne krajine 1-2, HIP, 1997, Zagreb Milan Kruhek: Krajiške utvrde Hrvatskog kraljevstva, HIP, 1995, Zagreb Drago Roksandić: Vojna Hrvatska (1809.-1813.), 1-2, ŠK, 1988, Zagreb Drago Roksandić: Etnos, konfesija, tolerancija, SKD Prosvjeta, 2004, Zagreb Potiska i pomoriška vojna granica (1702–1751), Muzej Vojvodine, Novi Sad, 2003. Fodor, Pál; Dávid, Géza, eds. (2000). Ottomans, Hungarians, and Habsburgs in Central Europe: The Military Confines in the Era of Ottoman Conquest. BRILL. 

External links[edit]

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v t e

Crown lands of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire

Kingdom of Bohemia Kingdom of Croatia Kingdom of Dalmatia Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Kingdom of Hungary Kingdom of Illyria Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia Kingdom of Slavonia Archduchy of Austria Duchy of Bukovina Duchy of Carinthia Duchy of Carniola Duchy of Styria Duchy of Salzburg Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia Grand Principality of Transylvania Margravate of Istria Margraviate of Moravia Princely County of Tyrol County of Gorizia and Gradisca Voivodeship
Voivodeship
of Serbia
Serbia
and Temes Banat Imperial Free City of Trieste Military Frontier

v t e

Subdivisions of Austria-Hungary

Cisleithania

Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of Bohemia Duchy of Bukovina Duchy of Carinthia Duchy of Carniola Kingdom of Dalmatia Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Austrian Littoral

Gorizia and Gradisca Istria Trieste

Margraviate of Moravia Duchy of Salzburg Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia Duchy of Styria County of Tyrol

Transleithania

Kingdom of Hungary Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia Fiume and its surroundings Military Frontier
Military Frontier
(1867–1882)

Condominiums

Province of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(1878–1918) Sanjak of Novi Pazar
Sanjak of Novi Pazar
(1878–1908) Carpathian passes (1918) Concession zone in Tianjin (1901–1917)

Authority control

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