Marranos, now considered an offensive term for which the academic term
"crypto-Jews" substitutes, were
living in Iberia who converted or
were forced to convert to Christianity yet continued to practice
Judaism in secret. The term specifically refers to the accusation of
Crypto-Judaism, whereas the term converso was used for the wider
population of Jewish converts to Catholicism whether or not they
secretly still practised Jewish rites. Converts from both Judaism or
Islam were referred to by the even broader term "New Christians".
The term "marrano" came into later use in 1492 with the Castilian
Alhambra Decree, which outlawed the practice of Judaism in Spain and
required all remaining
to convert or leave. By then, the large
in Spain had converted to Catholicism and conversos
numbered hundreds of thousands. They remained under the watchful eye
subject to suspicions of secret practice of
Judaism by formal Catholics, also known as "Marranism".
4.2 Converso-Jewish relations
5 Conversos in Italy
6 Latin America
10 See also
11 Further reading
13 Fictional characterizations
14 External links
First Cemetery of the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue, Shearith
Israel (1656–1833), in Manhattan, New York City
The origin of the term marrano as applied to Crypto-
Jews is debatable,
since there are two meanings and thus two etymologies for the word.
One derives from Arabic مُحَرّمٌ muḥarram; meaning
Marrano in this context means "swine" or
"pig", from the ritual prohibition against eating pork, practiced by
Jews and Muslims. However, as applied to crypto-Jews, the term
marrano may also derive from the Spanish verb "marrar" (of Germanic
rather than Arabic origin) meaning "to deviate" or "to err", in the
sense that they deviated from their newly adopted faith by secretly
continuing to practice Judaism.
Under state pressure in the late 14th and early 15th century, over
Jews in the
Iberian Peninsula converted to Christianity, thus
avoiding the Decree of Expulsion which affected Spain's remaining
openly Jewish population in 1492. The numbers who converted and the
effects of various migrations in and out of the area have been the
subject of historical debate. A phylogeographic study in 2008 of 1,150
volunteer Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups appeared to support the idea
that the number of forced conversions has been significantly
underestimated, as 20% of the tested Iberian population had
haplogroups consistent with
Sephardi ancestry. This percentage was
suggested as representing the proportion of
Sephardi in the population
at the time of mass conversions in the 14th and 15th centuries.
However, the authors concede that other historical population
movements from the Near East such as Syrians and Phoenicians may also
account for these results.
Main article: History of the
Jews in Portugal
Some Portuguese conversos or cristãos-novos continued to practice as
crypto-Jews. In the early 20th century, historian Samuel Schwartz
wrote about crypto-Jewish communities discovered in northeastern
Portugal (namely, Belmonte, Bragança, Miranda, and Chaves). He
claimed that members had managed to survive more than four centuries
without being fully assimilated into the Old Christian population.
The last remaining crypto-Jewish community in Belmonte officially
returned to Judaism in the 1970s and opened a synagogue in 1996. In
American Sephardi Federation
American Sephardi Federation founded the Belmonte Project to
raise funds to acquire Judaic educational material and services for
the Belmonte community, who then numbered 160–180.
Two documentary films are known to have been made in north-eastern
Portugal where present day descendants of marranos were interviewed
about their lives. In 1974 for The Marranos of Portugal, the Israel
Broadcasting Authority (IBA) sent reporter
Ron Ben-Yishai to carry out
interviews with families about their religious practice. After being
asked to prove he knew Hebrew before they would talk, he found people
still reluctant to talk openly but did eventually gain a remarkable
insight into their version of Jewish customs, prayers and songs. The
film was commended at the 1976 Jerusalem Jewish Film and TV Festival.
Another documentary, The Last Marranos, was made by the New York
Jewish Media Fund in 1997.
After the expulsion of
Jews and Muslims from Spain (1492) and Portugal
(1497), conversos continued to be suspect in times of social strain.
Lisbon in 1506, a months-long plague caused people to look for
scapegoats. Some became suspicious that conversos might be practicing
Judaism and therefore be at fault. On April 17, 1506, several
conversos were discovered who had in their possession "some lambs and
poultry prepared according to Jewish custom; also unleavened bread and
bitter herbs according to the regulations for the Passover, which
festival they celebrated far into the night". Officials seized
several, but released them after a few days.
On the same day on which the conversos were freed, the Dominicans
displayed a crucifix and a reliquary in glass from which a peculiar
light issued in a side-chapel of their church, where several New
Christians were present. A
New Christian who tried to explain the
miracle as due to natural causes was dragged from the church and
killed by an infuriated woman. A Dominican roused the populace still
more. Friar João Mocho and the Aragonese friar Bernardo, crucifix in
hand, were said to have gone through the streets of the city, crying
"Heresy!" and calling upon the people to destroy the
conversos. Attracted by the outcry, sailors from
Zeeland and others from ships in the port of Lisbon, joined
the Dominicans and formed a mob with local men to pursue the
The mob dragged converso victims from their houses and killed some.
Old Christians who were in any way associated with
New Christians were
also attacked. The mob attacked the tax-farmer João Rodrigo
Mascarenhas, a New Christian; although a wealthy and distinguished
man, his work also made him resented by many. They demolished his
house. Within 48 hours, many "conversos" were killed; by the third day
all who could have escaped, often with the help of other Portuguese.
The killing spree lasted from 19 to 21 April, in what came to be known
King Manuel severely punished those who took part in the killings. The
ringleaders and the Dominicans who encouraged the riot were also
executed. Local people convicted of murder or pillage suffered
corporal punishment and their property was confiscated. The king
granted religious freedom for 20 years to all conversos in an attempt
Foral privileges. The foreigners who had
taken part generally escaped punishment, leaving with their ships.
New Christians were attacked in Gouvea, Alentejo, Olivença,
Santarém, and other places. In the
Azores and the island of Madeira,
mobs massacred former Jews. Because of these excesses, the king began
to believe that a
Portuguese Inquisition might help control such
The Portuguese conversos worked to forestall such actions, and spent
immense sums to win over the Curia and most influential cardinals.
Spanish and Portuguese conversos made financial sacrifices. Alfonso
Gutierrez, Garcia Alvarez "el Rico" (the rich), and the Zapatas,
conversos from Toledo, offered 80,000 gold crowns to Emperor Charles V
if he would mitigate the harshness of the Inquisition (Revue des
Etudes Juives, xxxvii, p. 270 et seq.).
The Mendes of
Flanders also tried to help. None were
successful in preventing Portugal from introducing the
Holy Office in
1478. The conversos suffered immensely both from mob violence and
interrogation and testing by the Inquisition. Attacks and murders were
recorded at Trancoso, Lamego, Miranda, Viseu, Guarda, and Braga.
At Covilhã, there were rumors that the people planned to massacre all
New Christians on one day. In 1562, prelates petitioned the Cortes
to require conversos to wear special badges, and to order Jewish
descendants to live in ghettos (judiarias) in cities and villages as
their ancestors had before the conversions.
Main article: History of the
Jews in Spain
According to historian Cecil Roth, Spanish political intrigues had
earlier promoted the anti-Jewish policies which culminated in 1391,
when Regent Queen Leonora of Castile gave the Archdeacon of Écija,
Ferrand Martinez, considerable power in her realm. Martinez gave
speeches that led to violence against the Jews, and this influence
culminated in the sack of the Jewish quarter of
Seville on June 4,
1391. Throughout Spain during this year, the cities of Ecija, Carmona,
Barcelona and many others saw their Jewish quarters
destroyed and inhabitants massacred.
It is estimated that 200,000
Jews saved their lives by converting to
Christianity in the wake of these persecutions. Other
Jews left the
country altogether and around 100,000 openly practicing
In 1449, feelings rose against conversos, breaking out in a riot at
Toledo. Instigated by two canons, Juan Alfonso and Pedro Lopez Galvez,
the mob plundered and burned the houses of Alonso Cota, a wealthy
converso and tax-farmer. They also attacked the residences of wealthy
New Christians in the quarter of la Magdelena. Under Juan de la
Cibdad, the conversos opposed the mob, but were repulsed. They were
executed with their leader. As a result, several prominent converso
men were deposed from office, in obedience to a new statute.
Nearly 20 years later in July 1467, another riot occurred where a mob
attacked conversos in Toledo. The chief magistrate (alcalde mayor) of
the city was Alvar Gomez de Cibdad Real, who had been private
secretary to King Henry IV of Castile. He was a protector of the
conversos. Together with prominent conversos Fernando and Alvaro de la
Torre, Alvar wished to take revenge for an insult by the counts de
Fuensalida, leaders of the Old Christians. His intention was to seize
control of the city, but fierce conflict erupted. Opponents set fire
to houses of
New Christians near the cathedral. The conflagration
spread so rapidly that 1,600 houses were consumed. Both Christians and
conversos perished. The brothers De la Torre were captured and hanged.
Tensions arose in Córdoba between Christians and conversos, where
they formed two hostile parties. On March 14, 1473, during a
dedication procession, a girl accidentally threw dirty water from the
window of the house of one of the wealthiest conversos (the customary
way to dispose of it.) The water splashed on an image of the Virgin
being carried in procession in honor of a new society (from which
conversos had been excluded by Bishop D. Pedro.) A local blacksmith
started arousing a rabble against the Jews, who he blamed for the
insult, which immediately joined in a fierce shout for
revenge.[dubious – discuss]
The mob went after conversos, denouncing them as heretics, killing
them, and burning their houses. To stop the excesses, the highly
respected D. Alonso Fernandez de Aguilar, whose wife was a member of
the converso family of Pacheco, together with his brother D. Gonzalo
Fernández de Córdoba ("El Gran Capitán"), and a troop of soldiers,
hastened to protect the New Christians. D. Alonso called upon the mob
to retire. Its leader insulted the count, who immediately felled him
with his lance. Aroused, the people considered him a martyr. Incited
by Alonso de Aguilar's enemy, they again attacked the conversos. The
rioting lasted three days. Those who escaped sought refuge in the
castle, where their protectors also took shelter. The government
Jews and Conversos should remain in their neighborhood or
leave the city.
In 1473, attacks on conversos arose in numerous other cities: Montoro,
Bujalance, Adamuz, La Rambla, Santaella, and elsewhere. Mobs attacked
conversos in Andújar, Úbeda, Baeza, and
Almodóvar del Campo
Almodóvar del Campo also.
In Valladolid, groups looted the belongings of the New Christians. At
Segovia, there was a massacre (May 16, 1474). D. Juan Pacheco, a
converso, led the attacks. Without the intervention of the alcalde
Andres de Cabrera, all
New Christians might have died. At Carmona, it
was reported that not one converso was left alive.
Execution of Mariana de Carabajal in Mexico, 1601.
Tens of thousands of
Jews were baptised in the three months before the
deadline for expulsion, some 40,000 if one accepts the totals given by
Kamen: most of these undoubtedly to avoid expulsion,
rather than as a sincere change of faith. These conversos were the
principal concern of the Inquisition; being suspected of continuing to
practice Judaism put them at risk of denunciation and trial.[citation
During 1492, about 12,000 conversos entered
Navarre from Aragon's
repression, where they were allowed to remain. Tudela in Navarre
turned into a converso haven. The Tudelans had already proclaimed in
1486 that "if any inquisitor enters their city, he will be thrown into
Ebro river." Later the resistance to the inquisitors was so strong
that its aldermen ordered commissioners and attorneys to ask the
Catholic Monarchs to limit the power of the Inquisition in
The most intense period of persecution of conversos lasted until 1530.
From 1531 to 1560, however, the percentage of conversos among the
Inquisition trials dropped to 3% of the total. There was a rebound of
persecutions when a group of crypto-
Jews was discovered in Quintanar
de la Orden in 1588; and there was a rise in denunciations of
conversos in the last decade of the sixteenth century. At the
beginning of the seventeenth century, some conversos who had fled to
Portugal began to return to Spain, fleeing the persecution of the
Portuguese Inquisition, founded in 1536. This led to a rapid increase
in the trials of crypto-Jews, among them a number of important
financiers. In 1691, during a number of autos-da-fé in Majorca, 37
chuetas, or conversos of Majorca, were burned.
During the eighteenth century the number of conversos accused by the
Inquisition decreased significantly. Manuel Santiago Vivar, tried in
Córdoba in 1818, was the last person tried for being a
The conversos of
Seville and other cities of Castile, and especially
of Aragon, bitterly opposed the
Spanish Inquisition established in
1478. They rendered considerable service to the king, and held high
legal, financial, and military positions. The government issued an
edict directing traditional
Jews to live within a ghetto and be
separated from conversos. Despite the law, however, the
in communication with their
New Christian brethren.
"They sought ways and means to win them from Catholicism and bring
them back to Judaism. They instructed the Marranos in the tenets and
ceremonies of the Jewish religion; held meetings in which they taught
them what they must believe and observe according to the Mosaic law;
and enabled them to circumcise themselves and their children. They
furnished them with prayer-books; explained the fast-days; read with
them the history of their people and their Law; announced to them the
coming of the Passover; procured unleavened bread for them for that
festival, as well as kosher meat throughout the year; encouraged them
to live in conformity with the law of Moses, and persuaded them that
there was no law and no truth except the Jewish religion." These were
the charges brought by the government of Ferdinand II of
Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I of Castile against the Jews. They constituted the grounds
for their expulsion and banishment in 1492, so they could not subvert
Jews who did not want to leave Spain had to accept baptism
as a sign of conversion.
The historian Henry Kamen's Inquisition and Society In Spain in the
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries questions whether there were such
strong links between conversos and Jewish communities. Whilst
historians such as Yitzhak Baer state, "the conversos and
one people", Kamen claims, "Yet if the conversos were hated by the
Jews liked them no better." He documented that
Jews testified falsely against them [the conversos] when the
Inquisition was finally founded." This issue is being debated by
Conversos in Italy
Although the vast majority of Spain's 250,000 conversos abandoned
Judaism and simply assimilated into Spain's dominant Catholic culture,
many of those continuing to secretly practice their former religion
felt threatened and persecuted by the Inquisition which continued to
actively persecute heresy. Some of these chose to leave Spain, in
bands or as individual refugees. Many migrated to Italy, attracted by
the climate, which resembled that of the Iberian Peninsula, and by the
kindred language. When they settled at Ferrara, Duke Ercole I d'Este
granted them privileges. His son Alfonso confirmed the privileges to
twenty-one Spanish conversos: physicians, merchants, and others (ib.
xv. 113 et seq.). A thoroughly researched history of these migrations
is also contained in the book about one of their leaders called, "The
Woman Who Defied Kings", by the historian and journalist Andree Aelion
Spanish and Portuguese conversos also settled at
contributed to make
Livorno a leading seaport. They received
privileges at Venice, where they were protected from the persecutions
of the Inquisition. At Milan, they materially advanced the interests
of the city by their industry and commerce. At Bologna, Pisa, Naples
and numerous other Italian cities, they freely exercised the Jewish
religion again. They were soon so numerous that Fernando de Goes
Loureiro, an abbot from Oporto, filled an entire book with the names
of conversos who had drawn large sums from Portugal and had openly
avowed Judaism in Italy.
In Piedmont, Duke
Emmanuel Philibert of
Savoy welcomed conversos from
Coímbra and granted them commercial and industrial privileges, as
well as the free exercise of their religion. Rome was full of
Paul III received them at
Ancona for commercial
reasons. He granted complete liberty "to all persons from Portugal and
Algarve, even if belonging to the class of New Christians." By 1553,
three thousand Portuguese
Jews and conversos were living at Ancona.
Two years later,
Pope Paul IV
Pope Paul IV issued orders to have all the conversos
Italy be thrown into the prisons of the Inquisition which he had
instituted. Sixty of them, who acknowledged the Catholic faith as
penitents, were transported to the island of Malta; twenty-four, who
adhered to Judaism, were publicly burned (May 1556). Those who escaped
the Inquisition were received at
Pesaro by Guidobaldo II della Rovere,
Duke of Urbino. Guidobaldo had hoped to have the
Jews and conversos of
Pesaro as a commercial center; when that did not happen,
he expelled the
New Christians from
Pesaro and other districts in 1558
(ib. xvi. 61 et seq.).
Many conversos also went to Dubrovnik, formerly a considerable
Croatian seaport on the Adriatic Sea. In May 1544, a ship landed there
filled with Portuguese refugees.
Main articles: History of the
Jews in Latin America, History of the
Jews in Mexico, and History of the
Jews in Brazil
During the 16th and 17th centuries, some conversos migrated to the
Americas, often the Castilian territories of the Viceroyalties of New
Spain (North and Central America) and Peru (South America and
Colombia). Legal emigration to the New World was strictly controlled
and required proof of three generations of Christian ascendance.
Nevertheless, many Conversos managed to evade these restrictions and
managed to obtain encomiendas in the New World.
Main article: History of the
Jews in France
According to Isidore Loeb, in a special study of the subject in the
Revue des études juives (xiv. 162–183), about 3,000
Jews came to
Provence after the
Alhambra Decree expelled
Jews from Spain in 1492.
From 1484, one town after another had called for expulsion, but the
calls were rejected by Charles VIII. However, Louis XII, in one of his
first acts as king in 1498, issued a general expulsion order of the
Jews of Provence. Though not enforced at the time, the order was
renewed in 1500 and again in 1501. On this occasion, it was
definitively implemented. The
Jews of Provence were given the option
of conversion to Christianity and a number chose that option. However,
after a short while – if only to compensate partially for the loss
of revenues caused by the departure of the
Jews – the king imposed a
special tax, referred to as "the tax of the neophytes." These converts
and their descendants soon became the objects of social discrimination
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There was no significant wave of emigration of conversos from Spain,
the majority of Sephardic communities, such as that of Salonika having
been formed as a result of the
Alhambra Decree in 1492. However,
there was a steady trickle of crypto-Jewish marranos who wished to
practice their faith freely to more liberal environments. One of their
leaders who helped them get there was the Lisbon-born international
banker, Gracia Mendes Nasi. They also migrated to Flanders, where they
were attracted by its flourishing cities, such as Antwerp and
Brussels. Conversos from Flanders, and others direct from the Iberian
Peninsula, went under the guise of Catholics to
Hamburg and Altona
about 1580, where they established a community and held commercial
relations with their former homes. Some migrated as far as Scotland.
Christian IV of Denmark
Christian IV of Denmark invited some
New Christian families to settle
Glückstadt about 1626, granting certain privileges to them and to
conversos who came to
Emden about 1649.
The vast majority of Spain's conversos, however, remained in Spain and
Portugal and were suspected of "Marranism" by the Spanish Inquisition.
Although the wealthier among them could easily bypass discriminatory
Limpieza de sangre laws, they constituted a significant portion of the
over three thousand people executed for heresy by the Spanish
New Christians of Portugal breathed more freely
Philip III of Spain
Philip III of Spain came to the throne. By the law of April 4,
1601, he granted them the privilege of unrestricted sale of their real
estate as well as free departure from the country for themselves,
their families, and their property. Many, availing themselves of this
permission, followed their coreligionists to North Africa and Turkey.
After a few years, however, the privilege was revoked, and the
Inquisition resumed its activity.
Some migrated to London, whence their families spread to Brazil (where
conversos had settled at an early date) and other colonies in the
Americas. Migrations to
Constantinople and Thessaloniki, where Jewish
refugees had settled after the expulsion from Spain, as well as to
Italy, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Vienna, and Timișoara, continued
into the middle of the 18th century.
Late 20th century political and social changes in Spain caused
reappraisal of Jewish and
Muslim contributions to its culture. There
has been much new scholarship on Sephardic Jews, Moors and the
consequences of conversion and expulsion. In addition, there have been
official governmental efforts to welcome tourists of both ancestries
to Spain. Towns and regions have worked to preserve elements of Jewish
and Moorish pasts.
By Spanish Civil Code Art. 22.1, the government created concessions
for gaining citizenship to nationals of several countries and Sephardi
Jews historically linked with Spain, allowing them to seek citizenship
after five years rather than the customary ten required for residence
in Spain. Later it was dropped to two years. In November 2012, the
residency requirement was eliminated completely. In October 2006,
Parliament of Andalusia
Parliament of Andalusia asked the three parliamentary groups that
form the majority to support an amendment that would similarly ease
the way for nationals of
Morisco descent to gain Spanish citizenship.
The proposal was originally made by IULV-CA, the Andalusian branch of
the United Left.
Shlomo Moshe Amar
Shlomo Moshe Amar traveled to Portugal to celebrate the
centennial anniversary of the
Lisbon synagogue Shaare Tikvah. During
Shlomo Moshe Amar
Shlomo Moshe Amar met descendants of Jewish families
persecuted by the Inquisition who still practice Judaism (Bnei Anusim)
at the house of rabbi Boaz Pash. This was an historical meeting that
had not happened between a Chief Rabbi and Portuguese marranos (Bnei
Anusim) in centuries. Rabbi
Shlomo Moshe Amar
Shlomo Moshe Amar promised to create a
committee to evaluate the Halachic situation of the community. The
delay of the Chief Rabbi to create the committee and help the
Jews in Portugal forced the creation of a
second Jewish community in Lisbon, Comunidade Judaica Masorti Beit
Israel, to ensure the recognition of the Bnei Anussim as Jews.
History of the
Jews in Belmonte
Luis de Carvajal y de la Cueva
Spanish and Portuguese Jews
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^ Adams, Susan M.; Bosch, Elena; Balaresque, Patricia L.; et al.
(2008), "The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance:
Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian
Peninsula", American Journal of Human Genetics, 83 (6): 725–736,
doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.11.007, PMC 2668061 ,
PMID 19061982 .
^ "Despite alternative possible sources for lineages ascribed a
Sephardic Jewish origin", Cell.com
^ "La cifra de los sefardíes puede estar sobreestimada, ya que en
estos genes hay mucha diversidad y quizá absorbieron otros genes de
Oriente Medio" ('"The Sephardic result may be overestimated, since
there is much diversity in those genes and maybe absorbed other genes
from the Middle East"). ¿Pone en duda Calafell la validez de los
tests de ancestros? "Están bien para los americanos, nosotros ya
sabemos de dónde venimos" (Puts Calafell in doubt the validity of
ancestry tests? "They can be good for the Americans, we already know
from where we come from)." "Archived copy". Archived from the original
on 2009-02-09. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
^ "We think it might be an overestimate" "The genetic makeup of
Jews is probably common to other Middle Eastern populations,
such as the Phoenicians, that also settled the Iberian Peninsula,
Calafell says. "In our study, that would have all fallen under the
Jewish label."" Sciencenews.com
^ "El doctor Calafell matiza que (...) los marcadores genéticos
usados para distinguir a la población con ancestros sefardíes pueden
producir distorsiones". "ese 20% de españoles que el estudio señala
como descendientes de sefardíes podrían haber heredado ese rasgo de
movimiento más antiguos, como el de los fenicios o, incluso, primeros
pobladores neolíticos hace miles de años." "Dr. Calafell clarifies
that (...) the genetic markers used to distinguish the population with
Sephardim ancestry may produce distortions. The 20% of Spaniards that
are identified as having Sephardim ancestry in the study could have
inherited that same marker from older movements like the Phoenicians,
or even the first Neolithic settlers thousands of years ago"
Spanish Inquisition left genetic legacy in Iberia", New Scientist,
December 4, 2008 .
^ Zalloua, Pierre A.; Platt, Daniel E.; El Sibai, Mirvat; et al.
(2008), "Identifying Genetic Traces of Historical Expansions:
Phoenician Footprints in the Mediterranean", American Journal of Human
Genetics, 83 (5): 633–642, doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.10.012,
PMC 2668035 , PMID 18976729 .
^ Ruth Almog, "Cryptic, these crypto Jews", nda, last update
02/12/2005, haaretz.com, in English; review of Hebrew translation of
Schwarz's 1925 Hanotzrim Hakhadashim Beportugal Be'meah Ha'esrim (New
Christians in Portugal in the 20th Century)
^ Gedaliah b. Jachia the Spaniard, Sefer Shalshelet HaKabbalah, p.
268, Jerusalem 1962, while citing Sefer HaYuchasin.
^ Cf. Salcedo Izu, Joaquín, Gran Enciclopedia Navarra, Caja de
Ahorros de Navarra, Pamplona 1990, Tomo VI, voz Inquisición, pp.
^ González Echeverría, Francisco Javier The love for truth. Life and
work of Michael Servetus (El amor a la verdad. Vida y obra de Miguel
Servet), printed by Navarro y Navarro, Zaragoza, collaboration with
the Government of Navarre, Department of Institutional Relations and
Education of the Government of Navarre, p445-450
^ Michael Servetus Research Website with historical and graphical
study on the conversos in Navarre, specifically the converso Michael
de Villanueva ("Servetus").
^ Kamen (2014), p. 369
^ Kamen (2014), p. 370
^ a b c Kamen, Henry (1985), Inquisition and Society In Spain in the
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Bloomington: Indiana University
Press, p. 27, ISBN 0-253-22775-5 .
^ Jewish Virtual Library - Provence
^ a b Henry Kamen: The Spanish Inquisition: A Historical Revision.
^ Código Civil (in Spanish)
^ Propuesta de IU sobre derecho preferente de moriscos a la
nacionalidad Archived 2008-12-11 at the Wayback Machine. (in Spanish)
Damião de Góis
Damião de Góis (1567), in Chronica do Felicissimo Rey D. Emanuel da
Roth, Cecil; Roth, Irene (1974), A history of the Marranos (4th ed.),
New York: Sepher-Hermon Press, ISBN 0-87203-040-7 .
Roth, Cecil (1961), A history of the Jews, New York: Schocken
Diesendruck, Arnold (2002), Os Marranos em Portugal, São Paulo:
Editora & Livraria Sêfer, ISBN 85-85583-36-3 .
Richard Zimler, The Last Kabbalist of Lisbon, The Overlook Press,
Richard Zimler, Hunting Midnight, Delacorte, ISBN 9780385336444
Richard Zimler, Guardian of the Dawn, Constable & Robinson,
Antonio Munoz Molina,Sepharad, Harvest Books, ISBN 9780156034746
David Liss, The Coffee Trader, Abacus, ISBN 978-0349115009
Corresponding article in the Jewish Encyclopedia. Further relevant
material can be found in their article on South and Central America.
Dona Gracia Project
The Jewish Story - Marranos
Resources > Medieval Jewish History > "Expulsion from Spain and
The Anusim"[permanent dead link], The Jewish History Resource Center,
Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History, The Hebrew University of
Kathleen Telch, "Belmonte Project", Newsletter, Spring 2003,
p. 9, American
Society For Crypto Judaic Studies
Michael Freund, "Miracle in Orlando", originally published in The
Jerusalem Post, Jewish Society
Return to Sinai, in Half-Jewish.org, Website covering topics relevant
to descendants of assimilation and intermarriage
Descendants of Marranos arrive in Israel
Jewish by candlelight - from Spanish converso to modern mixed marriage
By Miriam Shaviv, The Forward
Shavei Israel - a group that helps our lost brethren return
Alhambra Decree: 521 Years Later, a blog post on the Law Library of
Congress's In Custodia Legis
Christians and Old Christians in Portugal, written by António Nunes
Ribeiro Sanches, in 1748, in Portuguese[permanent dead link]
A history of the Marranos, by Cecil Roth
Dramatic episodes of the Portuguese Inquisition, volume 1, by Antonio
Baião, in Portuguese
Dramatic episodes of the Portuguese Inquisition, volume 2, by Antonio
Baião, in Portuguese
Trial of Gabriel de Granada by the Inquisition in Mexico, 1642-1645,
according to Cecil Roth, 'it gives a remarkably graphic impression of
a typical Inquisitional case'
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