Maitraka dynasty ruled western India (now Gujarat) from c. 475 to
c. 776 CE from their capital at Vallabhi. They were followers of
Shaivism. Their origin is uncertain but they were probably
Following decline of the Gupta Empire,
Maitraka dynasty was founded by
Senapati (general) Bhatarka, who was a military governor of Saurashtra
under Gupta Empire, who had established himself as the independent
around 475 CE. The first two
Maitraka rulers Bhatarka and Dharasena I
used only the title of Senapati (general). The third ruler Dronasimha
declared himself as the Maharaja. During the reign Dhruvasena I,
Jain council at
Vallabhi was probably held. The next ruler Dharapatta
is the only ruler considered as a sun-worshipper. King Guhasena
stopped using the term Paramabhattaraka Padanudhyata along his name
like his predecessors, which denotes the cessation of displaying of
the nominal allegiance to the Gupta overlords. He was succeeded by his
son Dharasena II, who used the title of Mahadhiraja. His son, the next
ruler Siladitya I Dharmaditya was described by Hiuen Tsang, visited in
640 CE, as a "monarch of great administrative ability and of rare
kindness and compassion". Siladitya I was succeeded by his younger
brother Kharagraha I. Virdi copperplate grant (616 CE) of
Kharagraha I proves that his territories included Ujjain. During the
reign of the next ruler, Dharasena III, north
Gujarat was included in
this kingdom. Dharasena II was succeeded by another son of Kharagraha
I, Dhruvasena II, Baladitya. He married the daughter of
Harshavardhana. His son Dharasena IV assumed the imperial titles of
Paramabhattaraka Mahrajadhiraja Parameshvara Chakravartin. Sanskrit
poet Bhatti was his court poet. The next powerful ruler of this
dynasty was Siladitya II. During the reign of Siladitya V, Arabs
probably invaded this kingdom. The last known ruler of this dynasty
was Siladitya VI.
Maitrakas set up a
Vallabhi University which came to be known far and
wide for its scholastic pursuits and was compared with the Nalanda
University. They came under the rule of
Harsha of Pushyabhuti dynasty
in the mid-7th century, but retained local autonomy, and regained
their independence after Harsha's death. After repeated attacks by
Arabs from sea, the kingdom had weakened considerably. The dynasty
ended by c. 783 CE. Apart from legendary accounts which connects fall
of Vallabi with the Tajjika (Arab) invasions, no historical source
mention how the dynasty ended.
More than hundred temples of this period are known, mostly located
along the western coast of Saurashtra.
3.2 Dharasena I
3.4 Dhruvasena I
3.7 Dharasena II
3.8 Śīlāditya I
3.9 Kharagraha I
3.10 Dharasena III
3.11 Dhruvasena II Baladitya
3.12 Dharasena IV
3.13 Dhruvasena III
3.14 Kharagraha II
3.15 Siladitya II
3.16 Siladitya III
3.17 Siladitya IV
3.18 Siladitya V
3.19 Siladitya VI
6.1 Temples and monuments
8 List of rulers
9 See also
Early scholars like Fleet had misread copperplate grant and considered
Maitrakas as some foreign tribe defeated by Bhatarka. Bhagwanlal
Indraji believed that Maitrakas were foreign tribe while Bhatarka, who
defeated them, belonged to indigenous dynasty. Later readings
corrected that Bhatarka was himself
Maitraka who had succeeded in many
battles. The earlier scholars had suggested the name
derived from Mithra, the
Sun or solar deity, and their supposed
connection to Mihira and their sun-worshiping
inclination. Though Mitra and Mihira are
synonyms for the sun, the
Sanskrit literature do not use it in sense
of sun-worshipers. Dharapatta is the fifth and the only king of all
Maitraka kings connected with sun-worship. All other kings were
followers of Shaivism.
The copperplate grants do not help in identifying their origin, they
describe only that the dynasty was born from war-like tribe whose
capital was at
Vallabhi and they were Shaivas. Chinese traveller
Vallabhi during second quarter of 7th century had
described the ruler as a Kshatriya. Later Mahayana Buddhist work
Manju-Shri-Mula-Kalpa had described them as Varavatya Yadava. The late
Jain traditional work Shatrunjaya-Mahatmaya of Dhaneshwara describes
Shiladitya as the Yadavas of Lunar race.
Virji concludes that Maitrakas were a
Kshatriya of Lunar race and
their origin was probably from
Mitra dynasty which once ruled region
Mathura (now in Uttar Pradesh, India). Several scholars like
Benerjee, D. Shastri,
D. R. Bhandarkar agree with her conclusion.
The Maitrakas ruled from their capital at Vallabhi. They came under
the rule of
Harsha in the mid-7th century, but retained local
autonomy, and regained their independence after Harsha's death.
When I-Tsing, another Chinese traveller, visited
Vallabhi in the last
quarter of 7th century, he found
Vallabhi as a great center of
learning including Buddhism. Gunamati and Sthiramati were two famous
Buddhist scholars of
Vallabhi at the middle of 7th century. Vallabhi
was famous for its catholicity and the students from all over the
country, including the Brahmana boys, visited it to have higher
education in secular and religious subjects. We are told that the
graduates of Valabhi were given higher executive posts.
Genealogical Tree of Maitrakas
The Senapati (general) Bhatarka, was a military governor of Saurashtra
peninsula under Gupta Empire, who had established himself as the
independent ruler of
Gujarat approximately in the last quarter of 5th
century when the Gupta empire weakened. He continued to use the title
of Senapati (general). Apart from his military accomplishments, not
much is known from the copper-plates. He was
Shaiva according to the
title Parama-Maheshwara used for him in grants by his descendants. It
seems that he transferred the capital from Girinagar (Girnar) to
Vallabhi. The legends of all Valabhi coins are marked with
Sri-Bhatarka. Almost all the
Maitraka inscriptions start with his
name. He is known only from the copperplate inscriptions of
Bhatarka was succeeded by his eldest son Dharasena I who also used
only the title of Senapati (general). He reigned approximately from
174 to 180 Valabhi Era (VE) (c. 493 - c. 499 CE). It seems that he
further consolidated power in weakening Gupta Empire. the Maitrkas had
marriage alliance with Harisena, the
Vakataka king of Avanti who had
himself captured many region formerly under Guptas. Chandralekha, who
is described in Dharasanasara of Devasena as the daughter of the king
of Ujjayani and the queen of Dhruvasena I.
Dronasimha (c. 499 - c. 519 CE) was younger brother of Dharasena I. He
had declared himself as the Maharaja known from his copperplate dated
183 VE (502 CE). It is known that his coronation was attended by some
higher authority, probably
Vakataka as they had a marriage
Eran stone pillar inscription of
Bhanugupta mentions a "very big
and famous battle" between the Guptas and the Maitrakas.
According to the
Eran inscription of
Gupta Empire ruler Bhanugupta
(new revised translation published in 1981),
Bhanugupta and his
chieftain or noble Goparaja participated in a battle against the
"Maittras" in 510 CE, thought to be the Maitrakas (the reading being
without full certainty, but "as good as certain" according to the
authors). This would directly allude to conflict between the
Maitrakas and the Guptas during the reign of Dronasimha. The
(Verses 3-4) (There is) the glorious Bhanugupta, a distinguished hero
on earth, a mighty ruler, brave being equal to Partha. And along with
him Goparaja, following (him) without fear, having overtaken the
Maittras and having fought a very big and famous battle, went to
heaven, becoming equal to Indra, the best of the gods; and (his)
devoted, attached, beloved, and beauteous wife, clinging (to him),
entered into the mass of fire (funeral pyre).
Eran inscription of Bhanugupta, 510 CE.
It is also around this time, or soon after, that the
Alchon Huns king
Toramana invaded Malwa, leading to his mention as "ruler of the earth"
Eran boar inscription of Toramana.
Dhruvasena I was the third son of Bhatarka and the younger brother of
Dronasimha. He reigned c. 519 - c. 549 CE. During his rule,
Malwa had defeated
Harisena of the
as well as the Huna king
Mihirakula (in 528 CE). Dhruvasena probably
had to acknowledge to overlord-ship of Yashodharman. It is known that
they had regained their glory as Yashodharman's rule was short lived
and was supplanted by the Guptas.
In these grants Dhruvasena’s father Bhaṭárka and his elder
brothers are described as 'great Máheśvaras' that is followers of
Śiva, while Dhruvasena himself is called 'Paramabhágavata', the
great Vaishṇava. He must be liberal in religious beliefs. In the 535
CE grant, he had made an arrangement for a Buddhist monastery at
Valabhi built by his Buddhist niece Duḍḍá (or Lulá?). He had
made several grants to Brahmanas of Vadnagar. The Jain council at
Vallabhi was probably held during his rule which was arranged by his
wife Chandralekha. During these days, he had lost his son as the
Vallabhi council has condoled on loss. Kalpa Sutra, the Jain
text, was compiled probably during the reign of Dhruvasena, 980 or 993
years after the death (Nirvana) of Mahavira. Kalpa Sutra mentions that
the public reading of it started at Anandapura (Vadnagar) to relieve
Dhruvasena from the grief of death of his son. Based on his
grants, it known that his kingdom extended from Dwarika to Valabhi,
whole Saurashtra paninsula and as far as
Vadnagar in the north.
During his rule, the Garulakas or Garudakas had accepted the Maitrkas
as their overlord. The Garulaka had captured Dwarika probably with
help of the Maitrakas. They probably has an emblem of the
it his clear from their grants that they were Vaishnavas. They had
made grants to Brahmanas and Buddhists alike.
Dhruvasena I was succeeded by his younger brother Dharapatta who
reigned for very short period, c. 549 to c. 553. He must be old when
he ascended to throne as his elder brothers ruled before him and thus
his reign may has been short. He is the only ruler described as
Paramaditya-Bhakta, the devotee of the sun god. He is known by the
copperplate grants of his grandson.
Dharapatta was succeeded by Guhasena who reigned from c. 553 to c. 569
CE. He must be grest king as the all later ruler from Shiladitya I to
last ruler records his name in grants.
Guhasena stopped using the term Paramabhattaraka Padanudhyata along
his name like his predecessors, which denotes the cessation of
displaying of the nominal allegiance to the Gupta overlords. He had
assumed title of Maharajadhiraja. During his early rule, the Maitraka
kingdom was invaded by Maukhara or Maukhari king Ishwaravarman. The
Raivataka (Girnar) hill is mentioned in his Jaunpur stone inscription
but who won the war is unclear as the inscription is fragmentary. It
is assumed that Guhasena must have repelled the attack.
All his copper-plates record donations to Buddhist monasteries. He was
Shiva as mentioned in his grants and the copperplate bore
the symbol of the Nandi, the vehicle of Shiva. He was interested in
Buddhism in his last years of reign which is known from his grants.
Guhasena wrote poems in Panskrit, Prakrit and Saurseni Apabhramsa.
Early historians had considered Gahlots (Gohil) of Mewar (Guhilas of
Medapata) as his descendants.
James Tod had recorded one such legend
but epigraph evidences do not support the assumption. Virji also makes
the point that Gahlots were Brahmanas as per their inscriptions while
the Maitrakas were Kshatriyas.
Maliya inscription of Dharasena II of the year 252 (571 CE).
Gahasena was succeeded by his son Dharasena II, who used the title of
Samanta in his early grants and later readopts the title of Maharaja
and later again as Mahasamanta. He reigned from 569 to 589–90 CE. It
is considered that he had become subordinate to Maukhari ruler
Ishanavarman for sometime between which reflect in the changes in
titles. From Haraha inscription it known that Ishanavarman held sway
over several rulers and Dharasena may have had to submit to him.
He had made land grants to Brahmanas noted in his copperplate grants.
One of his grants of 254 or 257 VE mentions solar eclipse which had
helped in establish the dating of the Valabhi Era (VE). His one grant
mentions Sthiramati, the Buddhist monk mentioned by Chinese traveler
Hiuen Tsang. One independent grant dated 574 CE made by Garulaka king
Simhaditya is also found at
Palitana along with him.
Copper plate grant issued by Śīlāditya I, dated year 290 [?]
aśvayuja badi 10 recording a donation of villages and lands.
Dharasena II was succeeded by Śīlāditya I who is also called
Dharmaditya, the "sun of Dharma". He reigned from c. 590 - 615 CE.
Manju-Sri-Mula-Kalpa assigns him thirty years. The Śatruñjaya
Máhátmya has a prophetic account of one Śíláditya who will be a
propagator of religion in Vikrama Saṃvat 477 (420 CE). The work is
comparatively modern and do not correspond to chronology and dating of
Maitraka kingdom. Although no reliance can be placed on the date still
his second name Dharmáditya gives support to his identification with
the Śíláditya of the Máhátmya. Based on
Manju-Sri-Mula-Kalpa and his grants, it is known that his rule
Malwa to the oceans of
Kutch in western India.
He was Shaiva. The one of his grant, to a temple of Śiva, has for its
Dútaka the illustrious Kharagraha apparently the brother and
successor of the king. He had made grants to sun temple and Buddhist
monks shows that he tolerated and respected
Buddhism also. The writer
of one of the grants is mentioned as the minister of peace and war
Chandrabhaṭṭi; the Dútaka or causer of the gift in two of the
Buddhist grants is Bhaṭṭa Ádityayaśas apparently some military
officer. The Jain work Śatruñjaya Máhátmya mentions that hits
author of the his preceptor. His equal treatment to all religions
justifies his title Dharmaditya. The Śatruñjaya Máhátmya, though
exaggerated, mentions that he had expelled some Buddhists from his
kingdom sympathetic to his rival Harsha. He is praised in accounts of
Hiuen Tsang as a "monarch of great administrative ability and of rare
kindness and compassion".
He had a son named Derabhatta. He was succeeded by his younger brother
Kharagraha I. It seems that there must have been contest between his
elder brother Upendra and him but finally Kharagraha I had succeeded.
Derabhatta is mentioned to had helped Siladitya is conquering some
region between Sahya and Vindhya. He probably had helped Pulakeshin in
war against Kalachuris and may gained the region as a result. He may
have ruled the region independently till his death. His son and
successor Siladitya may have ruled the region as an arrangement with
his brother Karagraha. A queen named Janjika is mentioned in one of
copperplates which may be wife of Siladitya I.
Siladitya I was succeeded by his younger brother Kharagraha I, also
known as Ishwaragraha. Virdi copperplate grant (616 CE) of
Kharagraha I proves that his territories included
Ujjain which is
mentioned as "victorious camp". He was probably in continued struggle
Harsha started during reign of his brother. He was
reigned c. 615 - 621 CE.
Kharagraha was succeeded by his son Dharasena III. He reigned from c.
621 to 627 CE. His only grant is made from military camp at Khetaka
(Kheda). Chapala mentioned in Manju-Sri-Mula-Kalpa as a successor of
Siladitya must be Dharasena III according to Virji while Jayaswal
consider him as Kharagraha. He was
Shaiva too. He had some gain in
north Gujarat. He must have lost some power as his neighbouring
kingdoms; Chalukya and Harshvardhan were in constant struggle.
Dhruvasena II Baladitya
After death of Dharasena III, he was succeeded by his younger brother
Dhruvasena II also known as Baladitya, the "rising son". He reigned
from c. 627-641 CE. He was well versed in grammar and the science of
polity. Hiuen Tsang had wrote "a livey and hasty disposition and his
wisdom and statecraft were shallow". He further adds that "he had
attached himself to the precious three recently", viz. the Buddha,
Dhamma and Sangha of Buddhism. he had made grants to Buddhist Viharas
and Hindu temples alike. He used title of Paramamaheshwara, thus
Shaiva.He had renewed the grant to the Kottammhikadevi, aHindu temple,
by his ancestor Dronasimha. Dadda II, the Gurjara king of Lata had
mentioned that he had given refuge to the
Maitraka ruler in struggle
with Harsha. But it is unclear that he was Dhruvasena II or Dharasena
IV. Huien Tsang had mentioned that he had married the daughter of
Harshavardhan of Kanauj, probably as the marriage allegiance.
His rule extended to Ratlam, a town west of
Ujjain so whole modern
central and north
Gujarat were under the Maitrakas.
Dharasena IV succeeded Dhruvasena II and reigned from c. 641 to 650
CE. He had subdued
Gurjaras of Lata (south Gujarat) as he has issued
copperplate grants from Bharuch. he had assumed the imperial titles of
Paramabhattaraka Mahrajadhiraja Parameshvara Chakravartin. He had made
grants to Buddhist Viharas and Brahmanas. He was petron of scholars
and the master archer. Probably during his reign, the Bhatti, the
author of Bhattikavya or Ravanavadha, flourished. It is a grammatical
As Dharasena IV had no son, the succession transferred to the elder
branch, Derabhatta lineage. He was succeeded by Dhruvasena III.
Dhruvasena III was son of Derabhatta. He reigned from c. 650 to
654-655 CE. He had dropped the title of Chakravartin and was Shaiva.
He may have lost his sway on Lata region to Chalukyas.
Kharagraha II Dharamaditya was successor of his younger brother
Dhruvasena II. He had made agrant from military camp at Pulindaka
which suggest that he was in continued struggle with Chalukyas. He
reigned from c. 655 to 658. He had no son.
Siladitya was son of Siladitya, the elder brother of Kharagraha II. As
Kharagraha II had no son, he assumed the throne. He reigned from c.
658 to 685 CE. He has mentioned his father Derabhatta in his grants.
He had probably recovered the Lata region from the Sendraka governor
under the Chalukyas. The Chalukyas recovered the region under
Vikramaditya I and placed his son Dharashraya Jayasimha as its
governor. The region was still rulerd by Gurjars of Lata and Dadda III
was probably in the constant struggle with the Maitrakas. 
Arab historians mentions that the Arab commander Ismail had attacked
Ghogha in 677 CE (AH 57) but gives no details. He must be defeated
by Siladitya II.
Siladitya was son and the successor of Siladitya II. He reigned from
c. 690 - 710 CE. Probably during this period,
Panchasar held by
Chavda dynasty was attacked.
Siladitya IV was son of Siladitya III who probably had Dharasena as
his personal name. He ruled from c. 710 to 740 CE. Chalukya king
Vikramaditya II had captured the Khetaka region from the Maitrakas
with presumed help of Jayabhatta IV, the Gurjara king of Lata. Sanjan
plate of 733 CE informs that
Rashtrakuta Indra I had forcefully
married Chalukya princess Bhvanaga at Kaira (Kheda) so the region must
be under them then.
Biladuri, the Arab historian informs that the
Maitraka kingdom was
invaded by the Arabs under Junaid during the Caliphate of Hasham
(724-743 CE). The invasion must be carried out in 735-736 CE mentioned
by the Gurjaras of Lata. They had invaded all Gurjara region of north
and south. The
Navsari plate of Pulakesin mentions that the Tajjika
(Arabs) had destroyed the Kachchelas (of Kutch), Saindhavas, Surastra,
Chavotkata (Chavdas), Mauryas and Gurjaras (of Lata) and proceeded
towards the Deccan. Jayabhatta had helped the Maitrakas in battle at
Valabhi at which they had defeated the Arabs but eventually lost.
Finally at Navsari, the confederate army led by Chalukya troops routed
the Arabs. Pulakeshi was awarded the titles of Dakshinapatha
Svadharna, the solid pillar of the Deccan, Amvarta Kanivartayitr, the
Repeller of the Unrepellable and Avanijanashraya, the refuge of the
After the Arab invasion, the fragmented western states were organised
under Siladitya V.
Malwa was lost to Gurjara-Pratiharas before the
invasion. He probably had tried to recover
Malwa as one of his grant
(760 CE) is made from military camp at Godraka (Godhra). He must have
failed to recover
Malwa but nonetheless recovered the Khetaka (Kheda)
region. He had to face another invasion of the Tajjika (Arabs) from
sea in 759 CE fighting for Umayyad Caliphate. The naval fleet under
Amarubin Jamal was sent by Hasham, the governor of Sindh to the coast
of Barda (the Barda hills near Porbandar). The invasion was defeated
by the naval fleet the
Saindhava dynasty which were in allegiance with
the Maitrakas. He reigned from c. 740 -762 CE.
Siladitya VI, also known as Dhrubhata, reigned c. 762 to c. 776 CE. As
he had issued a grant from Anandpura (Vadnagar), it is assumed that he
was on expansion again taking advantage of prevailing situation in
Rastrakutas and was in struggle with the Gurjara-Pratiharas.
Saurashtra was again invaded by the Tajjikas (Arabs) in 776 CE (AH
159). They captured the township of Barada but the epidemic broke out.
The Arabs had to return and the Caliph had decided to stop further
attempt to enter India. Agguka I of the
Saindhava dynasty had claimed
in his inscription a victory thus they had to withdraw. The Maitraka
dynasty ended by c. 783 CE. Apart from legendary
accounts which connects fall of Vallabi with the Tajjika (Arab)
invasions, no historical source mention how the dynasty ended.
The governors of Girinagar (Girnar) and Vamanasthali (Vanthli) became
independent and established their own dynasty on the fall of
The Maitrakas were follower of the
Shiva except Dhruvasena I who was
Vaishnava and Dharapatta who was sun-worshiper. They all used title of
title of parama-maheshwara before the names of king except those two.
It is evident from the use of symbols like Nandi, the Bull and
Trishula, the trident in their coins and inscriptions. There were
presence of Vaishnavism and Goddess worship under their rule. There
were large number of Buddhist Viharas in the
Maitraka kingdom. Jains
held their important Valabhi council here. The Maitrakas were tolerant
to all religions and made donations and grants to all of them without
Administrative divisions in the
There were administrative divisions managed by head of the division
and helped by his subordinates. The highest division Vishaya were
headed by Rashtrapati or Amatya and the lowest division Grama
(equivalent to village) was headed by Gramakuta.
Maitrakas set up a
Vallabhi University which came to be known far and
wide for its scholastic pursuits and was compared with the Nalanda
Temples and monuments
Mentioned in the literary sources
The copper plate inscriptions of Maitrakas mentions religious
edifices, Brahmanical as well as Buddhist. Some Buddhist monuments
were constructed by the Maitrakas themselves. Some Brahmanical shrines
Shiva temple at Vatapadra in Saurashtra (before 609 CE),
Bhartishwara temple (extant in 631 CE), Goddess Kotammahika temple at
Trisangamaka (extant in 639 CE, built during or before reign of
Dronasimha), Pandurarya temple at Hathab in Saurashtra (502 CE
inscription). Other temples include
Saptamatrika temple at
Madasara-sthali (extant in 676 CE),
Sun temple at Vatapadra (609 CE)
and Bhadreniyaka (611 CE); all in Saurashtra.
Several Buddhist monuments were built by Maitrakas. Majority of them
were built in and around Vallabhi. Bhataraka probably the
Bhataraka-vihara. Princess Dudda, sister of Dhruvasena I, built
Dudda-vihara around the onset of the sixth century. Before 605 CE,
Shiladitya I built Shiladitya-vihara Vamsakata in Saurashtra.
Abhyantarika-vihara (before 567 CE) was built by a lady Mimma. Kakka
Mankila added Kakka-vihara to Dudda-vihara mandala before 589 CE and
another Gohaka-vihara was built there before 629 CE. The
Yakshasura-vihara for nuns at
Vallabhi was built around middle of the
sixth century. Before 549 CE, Ajita, a merchant, built Ajita-vihara,
probably besides the Yakshasura-vihara. Purnabhatta-vihara was built
by Purnabhatta before 638 CE to the later group. Skandabhatta II,
grandson of Mahasandhivigrahaka Sandabhatta I, built a
Sandabhatta-vihara at Yodhavaka.
Literary sources also mention some temples dedicated to the Jinas.
Around 601 CE,
Shantinatha temple at
Vallabhi existed. At the time of
destruction of Vallabhi, the images of Chandraprabha, Adinatha,
Mahavira were transferred to safer places. The
Shantinatha existed at Vardhamana
(Wadhwan) and Dostatika as well as probably the temple of Yakshi
Ambika on the summit of Mount Girnar.
Most of the constructions in this period were made of non-durable
materials like bricks and wood. None of them survives now.
Firangi Deval at Kalsar
Magderu, Dhrasanvel, Okhamandal
Ruined temples at Sonkansari, Ghumli
Temple at Sonkansari, Ghumli
The architecture is in continuum of earlier Gupta period architecture
found in caves at Uparkot and Khambhalida. More than hundred temples
of this period is known. Almost all of them are located along the
coastal belt of the western Saurashtra region except the one at Kalsar
and few temples in the Barda hills region. Several temples of them are
located in the territories controlled by the Saindhavas.
The extant temples of this period are the temple at Gop, Sonkansari
(Ghumli), Pachtar, Prachi,
Firangi Deval at Kalsar, group of temples
at Vasai near Dwarka, Kadvar, Bileshwar, Sutrapada, Visavada,
Kinderkheda, Pata, Miyani, Pindara, Khimrana, two temples at
Magderu and Kalika Temple), two temples near Dhrewad
(Kalika Mata Temple), Gayatri temple and Naga temple and
Sun temple at
Pasnavada, early temples at Junagadh, Gosa, Boricha, Prabhas Patan,
Savri, Navadra, Suvarnatieth temple at Dwarka, Jhamra, Degam near
Porbandar, Sarma near Ghed. Other extant temples include the temple
groups at Khimeshwara, Shrinagar, Nandeshwara, Balej, Bhansara,
Odadar; and the shrines at Bokhira, Chhaya, Visavada, Kuchadi,
Ranavav, Tukada, Akhodar, Kalavad, Bhanvad, Pasthar, and Porbandar.
Two kunds are known of this period, at Kadvar and Bhansara. The
Shaivaite monastery at the Khimeshwara Group of temples is the oldest
known Brahminical monastery of India, preceding three centuries to
that in central India.
These temples are austere in their design and simple in decoration.
They are important in architectural study to know the origin of
Nagara-style shikhara and the beginning of their complex designs in
temple architecture. These temples also point to the second of the two
Gujarat temple architecture schools; the north
Nagara style and the Saurashtra style which initially influenced and
ultimately ousted by the evolving Nagara style. The Saurashtra style
disappeared by the tenth century.
The Maitrakas continued coinage styles established by their
predecessors; the Guptas and the Western Kshatrapas. Large number of
copper and silver coins are found in
Vallabhi and elsewhere. There are
two types of coins found. The first were 6" in diametre and weighted
29 grains. They were perhaps earlier coins modeled after the Western
Kshatrapa coins. Later coins were similar to the Gupta coins in shape,
size and legends. Like Gupta coins, they were not made of pure silver
The obverse of coin had the head of the kings facing right, as in
Kshatrapa coins, but no legends or date. The reverse had Trishula, the
trident, the emblem of Shiva. An axe (parashu) is added in reverse of
some later coins. These symbols are surrounded by the legend in
debased characters of Brahmi script. It reads,
Rájño Mahákshatrapasa Bhatárakasa Mahesara–Śrí
Rájño, Mahákshatrapasa Bhatarakasa Mahesara Śrí Śarvva
Translation: "[This is a coin] of the illustrious the Shaivaite,
Bhattaraka, the great king; the great Kshtrapa; the Lord and the
devotee of Maheshwara.
List of rulers
The list as follows:
Bhatarka (c. 470-c. 492)
Dharasena I (c. 493-c. 499)
Dronasinha (also known as Maharaja) (c. 500-c. 520)
Dhruvasena I (c. 520-c. 550)
Dharapatta (c. 550-c. 556)
Guhasena (c. 556-c. 570)
Dharasena II (c. 570-c. 595)
Śīlāditya I (also known as Dharmaditya) (c. 595-c. 615)
Kharagraha I (c. 615-c. 626)
Dharasena III (c. 626-c. 640)
Dhruvasena II (also known as Baladitya) (c. 640-c. 644)
Chakravarti king Dharasena IV (also known with the titles Param
Bhatarka, Maharajadhiraja, Parameshwara) (c. 644-c. 651)
Dhruvasena III (c. 650-c. 654-655)
Kharagraha II (c. 655-c. 658)
Śīlāditya II (c. 658- c. 685)
Śīlāditya III (c. 690- c. 710)
Śīlāditya IV (c. 710- c. 740)
Śīlāditya V ( c. 740- c. 762)
Śīlāditya VI Dhrubhatta ( c. 762- c. 776)
^ a b Hemchandra Raychaudhuri (2006). Political History of Ancient
India: From the Accession of Parikshit to the Extinction of the Gupta
Dynasty. Cosmo Publications. pp. 534–535.
^ a b c d e Mahajan V.D. (1960, reprint 2007). Ancient India, S.Chand
& Company, New Delhi, ISBN 81-219-0887-6, pp.594-6
^ Mahajan, Vidya Dhar (2011). Ancient india. S Chand & Co Ltd.
pp. 594–596. ISBN 8121908876. OCLC 941063107.
^ Pusalkar, A. D.; Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra, eds. (1954). The History
and Culture of the Indian People: The Classical age. III. G. Allen
& Unwin. p. 150.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k Nanavati, J. M.; Dhaky, M. A. (1969-01-01).
Maitraka and the
Saindhava Temples of Gujarat". Artibus Asiae.
Supplementum. 26: 3–83. doi:10.2307/1522666.
^ Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bombay, p 245, Bhau Daji (by
Asiatic Society of Bombay, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and
Ireland, Bombay Branch).
^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, 1904, p 142, 476, by Bombay
(India : State); A Concise History of the Indian People, 1950, p
106, H. G. (Hugh George) Rawlinson.
^ Advanced History of India, 1971, p 198, G. Srinivasachari; History
of India, 1952, p 140.
^ Views of Dr Fleet, Dr V. A. Smith, H. A. Rose, Peter N. Stearns and
^ See: The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End
of 1911, p 164, Dr Vincent Arthur Smith
^ History of India, 1907, 284 A. V. Williams Jackson, Romesh Chunder
Dutt, Vincent Arthur Smith, Stanley Lane-Poole, H. M. (Henry Miers)
Elliot, William Wilson Hunter, Alfred Comyn Lyall.
^ Also: Journal of the United Service Institution of India, United
Service Institution of India, p331.
^ Virji 1955, p. 17–18.
^ a b c d James Macnabb Campbell, ed. (1896). "I. THE CHÁVAḌÁS (A.
D. 720–956.)". History of Gujarát. Gazetteer of the Bombay
Presidency. Volume I. Part I. The Government Central Press.
pp. 85–86. This article incorporates text from this
source, which is in the public domain.
^ a b Virji 1955, p. 19.
^ History and Culture of Indian People, Classical age, p 150, (Ed) Dr
A. D. Pusalkar, Dr R. C. Majumdar.
^ Sinha, Nandini (2016-08-11). "Early Maitrakas, Landgrant Charters
and Regional State Formation in Early Medieval Gujarat". Studies in
History. 17 (2): 151–163. doi:10.1177/025764300101700201.
^ Virji 1955, p. 21–25.
^ Virji 1955, p. 26–27.
^ a b Roychaudhuri, H.C. (1972). Political History of Ancient India,
University of Calcutta, Calcutta, pp.553-4
^ Virji 1955, p. 28–30.
^ a b c Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Vol.3 (inscriptions Of The
Early Gupta Kings) Main text p.352sq
^ Virji 1955, p. 31–33.
^ a b Virji 1955, p. 33–34.
^ Kailash Chand Jain 1991, p. 75.
^ Virji 1955, p. 34.
^ Virji 1955, p. 35–37.
^ Virji 1955, p. 38.
^ a b c Virji 1955, p. 38–42.
^ Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Vol 3 p.164ff
^ a b Virji 1955, p. 42–45.
^ Virji 1955, p. 46–47.
^ Virji 1955, p. 47.
^ Virji 1955, p. 58–59.
^ Virji 1955, p. 59–61.
^ a b Virji 1955, p. 63–64.
^ Virji 1955, p. 65–69.
^ a b Virji 1955, p. 71–75.
^ Virji 1955, p. 71–80.
^ Virji 1955, p. 80.
^ Virji 1955, p. 81–82.
^ Virji 1955, p. 83–84.
^ Virji 1955, p. 85–88.
^ Virji 1955, p. 88.
^ Virji 1955, p. 90–93.
^ Virji 1955, p. 94.
^ Virji 1955, p. 94–96.
^ Virji 1955, p. 97–100.
^ Virji 1955, p. 101–102.
^ Richards, J.F. (1974). "The Islamic frontier in the east: Expansion
into South Asia". Journal of South Asian Studies. Taylor &
Francis. 4 (1): 91–109. doi:10.1080/00856407408730690.
^ Virji 1955, p. 102–105.
^ Virji 1955, p. 105.
^ Virji 1955, p. 165–186.
^ Virji 1955, p. 230–247.
^ Apte, D. G. (1950). Universities in ancient India. Raopura,
Vadodara: Faculty of Education and Psychology, Maharaja Sayajirao
University of Baroda. pp. 44–47 – via Cornell University
^ a b c Virji 1955, p. 225–229.
Virji, Krishnakumari Jethabhai (1955). Ancient history of Saurashtra:
being a study of the Maitrakas of Valabhi V to VIII centuries A. D.
Indian History and Culture Series. Konkan Institute of Arts and
Jain, Kailash Chand (1991), Lord Mahāvīra and His Times, Motilal
Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8