The Info List - Maitraka

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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

The MAITRAKA DYNASTY of Vallabhi ruled Gujarat
in western India
from c. 475 to c. 776 CE.


* 1 Origin * 2 Valabhi

* 3 History

* 3.1 Bhatarka * 3.2 Dharasena I * 3.3 Dronasimha * 3.4 Dhruvasena I * 3.5 Dharapatta * 3.6 Guhasena * 3.7 Dharasena II * 3.8 Śīlāditya I * 3.9 Kharagraha I * 3.10 Dharasena III * 3.11 Dhruvasena II Baladitya * 3.12 Dharasena IV * 3.13 Dhruvasena III * 3.14 Kharagraha II * 3.15 Siladitya II * 3.16 Siladitya III * 3.17 Siladitya IV * 3.18 Siladitya V * 3.19 Siladitya VI

* 4 Religion * 5 Administration * 6 Architecture * 7 Coinage * 8 List of rulers * 9 See also

* 10 References

* 10.1 Bibliography


Early scholars like Fleet had misread copperplate grant and considered Maitrakas as some foreign tribe defeated by Bhatarka. Bhagwanlal Indraji believed that Maitrakas were foreign tribe while Bhatarka, who defeated them, belonged to indigenous dynasty. Later readings corrected that Bhatarka was himself Maitraka
who had succeeded in many battles. The earlier scholar had suggested the name Maitraka
is derived from Mithra , the Sun
or solar deity , and their supposed connection to Mihira and their sun-worshiping inclination. Though Mitra and Mihira are synonyms for the sun, the Sanskrit literature do not use it in sense of sun-worshipers. Dharapatta is the fifth and the only king of all Maitraka
kings connected with sun-worship. All other kings were followers of Shaivism .

The copperplate grants do not help in identifying their origin, they describe only that the dynasty was born from war-like tribe whose capital was at Vallabhi and they were Shaivas . Chinese traveller Hieun-Tsang visited Vallabhi during second quarter of 7th century had described the ruler as a Kshatriya. Later Mahayana Buddhist work _Manju-Shri-Mula-Kalpa_ had described them as Varavatya Yadava. The late Jain traditional work _Shatrunjaya-Mahatmaya_ of Dhaneshwara describes Shiladitya as the Yadavas of Lunar race .

Virji concludes that Maitrakas were a Kshatriya of Lunar race and their origin was probably from Mitra dynasty which once ruled region around Mathura (now in Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
, India). Several scholars like Benerjee, D. Shastri, D. R. Bhandarkar agree with her conclusion.


The Maitrakas ruled from their capital at Vallabhi . They came under the rule of Harsha in the mid-7th century, but retained local autonomy, and regained their independence after Harsha's death.

When I-Tsing , another Chinese traveller, visited Vallabhi in the last quarter of 7th century, he found Vallabhi as a great center of learning including Buddhism
. Gunamati and Sthiramati were two famous Buddhist scholars of Vallabhi at the middle of 7th century. Vallabhi was famous for its catholicity and the students from all over the country, including the Brahmana boys, visited it to have higher education in secular and religious subjects. We are told that the graduates of Valabhi were given higher executive posts.


Genealogical Tree of Maitrakas


The _Senapati_ (general) Bhatarka, was a military governor of Saurashtra peninsula under Gupta Empire , who had established himself as the independent ruler of Gujarat
approximately in the last quarter of 5th century when the Gupta empire weakened. He continued to use the title of _Senapati_ (general). Apart from his military accomplishments, not much is known from the copper-plates. He was Shaiva according to the title _Parama-Maheshwara_ used for him in grants by his descendants. It seems that he transferred the capital from Girinagar ( Girnar ) to Vallabhi. The legends of all Valabhi coins are marked with _Sri-Bhatarka_. Almost all the Maitraka
inscriptions start with his name. He is known only from the copperplate inscriptions of descendants.


Bhatarka was succeeded by his eldest son Dharasena I who also used only the title of _Senapati_ (general). He reigned approximately from 174 to 180 Valabhi Era (VE) (c. 493 - c. 499 CE). It seems that he further consolidated power in weakening Gupta Empire . the Maitrkas had marriage alliance with Harisena , the Vakataka king of Avanti who had himself captured many region formerly under Guptas. Chandralekha, who is described in _Dharasanasara_ of Devasena as the daughter of the king of Ujjayani and the queen of Dhruvasena I.


Dronasimha (c. 499 - c. 519 CE) was younger brother of Dharasena I. He had declared himself as the _Maharaja_ known from his copperplate dated 183 VE (502 CE). It is known that his coronation was attended by some higher authority, probably Vakataka as they had a marriage alliance. The Eran
stone pillar inscription of Bhanugupta mentions a "very big and famous battle" between the Guptas and the Maitrakas.

According to the Eran
inscription of Gupta Empire ruler Bhanugupta (new revised translation published in 1981), Bhanugupta and his chieftain or noble Goparaja participated in a battle against the "Maittras" in 510 CE, thought to be the Maitrakas (the reading being without full certainty, but "as good as certain" according to the authors). This would directly allude to conflict between the Maitrakas and the Guptas during the reign of Dronasimha. The inscription reads:

* (Verses 3-4) (There is) the glorious Bhanugupta , a distinguished hero on earth, a mighty ruler, brave being equal to Partha. And along with him Goparaja, following (him) without fear, having overtaken the Maittras and having fought a very big and famous battle, went to heaven, becoming equal to Indra, the best of the gods; and (his) devoted, attached, beloved, and beauteous wife, clinging (to him), entered into the mass of fire (funeral pyre).

—  Eran
inscription of Bhanugupta, 510 CE.

It is also around this time, or soon after, that the Alchon Huns king Toramana invaded Malwa
, leading to his mention as "ruler of the earth" in the Eran
boar inscription of Toramana .


Dhruvasena I was the third son of Bhatarka and the younger brother of Dronasimha. He reigned c. 519 - c. 549 CE. During his rule, Yashodharman of Malwa
had defeated Harisena of the Vakataka dynasty , as well as the Huna king Mihirakula (in 528 CE). Dhruvasena probably had to acknowledge to overlord-ship of Yashodharman. It is known that they had regained their glory as Yashodharman's rule was short lived and was supplanted by the Guptas.

In these grants Dhruvasena’s father Bhaṭárka and his elder brothers are described as 'great Máheśvaras' that is followers of Śiva, while Dhruvasena himself is called 'Paramabhágavata', the great Vaishṇava. He must be liberal in religious beliefs. In the 535 CE grant, he had made an arrangement for a Buddhist monastery at Valabhi built by his Buddhist niece Duḍḍá (or Lulá?). He had made several grants to Brahmanas of Vadnagar . The Jain council at Vallabhi was probably held during his rule which was arranged by his wife Chandralekha. During these days, he had lost his son as the Vallabhi council has condoled on loss. Kalpa Sutra , the Jain text, was compiled probably during the reign of Dhruvasena, 980 or 993 years after the death (_Nirvana _) of Mahavira . Kalpa Sutra mentions that the public reading of it started at Anandapura (Vadnagar) to relieve Dhruvasena from the grief of death of his son. Based on his grants, it known that his kingdom extended from Dwarika to Valabhi, whole Saurashtra paninsula and as far as Vadnagar in the north.

During his rule, the Garulakas or Garudakas had accepted the Maitrkas as their overlord. The Garulaka had captured Dwarika probably with help of the Maitrakas. They probably has an emblem of the Garuda
and it his clear from their grants that they were Vaishnavas. They had made grants to Brahmanas and Buddhists alike.


Dhruvasena I was succeeded by his younger brother Dharapatta who reigned for very short period, c. 549 to c. 553. He must be old when he ascended to throne as his elder brothers ruled before him and thus his reign may has been short. He is the only ruler described as _Paramaditya-Bhakta_, the devotee of the sun god. He is known by the copperplate grants of his grandson.


Dharapatta was succeeded by Guhasena who reigned from c. 553 to c. 569 CE. He must be grest king as the all later ruler from Shiladitya I to last ruler records his name in grants.

Guhasena stopped using the term _Paramabhattaraka Padanudhyata_ along his name like his predecessors, which denotes the cessation of displaying of the nominal allegiance to the Gupta overlords. He had assumed title of _Maharajadhiraja_. During his early rule, the Maitraka
kingdom was invaded by Maukhara or Maukhari king Ishwaravarman. The Raivataka (Girnar) hill is mentioned in his Jaunpur stone inscription but who won the war is unclear as the inscription is fragmentary. It is assumed that Guhasena must have repelled the attack.

All his copper-plates record donations to Buddhist monasteries. He was devotee of Shiva
as mentioned in his grants and the copperplate bore the symbol of the Nandi
, the vehicle of Shiva. He was interested in Buddhism
in his last years of reign which is known from his grants. Guhasena wrote poems in Panskrit, Prakrit and Saurseni Apabhramsa.

Early historians had considered Gahlots (Gohil) of Mewar as his descendants. James Tod had recorded one such legend but epigraph evidences do not support the assumption. Virji also makes the point that Gahlots were Brahmanas as per their inscriptions while the Maitrakas were Kshatriyas.


Maliya inscription of Dharasena II of the year 252 (571 CE).

Gahasena was succeeded by his son Dharasena II, who used the title of _Samanta_ in his early grants and later readopts the title of _Maharaja_ and later again as _Mahasamanta_. He reigned from 569 to 589–90 CE. It is considered that he had become subordinate to Maukhari ruler Ishanavarman for sometime between which reflect in the changes in titles. From Haraha inscription it known that Ishanavarman held sway over several rulers and Dharasena may have had to submit to him.

He had made land grants to Brahmanas noted in his copperplate grants. One of his grants of 254 or 257 VE mentions solar eclipse which had helped in establish the dating of the Valabhi Era (VE). His one grant mentions Sthiramati, the Buddist monk mentioned by Chinese traveler Hiuen Tsang. One independent grant dated 574 CE made by Garulaka king Simhaditya is also found at Palitana along with him.


Copper plate grant issued by Śīlāditya I, dated year 290 aśvayuja badi 10 recording a donation of villages and lands.

Dharasena II was succeeded by Śīlāditya I who is also called Dharmaditya, the "sun of Dharma". He reigned from c. 590 - 615 CE. _Manju-Sri-Mula-Kalpa_ assigns him thirty years. The _Śatruñjaya Máhátmya_ has a prophetic account of one Śíláditya who will be a propagator of religion in Vikrama Saṃvat 477 (420 CE). The work is comparatively modern and do not correspond to chronology and dating of Maitraka
kingdom. Although no reliance can be placed on the date still his second name Dharmáditya gives support to his identification with the Śíláditya of the Máhátmya. Based on _Manju-Sri-Mula-Kalpa_ and his grants, it is known that his rule extended from Malwa
to the oceans of Kutch
in western India.

He was Shaiva. The one of his grant, to a temple of Śiva, has for its Dútaka the illustrious Kharagraha apparently the brother and successor of the king. He had made grants to sun temple and Buddhist monks shows that he tolerated and respected Buddhism
also. The writer of one of the grants is mentioned as the minister of peace and war Chandrabhaṭṭi; the Dútaka or causer of the gift in two of the Buddhist grants is Bhaṭṭa Ádityayaśas apparently some military officer. The Jain work _Śatruñjaya Máhátmya_ mentions that hits author of the his preceptor. His equal treatment to all religions justifies his title _Dharmaditya_. The _Śatruñjaya Máhátmya_, though exaggerated, mentions that he had expelled some Buddhists from his kingdom sympathetic to his rival Harsha . He is praised in accounts of Hiuen Tsang as a "monarch of great administrative ability and of rare kindness and compassion".

He had a son named Derabhatta. He was succeeded by his younger brother Kharagraha I. It seems that there must have been contest between his elder brother Upendra and him but finally Kharagraha I had succeeded. Derabhatta is mentioned to had helped Siladitya is conquering some region between Sahya and Vindhya. He probably had helped Pulakeshin in war against Kalachuris and may gained the region as a result. He may have ruled the region independently till his death. His son and successor Siladitya may have ruled the region as an arrangement with his brother Karagraha. A queen named Janjika is mentioned in one of copperplates which may be wife of Siladitya I.


Siladitya I was succeeded by his younger brother Kharagraha I, also known as Ishwaragraha. Virdi copperplate grant (616 CE) of Kharagraha I proves that his territories included Ujjain which is mentioned as "victorious camp". He was probably in continued struggle with Harsha started during reign of his brother. Hie was Shaiva and reigned c. 615 - 621 CE.


Kharagraha was succeeded by his son Dharasena III. He reigned from c. 621 to 627 CE. His only grant is made from military camp at Khetaka ( Kheda ). Chapala mentioned in _Manju-Sri-Mula-Kalpa_ as a successor of Siladitya must be Dharasena III according to Virji while Jayaswal consider him as Kharagraha. He was Shaiva too. He had some gain in north Gujarat. He must have lost some power as his neighbouring kingdoms; Chalukya and Harshvardhan were in constant struggle.


After death of Dharasena III, he was succeeded by his younger brother Dhruvasena II also known as Baladitya, the "rising son". He reigned from c. 627-641 CE. He was well versed in grammar and the science of polity. Hiuen Tsang had wrote "a livey and hasty disposition and his wisdom and statecraft were shallow". He further adds that "he had attached himself to the precious three recently", viz. the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha of Buddhism
. he had made grants to Buddhist Viharas and Hindu temples alike. He used title of _Paramamaheshwara_, thus Shaiva.He had renewed the grant to the Kottammhikadevi, aHindu temple, by his ancestor Dronasimha. Dadda II, the Gurjara king of Lata had mentioned that he had given refuge to the Maitraka
ruler in struggle with Harsha. But it is unclear that he was Dhruvasena II or Dharasena IV. Huien Tsang had mentioned that he had married the daughter of Harshavardhan of Kanauj, probably as the marriage allegiance.

His rule extended to Ratlam , a town west of Ujjain so whole modern central and north Gujarat
were under the Maitrakas.


Dharasena IV succeeded Dhruvasena II and reigned from c. 641 to 650 CE. He had subdued Gurjaras of Lata (south Gujarat) as he has issued copperplate grants from Bharuch . he had assumed the imperial titles of _Paramabhattaraka Mahrajadhiraja Parameshvara Chakravartin_. He had made grants to Buddhist Viharas and Brahmanas. He was petron of scholars and the master archer. Probably during his reign, the Bhatti, the author of _Bhattikavya_ or _Ravanavadha_, flourished. It is a grammatical poem.

As Dharasena IV had no son, the succession transferred to the elder branch, Derabhatta lineage. He was succeeded by Dhruvasena III.


Dhruvasena III was son of Derabhatta. He reigned from c. 650 to 654-655 CE. He had dropped the title of _Chakravartin_ and was Shaiva. He may have lost his sway on Lata region to Chalukyas.


Kharagraha II Dharamaditya was successor of his younger brother Dhruvasena II. He had made agrant from military camp at Pulindaka which suggest that he was in continued struggle with Chalukyas. He reigned from c. 655 to 658. He had no son.


Siladitya was son of Siladitya, the elder brother of Kharagraha II. As Kharagraha II had no son, he assumed the throne. He reigned from c. 658 to 685 CE. He has mentioned his father Derabhatta in his grants. He had probably recovered the Lata region from the Sendraka governor under the Chalukyas. The Chalukyas recovered the region under Vikramaditya I and placed his son Dharashraya Jayasimha as its governor. The region was still rulerd by Gurjars of Lata and Dadda III was probably in the constant struggle with the Maitrakas.

Arab historians mentions that the Arab commander Ismail had attacked the Ghogha in 677 CE (AH 57) but gives no details. He must be defeated by Siladitya II.


Siladitya was son and the successor of Siladitya II. He reigned from c. 690 - 710 CE. Probably during this period, Panchasar held by Jayasekhara of Chavda dynasty was attacked.


Siladitya IV was son of Siladitya III who probably had Dharasena as his personal name. He ruled from c. 710 to 740 CE. Chalukya king Vikramaditya II had captured the Khetaka region from the Maitrakas with presumed help of Jayabhatta IV, the Gurjara king of Lata. Sanjan plate of 733 CE informs that Rashtrakuta
Indra I had forcefully married Chalukya princess Bhvanaga at Kaira (Kheda) so the region must be under them then.

Biladuri, the Arab historian informs that the Maitraka
kingdom was invaded by the Arabs under Junaid during the Caliphate of Hasham (724-743 CE). The invasion must be carried out in 735-736 CE mentioned by the Gurjaras of Lata. The had invaded all Gurjara region of north and south. The Navsari plate of Pulakesin mentions that the Tajjika (Arabs) had destroyed the Kachchelas (of Kutch
), Saindhavas ,


After the Arab invasion, the fragmented western states were organised under Siladitya V. Malwa
was lost to Gurjara-Pratiharas before the invasion. He probably had tried to recover Malwa
as one of his grant (760 CE) is made from military camp at Godraka ( Godhra ). He must have failed to recover Malwa
but nonetheless recovered the Khetaka (Kheda) region. He had to face another invasion of the Tajjika (Arabs) from sea in 759 CE fighting for Umayyad Caliphate . The naval fleet under Amarubin Jamal was sent by Hasham, the governor of Sindh to the coast of Barda (the Barda hills near Porbandar ). The invasion was defeated by the naval fleet the Saindhava dynasty which were in allegiance with the Maitrakas. He reigned from c. 740 -762 CE.


Siladitya VI, also known as Dhrubhata, reigned c. 762 to c. 776 CE. As he had issued a grant from Anandpura (Vadnagar), it is assumed that he was on expansion again taking advantage of prevailing situation in Rastrakutas and was in struggle with the Gurjara-Pratiharas. Saurashtra was again invaded by the Tajjikas (Arabs) in 776 CE (AH 159). They captured the township of Barada but the epidemic broke out. The Arabs had to return and the Caliph had decided to stop further attempt to enter India. Agguka I of the Saindhava dynasty had claimed a victory thus they had to withdraw in his inscription. The dynasty ended by c. 783 CE. Apart from legendary accounts which connects fall of Vallabi with the Tajjika (Arab) invasions, no historical source mention how the dynasty ended.

The governors of Girinagar (Girnar) and Vamanasthali ( Vanthli ) became independent and established their own dynasty on the fall of Vallabhi.


The Maitrakas were follower of the Shiva
except Dhruvasena I who was Vaishnava and Dharapatta who was sun-worshiper. They all used title of title of _parama-maheshwara_ before the names of king except those two. It is evident from the use of symbols like Nandi
, the Bull and Trishula , the trident in their coins and inscriptions. There were presence of Vaishnavism and Goddess worship under their rule. There were large number of Buddhist Viharas in the Maitraka
kingdom. Jains held their important Valabhi council here. The Maitrakas were tolerant to all religions and made donations and grants to all of them without partiality.


Administrative divisions in the Maitraka

There were administrative divisions managed by head of the division and helped by his subordinates. The highest division _Vishaya_ were headed by Rashtrapati or Amatya and the lowest division _Grama_ (equivalent to village) was headed by Gramakuta.


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Gop Temple of Maitraka

Most of the constructions in this period were made of non-durable materials like bricks and wood. The Gop Temple is one surviving stone temple of the period.


The Maitrakas continued coinage styles established by their predecessors; the Guptas and the Western Kshatrapas . Large number of copper and silver coins are found in Vallabhi and elsewhere. There are two types of coins found. The first were 6" in diametre and weighterd 29 grains. They were perhaps earlier coins modeled after the Western Kshatrapa coins. Later coins were similar to the Gupta coins in shape, size and legends. Like Gupta coins, they were not made of pure silver but silver-coated.

The obverse of coin had the head of the kings facing right, as in Kshatrapa coins, but no legends or date. The reverse had Trishula , the trident, the emblem of Shiva. An axe (_parashu_) is added in reverse of some later coins. These symbols are surrounded by the legend in debased characters of Brahmi script . It reads,

“ _Rájño Mahákshatrapasa Bhatárakasa Mahesara–Śrí Bhaṭṭárakasa_ or _Rájño, Mahákshatrapasa Bhatarakasa Mahesara Śrí Śarvva Bhaṭṭárakasa_

Translation: " of the illustrious the Shaivaite, Bhattaraka, the great king; the great Kshtrapa; the Lord and the devotee of Maheshwara. ”


The list as follows:

* Bhatarka (c. 470-c. 492) * Dharasena I (c. 493-c. 499) * Dronasinha (also known as Maharaja) (c. 500-c. 520) * Dhruvasena I (c. 520-c. 550) * Dharapatta (c. 550-c. 556) * Guhasena (c. 556-c. 570) * Dharasena II (c. 570-c. 595) * Śīlāditya I (also known as Dharmaditya) (c. 595-c. 615) * Kharagraha I (c. 615-c. 626) * Dharasena III (c. 626-c. 640) * Dhruvasena II (also known as Baladitya) (c. 640-c. 644) * Chkravarti king Dharasena IV (also known as Param Bhatarka, Maharajadhiraja, Parameshwara) (c. 644-c. 651) * Dhruvasena III (c. 650-c. 654-655) * Kharagraha II (c. 655-c. 658) * Śīlāditya II (c. 658- c. 685) * Śīlāditya III (c. 690- c. 710) * Śīlāditya IV (c. 710- c. 740) * Śīlāditya V ( c. 740- c. 762) * Śīlāditya VI( c. 762- c. 776)


* Chaulukya dynasty * "Conquests of Siladitya in the south" by S. Srikanta Sastri


* ^ Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bombay, p 245, Bhau Daji (by Asiatic Society of Bombay, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Bombay Branch). * ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, 1904, p 142, 476, by Bombay ( India
: State); A Concise History of the Indian People, 1950, p 106, H. G. (Hugh George) Rawlinson. * ^ Advanced History of India, 1971, p 198, G. Srinivasachari; History of India, 1952, p 140. * ^ Views of Dr Fleet, Dr V. A. Smith, H. A. Rose, Peter N. Stearns and other scholars * ^ See: The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p 164, Dr Vincent Arthur Smith * ^ History of India, 1907, 284 A. V. Williams Jackson , Romesh Chunder Dutt , Vincent Arthur Smith, Stanley Lane-Poole, H. M. (Henry Miers) Elliot, William Wilson Hunter, Alfred Comyn Lyall. * ^ Also: Journal of the United Service Institution of India, United Service Institution of India, p331. * ^ Virji 1955 , p. 17–18. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ James Macnabb Campbell , ed. (1896). "I. THE CHÁVAḌÁS (A. D. 720–956.)". _History of Gujarát_. Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency. Volume I. Part I. The Government Central Press. pp. 85–86. _ This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain ._ * ^ _A_ _B_ Virji 1955 , p. 19. * ^ Nanavati, J. M.; Dhaky, M. A. (1969-01-01). "The Maitraka
and the Saindhava Temples of Gujarat". _Artibus Asiae. Supplementum_. 26: 3–83. doi :10.2307/1522666 . * ^ History and Culture of Indian People, Classical age, p 150, (Ed) Dr A. D. Pusalkar, Dr R. C. Majumdar . * ^ Virji 1955 , p. 21–25. * ^ Virji 1955 , p. 26–27. * ^ _A_ _B_ Roychaudhuri, H.C. (1972). _Political History of Ancient India_, University of Calcutta, Calcutta, pp.553-4 * ^ Virji 1955 , p. 28–30. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Vol.3 (inscriptions Of The Early Gupta Kings) Main text p.352sq * ^ Virji 1955 , p. 31–33. * ^ _A_ _B_ Virji 1955 , p. 33–34. * ^ Kailash Chand Jain 1991 , p. 75. * ^ Virji 1955 , p. 34. * ^ Virji 1955 , p. 35–37. * ^ Virji 1955 , p. 38. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Virji 1955 , p. 38–42. * ^ Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Vol 3 p.164ff * ^ _A_ _B_ Virji 1955 , p. 42–45. * ^ Virji 1955 , p. 46–47. * ^ Virji 1955 , p. 47. * ^ Virji 1955 , p. 58–59. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Mahajan V.D. (1960, reprint 2007). _Ancient India_, S.Chand & Company, New Delhi, ISBN 81-219-0887-6 , pp.594-6 * ^ Virji 1955 , p. 59–61. * ^ _A_ _B_ Virji 1955 , p. 63–64. * ^ Virji 1955 , p. 65–69. * ^ _A_ _B_ Virji 1955 , p. 71–75. * ^ Virji 1955 , p. 71–80. * ^ Virji 1955 , p. 80. * ^ Virji 1955 , p. 81–82. * ^ Virji 1955 , p. 83–84. * ^ Virji 1955 , p. 85–88. * ^ Virji 1955 , p. 88. * ^ Virji 1955 , p. 90–93. * ^ Virji 1955 , p. 94. * ^ Virji 1955 , p. 94–96. * ^ Virji 1955 , p. 97–100. * ^ Virji 1955 , p. 101–102. * ^ Richards, J.F. (1974). "The Islamic frontier in the east: Expansion into South Asia". _Journal of South Asian Studies_. Taylor & Francis. 4 (1): 91–109. doi :10.1080/00856407408730690 . * ^ Virji 1955 , p. 102–105. * ^ Virji 1955 , p. 105. * ^ Virji 1955 , p. 165–186. * ^ Virji 1955 , p. 230–247. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Virji 1955 , p. 225–229.


* Virji, Krishnakumari Jethabhai (1955). _Ancient history of Saurashtra: being a study of the Maitrakas of Valabhi V to VIII centuries A. D._ Indian History and Culture Series. Konkan Institute of Arts and Sciences. * Jain, Kailash Chand (1991), _Lord Mahāvīra and His Times_, Motilal Banarsidass , ISBN 978-81-208-0805-8

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