* 1 Origin * 2 Valabhi
* 3 History
* 3.1 Bhatarka * 3.2 Dharasena I * 3.3 Dronasimha * 3.4 Dhruvasena I * 3.5 Dharapatta * 3.6 Guhasena * 3.7 Dharasena II * 3.8 Śīlāditya I * 3.9 Kharagraha I * 3.10 Dharasena III * 3.11 Dhruvasena II Baladitya * 3.12 Dharasena IV * 3.13 Dhruvasena III * 3.14 Kharagraha II * 3.15 Siladitya II * 3.16 Siladitya III * 3.17 Siladitya IV * 3.18 Siladitya V * 3.19 Siladitya VI
* 4 Religion * 5 Administration * 6 Architecture * 7 Coinage * 8 List of rulers * 9 See also
* 10 References
* 10.1 Bibliography
Early scholars like Fleet had misread copperplate grant and
considered Maitrakas as some foreign tribe defeated by Bhatarka.
Bhagwanlal Indraji believed that Maitrakas were foreign tribe while
Bhatarka, who defeated them, belonged to indigenous dynasty. Later
readings corrected that Bhatarka was himself
The copperplate grants do not help in identifying their origin, they describe only that the dynasty was born from war-like tribe whose capital was at Vallabhi and they were Shaivas . Chinese traveller Hieun-Tsang visited Vallabhi during second quarter of 7th century had described the ruler as a Kshatriya. Later Mahayana Buddhist work _Manju-Shri-Mula-Kalpa_ had described them as Varavatya Yadava. The late Jain traditional work _Shatrunjaya-Mahatmaya_ of Dhaneshwara describes Shiladitya as the Yadavas of Lunar race .
Virji concludes that Maitrakas were a Kshatriya of Lunar race and
their origin was probably from Mitra dynasty which once ruled region
Mathura (now in
When I-Tsing , another Chinese traveller, visited
Vallabhi in the
last quarter of 7th century, he found
Vallabhi as a great center of
Genealogical Tree of Maitrakas
The _Senapati_ (general) Bhatarka, was a military governor of
Saurashtra peninsula under
Gupta Empire , who had established himself
as the independent ruler of
Bhatarka was succeeded by his eldest son Dharasena I who also used only the title of _Senapati_ (general). He reigned approximately from 174 to 180 Valabhi Era (VE) (c. 493 - c. 499 CE). It seems that he further consolidated power in weakening Gupta Empire . the Maitrkas had marriage alliance with Harisena , the Vakataka king of Avanti who had himself captured many region formerly under Guptas. Chandralekha, who is described in _Dharasanasara_ of Devasena as the daughter of the king of Ujjayani and the queen of Dhruvasena I.
Dronasimha (c. 499 - c. 519 CE) was younger brother of Dharasena I.
He had declared himself as the _Maharaja_ known from his copperplate
dated 183 VE (502 CE). It is known that his coronation was attended by
some higher authority, probably
Vakataka as they had a marriage
According to the
* (Verses 3-4) (There is) the glorious Bhanugupta , a distinguished hero on earth, a mighty ruler, brave being equal to Partha. And along with him Goparaja, following (him) without fear, having overtaken the Maittras and having fought a very big and famous battle, went to heaven, becoming equal to Indra, the best of the gods; and (his) devoted, attached, beloved, and beauteous wife, clinging (to him), entered into the mass of fire (funeral pyre).
Dhruvasena I was the third son of Bhatarka and the younger brother of
Dronasimha. He reigned c. 519 - c. 549 CE. During his rule,
In these grants Dhruvasena’s father Bhaṭárka and his elder brothers are described as 'great Máheśvaras' that is followers of Śiva, while Dhruvasena himself is called 'Paramabhágavata', the great Vaishṇava. He must be liberal in religious beliefs. In the 535 CE grant, he had made an arrangement for a Buddhist monastery at Valabhi built by his Buddhist niece Duḍḍá (or Lulá?). He had made several grants to Brahmanas of Vadnagar . The Jain council at Vallabhi was probably held during his rule which was arranged by his wife Chandralekha. During these days, he had lost his son as the Vallabhi council has condoled on loss. Kalpa Sutra , the Jain text, was compiled probably during the reign of Dhruvasena, 980 or 993 years after the death (_Nirvana _) of Mahavira . Kalpa Sutra mentions that the public reading of it started at Anandapura (Vadnagar) to relieve Dhruvasena from the grief of death of his son. Based on his grants, it known that his kingdom extended from Dwarika to Valabhi, whole Saurashtra paninsula and as far as Vadnagar in the north.
During his rule, the Garulakas or Garudakas had accepted the Maitrkas
as their overlord. The Garulaka had captured
Dwarika probably with
help of the Maitrakas. They probably has an emblem of the
Dhruvasena I was succeeded by his younger brother Dharapatta who reigned for very short period, c. 549 to c. 553. He must be old when he ascended to throne as his elder brothers ruled before him and thus his reign may has been short. He is the only ruler described as _Paramaditya-Bhakta_, the devotee of the sun god. He is known by the copperplate grants of his grandson.
Dharapatta was succeeded by Guhasena who reigned from c. 553 to c. 569 CE. He must be grest king as the all later ruler from Shiladitya I to last ruler records his name in grants.
Guhasena stopped using the term _Paramabhattaraka Padanudhyata_ along
his name like his predecessors, which denotes the cessation of
displaying of the nominal allegiance to the Gupta overlords. He had
assumed title of _Maharajadhiraja_. During his early rule, the
All his copper-plates record donations to Buddhist monasteries. He
was devotee of
Early historians had considered Gahlots (Gohil) of Mewar as his descendants. James Tod had recorded one such legend but epigraph evidences do not support the assumption. Virji also makes the point that Gahlots were Brahmanas as per their inscriptions while the Maitrakas were Kshatriyas.
Maliya inscription of Dharasena II of the year 252 (571 CE).
Gahasena was succeeded by his son Dharasena II, who used the title of _Samanta_ in his early grants and later readopts the title of _Maharaja_ and later again as _Mahasamanta_. He reigned from 569 to 589–90 CE. It is considered that he had become subordinate to Maukhari ruler Ishanavarman for sometime between which reflect in the changes in titles. From Haraha inscription it known that Ishanavarman held sway over several rulers and Dharasena may have had to submit to him.
He had made land grants to Brahmanas noted in his copperplate grants. One of his grants of 254 or 257 VE mentions solar eclipse which had helped in establish the dating of the Valabhi Era (VE). His one grant mentions Sthiramati, the Buddist monk mentioned by Chinese traveler Hiuen Tsang. One independent grant dated 574 CE made by Garulaka king Simhaditya is also found at Palitana along with him.
Copper plate grant issued by Śīlāditya I, dated year 290 aśvayuja badi 10 recording a donation of villages and lands.
Dharasena II was succeeded by Śīlāditya I who is also called
Dharmaditya, the "sun of Dharma". He reigned from c. 590 - 615 CE.
_Manju-Sri-Mula-Kalpa_ assigns him thirty years. The _Śatruñjaya
Máhátmya_ has a prophetic account of one Śíláditya who will be a
propagator of religion in Vikrama Saṃvat 477 (420 CE). The work is
comparatively modern and do not correspond to chronology and dating of
He was Shaiva. The one of his grant, to a temple of Śiva, has for
its Dútaka the illustrious Kharagraha apparently the brother and
successor of the king. He had made grants to sun temple and Buddhist
monks shows that he tolerated and respected
He had a son named Derabhatta. He was succeeded by his younger brother Kharagraha I. It seems that there must have been contest between his elder brother Upendra and him but finally Kharagraha I had succeeded. Derabhatta is mentioned to had helped Siladitya is conquering some region between Sahya and Vindhya. He probably had helped Pulakeshin in war against Kalachuris and may gained the region as a result. He may have ruled the region independently till his death. His son and successor Siladitya may have ruled the region as an arrangement with his brother Karagraha. A queen named Janjika is mentioned in one of copperplates which may be wife of Siladitya I.
Siladitya I was succeeded by his younger brother Kharagraha I, also known as Ishwaragraha. Virdi copperplate grant (616 CE) of Kharagraha I proves that his territories included Ujjain which is mentioned as "victorious camp". He was probably in continued struggle with Harsha started during reign of his brother. Hie was Shaiva and reigned c. 615 - 621 CE.
Kharagraha was succeeded by his son Dharasena III. He reigned from c. 621 to 627 CE. His only grant is made from military camp at Khetaka ( Kheda ). Chapala mentioned in _Manju-Sri-Mula-Kalpa_ as a successor of Siladitya must be Dharasena III according to Virji while Jayaswal consider him as Kharagraha. He was Shaiva too. He had some gain in north Gujarat. He must have lost some power as his neighbouring kingdoms; Chalukya and Harshvardhan were in constant struggle.
DHRUVASENA II BALADITYA
After death of Dharasena III, he was succeeded by his younger brother
Dhruvasena II also known as Baladitya, the "rising son". He reigned
from c. 627-641 CE. He was well versed in grammar and the science of
polity. Hiuen Tsang had wrote "a livey and hasty disposition and his
wisdom and statecraft were shallow". He further adds that "he had
attached himself to the precious three recently", viz. the Buddha,
Dhamma and Sangha of
Dharasena IV succeeded Dhruvasena II and reigned from c. 641 to 650 CE. He had subdued Gurjaras of Lata (south Gujarat) as he has issued copperplate grants from Bharuch . he had assumed the imperial titles of _Paramabhattaraka Mahrajadhiraja Parameshvara Chakravartin_. He had made grants to Buddhist Viharas and Brahmanas. He was petron of scholars and the master archer. Probably during his reign, the Bhatti, the author of _Bhattikavya_ or _Ravanavadha_, flourished. It is a grammatical poem.
As Dharasena IV had no son, the succession transferred to the elder branch, Derabhatta lineage. He was succeeded by Dhruvasena III.
Dhruvasena III was son of Derabhatta. He reigned from c. 650 to 654-655 CE. He had dropped the title of _Chakravartin_ and was Shaiva. He may have lost his sway on Lata region to Chalukyas.
Kharagraha II Dharamaditya was successor of his younger brother Dhruvasena II. He had made agrant from military camp at Pulindaka which suggest that he was in continued struggle with Chalukyas. He reigned from c. 655 to 658. He had no son.
Siladitya was son of Siladitya, the elder brother of Kharagraha II. As Kharagraha II had no son, he assumed the throne. He reigned from c. 658 to 685 CE. He has mentioned his father Derabhatta in his grants. He had probably recovered the Lata region from the Sendraka governor under the Chalukyas. The Chalukyas recovered the region under Vikramaditya I and placed his son Dharashraya Jayasimha as its governor. The region was still rulerd by Gurjars of Lata and Dadda III was probably in the constant struggle with the Maitrakas.
Arab historians mentions that the Arab commander Ismail had attacked the Ghogha in 677 CE (AH 57) but gives no details. He must be defeated by Siladitya II.
Siladitya IV was son of Siladitya III who probably had Dharasena as
his personal name. He ruled from c. 710 to 740 CE. Chalukya king
Vikramaditya II had captured the Khetaka region from the Maitrakas
with presumed help of Jayabhatta IV, the Gurjara king of Lata. Sanjan
plate of 733 CE informs that
Biladuri, the Arab historian informs that the
After the Arab invasion, the fragmented western states were organised
under Siladitya V.
Siladitya VI, also known as Dhrubhata, reigned c. 762 to c. 776 CE. As he had issued a grant from Anandpura (Vadnagar), it is assumed that he was on expansion again taking advantage of prevailing situation in Rastrakutas and was in struggle with the Gurjara-Pratiharas. Saurashtra was again invaded by the Tajjikas (Arabs) in 776 CE (AH 159). They captured the township of Barada but the epidemic broke out. The Arabs had to return and the Caliph had decided to stop further attempt to enter India. Agguka I of the Saindhava dynasty had claimed a victory thus they had to withdraw in his inscription. The dynasty ended by c. 783 CE. Apart from legendary accounts which connects fall of Vallabi with the Tajjika (Arab) invasions, no historical source mention how the dynasty ended.
The governors of Girinagar (Girnar) and Vamanasthali ( Vanthli ) became independent and established their own dynasty on the fall of Vallabhi.
The Maitrakas were follower of the
Administrative divisions in the
There were administrative divisions managed by head of the division and helped by his subordinates. The highest division _Vishaya_ were headed by Rashtrapati or Amatya and the lowest division _Grama_ (equivalent to village) was headed by Gramakuta.
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Most of the constructions in this period were made of non-durable materials like bricks and wood. The Gop Temple is one surviving stone temple of the period.
The Maitrakas continued coinage styles established by their predecessors; the Guptas and the Western Kshatrapas . Large number of copper and silver coins are found in Vallabhi and elsewhere. There are two types of coins found. The first were 6" in diametre and weighterd 29 grains. They were perhaps earlier coins modeled after the Western Kshatrapa coins. Later coins were similar to the Gupta coins in shape, size and legends. Like Gupta coins, they were not made of pure silver but silver-coated.
The obverse of coin had the head of the kings facing right, as in Kshatrapa coins, but no legends or date. The reverse had Trishula , the trident, the emblem of Shiva. An axe (_parashu_) is added in reverse of some later coins. These symbols are surrounded by the legend in debased characters of Brahmi script . It reads,
“ _Rájño Mahákshatrapasa Bhatárakasa Mahesara–Śrí Bhaṭṭárakasa_ or _Rájño, Mahákshatrapasa Bhatarakasa Mahesara Śrí Śarvva Bhaṭṭárakasa_
Translation: " of the illustrious the Shaivaite, Bhattaraka, the great king; the great Kshtrapa; the Lord and the devotee of Maheshwara. ”
LIST OF RULERS
The list as follows:
* Bhatarka (c. 470-c. 492) * Dharasena I (c. 493-c. 499) * Dronasinha (also known as Maharaja) (c. 500-c. 520) * Dhruvasena I (c. 520-c. 550) * Dharapatta (c. 550-c. 556) * Guhasena (c. 556-c. 570) * Dharasena II (c. 570-c. 595) * Śīlāditya I (also known as Dharmaditya) (c. 595-c. 615) * Kharagraha I (c. 615-c. 626) * Dharasena III (c. 626-c. 640) * Dhruvasena II (also known as Baladitya) (c. 640-c. 644) * Chkravarti king Dharasena IV (also known as Param Bhatarka, Maharajadhiraja, Parameshwara) (c. 644-c. 651) * Dhruvasena III (c. 650-c. 654-655) * Kharagraha II (c. 655-c. 658) * Śīlāditya II (c. 658- c. 685) * Śīlāditya III (c. 690- c. 710) * Śīlāditya IV (c. 710- c. 740) * Śīlāditya V ( c. 740- c. 762) * Śīlāditya VI( c. 762- c. 776)
* ^ Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bombay, p 245, Bhau Daji (by
Asiatic Society of Bombay, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and
Ireland, Bombay Branch).
* ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, 1904, p 142, 476, by Bombay
* Virji, Krishnakumari Jethabhai (1955). _Ancient history of Saurashtra: being a study of the Maitrakas of Valabhi V to VIII centuries A. D._ Indian History and Culture Series. Konkan Institute of Arts and Sciences. * Jain, Kailash Chand (1991), _Lord Mahāvīra and His Times_, Motilal Banarsidass , ISBN 978-81-208-0805-8
Links: ------ /wiki/Vallabhi /wiki/Gujarat /wiki/India /#Origin /#Valabhi /#History /#Bhatarka /#Dharasena_I /#Dronasimha /#Dhruvasena_I /#Dharapatta /#Guhasena