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Magnolia
Magnolia
is a large genus of about 210[notes 1] flowering plant species in the subfamily Magnolioideae
Magnolioideae
of the family Magnoliaceae. It is named after French botanist Pierre Magnol. Magnolia
Magnolia
is an ancient genus. Appearing before bees did, the flowers are theorized to have evolved to encourage pollination by beetles. To avoid damage from pollinating beetles, the carpels of Magnolia
Magnolia
flowers are extremely tough.[1] Fossilised specimens of M. acuminata have been found dating to 20 million years ago, and of plants identifiably belonging to the Magnoliaceae
Magnoliaceae
date to 95 million years ago.[2] Another aspect of Magnolia
Magnolia
considered to represent an ancestral state is that the flower bud is enclosed in a bract rather than in sepals; the perianth parts are undifferentiated and called tepals rather than distinct sepals and petals. Magnolia
Magnolia
shares the tepal characteristic with several other flowering plants near the base of the flowering plant lineage such as Amborella
Amborella
and Nymphaea
Nymphaea
(as well as with many more recently derived plants such as Lilium). The natural range of Magnolia
Magnolia
species is a disjunct distribution, with a main centre in east and southeast Asia
Asia
and a secondary centre in eastern North America, Central America, the West Indies, and some species in South America.

Contents

1 Description 2 Taxonomy

2.1 History

2.1.1 Early 2.1.2 Recent 2.1.3 Phylogenetic era

2.2 Subdivision

2.2.1 Subgenus Magnolia

2.2.1.1 Section Magnolia 2.2.1.2 Section Gwillimia

2.2.1.2.1 Subsection Gwillimia 2.2.1.2.2 Subsection Blumiana

2.2.1.3 Section Talauma

2.2.1.3.1 Subsection Talauma 2.2.1.3.2 Subsection Dugandiodendron 2.2.1.3.3 Subsection Cubenses

2.2.1.4 Section Manglietia 2.2.1.5 Section Kmeria 2.2.1.6 Section Rhytidospermum

2.2.1.6.1 Subsection Rhytidospermum 2.2.1.6.2 Subsection Oyama

2.2.1.7 Section Auriculata 2.2.1.8 Section Macrophylla

2.2.2 Subgenus Yulania

2.2.2.1 Section Yulania

2.2.2.1.1 Subsection Yulania 2.2.2.1.2 Subsection Tulipastrum

2.2.2.2 Section Michelia

2.2.2.2.1 Subsection Michelia 2.2.2.2.2 Subsection Elmerrillia 2.2.2.2.3 Subsection Maingola 2.2.2.2.4 Subsection Aromadendron

2.2.3 Subgenus Gynopodium

2.2.3.1 Section Gynopodium 2.2.3.2 Section Manglietiastrum

2.3 Etymology

3 Uses

3.1 Horticultural uses 3.2 Culinary uses 3.3 Traditional medicine 3.4 Timber 3.5 Other uses

4 Chemical compounds and bioeffects 5 Culture

5.1 Symbols 5.2 Arts

5.2.1 Film and television 5.2.2 Music 5.2.3 Literature 5.2.4 Visual arts

6 See also 7 Notes 8 References

8.1 Bibliography

9 External links

Description[edit]

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Mature Magnolia
Magnolia
fruit just starting to open, with a few seeds visible

Magnolia
Magnolia
seeds and fruit on a tree in northern Argentina

As with all Magnoliaceae, the perianth is undifferentiated, with 9–15 tepals in 3 or more whorls. The flowers are bisexual with numerous adnate carpels and stamens are arranged in a spiral fashion on the elongated receptacle. The fruit dehisces along the dorsal sutures of the carpels. The pollen is monocolpate, and the embryo development is of the Polygonum
Polygonum
type.(Kapil 1964)(Xu and Rudall 2006) Taxonomy[edit] History[edit] Early[edit]

Magnolia
Magnolia
grandiflora

Magnolia
Magnolia
flowers in Wiesbaden, Germany

The name Magnolia
Magnolia
first appeared in 1703 in the Genera[3] of Charles Plumier (1646–1704), for a flowering tree from the island of Martinique
Martinique
(talauma). English botanist William Sherard, who studied botany in Paris under Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, a pupil of Magnol, was most probably the first after Plumier to adopt the genus name Magnolia. He was at least responsible for the taxonomic part of Johann Jacob Dillenius's Hortus Elthamensis[4] and of Mark Catesby's Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands.[5] These were the first works after Plumier's Genera
Genera
that used the name Magnolia, this time for some species of flowering trees from temperate North America. The species that Plumier originally named Magnolia
Magnolia
was later described as Annona dodecapetala by Lamarck,[6] and has since been named Magnolia
Magnolia
plumieri and Talauma
Talauma
plumieri (and still a number of other names) but is now known as Magnolia
Magnolia
dodecapetala.[notes 2] Carl Linnaeus, who was familiar with Plumier's Genera, adopted the genus name Magnolia
Magnolia
in 1735 in his first edition of Systema Naturae, without a description, but with a reference to Plumier's work. In 1753, he took up Plumier's Magnolia
Magnolia
in the first edition of Species Plantarum. There he described a monotypic genus, with the sole species being Magnolia
Magnolia
virginiana. Since Linnaeus never saw a herbarium specimen (if there ever was one) of Plumier's Magnolia
Magnolia
and had only his description and a rather poor picture at hand, he must have taken it for the same plant which was described by Catesby in his 1730 Natural History of Carolina. He placed it in the synonymy of Magnolia virginiana var. fœtida, the taxon now known as Magnolia
Magnolia
grandiflora. Under Magnolia virginiana
Magnolia virginiana
Linnaeus described five varieties (glauca, fœtida, grisea, tripetala, and acuminata). In the tenth edition of Systema Naturae
Systema Naturae
(1759), he merged grisea with glauca, and raised the four remaining varieties to species status.[notes 3] By the end of the 18th century, botanists and plant hunters exploring Asia
Asia
began to name and describe the Magnolia
Magnolia
species from China and Japan. The first Asiatic species to be described by western botanists were Magnolia denudata
Magnolia denudata
and Magnolia
Magnolia
liliiflora,[notes 4] and Magnolia coco and Magnolia
Magnolia
figo.[notes 5] Soon after that, in 1794, Carl Peter Thunberg collected and described Magnolia obovata
Magnolia obovata
from Japan and at roughly the same time Magnolia kobus
Magnolia kobus
was also first collected.[7] Recent[edit] With the number of species increasing, the genus was divided into the two subgenera Magnolia
Magnolia
and Yulania. Magnolia
Magnolia
contains the American evergreen species M. grandiflora, which is of horticultural importance, especially in the southeastern United States, and M. virginiana, the type species. Yulania contains several deciduous Asiatic species, such as M. denudata and M. kobus, which have become horticulturally important in their own right and as parents in hybrids. Classified in Yulania, is also the American deciduous M. acuminata (cucumber tree), which has recently attained greater status as the parent responsible for the yellow flower colour in many new hybrids. Relations in the family Magnoliaceae
Magnoliaceae
have been puzzling taxonomists for a long time. Because the family is quite old and has survived many geological events (such as ice ages, mountain formation, and continental drift), its distribution has become scattered. Some species or groups of species have been isolated for a long time, while others could stay in close contact. To create divisions in the family (or even within the genus Magnolia), solely based upon morphological characters, has proven to be a nearly impossible task.[notes 6] Phylogenetic era[edit] By the end of the 20th century, DNA sequencing
DNA sequencing
had become available as a method of large-scale research on phylogenetic relationships. Several studies, including studies on many species in the family Magnoliaceae, were carried out to investigate relationships.[8][9][10] What these studies all revealed was that genus Michelia
Michelia
and Magnolia subgenus Yulania were far more closely allied to each other than either one of them was to Magnolia
Magnolia
subgenus Magnolia. These phylogenetic studies were supported by morphological data.[11] As nomenclature is supposed to reflect relationships, the situation with the species names in Michelia
Michelia
and Magnolia
Magnolia
subgenus Yulania was undesirable. Taxonomically, three choices are available: 1 to join Michelia
Michelia
and Yulania species in a common genus, not being Magnolia (for which the name Michelia
Michelia
has priority), 2 to raise subgenus Yulania to generic rank, leaving Michelia
Michelia
names and subgenus Magnolia names untouched, or 3 to join Michelia
Michelia
with genus Magnolia
Magnolia
into genus Magnolia
Magnolia
s.l. (a big genus). Magnolia
Magnolia
subgenus Magnolia
Magnolia
cannot be renamed because it contains M. virginiana, the type species of the genus and of the family. Not many Michelia
Michelia
species have so far become horticulturally or economically important, apart for their wood. Both subgenus Magnolia
Magnolia
and subgenus Yulania include species of major horticultural importance, and a change of name would be very undesirable for many people, especially in the horticultural branch. In Europe, Magnolia
Magnolia
even is more or less a synonym for Yulania, since most of the cultivated species on this continent have Magnolia (Yulania) denudata as one of their parents. Most taxonomists who acknowledge close relations between Yulania and Michelia
Michelia
therefore support the third option and join Michelia
Michelia
with Magnolia. The same goes, mutatis mutandis, for the (former) genera Talauma
Talauma
and Dugandiodendron, which are then placed in subgenus Magnolia, and genus Manglietia, which could be joined with subgenus Magnolia
Magnolia
or may even earn the status of an extra subgenus. Elmerrillia seems to be closely related to Michelia
Michelia
and Yulania, in which case it will most likely be treated in the same way as Michelia
Michelia
is now. The precise nomenclatural status of small or monospecific genera like Kmeria, Parakmeria, Pachylarnax, Manglietiastrum, Aromadendron, Woonyoungia, Alcimandra, Paramichelia and Tsoongiodendron remains uncertain. Taxonomists who merge Michelia
Michelia
into Magnolia
Magnolia
tend to merge these small genera into Magnolia
Magnolia
s.l. as well. Botanists do not yet agree on whether to recognize a big Magnolia
Magnolia
genus or the different small genera. For example, Flora of China
Flora of China
offers two choices: a large Magnolia
Magnolia
which includes about 300 species, everything in the Magnoliaceae
Magnoliaceae
except Liriodendron
Liriodendron
(tulip tree), or 16 different genera, some of them recently split out or re-recognized, each of which contains up to 50 species.[12] The western co-author favors the big Magnolia
Magnolia
genus, whereas the Chinese recognize the different small genera. Subdivision[edit] Species
Species
of Magnolia
Magnolia
are most commonly listed under three subgenera, 12 sections, and 13 subsections, such as that used here, following the classification of the Magnolia
Magnolia
Society.[13] It does not represent the last word on the subclassification of the genus Magnolia
Magnolia
(see above), as a clear consensus has not yet been reached. Each species entry follows this pattern: Botanical name Naming auth. - (REGION FOUND) The subdivision structure is as follows:

Subgenus Magnolia
Magnolia
(8 sections)

Magnolia Gwillimia (2 subsections)

Gwillimia Blumiana

Talauma
Talauma
(3 subsections)

Talauma Dugandiodendron Cubenses

Manglietia Kmeria Rhytidospermum (2 subsections)

Rhytidospermum Oyama

Auriculata Macrophylla

Subgenus Yulania (2 sections)

Yulania (2 subsections)

Yulania Tulipastrum

Michelia
Michelia
(4 subsections)

Michelia Elmerrillia Maingola Aromadendron

Subgenus Gynopodium (2 sections)

Gynopodium Manglietiastrum

Subgenus Magnolia[edit] Anthers
Anthers
open by splitting at the front facing the centre of the flower, deciduous or evergreen, flowers produced after the leaves. Section Magnolia[edit]

Magnolia grandiflora
Magnolia grandiflora
L. - (SE US) Magnolia guatemalensis Donn. Sm. - (GUATEMALA, HONDURAS, EL SALVADOR)

Magnolia guatemalensis ssp. guatemalensis (GUATEMALA) Magnolia guatemalensis ssp. hondurensis (Molina) Vazquez (HONDURAS, EL SALVADOR)

Magnolia iltisiana
Magnolia iltisiana
Vazquez (W MEXICO) Magnolia pacifica
Magnolia pacifica
Vazquez (W MEXICO)

Magnolia pacifica
Magnolia pacifica
ssp. pacifica (W MEXICO) Magnolia pacifica
Magnolia pacifica
ssp. pugana Iltis & Vazquez (W MEXICO) Magnolia pacifica
Magnolia pacifica
ssp. tarahumara Vazquez (W MEXICO)

Magnolia panamensis
Magnolia panamensis
Vazquez & Iltis (PANAMA) Magnolia poasana (Pittier) Dandy (COSTA RICA, PANAMA) Magnolia schiedeana
Magnolia schiedeana
Schltdl. (E MEXICO) Magnolia sharpii
Magnolia sharpii
Meranda (CHIAPAS MEXICO) Magnolia
Magnolia
sororum Seibert (COSTA RICA, PANAMA)

Magnolia
Magnolia
sororum ssp. lutea Vazquez . (COSTA RICA, PANAMA) Magnolia
Magnolia
sororum ssp. sororum (PANAMA)

Magnolia
Magnolia
tamaulipana Vazquez - Mexican evergreen magnolia (NE MEXICO) Magnolia virginiana
Magnolia virginiana
L. (SE US) Magnolia yoroconte
Magnolia yoroconte
Dandy (GUATEMALA, HONDURAS, BELIZE)

Section Gwillimia[edit] Subsection Gwillimia[edit]

Magnolia
Magnolia
albosericea Chun & Tsoong. (HAINAN (CHINA)) Magnolia
Magnolia
championii Benth (S & SE CHINA) Magnolia
Magnolia
coco (Lour.) DC. (SE CHINA) Magnolia delavayi
Magnolia delavayi
Franchet (YUNNAN (CHINA)) Magnolia
Magnolia
fistulosa (Finet & Gagnep.) Dandy (SE YUNNAN (CHINA)) Magnolia henryi
Magnolia henryi
Dunn (YUNNAN (CHINA)) Magnolia nana Dandy (VIETNAM) Magnolia
Magnolia
odoratissima Law et Zhou (S CHINA) Magnolia
Magnolia
pterocarpa Roxb. (NEPAL, BURMA)

Subsection Blumiana[edit]

Magnolia
Magnolia
gigantifolia (Miq.) Noot. (BORNEO, SUMATRA) Magnolia hodgsonii
Magnolia hodgsonii
(Hook.f. & Thom.) H.Keng (NEPAL, BURMA) Magnolia
Magnolia
lasia Noot. (BORNEO) Magnolia liliifera
Magnolia liliifera
(L.) Baillon (SE ASIA, BORNEO, PHILIPPINES, SINGAPORE, SUMATRA)

Magnolia liliifera
Magnolia liliifera
var. angatensis (Blanco) Noot. (PHILIPPINES) Magnolia liliifera
Magnolia liliifera
var. beccarii (Ridley) Noot. (BORNEO) Magnolia liliifera
Magnolia liliifera
var. liliifera (SE ASIA) Magnolia liliifera
Magnolia liliifera
var. obovata (Korth.) Govaerts (BORNEO) Magnolia liliifera
Magnolia liliifera
var. singapurensis (Ridley) Noot. (SINGAPORE, SUMATRA)

Magnolia
Magnolia
mariusjacobsia Noot. (BORNEO) Magnolia
Magnolia
persuaveolens Dandy (BORNEO)

Magnolia
Magnolia
persuaveolens ssp. persuaveolens (BORNEO) Magnolia
Magnolia
persuaveolens ssp. rigida Noot. (BORNEO)

Magnolia
Magnolia
sarawakensis (Agostini) Noot. (BORNEO) Magnolia
Magnolia
villosa (Miq.) H.Keng (SUMATRA, BORNEO)

Section Talauma[edit] Subsection Talauma[edit]

Magnolia
Magnolia
allenii Standl. (PANAMA) Magnolia amazonica (Ducke) Govaerts (BRAZIL, PERU) Magnolia
Magnolia
arcabucoana (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA) Magnolia
Magnolia
bankardiorum M.O.Dillon & Sánchez Vega (PERU) Magnolia boliviana
Magnolia boliviana
(M.Nee) Govaerts (BOLIVIA) Magnolia caricifragrans
Magnolia caricifragrans
(Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA) Magnolia cespedesii
Magnolia cespedesii
(Triana & Planch) Govaerts (COLOMBIA) Magnolia
Magnolia
chocoensis (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA) Magnolia dixonii
Magnolia dixonii
(Little) Govaerts (ECUADOR) Magnolia dodecapetala
Magnolia dodecapetala
(Lam.) Govaerts (LESSER ANTILLES) Magnolia espinalii
Magnolia espinalii
(Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA) Magnolia georgii
Magnolia georgii
(Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA) Magnolia gilbertoi
Magnolia gilbertoi
(Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA) Magnolia
Magnolia
gloriensis (Pittier) Govaerts (CENTRAL AMERICA) Magnolia hernandezii
Magnolia hernandezii
(Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA) Magnolia
Magnolia
irwiniana (Lozano) Govaerts (BRAZIL) Magnolia jardinensis
Magnolia jardinensis
M.Serna, C.Velásquez & Cogollo (COLOMBIA) Magnolia katiorum
Magnolia katiorum
(Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA) Magnolia
Magnolia
lacandonica Vazquez-Garcia, Perez-Farrera, Martinez-Camilo, Muniz-Castro & Martinez-Melendez (MEXICO) Magnolia
Magnolia
manguillo Marcelo-Peña & F. Arroyo (PERU) Magnolia
Magnolia
mexicana DC. (MEXICO) Magnolia minor
Magnolia minor
(Urb.) Govaerts (CUBA) Magnolia
Magnolia
morii (Lozano) Govaerts (PANAMA) Magnolia narinensis
Magnolia narinensis
(Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA) Magnolia neillii
Magnolia neillii
(Lozano) Govaerts (ECUADOR) Magnolia
Magnolia
ovata (A.St.-Hil.) Spreng. (BRAZIL) Magnolia polyhypsophylla
Magnolia polyhypsophylla
(Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA) Magnolia
Magnolia
quetzal Vazquez-Garcia, Veliz-Perez, Triboullier-Navas & Muniz-Castro (GUATEMALA) Magnolia rimachii (Lozano) Govaerts (PERU, ECUADOR) Magnolia sambuensis
Magnolia sambuensis
(Pittier) Govaerts (PANAMA, COLOMBIA) Magnolia santanderiana
Magnolia santanderiana
(Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA) Magnolia
Magnolia
sellowiana (A.St.-Hil.) Govaerts (BRAZIL) Magnolia silvioi
Magnolia silvioi
(Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA) Magnolia
Magnolia
venezuelensis (Lozano) Govaerts (VENEZUELA) Magnolia virolinensis
Magnolia virolinensis
(Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA) Magnolia wolfii
Magnolia wolfii
(Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)

Subsection Dugandiodendron[edit]

Magnolia
Magnolia
argyrothricha (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA) Magnolia calimaensis
Magnolia calimaensis
(Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA) Magnolia calophylla
Magnolia calophylla
(Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA) Magnolia cararensis
Magnolia cararensis
(Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA) Magnolia
Magnolia
chimantensis Steyermark & Maguire - Chimanta magnolia (VENEZUELA) Magnolia colombiana
Magnolia colombiana
(Little) Govaerts (COLOMBIA) Magnolia guatapensis
Magnolia guatapensis
(Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA) Magnolia
Magnolia
jaenensis Marcelo-Peña (PERU) Magnolia
Magnolia
lenticellata (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA) Magnolia
Magnolia
magnifolia (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA) Magnolia mahechae
Magnolia mahechae
(Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA) Magnolia
Magnolia
ptaritepuiana Steyermark - ptari-tepui magnolia (VENEZUELA) Magnolia
Magnolia
striatifolia Little (COLOMBIA, ECUADOR) Magnolia urraoense
Magnolia urraoense
(Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA) Magnolia yarumalense
Magnolia yarumalense
(Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)

Subsection Cubenses[edit]

Magnolia
Magnolia
cacuminoides Bisse (CUBA) Magnolia cristalensis Bisse (CUBA) Magnolia cubensis Urb. (CUBA) Magnolia
Magnolia
domingensis Urb. (HAITI, DOM. REP.) Magnolia
Magnolia
ekmannii Urb. (HAITI) Magnolia
Magnolia
emarginata Urb. & Ekman (HAITI) Magnolia
Magnolia
hamorii Howard (DOM. REP.) Magnolia pallescens
Magnolia pallescens
Urb. & Ekman (DOM. REP.) Magnolia portoricensis
Magnolia portoricensis
Bello (PUERTO RICO) Magnolia splendens Urban (PUERTO RICO)

Section Manglietia[edit]

Magnolia
Magnolia
aromatica (Dandy) V.S.Kumar (S CHINA) Magnolia
Magnolia
blaoensis (Gagnep.) Dandy (VIETNAM) Magnolia blumei
Magnolia blumei
Prantl (SUMATRA, JAVA)

Magnolia blumei
Magnolia blumei
var. blumei (SUMATRA, JAVA) Magnolia blumei
Magnolia blumei
var. sumatrana (Miq.) Figlar & Noot. (W SUMATRA)

Magnolia
Magnolia
calophylloides Figlar & Noot. (W SUMATRA) Magnolia
Magnolia
caveana (Hook.f. & Thoms.) D.C.Raju & M.P.Nayer (ASSAM, N BURMA) Magnolia
Magnolia
chevalieri (Dandy) V.S.Kumar (VIETNAM, LAOS) Magnolia
Magnolia
conifera (Dandy) V.S.Kumar (SE CHINA, VIETNAM)

Magnolia
Magnolia
conifera var. chingii (Dandy) V.S.Kumar (SE CHINA) Magnolia
Magnolia
conifera var. conifera (SE CHINA, VIETNAM)

Magnolia
Magnolia
crassipes (Y.W.Law) V.S.Kumar (GUANGDONG (CHINA)) Magnolia dandyi
Magnolia dandyi
(Gapnep.) Dandy (S CHINA, VIETNAM, LAOS) Magnolia
Magnolia
decidua (Q.Y.Zheng) V.S.Kumar (JIANGXI (CHINA)) Magnolia
Magnolia
dolichogyna (Dandy ex Noot.) Figlar & Noot. (BORNEO, MALAY PENIN.) Magnolia
Magnolia
duclouxii Finet & Gagnep. (VIETNAM, SW CHINA) Magnolia
Magnolia
figlarii V.S.Kumar (SICHUAN (CHINA)) Magnolia
Magnolia
fordiana (Oliv.) Hu (VIETNAM, S CHINA)

Magnolia
Magnolia
fordiana var. calcarea (X.H.Song) Chen & Noot. (GUIZHOU (CHINA)) Magnolia
Magnolia
fordiana var. fordiana (VIETNAM, S CHINA) Magnolia
Magnolia
fordiana var. forrestii (W.W.Sm. Ex Dandy) Chen & Noot. (SW CHINA) Magnolia
Magnolia
fordiana var. kwangtungensis (Merr.) Chen & Noot. (SE CHINA)

Magnolia
Magnolia
garrettii (Craib) V.S.Kumar (SW CHINA, VIETNAM, THAILAND) Magnolia
Magnolia
grandis (Hu & W.C.Cheng) V.S.Kumar (YUNNAN (CHINA)) Magnolia
Magnolia
hookeri Cubitt & W.W.Sm. (SW CHINA, N BURMA, THAILAND) Magnolia
Magnolia
insignis (Wall.) Blume (S CHINA, NEPAL, BURMA) Magnolia
Magnolia
lanuginosoides Figlar & Noot. (SUMATRA) Magnolia
Magnolia
lucida (B.L.Chen & S.C.Yang) V.S.Kumar (SW CHINA) Magnolia
Magnolia
megaphylla (Hu & W.C.Cheng) V.S.Kumar (YUNNAN (CHINA)) Magnolia
Magnolia
moto (Dandy) V.S.Kumar (SE CHINA) Magnolia
Magnolia
obovalifolia (C.Y.Yu & Law) V.S.Kumar (YUNNAN (CHINA)) Magnolia
Magnolia
ovoidea (H.T.Chang & B.L.Chen) V.S.Kumar (YUNNAN (CHINA)) Magnolia
Magnolia
phuthoensis (Dandy ex Gapnep.) V.S.Kumar (VIETNAM) Magnolia
Magnolia
rufibarbata (Dandy) V.S.Kumar (VIETNAM) Magnolia
Magnolia
sabahensis (Dandy ex Noot.) Figlar & Noot. (BORNEO) Magnolia
Magnolia
tibetica V.S.Kumar (TIBET) Magnolia
Magnolia
utilis (Dandy) V.S.Kumar (N BURMA, THAILAND) Magnolia
Magnolia
ventii (N.V.Tiep) V.S.Kumar (YUNNAN (CHINA)) Magnolia
Magnolia
yuyuanensis (Y.W.Law) V.S.Kumar (E CHINA)

Section Kmeria[edit]

Magnolia
Magnolia
duperreana Pierre (VIETNAM, CAMBODIA) Magnolia
Magnolia
kwangsiensis Figlar & Noot. (YUNNAN, GUANGXI (CHINA)) Magnolia thailandica Noot. & Chalermglin (THAILAND)

Section Rhytidospermum[edit]

M. obovata

Subsection Rhytidospermum[edit]

Magnolia obovata
Magnolia obovata
Thunb. (JAPAN) Magnolia officinalis
Magnolia officinalis
Rehd. & Wilson (W CHINA)

Magnolia officinalis
Magnolia officinalis
ssp. biloba Cheng & Law (E CHINA) Magnolia officinalis
Magnolia officinalis
ssp. officinalis (E CHINA)

Magnolia rostrata
Magnolia rostrata
W.W.Smith (SW CHINA) Magnolia tripetala
Magnolia tripetala
(L.) L. (SE US)

M. wilsonii

Subsection Oyama[edit]

Magnolia globosa Hook.f. & Thoms. (NEPAL, BURMA) Magnolia sieboldii
Magnolia sieboldii
K.Koch (KOREA, E CHINA, JAPAN)

Magnolia sieboldii
Magnolia sieboldii
ssp. japonica K.Ueda (JAPAN, CENTRAL CHINA) Magnolia sieboldii
Magnolia sieboldii
ssp. sieboldii (JAPAN) Magnolia sieboldii
Magnolia sieboldii
ssp. sinensis (Rehd. & Wilson) Spongberg (CENTRAL CHINA)

Magnolia wilsonii
Magnolia wilsonii
(Finet. & Gagnep.) Rehd. - Wilson's magnolia (SW CHINA)

M. fraseri

Section Auriculata[edit]

Magnolia fraseri
Magnolia fraseri
Walt. - Fraser magnolia or ear-leaved magnolia (SE US)

Magnolia fraseri
Magnolia fraseri
var. fraseri - Fraser magnolia or ear-leaved magnolia (SE US) Magnolia fraseri
Magnolia fraseri
var. pyramidata (Bartram) Pampanini - pyramid magnolia (SE US)[notes 7]

M. macrophylla var. ashei flower in female phase

Section Macrophylla[edit]

Magnolia macrophylla
Magnolia macrophylla
Michx. (SE US, E MEXICO)

Magnolia macrophylla
Magnolia macrophylla
var. ashei (Weatherby) D.Johnson (SE US)[notes 8] Magnolia macrophylla
Magnolia macrophylla
var. dealbata (Zuccarini) D.Johnson (E MEXICO)[notes 9] Magnolia macrophylla
Magnolia macrophylla
var. macrophylla (SE US)

Subgenus Yulania[edit] Anthers
Anthers
open by splitting at the sides, deciduous, flowers mostly produced before leaves (except M. acuminata) Section Yulania[edit]

M. liliiflora

Subsection Yulania[edit]

Magnolia amoena
Magnolia amoena
W.C.Cheng (E CHINA) Magnolia biondii
Magnolia biondii
Pampan (E CHINA) Magnolia campbellii
Magnolia campbellii
Hook.f. & Thomson (W CHINA, HIMALAYAS, INDIA, NEPAL, ASSAM)

Magnolia campbellii
Magnolia campbellii
var. alba Treseder (HIMALAYAS) Magnolia campbellii
Magnolia campbellii
var. campbellii . (HIMALAYAS) Magnolia campbellii
Magnolia campbellii
var. mollicomata (W.W.Smith) F.Kingdon-Ward (W CHINA, HIMALAYAS)

Magnolia cylindrica
Magnolia cylindrica
Wilson (E CHINA) Magnolia dawsoniana
Magnolia dawsoniana
Rehd. & Wilson (SICHUAN (CHINA)) Magnolia denudata
Magnolia denudata
Desr. (E CHINA) Magnolia kobus
Magnolia kobus
DC. (JAPAN, KOREA) Magnolia liliiflora
Magnolia liliiflora
Desr. (C CHINA) Magnolia salicifolia
Magnolia salicifolia
(Sieb. & Zucc.) Maxim. (JAPAN) Magnolia sargentiana
Magnolia sargentiana
Rehd. & Wilson (W CHINA)

Magnolia sargentiana
Magnolia sargentiana
var. robusta Rehd. & Wilson (SICHUAN (CHINA)) Magnolia sargentiana
Magnolia sargentiana
var. sargentiana (W CHINA)

Magnolia sprengeri
Magnolia sprengeri
Pampan (SICHUAN (CHINA))

Magnolia sprengeri
Magnolia sprengeri
var. elongata (Rehd. & Wilson) Johnstone (SICHUAN (CHINA)) Magnolia sprengeri
Magnolia sprengeri
var. sprengeri (SICHUAN (CHINA))

Magnolia stellata
Magnolia stellata
(Sieb. & Zucc.) Maxim. (JAPAN) Magnolia × soulangeana
Magnolia × soulangeana
Thiéb.-Bern. (HYBRID ORIGIN) Magnolia zenii
Magnolia zenii
Cheng (E CHINA) Magnolia loebneri
Magnolia loebneri
Paul Kache (JAPAN)

Subsection Tulipastrum[edit]

Magnolia acuminata
Magnolia acuminata
(L.) L. (E NORTH AMERICA)

Magnolia acuminata
Magnolia acuminata
var. acuminata (E NORTH AMERICA) Magnolia acuminata
Magnolia acuminata
var. subcordata (Spach) Dandy (SE US)

Section Michelia[edit]

Magnolia
Magnolia
× alba

Subsection Michelia[edit]

Magnolia × alba
Magnolia × alba
(DC.) Figlar & Noot. (HYBRID ORIGIN) Magnolia
Magnolia
angustioblonga (Law & Wu) Figlar (SW CHINA) Magnolia
Magnolia
baillonii Pierre (SW CHINA, VIETNAM) Magnolia
Magnolia
balansae A.DC. (S CHINA, VIETNAM) Magnolia
Magnolia
banghamii (Noot.) Figlar & Noot. (MALAYSIA, SUMATRA) Magnolia
Magnolia
braianensis (Gagnep.) Figlar (VIETNAM) Magnolia
Magnolia
cavaleriei (Finet & Gagnep.) Figlar (S CHINA) Magnolia champaca
Magnolia champaca
(L.) Baillon ex Pierre (S INDIA, LESSER SUNDA IS., JAVA, MALAY PENIN.)

Magnolia champaca
Magnolia champaca
var. champaca (S INDIA, LESSER SUNDA IS.) Magnolia champaca
Magnolia champaca
var. pubinervia (Blume) Figlar & Noot. (JAVA, MALAY PENIN.)

Magnolia
Magnolia
chapensis (Dandy) Sima (S CHINA, N VIETNAM) Magnolia
Magnolia
compressa Maxim. (JAPAN, SW CHINA) Magnolia
Magnolia
coriacea (H.T.Chang & B.L.Chen) Figlar (SE YUNNAN (CHINA)) Magnolia
Magnolia
dianica Sima & Figlar (SW CHINA) Magnolia doltsopa
Magnolia doltsopa
(Buch.-Ham. Ex DC.) Figlar (SW CHINA, HIMALAYAS) Magnolia
Magnolia
elliptilimba (B.L.Chen & Noot.) Figlar (YUNNAN (CHINA)) Magnolia
Magnolia
ernestii Figlar . (SICHUAN (CHINA))

Magnolia
Magnolia
ernestii ssp. ernestii (SICHUAN (CHINA)) Magnolia
Magnolia
ernestii ssp. szechuanica (Dandy) Sima & Figlar (SICHUAN (CHINA))

Magnolia figo
Magnolia figo
(Lour.) DC. (SE CHINA)

Magnolia figo
Magnolia figo
var. crassipes (Law) Figlar & Noot. (SE CHINA) Magnolia figo
Magnolia figo
var. figo . (SE CHINA) Magnolia figo
Magnolia figo
var. skinneriana ined. (SE CHINA)

Magnolia
Magnolia
flaviflora (Law & Wu) Figlar (VIETNAM, SW CHINA) Magnolia
Magnolia
floribunda (Finet & Gagnep.) Figlar . (S CHINA, VIETNAM) Magnolia
Magnolia
foveolata (Merr. Ex Dandy) Figlar (S CHINA, VIETNAM) Magnolia
Magnolia
fujianensis (Q.F.Zheng) Figlar (SE CHINA) Magnolia
Magnolia
fulva (H.T.Chang & B.L.Chen) Figlar (YUNNAN (CHINA), VIET.?)

Magnolia
Magnolia
fulva var. calcicola Sima & Yu (YUNNAN (CHINA)) Magnolia
Magnolia
fulva var. fulva . (YUNNAN (CHINA))

Magnolia
Magnolia
guangxiensis (Law & R.Z.Zhou) Sima (GUANGXI (CHINA)) Magnolia
Magnolia
hypolampra (Dandy) Figlar (S CHINA, VIETNAM) Magnolia
Magnolia
ingrata (B.L.Chen & S.C.Lang) Figlar (YUNNAN (CHINA)) Magnolia
Magnolia
jiangxiensis (H.T.Chang & B.L.Chen) Figlar (JIANGXI (CHINA)) Magnolia
Magnolia
kingii (Dandy) Figlar (BANGLADESH, ASSAM) Magnolia
Magnolia
kisopa (Bush.-Ham. ex DC.) Figlar (VIETNAM, NEPAL) Magnolia
Magnolia
koordersiana (Noot.) Figlar (MALAYSIA, W SUMATRA) Magnolia
Magnolia
lacei (W.W.Smith) Figlar (SW CHINA, VIETNAM) Magnolia
Magnolia
lanuginosa (Wall.) Figlar & Noot. (YUNNAN (CHINA), NEPAL) Magnolia
Magnolia
leveilleana (Dandy) Figlar (SW CHINA) Magnolia
Magnolia
macclurei (Dandy) Figlar (S CHINA, N VIETNAM)

Magnolia
Magnolia
macclurei var. macclurei . (S CHINA, N VIETNAM) Magnolia
Magnolia
macclurei var. sublanea Dandy (GUANGDONG (CHINA))

Magnolia
Magnolia
mannii (King) King (ASSAM) Magnolia
Magnolia
martinii H.Lev. (SE CHINA, VIETNAM) Magnolia
Magnolia
masticata (Dandy) Figlar (YUNNAN (CHINA), LAOS) Magnolia
Magnolia
maudiae (Dunn) Figlar (SE CHINA, HAINAN IS.)

Magnolia
Magnolia
maudiae var. hunanensis (C.L.Peng & L.H.Yan) Sima (HUNAN (CHINA)) Magnolia
Magnolia
maudiae var. maudiae (SE CHINA, HAINAN IS.) Magnolia
Magnolia
maudiae var. platypetala (Hand.-Mazz.) Sima (S-CENTRAL CHINA)

Magnolia
Magnolia
mediocris (Dandy) Figlar (S CHINA, VIETNAM) Magnolia
Magnolia
microcarpa (B.L.Chen & S.C.Yang) Sima (S CHINA) Magnolia
Magnolia
microtricha (Hand.-Mazz.) Figlar. (YUNNAN (CHINA)) Magnolia montana
Magnolia montana
(Blume) Figlar & Noot. (MALAYSIA to BORNEO) Magnolia nilagirica
Magnolia nilagirica
(Zenker) Figlar (S INDIA, SRI LANKA) Magnolia
Magnolia
oblonga (Wall. Ex Hook.f. & Thomson) Figlar . (ASSAM) Magnolia
Magnolia
odora (Chun) Figlar & Noot. (SE CHINA, N VIETNAM) Magnolia
Magnolia
opipara (H.T.Chang & B.L.Chen) Sima (YUNNAN (CHINA)) Magnolia
Magnolia
philippinensis P.Pharm (PHILIPPINES) Magnolia
Magnolia
punduana (Hook.f. & Thoms.) Figlar (ASSAM) Magnolia
Magnolia
rajaniana (Craib.) Figlar . (THAILAND) Magnolia
Magnolia
scortechinii (King) Figlar & Noot. (MALAY PENIN., W SUMATRA) Magnolia
Magnolia
shiluensis (Chun & Y.F.Wu) Figlar (HAINAN IS.) Magnolia
Magnolia
sirindhorniae Noot. & Chalermglin (THAILAND) Magnolia
Magnolia
sphaerantha (C.Y.Wu ex Z.S.Yue) Sima (SW CHINA) Magnolia
Magnolia
subulifera (Dandy) Figlar (VIETNAM) Magnolia
Magnolia
sumatrae (Dandy) Figlar & Noot. (MALAYSIA, SUMATRA) Magnolia xanthantha
Magnolia xanthantha
(C.Y.Wu ex Law & Y.F.Wu) Figlar (YUNNAN (CHINA))

Subsection Elmerrillia[edit]

Magnolia
Magnolia
platyphylla (Merr.) Figlar & Noot. (PHILIPPINES)[14] Magnolia
Magnolia
pubescens (Merr.) Figlar & Noot. (PHILIPPINES)[15] Magnolia sulawesiana Brambach, Noot. & Culmsee (SULAWESI)[16] Magnolia
Magnolia
tsiampacca (L.) Figlar & Noot. (SUMATRA, BORNEO, SULAWESI, MOLUCCAS, NEW GUINEA, BISMARCK ARCHIPELAGO)[17]

Magnolia
Magnolia
tsiampacca ssp. mollis (Dandy) Figlar & Noot. (SUMATRA, BORNEO)[18] Magnolia
Magnolia
tsiampacca ssp. tsiampacca (SULAWESI, MOLUCCAS, NEW GUINEA, BISMARCK ARCHIPELAGO)[19]

Magnolia
Magnolia
tsiampacca ssp. tsiampacca var. glaberrima (Dandy) Figlar & Noot. (NEW GUINEA)[20] Magnolia
Magnolia
tsiampacca ssp. tsiampacca var. tsiampacca (SULAWESI, MOLUCCAS, NEW GUINEA, BISMARCK ARCHIPELAGO)

Magnolia vrieseana
Magnolia vrieseana
(Miq.) Baill. ex Pierre (SULAWESI, MOLUCCAS)[21]

Subsection Maingola[edit]

Magnolia
Magnolia
annamensis Dandy (VIETNAM) Magnolia
Magnolia
carsonii Dandy ex Noot. (BORNEO, CELEBES)

Magnolia
Magnolia
carsonii var. carsonii (BORNEO) Magnolia
Magnolia
carsonii var. drymifolia Noot. (BORNEO) Magnolia
Magnolia
carsonii var. phaulanta (Dandy ex Noot.) S.Kim (CELEBES)

Magnolia
Magnolia
cathcartii (Hook.f. & Thoms.) Noot. (SW CHINA, BURMA) Magnolia griffithii
Magnolia griffithii
King (INDIA, ASSAM) Magnolia gustavii
Magnolia gustavii
King (INDIA, ASSAM) Magnolia
Magnolia
macklottii (Korth.) Dandy (W JAVA, BORNEO, SUMATRA)

Magnolia
Magnolia
macklottii var. beccariana (Agostini) Noot. (SUMATRA) Magnolia
Magnolia
macklottii var. macklottii (W JAVA, BORNEO)

Magnolia
Magnolia
pealiana King (ASSAM)

Subsection Aromadendron[edit]

Magnolia
Magnolia
ashtonii Dandy ex. Noot. (SUMATRA, BORNEO) Magnolia
Magnolia
bintuluensis (Agostini) Noot. (SUMATRA, BORNEO) Magnolia
Magnolia
borneensis Noot. (BORNEO, PHILIPPINES) Magnolia
Magnolia
elegans (Blume) Keng (SUMATRA, JAVA) Magnolia
Magnolia
pahangensis Noot. (BORNEO, PHILIPPINES)

Subgenus Gynopodium[edit] Section Gynopodium[edit]

Magnolia kachirachirai
Magnolia kachirachirai
(Kanehira & Yamamoto) Dandy (TAIWAN) Magnolia
Magnolia
lotungensis Chun & Tsoon (S CHINA) Magnolia
Magnolia
nitida W.W.Smith (NW YUNNAN (CHINA)) Magnolia omeiensis
Magnolia omeiensis
(Hu & Cheng) Dandy (SICHUAN (CHINA)) Magnolia
Magnolia
yunnanensis (Hu) Noot. . (SE YUNNAN (CHINA))

Section Manglietiastrum[edit]

Magnolia pleiocarpa
Magnolia pleiocarpa
(Dandy) Figlar & Noot. (ASSAM) Magnolia
Magnolia
praecalva (Dandy) Figlar & Noot. (VIETNAM, MALAY PENIN.) Magnolia
Magnolia
sinica (Law) Noot. (SE YUNNAN (CHINA))

Etymology[edit] Charles Plumier (1646–1704) described a flowering tree from the island of Martinique
Martinique
in his Genera,[3] giving it the name Magnolia, after the French botanist Pierre Magnol. Uses[edit]

Magnolia
Magnolia
× soulangeana

Flowering Magnolia figo
Magnolia figo
'Purple Queen'

M. × wieseneri

Horticultural uses[edit] In general, the Magnolia
Magnolia
genus has attracted horticultural interest. Some, such as the shrub M. stellata (star magnolia) and the tree M. × soulangeana (saucer magnolia) flower quite early in the spring, before the leaves open. Others flower in late spring or early summer, including M. virginiana (sweetbay magnolia) and M. grandiflora (southern magnolia). Hybridisation has been immensely successful in combining the best aspects of different species to give plants which flower at an earlier age than the parent species, as well as having more impressive flowers. One of the most popular garden magnolias, M. × soulangeana, is a hybrid of M. liliiflora and M. denudata. In the eastern United States, five native species are frequently in cultivation: M. acuminata (as a shade tree), M. grandiflora, M. virginiana, M. tripetala, and M. macrophylla. The last two species must be planted where high winds are not a frequent problem because of the size of their leaves. Culinary uses[edit] The flowers of many species are considered edible. In parts of England, the petals of M. grandiflora are pickled and used as a spicy condiment. In some Asian cuisines, the buds are pickled and used to flavor rice and scent tea. In Japan, the young leaves and flower buds of Magnolia
Magnolia
hypoleuca are broiled and eaten as a vegetable. Older leaves are made into a powder and used as seasoning; dried, whole leaves are placed on a charcoal brazier and filled with miso, leeks, daikon, and shiitake, and broiled. There is a type of miso which is seasoned with Magnolia, hoba miso.[22][23] In parts of Japan, the leaves of M. obovata are used for wrapping food and as cooking dishes. Traditional medicine[edit]

Magnolia
Magnolia
tree in full bloom

Magnolia
Magnolia
tree in Kenosha

Magnolia
Magnolia
tree in the Fall.

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The bark and flower buds of M. officinalis have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine, where they are known as hou po (厚朴). In Japan, kōboku, M. obovata, has been used in a similar manner. Timber[edit] The cucumbertree, M. acuminata, grows to large size and is harvested as a timber tree in northeastern US forests. Its wood is sold as "yellow poplar" along with that of the tuliptree, Liriodendron tulipifera. The Fraser magnolia, M. fraseri, also attains enough size sometimes to be harvested, as well. Other uses[edit] Magnolias are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the giant leopard moth. Chemical compounds and bioeffects[edit] The aromatic bark contains magnolol, honokiol, 4-O-methylhonokiol, and obovatol.[24][25][26][27][28][29] Magnolol[30] and honokiol[31] activate the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Culture[edit] Symbols[edit]

White or Yulan Magnolia
Magnolia
( Subgenus Yulania) is the official flower of the Chinese metropolis Shanghai. M. grandiflora is the official state flower of both Mississippi
Mississippi
and Louisiana. The flower's abundance in Mississippi
Mississippi
is reflected in its nickname of " Magnolia
Magnolia
State". The magnolia is also the official state tree of Mississippi. One of the many nicknames for the city of Houston is " Magnolia
Magnolia
City". Historically, magnolias have been associated with the Southern United States. Magnolia
Magnolia
sieboldii(M. sieboldii) is the national flower of North Korea. Magnolia
Magnolia
sieboldii(M. sieboldii) is the official flower of Gangnam.

Arts[edit] Film and television[edit]

Paul Thomas Anderson
Paul Thomas Anderson
created a movie titled Magnolia. Steel Magnolias
Steel Magnolias
is a 1989 American comedy-drama film about the bond among a group of women from Louisiana, who can be as beautiful as magnolias, but are as tough as steel. The magnolia specifically references a magnolia tree about which they are arguing at the beginning.[32]

Music[edit]

The French song by Salvatore Adamo "Les collines de Rabiah" in the 1970s describes the magnolia trees in Beirut and calls for peace. The Grateful Dead
Grateful Dead
recorded a song titled "Sugar Magnolia" that was first released on the 1970 album American Beauty. The song made its live debut on June 7, 1970, at the Fillmore West
Fillmore West
in San Francisco. The semiofficial 1972 Dead movie Sunshine Daydream
Sunshine Daydream
has its title taken from the song's coda section. Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers
Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers
second studio album You're Gonna Get It! includes a track called "Magnolia", written by Tom Petty. J.J. Cale
J.J. Cale
(December 5, 1938 – July 26, 2013) wrote a song about a woman named Magnolia, which has been covered by Poco, Beck and Lucinda Williams. In 2003, Songs: Ohia released The Magnolia Electric Co.
The Magnolia Electric Co.
This was the last release under that project's name for Jason Molina before renaming his band Magnolia Electric Co.
Magnolia Electric Co.
after the album. "Magnolia" is the fifth track on Australian indie rock group Gang of Youths' debut album, The Positions. "Magnolia" is a hit song by rapper Playboi Carti In his song titled "Marry Me" Thomas Rhett
Thomas Rhett
references the magnolia flower.

Literature[edit]

The 1989 movie Steel Magnolias
Steel Magnolias
is based on a 1987 play, Steel Magnolias, by Robert Harling. In the 1939 song "Strange Fruit", originally written as a poem by New York schoolteacher and communist activist Abel Meeropol to condemn the practice of lynching, the magnolia flower was referenced as being associated with the Southern United States, where many lynchings took place: "Pastoral scene of the gallant south/The bulging eyes and the twisted mouth/Scent of magnolias, sweet and fresh,/Then the sudden smell of burning flesh." Despite Meeropol's frequent mention of the South and magnolia trees, the image which inspired his poem, Lawrence Beitler's 1930 photograph capturing the lynching of Thomas Shipp and Abram Smith following the robbery and murder of Claude Deteer, actually occurred in Marion, Indiana, where magnolia trees are less common. In the 1960s, magnolias were a symbol of the South in the popular press: the New York Post noted of Lyndon Johnson that "A man who wore a ten-gallon Stetson and spoke with a magnolia accent had little hope of winning the Democratic nomination in 1960," and biographer Robert Caro picks up the symbol by saying that when Johnson became president "[t]he taint of magnolias still remained to be scrubbed off."[33]

Visual arts[edit]

Magnolia
Magnolia
by Sarah Maloney

The Canadian artist, Sarah Maloney,[34] has created a series of sculptures of Magnolia
Magnolia
flowers in bronze and steel, entitled First Flowers,[35] in which she draws our attention to the dual symbols of beginnings in the flower, as both an evolutionary archetype and also one of the first trees to flower in spring (see illustration). See also[edit] List of AGM magnolias Notes[edit]

^ The number of species in the genus Magnolia
Magnolia
depends on the taxonomic view that one takes up. Recent molecular and morphological research shows that former genera Talauma, Dugandiodendron, Manglietia, Michelia, Elmerrillia, Kmeria, Parakmeria, Pachylarnax (and a small number of monospecific genera) all belong within the same genus, Magnolia
Magnolia
s.l. (s.l. = sensu lato: 'in a broad sense', as opposed to s.s. = sensu stricto: 'in a narrow sense'). The genus Magnolia
Magnolia
s.s. contains about 120 species. See the section Nomenclature and classification in this article. ^ Under the rule of priority, the first name that is validly published in Linnaeus' Species
Species
Plantarum (1 May 1753) or any other work of any other botanist after that, takes precedence over later names. Plumier's name was not a binomen and moreover published before Species Plantarum, so it has no status. The first binomen published after 1753 was Lamarck's Annona dodecapetala (1786). Magnolia
Magnolia
plumieri (1788) was published on a later date by Schwartz, and is treated as a later synonym, as are Magnolia
Magnolia
fatiscens (1817; Richard), Talauma
Talauma
caerulea (Jaume St-Hilaire 1805) and Magnolia
Magnolia
linguifolia (1822). ^ Magnolia
Magnolia
glauca has the same type specimen as Magnolia
Magnolia
virginiana and as the latter is the first valid name, the species is now called Magnolia virginiana
Magnolia virginiana
(sweetbay magnolia). Var. fœtida was renamed Magnolia
Magnolia
grandiflora, which is legitimate as the epithet fœtida only has priority in its rank of variety. Magnolia grandiflora
Magnolia grandiflora
is the southern magnolia. Magnolia tripetala
Magnolia tripetala
(umbrella magnolia) and Magnolia acuminata (cucumber tree) are still recognized as species. ^ Under these names the species were described by Desrousseaux in Lamarck's Encyclopédie Méthodique Botanique, tome troisieme (1792): 675. In the beginning of the 20th century, descriptions which seemed to represent the same species, were found in a work of the French naturalist P.J. Buc'hoz, Plantes nouvellement découvertes (1779), under the names Lassonia heptapeta and Lassonia quinquepeta. In 1934, the English botanist J.E. Dandy argued that these names had priority over the names by which both species had been known for over a century and hence from then on Magnolia denudata
Magnolia denudata
had to be named Magnolia heptapeta, Magnolia liliiflora
Magnolia liliiflora
should be changed into Magnolia quinquepeta. After a lengthy debate, specialist taxonomists decided that the Buc'hoz's names were based on chimaeras (pictures constructed of elements of different species), and as Buc'hoz did not cite or preserve herbarium specimens, his names were ruled not to be acceptable. ^ These species were published as Liriodendron
Liriodendron
coco and Liriodendron figo by J. de Loureiro in Flora Cochinchinensis (1790) and later (1817) transferred to Magnolia
Magnolia
by A. P. de Candolle. Magnolia figo
Magnolia figo
was soon after transferred to the genus Michelia. ^ In 1927 J.E. Dandy accepted 10 genera in The genera of Magnoliaceae, Kew Bulletin 1927: 257-264. In 1984 Law Yuh-Wu proposed 15 in A preliminary study on the taxonomy of the family Magnoliaceae, Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 22: 89-109; in 2004 even 16, in Magnolias of China. This is not just about grouping some genera together where others do not; authors often choose different boundaries. ^ Often treated as a distinct species, Magnolia
Magnolia
pyramidata. ^ Often treated as a distinct species, Magnolia
Magnolia
ashei. ^ Often treated as a distinct species, Magnolia
Magnolia
dealbata.

References[edit]

^ Bernhardt, P. (2000). "Convergent evolution and adaptive radiation of beetle-pollinated angiosperms" (PDF). Plant
Plant
Systematics and Evolution. 222: 293–320. doi:10.1007/bf00984108. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-12-23.  ^ Crane, P.R. (1988). "The phylogenetic position and fossil history of the Magnoliaceae". In Hunt, David R. Magnolias and their allies: Proceedings of an International Symposium, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, U.K., 12-13 April 1996. Milbourne Port. p. 21. ISBN 9780951723487. OCLC 40781614.  ^ a b Plumier, C. (1703) Nova plantarum Americanarum genera. Paris. [New genera of American plants]. ^ Dillenius, J.J. (1732), Hortus Elthamensis, seu plantarum rariorum quas in horto suo Elthami in Cantio coluit vir ornamentissimus et praestantissimus Jacobus Sherard. London [The garden of Eltham, or rather about the rare plants that the most distinguished and prominent man Jacob Sherard grows in his garden in Eltham in Kent]. ^ Catesby, M. (1730), The Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands, containing the figures of birds, beasts, fishes, serpents, insects and plants, Vol. 1. London. ^ Lamarck, J.B.P.A. de (1786), Encyclopédie Méthodique Botanique, tome second: 127. Paris. ^ Magnolia kobus
Magnolia kobus
only received its name in 1814, when it was validly published by A.P. de Candolle. There has been much confusion about earlier attempts to validly publish this species, especially because descriptions and type specimens did not match. ^ Azuma, H.; Thien, L.B.; Kawano, S. (1999). "Molecular phylogeny of Magnolia
Magnolia
(Magnoliaceae) inferred from cpDNA sequences and evolutionary divergence of the floral scents". Journal of Plant
Plant
Research. 112 (1107): 291–306. doi:10.1007/pl00013885.  ^ Azuma, H.; García-Franco, J.G.; Rico-Gray, V.; Thien, L.B. (2001). "Molecular phylogeny of the Magnoliaceae: the biogeography of tropical and temperate disjunctions". American Journal of Botany. 88 (12): 2275–2285. doi:10.2307/3558389. PMID 21669660.  ^ Kim, S.; et al. (2001). "Phylogenetic relationships in family Magnoliaceae
Magnoliaceae
inferred from ndhF sequences". American Journal of Botany. 88 (4): 717–728. doi:10.2307/2657073. JSTOR 2657073.  ^ Figlar, R.B. (2000), Proleptic branch initiation in Michelia
Michelia
and Magnolia
Magnolia
subgenus Yulania provides basis for combinations in subfamily Magnolioideae. In: Liu Yu-hu et al., Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Family Magnoliaceae: 14-25, Science Press, Beijing. ^ 4. Magnoliaceae, Flora of China ^ Classification used by the Magnolia
Magnolia
Society accessed 8 July 2013 ^ WCSP. " Magnolia
Magnolia
platyphylla in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet. Retrieved 7 August 2015.  ^ WCSP. " Magnolia
Magnolia
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Bibliography[edit]

Johnstone, G.H. (1955). Asiatic Magnolias in cultivation. London, The Royal Horticultural Society. R. N. KAPIL and N. N. BHANDARI. (1964) MORPHOLOGY AND EMBRYOLOGY OF MAGNOLIA DILL. ex LINN. Proc. Nat. Inst. Sci. India 30, 245-262 Callaway, D.J. (1994). The World of Magnolias. Portland, Oregon, Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-236-6 Hunt, D. (ed). (1998). Magnolias and Their Allies. International Dendrology Society & Magnolia
Magnolia
Society. ISBN 0-9517234-8-0 Law, Y.W. (= Liu, Y.H.) (2004). Magnolias of China. Hong-Kong, Beijing Science & Technology Press. ISBN 7-5304-2765-2 Leonard B. Thien. Floral Biology of Magnolia. American Journal of Botany Vol. 61, No. 10 (Nov. - Dec., 1974), pp. 1037-1045 Treseder, N.G. (1978). Magnolias. London/Boston, Faber & Faber. ISBN 0-571-09619-0 Cicuzza, D., Newton, A. and Oldfield, S. 2007. The Red List of Magnoliaceae
Magnoliaceae
Fauna & Flora International and Botanic Gardens Conservation International report F. Xu, P. J. Rudall. Comparative floral anatomy and ontogeny in Magnoliaceae. Plant
Plant
Systematics and Evolution April 2006, Volume 258, Issue 1-2, pp 1-15

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Magnolia.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Magnolia

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1879 American Cyclopædia
American Cyclopædia
article Magnolia.

Caerhays Castle Garden (UK), holders of the NCCPG National Magnolia Collection Conserving threatened Magnolia
Magnolia
species Background information, reports, images and related articles on the Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) website Magnolia
Magnolia
Society "Magnolias Threatened by Logging, Development" from National Public Radio Selecting Trees for your Home – Magnolia
Magnolia
Trees University of Illinois Extension  "Magnolia". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. 

Taxon
Taxon
identifiers

Wd: Q157017 APDB: 192353 EoL: 44478 EPPO: 1MAGG FNA: 119452 FoC: 119452 Fossilworks: 54614 GBIF: 2888195 GRIN: 7165 IPNI: 25589-1 ITIS: 18069 NCBI: 3402 PLANTS: MAGNO Tropicos: 400

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