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Louis XIII (French pronunciation: ​[lwi tʁɛz]; 27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
who ruled as King of France
King of France
from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre
King of Navarre
(as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown. Shortly before his ninth birthday, Louis became king of France
France
and Navarre after his father Henry IV was assassinated. His mother, Marie de' Medici, acted as regent during his minority. Mismanagement of the kingdom and ceaseless political intrigues by Marie and her Italian favourites led the young king to take power in 1617 by exiling his mother and executing her followers, including Concino Concini, the most influential Italian at the French court. Louis XIII, taciturn and suspicious, relied heavily on his chief ministers, first Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes
Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes
and then Cardinal Richelieu, to govern the Kingdom of France. King and cardinal are remembered for establishing the Académie française, and ending the revolt of the French nobility. They systematically destroyed castles of defiant lords and denounced the use of private violence (dueling, carrying weapons, and maintaining private army). By the end of 1620s, Richelieu established "the royal monopoly of force" as the doctrine.[1] The reign of Louis "the Just" was also marked by the struggles against Huguenots and Habsburg Spain.[2] France's greatest victory in the conflicts against the Habsburg Empire during the period 1635–59 came at the Battle of Rocroi
Battle of Rocroi
(1643), five days after Louis's death caused by apparent complications of intestinal tuberculosis. This battle marked the end of Spain's military ascendancy in Europe and foreshadowed French dominance in Europe under Louis XIV, his son and successor.[3]

Contents

1 Early life, 1601–10 2 Rule of Marie de' Medici, 1610–17 3 Ascendancy of Charles de Luynes, 1617–21 4 Rule by Council, 1622–24 5 Ministry of Cardinal Richelieu, 1624–42 6 Expansion overseas under Louis XIII

6.1 Morocco 6.2 Americas 6.3 Asia

7 Duke of Orléans 8 Marriage 9 Issue 10 Sexuality 11 Death 12 Composer and lute player 13 Influence on men's fashion 14 In fiction and film 15 Ancestors 16 See also 17 Notes 18 References 19 Further reading 20 External links

Early life, 1601–10[edit] Born at the Château de Fontainebleau, Louis XIII was the oldest child of King Henry IV of France
Henry IV of France
and his second wife Marie de' Medici. As son of the king, he was a Fils de France
Fils de France
("son of France"), and as the eldest son, Dauphin of France. His father Henry IV was the first French king of the House of Bourbon, having succeeded his ninth cousin, Henry III of France
Henry III of France
(1574–1589), in application of Salic law. Louis XIII's paternal grandparents were Antoine de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme, and Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of Navarre. His maternal grandparents were Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Joanna of Austria, Grand Duchess of Tuscany. Eleonora de' Medici, his maternal aunt, was his godmother.[4] As a child, he was raised under the supervision of the royal governess Françoise de Montglat. The ambassador of King James I of England
James I of England
to the court of France, Edward Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Cherbury, who presented his credentials to Louis XIII in 1619, remarked on Louis’s extreme congenital speech impediment and his double teeth:

...I presented to the King [Louis] a letter of credence from the King [James] my master: the King [Louis] assured me of a reciprocal affection to the King [James] my master, and of my particular welcome to his Court: his words were never many, as being so extream [sic] a stutterer that he would sometimes hold his tongue out of his mouth a good while before he could speak so much as one word; he had besides a double row of teeth, and was observed seldom or never to spit or blow his nose, or to sweat much, 'tho he were very laborious, and almost indefatigable in his exercises of hunting and hawking, to which he was much addicted...[5]

Rule of Marie de' Medici, 1610–17[edit]

Louis XIII by Frans Pourbus the Younger
Frans Pourbus the Younger
(1611) (Palazzo Pitti)

Louis XIII ascended the throne in 1610 upon the assassination of his father, and his mother Marie de' Medici
Marie de' Medici
acted as his Regent. Although Louis XIII became of age at thirteen (1614), his mother did not give up her position as Regent
Regent
until 1617, when he was 16. Marie maintained most of her husband's ministers, with the exception of Maximilien de Béthune, Duke of Sully, who was unpopular in the country. She mainly relied on Nicolas de Neufville, seigneur de Villeroy, Noël Brûlart de Sillery, and Pierre Jeannin
Pierre Jeannin
for political advice. Marie pursued a moderate policy, confirming the Edict of Nantes. She was not, however, able to prevent rebellion by nobles such as Henri, Prince of Condé (1588–1646), second in line to the throne after Marie's second surviving son Gaston, Duke of Orléans. Condé squabbled with Marie in 1614, and briefly raised an army, but he found little support in the country, and Marie was able to raise her own army. Nevertheless, Marie agreed to call an Estates General assembly to address Condé's grievances. The assembly of this Estates General was delayed until Louis XIII formally came of age on his thirteenth birthday. Although his coming-of-age formally ended Marie's Regency, she remained the de facto ruler of France. The Estates General accomplished little, spending its time discussing the relationship of France
France
to the Papacy and the venality of offices, but reaching no resolutions.

Half Louis d'Or (1643) depicting Louis XIII

Beginning in 1615, Marie came to rely increasingly on the Italian Concino Concini, who assumed the role of her favourite. Concini was widely unpopular because he was a foreigner. This further antagonised Condé, who launched another rebellion in 1616. Huguenot leaders supported Condé's rebellion, which led the young Louis XIII to conclude that they would never be loyal subjects. Eventually, Condé and Queen Marie made peace via the Treaty of Loudun, which allowed Condé great power in government but did not remove Concini. With growing dissatisfaction from nobles due to Concini's position, Queen Marie, with Louis's help, imprisoned Condé to protect Concini, leading to renewed revolts against the Queen and Concini. In the meantime, Charles d'Albert, the Grand Falconer of France, convinced Louis XIII that he should break with his mother and support the rebels. Louis staged a palace coup d'état. As a result, Concino Concini was assassinated on 24 April 1617. His widow, Leonora Dori Galigaï, was tried for witchcraft, condemned, beheaded, and burned on 8 July 1617, and Marie was sent into exile in Blois. Later, Louis conferred the title of Duke of Luynes on d'Albert. Ascendancy of Charles de Luynes, 1617–21[edit]

Louis XIII on Horseback. Circa 1615–1620. Bronze, from France (probably Paris). Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Luynes soon became as unpopular as Concini had been. Other nobles resented his monopolisation of the King. Luynes was seen as less competent than Henry IV's ministers, many now elderly or deceased, who had surrounded Marie de' Medici. The Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
broke out in 1618. The French court was initially unsure which side to support. On the one hand, France's traditional rivalry with the House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
argued in favour of intervening on behalf of the Protestant powers (and Louis's father Henry IV of France
Henry IV of France
was once a Huguenot leader). On the other hand, Louis XIII had a strict Catholic upbringing, and his natural inclination was to support the Holy Roman Emperor, the Habsburg Ferdinand II. The French nobles were further antagonised against Luynes by the 1618 revocation of the paulette tax and by the sale of offices in 1620. From her exile in Blois, Marie de' Medici
Marie de' Medici
became the obvious rallying point for this discontent, and the Bishop of Luçon (who became Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu
in 1622) was allowed to act as her chief adviser, serving as a go-between Marie and the King. French nobles launched a rebellion in 1620, but their forces were easily routed by royal forces at Les Ponts-de-Cé
Les Ponts-de-Cé
in August 1620. Louis then launched an expedition against the Huguenots of Béarn
Béarn
who had defied a number of royal decisions. This expedition managed to re-establish Catholicism as the official religion of Béarn. However, the Béarn
Béarn
expedition drove Huguenots in other provinces into a rebellion led by Henri, Duke of Rohan. In 1621, Louis XIII, was formally reconciled with his mother. Luynes was appointed Constable of France, after which he and Louis set out to quell the Huguenot rebellion. The siege at the Huguenot stronghold of Montauban
Montauban
had to be abandoned after three months owing to the large number of royal troops who had succumbed to camp fever. One of the victims of camp fever was Luynes, who died in December 1621. Rule by Council, 1622–24[edit]

Louis XIII, by Frans Pourbus the younger
Frans Pourbus the younger
(1620)

Following the death of Luynes, Louis determined that he would rule by council. His mother returned from exile and, in 1622, entered this council, where Condé recommended violent suppression of the Huguenots. The 1622 campaign, however, followed the pattern of the previous year: royal forces won some early victories, but were unable to complete a siege, this time at the fortress of Montpellier. The rebellion was ended by the Treaty of Montpellier, signed by Louis XIII and the Duke of Rohan in October 1622. The treaty confirmed the tenets of the Edict of Nantes: several Huguenot fortresses were to be razed, but the Huguenots retained control of Montauban
Montauban
and La Rochelle. Louis ultimately dismissed Noël Brûlart de Sillery and Pierre Brûlart in 1624 because of his displeasure with how they handled the diplomatic situation over the Valtellina
Valtellina
with Spain. Valtellina
Valtellina
was an area with Catholic inhabitants under the suzerainty of the Protestant Three Leagues. It served as an important route to Italy for France
France
and it provided an easy connection between the Spanish and the Holy Roman empires, especially in helping each other with armies if necessary. Spain was constantly interfering in the Valtellina, which angered Louis, as he wanted to hold possession of this strategically important passageway. (In these years, the French kingdom was literally surrounded by the Habsburg realms as the Habsburgs were the Kings of Spain as well as Holy Roman Emperors. In addition, the Spanish and Holy Roman empires included the territories of today's Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxembourg, Germany, and Northern Italy.) He therefore found a better servitor in his Superintendent of Finances
Superintendent of Finances
Charles de La Vieuville, who held similar views of Spain as the king, and who advised Louis to side with the Dutch via the Treaty of Compiègne.[6] However, La Vieuville was dismissed by the middle of 1624, partly due to his bad behaviour (during his tenure as superintendent he was arrogant and incompetent) and because of a well-organized pamphlet campaign by Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu
against his council rival.[7] Louis needed a new chief advisor; Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu
would be that counsellor. Ministry of Cardinal Richelieu, 1624–42[edit] Further information: Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu
§ Chief minister

Louis XIII Crowned by Victory (Siege of La Rochelle, 1628), Philippe de Champaigne, musée du Louvre

Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu
played a major role in Louis XIII's reign from 1624, determining France's direction over the course of the next eighteen years. As a result of Richelieu's work, Louis XIII became one of the first examples of an absolute monarch. Under Louis and Richelieu, the crown successfully intervened in the Thirty Years' War against the Habsburgs, managed to keep the French nobility
French nobility
in line, and retracted the political and military privileges granted to the Huguenots by Henry IV (while maintaining their religious freedoms). Louis XIII successfully led the important Siege of La Rochelle. In addition, Louis had the port of Le Havre
Le Havre
modernised, and he built a powerful navy. Louis also worked to reverse the trend of promising French artists leaving for Italy to work and study. He commissioned the painters Nicolas Poussin
Nicolas Poussin
and Philippe de Champaigne
Philippe de Champaigne
to decorate the Louvre Palace. In foreign matters, Louis organised the development and administration of New France, expanding its settlements westward along the Saint Lawrence River
Saint Lawrence River
from Quebec City
Quebec City
to Montreal. Expansion overseas under Louis XIII[edit] Morocco[edit]

Louis XIII, warrior King

In order to continue the exploration efforts of his predecessor Henry IV, Louis XIII considered a colonial venture in Morocco, and sent a fleet under Isaac de Razilly
Isaac de Razilly
in 1619.[8] Razilly was able to explore the coast as far as Mogador. In 1624 he was given charge of an embassy to the pirate harbour of Salé
Salé
in Morocco, in order to solve the affair of the library of Mulay Zidan.[9] In 1630, Razilly was able to negotiate the purchase of French slaves from the Moroccans. He visited Morocco
Morocco
again in 1631, and helped negotiate the Franco-Moroccan Treaty (1631).[10] The Treaty gave France
France
preferential treatment, known as Capitulations: preferential tariffs, the establishment of a Consulate, and freedom of religion for French subjects.[11] Americas[edit] Further information: France–Americas relations Unlike other colonial powers, France, under the guidance of Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu, encouraged a peaceful coexistence in New France
France
between the Natives and the Colonists. Indians, converted to Catholicism, were considered as "natural Frenchmen" by the Ordonnance of 1627:

"The descendants of the French who are accustomed to this country [New France], together with all the Indians who will be brought to the knowledge of the faith and will profess it, shall be deemed and renowned natural Frenchmen, and as such may come to live in France when they want, and acquire, donate, and succeed and accept donations and legacies, just as true French subjects, without being required to take letters of declaration of naturalization."[12]

Acadia
Acadia
was also developed under Louis XIII. In 1632, Isaac de Razilly became involved, at the request of Cardinal Richelieu, in the colonization of Acadia, by taking possession of the Habitation at Port-Royal (now Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia) and developing it into a French colony. The King gave Razilly the official title of lieutenant-general for New France. He took on military tasks such as taking control of Fort Pentagouet
Fort Pentagouet
at Majabigwaduce on the Penobscot Bay, which had been given to France
France
in an earlier Treaty, and to inform the English they were to vacate all lands North of Pemaquid. This resulted in all the French interests in Acadia
Acadia
being restored. In Brazil, the colony of Equinoctial France
Equinoctial France
was established in 1612, but only lasted 4 years until it was eliminated by the Portuguese. Asia[edit]

"Fleet of Montmorency", led by Augustin de Beaulieu, in the East Indies, 1619–22

France-Japan relations
France-Japan relations
started under Louis XIII in 1615 when Hasekura Tsunenaga, a Japanese samurai and ambassador, sent to Rome by Date Masamune, landed at Saint-Tropez
Saint-Tropez
for a few days. In 1636, Guillaume Courtet, a French Dominican priest, reciprocated when he set foot in Japan.[13] Also in 1615, Marie de' Medici
Marie de' Medici
incorporated the merchants of Dieppe and other harbours to found the Company of the Moluccas. In 1619, an armed expedition composed of three ships (275 crew, 106 cannon) and called the "Fleet of Montmorency" under General Augustin de Beaulieu was sent from Honfleur, to fight the Dutch in the Far East. In 1624, with the Treaty of Compiègne, Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu
obtained an agreement to halt the Dutch–French warfare in the Far East.[14] Duke of Orléans[edit] On two occasions the king's younger brother, Gaston, Duke of Orléans, had to leave France
France
for conspiring against the King's government and for attempting to undermine the influence of both his mother and Cardinal Richelieu. After waging an unsuccessful war in Languedoc, he took refuge in Flanders. In 1643, on the death of Louis XIII, Gaston became lieutenant-general of the kingdom and fought against Spain on the northern frontiers of France. Marriage[edit]

Anne of Austria, Queen of France, wife of Louis XIII (by Peter Paul Rubens, 1625)

On 24 November 1615, Louis XIII married Anne of Austria, daughter of Philip III of Spain. This marriage followed a tradition of cementing military and political alliances between the Catholic powers of France and Spain with royal marriages. The tradition went back to the marriage of Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
with the French Princess Elisabeth of Valois. The marriage was only briefly happy, and the King's duties often kept them apart. After twenty-three years of marriage and four stillbirths, Anne finally gave birth to a son on 5 September 1638, the future Louis XIV. Many people regarded this birth as a miracle and, in show of gratitude to God for the long-awaited birth of an heir, his parents named him Louis-Dieudonné ("God-given"). As another sign of gratitude, according to several interpretations, seven months before his birth, France
France
was dedicated by Louis XIII to the Virgin Mary, who, many believed, had interceded for the perceived miracle.[15][16][17] However, the text of the dedication does not mention the royal pregnancy and birth as one of its reasons. Also, Louis XIII himself is said to have expressed his scepticism with regard to the miracle after his son's birth.[18] In gratitude for having successfully given birth, the queen founded the Benedictine
Benedictine
abbey of the Val-de-Grâce, for which Louis XIV
Louis XIV
himself laid the cornerstone of its church, an early masterpiece of French Baroque architecture. Issue[edit] The couple had the following children:

Name Portrait Lifespan Notes

stillborn child

Dec 1619

stillborn child

14 Mar 1622

stillborn child

1626

stillborn child

Apr 1631

Louis XIV
Louis XIV
of France

5 Sep 1638 – 1 Sep 1715 Married Maria Theresa of Spain
Maria Theresa of Spain
(1638–83) in 1660. Had issue.

Philippe I, Duke of Orléans

21 Sep 1640 – 8 Jun 1701 married (1) Henrietta of England
Henrietta of England
(1644–70) in 1661. Had issue. Married (2) Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate
Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate
(1652–1722) in 1671. Had issue.

Sexuality[edit] There is no evidence that Louis kept mistresses (a distinction that earned him the title "Louis the Chaste"), but persistent rumours insinuated that he may have been homosexual or at least bisexual. His interests as a teenager increasingly focused on his male courtiers, and he quickly developed an intense emotional attachment to his favourite, Charles d'Albert, although there is no clear evidence of a physical sexual relationship.[19] Gédéon Tallemant des Réaux, drawing from rumours told to him by a critic of the King (the Marquise de Rambouillet), explicitly speculated in his Historiettes about what happened in the king's bed. A further liaison with an equerry, François de Baradas, ended when the latter lost favour fighting a duel after duelling had been forbidden by royal decree.[20] Louis was also allegedly captivated by Henri Coiffier de Ruzé, Marquis of Cinq-Mars, who was later executed for conspiring with the Spanish enemy in time of war. Tallemant described how on a royal journey, the King "sent M. le Grand [de Cinq-Mars] to undress, who returned, adorned like a bride. 'To bed, to bed' he said to him impatiently... and the mignon was not in before the king was already kissing his hands."[21] Death[edit] Louis XIII died in Paris on 14 May 1643, the 33rd anniversary of his father's death. According to his biographer A. Lloyd Moote, "his intestines were inflamed and ulcerated, making digestion virtually impossible; tuberculosis had spread to his lungs, accompanied by habitual cough. Either of these major ailments, or the accumulation of minor problems, may have killed him, not to mention physiological weaknesses that made him prone to disease or his doctors' remedies of enemas and bleedings, which continued right to his death."[22] Composer and lute player[edit] Louis XIII shared his mother's love of the lute, developed in her childhood in Florence. One of his first toys was a lute and his personal doctor, Jean Héroard, reports him playing it for his mother in 1604, at the age of three.[23] In 1635, Louis XIII composed the music, wrote the libretto and designed the costumes for the "Ballet de la Merlaison." The king himself danced in two performances of the ballet the same year at Chantilly and Royaumont.[24] Influence on men's fashion[edit]

King Louis XIII (by Philippe de Champaigne, 1655)

In the sphere of the men's fashion, Louis helped introduce the wearing of wigs among men in 1624[citation needed] that became fashionable for the first time since antiquity. This would be a dominant style among men in European and European-influenced countries for nearly 200 years until the fashion changes brought about by the French Revolution.[25] In fiction and film[edit]

Louis XIII, his wife Anne, and Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu
became central figures in Alexandre Dumas, père's novel The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
and subsequent television and film adaptations. The book depicts Louis as a man willing to have Richelieu as a powerful advisor but aware of his scheming; he is portrayed as a bored and sour man, dwarfed by Richelieu's intellect. Films such as the 1948, the 1973 or the 2011 versions tend to treat Louis XIII as a comical character by depicting him as bumbling and incompetent. The 2014 BBC TV series, The Musketeers, merging the historical with the fictional, portrayed the King as both incompetent and strong, whose alliance with Spain is ever faltering. He is portrayed by Ryan Gage. Louis XIII, his wife Anne, his younger brother Gaston, Cardinal Richelieu, Cardinal Mazarin and members of the Royal family are mentioned throughout the course of the 1632 series
1632 series
of novels and other writings by Eric Flint
Eric Flint
et al., especially 1636: The Cardinal Virtues. Louis XIII appears in novels of Robert Merle's Fortune de France series (1977–2003). Louis XIII was portrayed by Edward Arnold in the 1935 film Cardinal Richelieu, with George Arliss
George Arliss
portraying the Cardinal. Ken Russell
Ken Russell
directed the 1971 film The Devils, in which Louis XIII is a significant character, albeit one with no resemblance to the real man. Louis XIII is portrayed as an effeminate homosexual who amuses himself by shooting Protestants dressed up as birds. The film was based on Aldous Huxley's book The Devils of Loudun. Louis XIII appears in the 2002 Doctor Who
Doctor Who
audio drama The Church and the Crown.

Ancestors[edit]

Ancestors of Louis XIII of France

16. Francis, Count of Vendôme

8. Charles, Duke of Vendôme

17. Marie of Luxembourg

4. Antoine of Navarre

18. René, Duke of Alençon

9. Françoise of Alençon

19. Margaret of Lorraine

2. Henry IV of France

20. John III of Navarre

10. Henry II of Navarre

21. Catherine of Navarre

5. Jeanne III of Navarre

22. Charles, Count of Angoulême

11. Marguerite of Angoulême

23. Louise of Savoy

1. Louis XIII of France

24. Ludovico di Giovanni de' Medici

12. Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany

25. Maria Salviati

6. Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany

26. Pedro Álvarez de Toledo y Zúñiga

13. Eleanor of Toledo

27. María Osorio y Pimentel

3. Marie de' Medici

28. Philip I of Castile

14. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor

29. Joanna I of Castile

7. Joanna of Austria

30. Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary

15. Anne of Bohemia and Hungary

31. Anne of Foix-Candale

See also[edit]

Kingdom of France
Kingdom of France
portal Biography portal

Absolute monarchy
Absolute monarchy
in France Charles de Lorme, personal medical doctor to Louis XIII French monarchs family tree Lords, Marquesses and Dukes of Elbeuf Charles II of Guise-Lorraine, Duke of Elbeuf St. John Eudes and contemporary promotion of the popular medieval mystical devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus
Sacred Heart of Jesus
a necessary spiritual remediation for the excesses of secular Absolutism of the cavalier age.

Notes[edit]

^ Tilly, Charles (1985). "War making and state making as organized crime," in Bringing the State Back In, eds P.B. Evans, D. Rueschemeyer, & T. Skocpol. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985. p. 174. ^ "Schneider, Robert A. ''History 1450–1789: Louis XIII.''". Answers.com. Retrieved 23 August 2012.  ^ "Battle of Rocroi". Britannica.com. 2010. Retrieved 23 August 2012.  ^ James 1897, pp. 421 ^ Herbert of Cherbury 1830, pp. 116 ^ Moote 1989, p. 135. ^ Moote 1989, p. 114. ^ "The narrative really begins in 1619, when the adventurer, Admiral S. John de Razilly, resolved to go to Africa. France
France
had no colony in Morocco; hence, King Louis XIII gave whole-hearted support to de Razilly." In Round table of Franciscan research, Volumes 17–18 Capuchin Seminary of St. Anthony, 1952 ^ Dubé, Jean-Claude & Rapley, Elizabeth (2005). The Chevalier de Montmagny (1601–1657): First Governor of New France. Google Books. University of Ottawa Press. p. 111. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ ''A Man of Three Worlds'' Mercedes García-Arenal, Gerard Albert Wiegers. Books.google.com. 19 May 2003. p. 114. Retrieved 23 August 2012.  ^ '' France
France
in the age of Louis XIII and Richelieu'' by Victor Lucien Tapié p. 259. Books.google.com. Retrieved 23 August 2012.  ^ Acte pour l'établissement de la Compagnie des Cent Associés pour le commerce du Canada, contenant les articles accordés à la dite Compagnie par M. le Cardinal de Richelieu, le 29 avril 1627 [1] ^ Butler's Lives of the Saints by Alban Butler, Paul Burns, p. 259 ^ Asia in the Making of Europe, Volume III: A Century of Advance. Book 1 by Donald F. Lach pp. 93-94, 398 [2] ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 31 January 2008.  Our Lady of Graces and the birth of Louis XIV, The website of the Sanctuary of Our Lady at Cotignac, Provence Archived 13 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 24 January 2008 ^ Bremond 1908, pp. 381 "Sans l'assurance d'avoir un fils, Louis XIII n'aurait pas fait le voeu de 1638." Translation: "Without the assurance of having a son, Louis XIII would not have made the vow of 1638." ^ Louis XIV. MSN Encarta. 2008. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. Retrieved 20 January 2008.  ^ Dulong, Claude, Anne d’Autriche. Paris: Hachette, 1980. "Irrité de voir tant de courtisans parler de "miracle", Louis XIII aurait répliqué que "ce n'était point là si grand miracle qu'un mari couchât avec sa femme et lui fasse un enfant." Translation: "Irritated to see so many courtiers speak of a “miracle”, Louis XIII is said to have replied: “it was not such a great miracle that a husband slept with his wife and made a child with her.”"[page needed] ^ Moote 1989, p. 148. ^ Crompton 2006, pp. 338 The grandson of Henry III, Saint-Luc, penned the irreverent rhyme: "Become a bugger, Baradas / if you are not already one / like Maugiron my grandfather / and La Valette". ^ Crompton 2006, pp. 338 ^ Moote 1989, p. 292. ^ "INTERVIEW with Miguel Yisrael, lutenist, about the lute in France in the 17th century". classiquenews.com.  ^ "CND - Centre National de la Danse". cnd.fr.  ^ ""Horrid Bushes of Vanity": A History of Wigs". Randomhistory.com. 24 February 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2012. 

References[edit]

Bremond, Henri (1908), La Provence mystique au XVIIe siècle, Paris: Plon-Nourri  [3] Crompton, Louis (2006), Homosexuality & Civilization, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-02233-5  [4] Dulong, Claude, Anne d’Autriche. Paris: Hachette, 1980 Herbert of Cherbury, Edward (1830), The life of Edward, Lord Herbert of Cherbury, Whittaker, Treacher, and Arnot  [5] James, Ralph N. (1897), Painters and Their Works, L.U. Gill  [6] Moote, A. Lloyd (1989). Louis XIII, the Just. Berkeley; Los Angeles; London: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520064850; ISBN 0-520-07546-3 (paperback).

Further reading[edit]

Blanchard, Jean-Vincent, Éminence: Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu
and the Rise of France
France
(2011) NewYork: Walker & Company. ISBN 978-0-8027-1704-7 Howell, James "Louis XIII" English historiographer Royal 1661–1666 Huxley, Aldous. "The Devils of Loudun" (1952). The trial of Urbain Grandier, priest of the town who was tortured and burned at the stake in 1634 Knecht, Robert, Renaissance France, genealogies, Baumgartner, genealogical tables Willis, Daniel A. (comp). The Descendants of Louis XIII (1999). Clearfield

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Louis XIII of France.

A complete portrait gallery of Louis XIII and Anna of Austria

The Three Musketeers
The Three Musketeers
at Project Gutenberg The Orchestra of Louis XIII, Jordi Savall, Le Concert des Nations – Alia Vox AV9824 The French Army 1600–1900 Free scores by Louis XIII of France
France
in the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki)

Louis XIII of France
France
& II of Navarre House of Bourbon Cadet branch of the House of Capet Born: 27 September 1601 Died: 14 May 1643

Regnal titles

Preceded by Henry IV and III King of France 1610 – 1643 Succeeded by Louis XIV

King of Navarre 1610 – 1620 French annexation

French royalty

Preceded by Francis Dauphin of France 1601 – 1610 Succeeded by Louis

v t e

Princes of France

The first generation are the children of Henri IV; these males held the rank of Son of France
France
or Grand son of France;

1st generation

Louis XIII Nicolas Henri, Duke of Orléans* Gaston, Duke of Orléans*

2nd generation

Louis XIV Philippe, Duke of Orléans Jean Gaston, Duke of Valois*

3rd generation

Louis, Dauphin of France Philippe Charles, Duke of Anjou* Louis François, Duke of Anjou* Philippe Charles, Duke of Valois* Alexandre Louis, Duke of Valois* Philippe, Duke of Orléans

4th generation

Louis, Duke of Burgundy King Felipe of Spain Charles, Duke of Berry*

5th generation

Louis, Duke of Brittany* Louis, Duke of Brittany* Louis XV

6th generation

Louis, Dauphin of France Philippe, Duke of Anjou*

7th generation

Louis, Duke of Burgundy* Xavier, Duke of Aquitaine* Louis XVI* Louis XVIII* Charles X

8th generation

Louis Joseph, Dauphin of France* Louis XVII* Louis Antoine, Duke of Angoulême
Louis Antoine, Duke of Angoulême
(Louis XIX)* Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry

9th generation

Henri, Count of Chambord
Henri, Count of Chambord
(Henry V)*

* died without surviving issue

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Dauphins of France

House of Bourbon

Louis XIII Louis XIV Louis, Le Grand Dauphin Louis, Le Petit Dauphin Louis Louis XV Louis Louis Auguste Louis Joseph Louis Charles Louis Antoine

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Heads of state of France

Styled President of the Republic after 1871, except from 1940 to 1944 (Chief of State) and 1944 to 1947 (Chairman of the Provisional Government). Detailed monarch family tree Simplified monarch family tree

Merovingians (486–751)

Clovis I Childebert I Chlothar I Charibert I Guntram Chilperic I Sigebert I Childebert II Chlothar II Dagobert I Sigebert II Clovis II Chlothar III Childeric II Theuderic III Clovis IV Childebert III Dagobert III Chilperic II Chlothar IV Theuderic IV Childeric III

Carolingians, Robertians and Bosonids (751–987)

Pepin the Short Carloman I Charlemagne
Charlemagne
(Charles I) Louis I Charles II Louis II Louis III Carloman II Charles the Fat OdoR Charles III Robert IR RudolphB Louis IV Lothair Louis V

House of Capet
House of Capet
(987–1328)

Hugh Capet Robert II Henry I Philip I Louis VI Louis VII Philip II Louis VIII Louis IX Philip III Philip IV Louis X John I Philip V Charles IV

House of Valois
House of Valois
(1328–1589)

Philip VI John II Charles V Charles VI Charles VII Louis XI Charles VIII Louis XII Francis I Henry II Francis II Charles IX Henry III

House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster
(1422–1453)

Henry VI of England

House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
(1589–1792)

Henry IV Louis XIII Louis XIV Louis XV Louis XVI Louis XVII

First Republic (1792–1804)

National Convention Directory Consulate

First Empire (1804–1815)

Napoleon
Napoleon
I Napoleon
Napoleon
II

Bourbon Restoration
Bourbon Restoration
(1815–1830)

Louis XVIII Charles X Louis XIX Henry V

July Monarchy
July Monarchy
(1830–1848)

Louis Philippe I

Second Republic (1848–1852)

Jacques-Charles Dupont de l'Eure Executive Commission Louis-Eugène Cavaignac Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte

Second Empire (1852–1870)

Napoleon
Napoleon
III

Government of National Defense (1870–1871)

Louis-Jules Trochu

Third Republic (1871–1940)

Adolphe Thiers Patrice de Mac-Mahon Jules Armand Dufaure* Jules Grévy Maurice Rouvier* Sadi Carnot Charles Dupuy* Jean Casimir-Perier Charles Dupuy* Félix Faure Charles Dupuy* Émile Loubet Armand Fallières Raymond Poincaré Paul Deschanel Alexandre Millerand Frédéric François-Marsal* Gaston Doumergue Paul Doumer André Tardieu* Albert Lebrun

Vichy France
Vichy France
(1940–1944)

Philippe Pétain

Provisional Government (1944–1947)

Charles de Gaulle Félix Gouin Georges Bidault Vincent Auriol Léon Blum

Fourth Republic (1947–1958)

Vincent Auriol René Coty

Fifth Republic (1958–present)

Charles de Gaulle Alain Poher* Georges Pompidou Alain Poher* Valéry Giscard d'Estaing François Mitterrand Jacques Chirac Nicolas Sarkozy François Hollande Emmanuel Macron

Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. Acting heads of state are denoted by an asterisk*. Millerand held the presidency in an acting capacity before being fully elected.

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Monarchs of Navarre

House of Íñiguez

Íñigo Arista García Íñiguez Fortún Garcés

House of Jiménez

Sancho I Jimeno II Garcés García Sánchez I Sancho II García Sánchez II Sancho III García Sánchez III Sancho IV Sancho VA Peter IA Alfonso IA García Ramírez Sancho VI Sancho VII

House of Champagne

Theobald I Theobald II Henry I Joan I

House of Capet

Philip IF Louis IF John IF Philip IIF Charles IF Joan II

House of Évreux

Philip III Charles II Charles III Blanche I

House of Trastámara

John IIA Charles IV Blanche II Eleanor

House of Foix

Francis Phoebus Catherine

House of Albret

John III Henry II Joan III

House of Bourbon

Antoine Henry IIIF Louis IIF

AAlso King of Aragon. FAlso King of France.

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 64008583 LCCN: n50080621 ISNI: 0000 0001 2101 8654 GND: 11872942X SELIBR: 207824 SUDOC: 028607090 BNF: cb11913462f (data) ULAN: 500059708 MusicBrainz: a5546289-9db6-4f29-a87d-92b37

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