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The Lotus Sūtra (Sanskrit: सद्धर्मपुण्डरीक सूत्र Saddharma Puṇḍarīka Sūtra, literally "Sūtra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma"[1]) is one of the most popular and influential Mahayana
Mahayana
sutras, and the basis on which the Tiantai, Tendai, Cheontae, and Nichiren
Nichiren
schools of Buddhism
Buddhism
were established. According to Paul Williams, "For many East Asian Buddhists since early times the Lotus Sutra
Sutra
contains the final teaching of the Buddha, complete and sufficient for salvation."[2]

Contents

1 Title 2 Textual History

2.1 Formation 2.2 Translations into Chinese 2.3 Translations into Western languages

3 Outline 4 Teachings

4.1 One vehicle, many skillful means 4.2 All beings have the potential to become Buddhas 4.3 The nature of the Buddhas

5 Impact

5.1 Buddhism
Buddhism
in China 5.2 Buddhism
Buddhism
in Japan 5.3 Influence on East Asian culture

5.3.1 Art 5.3.2 Literature 5.3.3 Folklore

6 Modernist Scholarship and Internationalization 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Sources 11 Further reading 12 External links

Title[edit]

Lotus Sūtra Mandala, Honpoji, Toyama, Japan, c. 1326-28

The earliest known Sanskrit
Sanskrit
title for the sūtra is the Saddharma Puṇḍarīka Sūtra, which translates to Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma.[3] In English, the shortened form Lotus Sūtra is common. The Lotus Sūtra has also been highly regarded in a number of Asian countries where Mahāyāna Buddhism
Buddhism
has been traditionally practiced. Translations of this title into the languages of some of these countries include:

Sanskrit: सद्धर्मपुण्डरीक सूत्र Saddharmapuṇḍarīka Sūtra Chinese: 妙法蓮華經; pinyin: Miàofǎ Liánhuá jīng, shortened to 法華經 Fǎhuá jīng Japanese: (妙法蓮華経, Myōhō Renge Kyō), Hokke-kyō, Hoke-kyō (法華経) Korean: Hangul: 묘법연화경; RR: Myobeop Yeonhwa gyeong, shortened to Beophwa gyeong Tibetan: དམ་ཆོས་པད་མ་དཀར་པོའི་མདོ, Wylie: dam chos padma dkar po'i mdo, THL: Damchö Pema Karpo'i do Vietnamese: Diệu pháp Liên hoa kinh, shortened to Pháp hoa kinh

Textual History[edit] Formation[edit] In 1934, based on his text-critical analysis of Chinese and Sanskrit versions, Kogaku Fuse concluded that the Lotus Sūtra was composed in four main stages. According to Fuse, the verse sections of chapters 1-9 and 17 were probably created in the first century BCE, with the prose sections of these chapters added in the first century CE. He estimates the date of the third stage, chapters 10, 11, 13-16, 18-20 and 27, around 100 CE. Chapters 21-26 belong to the last stage (around 150 CE).[4][note 1] According to Stephen F. Teiser and Jacqueline Stone, there is consensus about the stages of composition but not about the dating of these strata.[6] Tamura argues that the first stage of composition, chapters 2-9, was completed around 50 CE and expanded by chapters 10-21 around 100 CE. He dates the third stage, chapters 22-27, around 150 CE.[7] Karashima proposes another modified version of Fuse's hypothesis with the following sequence of composition:[8][9]

chapters 2-9 form the earliest stratum. The first layer of this stratum includes the tristubh verses of these chapters which may have been transmitted orally in a Prakrit
Prakrit
dialect. The second layer consists of the sloka verses and the prose of chapters 2-9. chapters 1, 10-20, 27, and a part of chapter 5[note 2] that is missing in Kumarajiva's translation. chapters 21-26 and the section on Devadatta
Devadatta
in chapter 11 of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
version.

Translations into Chinese[edit] Three translations of the Lotus Sūtra into Chinese are extant:[12][13][14][note 3]

The Lotus Sūtra of the Correct Dharma
Dharma
(Cheng fa-hua ching), in ten volumes and twenty-seven chapters, translated by Dharmarakṣa
Dharmarakṣa
in 286 CE. The Lotus Sūtra of the Wonderful Dharma
Dharma
(Miàofǎ Liánhuá jīng), in eight volumes and twenty-eight chapters, translated by Kumārajīva in 406 CE. The Supplemented Lotus Sūtra of the Wonderful Dharma
Dharma
(T´ien p´in miao-fa lien-hua-ching), in seven volumes and twenty-seven chapters, a revised version of Kumarajiva's text, translated by Jnanagupta and Dharmagupta in 601 CE.[16]

The Lotus Sūtra was originally translated from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
into Chinese by Dharmarakṣa
Dharmarakṣa
in 286 CE in Chang'an during the Western Jin Period (265-317 CE).[17][18][19] However, the view that there is a high degree of probability that the base text for that translation was actually written in a Prakrit
Prakrit
language has gained widespread acceptance.[note 4] It may have originally been composed in a Prakrit dialect and then later translated into Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to lend it greater respectability.[21] This early translation by Dharmarakṣa
Dharmarakṣa
was superseded by a translation in seven fascicles by Kumārajīva´s team in 406 CE.[22][23][24] According to Jean-Noël Robert, Kumārajīva
Kumārajīva
relied heavily on the earlier version.[25] The Sanskrit editions[26][27][28][29] are not widely used outside of academia. In some Chinese and Japanese sources the Lotus Sūtra has been compiled together with two other sutras which serve as a prologue and epilogue, respectively the Innumerable Meanings Sutra
Sutra
(Chinese: 無量義經; pinyin: Wúliángyì jīng Muryōgi kyō)[30] and the Samantabhadra
Samantabhadra
Meditation Sutra
Sutra
(Chinese: 普賢經; pinyin: Pǔxián jīng, Fugen kyō).[31][32] This composite sutra is often called the Threefold Lotus Sūtra or Three-Part Dharma
Dharma
Flower Sutra
Sutra
(Chinese: 法華三部経; pinyin: Fǎhuá Sānbù jīng, Hokke Sambu kyō).[33] Translations into Western languages[edit] The first French translation of the Lotus Sūtra, based on a Nepalese Sanskrit
Sanskrit
manuscript, was published by Eugène Burnouf
Eugène Burnouf
in 1852.[34][35] Hendrik Kern
Hendrik Kern
completed his English translation of an ancient Nepalese Sanskrit
Sanskrit
manuscript in 1884.[36][37] Later translations into English,[38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45] French,[46] Spanish[47] and German[48][49] are based on Kumarajiva's Chinese text. Each of these translations incorporate different approaches and styles that range from complex to simplified.[50] Outline[edit]

Illustrated Lotus Sūtra handscroll, Kamakura period, c. 1257; ink, color, and gold on paper.

Ch. 1, Introduction – During a gathering at Vulture Peak, Shakyamuni Buddha
Buddha
goes into a state of deep meditative absorption, the earth shakes in six ways, and he brings forth a ray of light which illuminates thousands of buddha-fields in the east.[note 5][52][53] Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Manjusri
Manjusri
then states that the Buddha
Buddha
is about to expound his ultimate teaching.[54][55] Ch. 2, Ways and Means – Shakyamuni
Shakyamuni
explains his use of skillful means to adapt his teachings according to the capacities of his audience.[56] He reveals that the ultimate purpose of the Buddhas is to cause sentient beings "to obtain the insight of the Buddha" and "to enter the way into the insight of the Buddha".[57][58][59] Ch. 3, A Parable
Parable
– The Buddha
Buddha
teaches a parable in which a father uses the promise of various toy carts to get his children out of a burning house.[60] Once they are outside, he gives them all one large cart to travel in instead. This symbolizes how the Buddha
Buddha
uses the Three Vehicles: Arhatship, Pratyekabuddhahood
Pratyekabuddhahood
and Samyaksambuddhahood, as skillful means to liberate all beings – even though there is only one vehicle.[61] The Buddha
Buddha
also promises Sariputra
Sariputra
that he will attain Buddhahood. Ch. 4, Faith and Understanding – Four senior disciples address the Buddha.[62] They tell the parable of the poor son and his rich father, who guides him with pedagogically skillful devices to regain self-confidence and "recognize his own Buddha-wisdom".[63][64] Ch. 5, Parable
Parable
of the plants – This parable says that the Dharma
Dharma
is like a great monsoon rain that nourishes many different kinds of plants who represent Śrāvakas, Pratyekabuddhas, and Bodhisattvas,[65] and all beings receiving the teachings according to their respective capacities.[66] Ch. 6, Assurances of Becoming a Buddha
Buddha
– The Buddha
Buddha
prophesizes the enlightenment of Mahakasyapa, Subhuti, Mahakatyayana and Mahamaudgalyayana. Ch. 7, The Magic City – The Buddha
Buddha
teaches a parable about a group of people seeking a great treasure who are tired of their journey and wish to quit. Their guide creates a magical phantom city for them to rest in and then makes it disappear.[67][68][69] The Buddha
Buddha
explains that the magic city represents the " Hinayana
Hinayana
nirvana" and the treasure is buddhahood.[70] Ch. 8, Assurances for 500 Arhats. – 500 Arhats are assured of their future Buddhahood. They tell the parable of a man who has fallen asleep after drinking and whose friend sews a jewel into his garment. When he wakes up he continues a life of poverty without realizing he is really rich, he only discovers the jewel after meeting his old friend again.[71][72][73][68] The hidden jewel has been interpreted as a symbol of Buddha-nature.[74] Zimmermann noted the similarity with the nine parables in the Tathāgatagarbha Sūtra that illustrate how the indwelling Buddha
Buddha
in sentient beings is hidden by negative mental states.[75] Ch. 9, Assurances for the Trainees and Adepts. – Ananda, Rahula
Rahula
and two thousand Śrāvakas are assured of their future Buddhahood.[76] Ch. 10, Teacher of the Dharma
Dharma
– Presents the practices of teaching the sutra which includes accepting, embracing, reading, reciting, copying, explaining, propagating it, and living in accordance with its teachings. The teacher of the Dharma
Dharma
is praised as the messenger of the Buddha.[77] The theme of propagating the Lotus Sūtra which starts here, continues in the remaining chapters.[note 6]

The floating jeweled stupa.

Ch. 11, The Treasure stupa – A great jeweled stupa rises from the earth and floats in the air;[79] a voice is heard from within praising the Lotus Sūtra.[80] Another Buddha
Buddha
resides in the tower, the Buddha Prabhūtaratna
Prabhūtaratna
who is said to have made a vow to make an appearance to verify the truth of the Lotus Sutra
Sutra
whenever it is preached.[81] Countless manifestations of Shakyamuni
Shakyamuni
Buddha
Buddha
in the ten directions are now summoned by the Buddha. Thereafter Prabhūtaratna
Prabhūtaratna
invites Shakyamuni
Shakyamuni
to sit beside him in the jeweled stupa.[82][83] This chapter reveals the existence of multiple Buddhas at the same time[80] and the doctrine of the eternal nature of Buddhahood. Ch. 12, Devadatta
Devadatta
– Through the stories of the dragon king's daughter and Devadatta, the Buddha
Buddha
teaches that everyone can become enlightened – women, animals, and even the most sinful murderers.[84] Ch. 13, Encouragement to uphold the sutra – The Buddha
Buddha
encourages all beings to embrace the teachings of the sutra in all times, even in the most difficult ages to come. The Buddha
Buddha
prophesizes that six thousand nuns who are also present will become Buddhas.[85] Ch. 14, Peace and Contentment – Manjusri
Manjusri
asks how a bodhisattva should spread the teaching. In his reply Shakyamuni
Shakyamuni
Buddha
Buddha
describes the proper conduct and the appropriate sphere of relations of a bodhisattva.[86] A bodhisattva should not talk about the faults of other preachers or their teachings. He is encouraged to explain the Mahayana
Mahayana
teachings when he answers questions.[87] Virtues such as patience, gentleness, a calm mind, wisdom and compassion are to be cultivated. Ch. 15, Springing Up from the Earth – In this chapter countless bodhisattvas spring up from the earth, ready to teach, and the Buddha declares that he has trained these bodhisattvas in the remote past.[88][89] This confuses some disciples including Maitreya, but the Buddha
Buddha
affirms that he has taught all of these bodhisattvas himself. Ch. 16, The eternal lifespan of the Tathagata
Tathagata
– The Buddha
Buddha
explains that he is truly eternal and omniscient. He then teaches the Parable of the Excellent Physician who entices his sons into taking his medicine by feigning his death.[90][91] Ch. 17, Merits and Virtues of enlightenment – The Buddha
Buddha
explains that since he has been teaching as many beings as the sands of the Ganges have been saved. Ch. 18, Merits and Virtues of Joyful Acceptance – Faith in the teachings of the sutra brings much merit and lead to good rebirths. Ch. 19, Merits and Virtues obtained by a Teacher of the Dharma
Dharma
– The relative importance of the merits of the six senses are explained by the Buddha. Ch. 20, The Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Sadāparibhūta
Sadāparibhūta
– The Buddha
Buddha
tells a story about a previous life when he was a Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
called Sadāparibhūta (Never Disparaging) and how he treated every person he met, good or bad, with respect, always remembering that they will too become Buddhas.[92] Ch. 21, The Spiritual Power of the Tathagata
Tathagata
– Reveals that the sutra contains all of the Eternal Buddha’s secret spiritual powers. The bodhisattvas who have sprung from the earth (ch 15) are entrusted with the task of propagating it.[93] Ch. 22, The Passing of the Commission – The Buddha
Buddha
transmits the Lotus Sutra
Sutra
to all bodhisattvas in his congregation and entrusts them with its safekeeping.[94][95] The Buddha
Buddha
Prabhūtaratna
Prabhūtaratna
in his jewelled stupa and the countless manifestations of Shakyamuni
Shakyamuni
Buddha return to their respective buddha-fields.[96][note 7]

Avalokiteśvara, Ajanta cave no 1, 5th century

Ch. 23, The Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Bhaiṣajyarāja – The Buddha
Buddha
tells the story of the 'Medicine King' Bodhisattva, who, in a previous life, burnt his body as a supreme offering to a Buddha.[99][100][101] The hearing and chanting of the Lotus Sūtra is also said to cure diseases. The Buddha
Buddha
uses nine similes to declare that the Lotus Sūtra is the king of all sutras.[102] Ch. 24, The Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Gadgadasvara – "Wonderful Voice" (Gadgadasvara), a Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
from a distant world, visits Vulture Peak to worship the Buddha. Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
"Wonderful Voice" once made offerings of various kinds of music to the Buddha "Cloud-Thunder-King". His accumulated merits enable him to take 34 different forms to propagate the Lotus Sutra.[103][98] Ch. 25, The Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Avalokiteśvara
Avalokiteśvara
– This chapter is devoted to Avalokiteśvara, describing him as a compassionate bodhisattva who hears the cries of sentient beings, and rescues those who call upon his name.[104][105][106] Ch. 26, Dhāraṇī
Dhāraṇī
Hariti
Hariti
and several Bodhisattvas offer sacred formulae (dhāraṇī) in order to protect those who keep and recite the Lotus Sūtra.[107][108][note 8] Ch. 27, King Wonderfully Adorned – A chapter on the conversion of King 'Wonderful-Adornment' by his two sons.[110][111] Ch. 28, Encouragement of the Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Samantabhadra
Samantabhadra
– A bodhisattva called "Universal Virtue" asks the Buddha
Buddha
how to preserve the sutra in the future. Samantabhadra
Samantabhadra
promises to protect and guard all those who keep this sutra in the future Age of Dharma Decline.[112]

Teachings[edit]

Portable shrine depicting Buddha
Buddha
Sakyamuni preaching the Lotus Sūtra.[113] The Walters Art Museum.

One vehicle, many skillful means[edit] This Lotus Sūtra is known for its extensive instruction on the concept and usage of skillful means – (Sanskrit: upāya, Japanese: hōben), the seventh paramita or perfection of a Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
– mostly in the form of parables. The many 'skillful' or 'expedient' means and the "three vehicles" are revealed to all be part of the One Vehicle (Ekayāna), which is also the Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
path. This is also one of the first sutras to use the term Mahāyāna, or "Great Vehicle". In the Lotus Sūtra, the One Vehicle encompasses so many different teachings because the Buddha's compassion and wish to save all beings led him to adapt the teaching to suit many different kinds of people. As Paul Williams explains:

Although the corpus of teachings attributed to the Buddha, if taken as a whole, embodies many contradictions, these contradictions are only apparent. Teachings are appropriate to the context in which they are given and thus their contradictions evaporate. The Buddha’s teachings are to be used like ladders, or, to apply an age-old Buddhist image, like a raft employed to cross a river. There is no point in carrying the raft once the journey has been completed and its function fulfilled. When used, such a teaching transcends itself.[114]

The sutra emphasizes that all these seemingly different teachings are actually just skillful applications of the one Dharma
Dharma
and thus all constitute the "One Buddha
Buddha
Vehicle and knowledge of all modes". The Lotus Sūtra sees all other teachings are subservient to, propagated by and in the service of the ultimate truth of the One Vehicle leading to Buddhahood.[13] The Lotus Sūtra also claims to be superior to other sūtras and states that full Buddhahood
Buddhahood
is only arrived at by exposure to its teachings and skillful means. Chapter ten of the Burton Watson
Burton Watson
translation states: "...Medicine King, now I say to you, I have preached various sutras, and among those sutras the Lotus is foremost!" All beings have the potential to become Buddhas[edit]

The dragon king´s daughter offers her priceless pearl to the Buddha; frontispiece of a 12th century Lotus Sutra
Sutra
handscroll.[115]

The Lotus Sūtra is also significant because it reveals that women, evil people and even animals have the potential to become Buddhas. It in fact teaches that beings have the potential to become Buddhas in their present form, and provides instructions including: having faith in, following and practicing, not slandering, and truly refuting any slander of it and its teachings. That is, with the Lotus Sūtra, people need neither practice austerities for countless kalpas nor wait for rebirth in a different physical form to become a Buddha
Buddha
(previous teachings held that women must be reborn as men and then practice for innumerable kalpas in order to become Buddhas). Thus through its many similes and parables, the Lotus Sūtra affirms the potential for all beings to become Buddhas, and furthermore provides instructions for all beings to becoming a Buddha
Buddha
in the present life. The Lotus Sūtra also teaches that the Buddha
Buddha
has many embodiments or emanations and these are the countless bodhisattva disciples. These bodhisattvas choose to remain in the world to save all beings and to keep the teaching alive. According to Gene Reeves: "Because the Buddha and his Dharma
Dharma
are alive in such bodhisattvas, he himself continues to be alive. The fantastically long life of the Buddha, in other words, is at least partly a function of and dependent on his being embodied in others."[116] The Lotus Sūtra also teaches various dhāraṇīs or the prayers of different celestial bodhisattvas who out of compassion protect and teach all beings. The lotus flower imagery points to this quality of the bodhisattvas. The lotus symbolizes the bodhisattva who is rooted in the earthly mud and yet flowers above the water in the open air of enlightenment.[117] The universe outlined by the Lotus Sūtra encompasses realms of gods, devas, dragons[note 9] and other mythological beings, requiring numerous dimensions to contain them. Buddhas are described as the patient teachers, who constantly guide all beings to enlightenment. The radical message of the Lotus Sūtra therefore includes the fact that all beings have the potential to become Buddhas and teach the Dharma
Dharma
here and now. The nature of the Buddhas[edit] Another concept introduced by the Lotus Sūtra is the idea that the Buddha
Buddha
is an eternal entity, who achieved nirvana eons ago, but remains in the world to help teach beings the Dharma
Dharma
time and again. He reveals himself as the "father" of all beings and evinces the loving care of just such a father. Moreover, the sutra indicates that even after the parinirvana (apparent physical death) of a Buddha, that Buddha
Buddha
continues to be real and to be capable of communicating with the world. The idea that the physical death of a Buddha
Buddha
is the termination of that Buddha
Buddha
is graphically refuted by the appearance of another Buddha, who passed long before. In the vision of the Lotus Sūtra, Buddhas are ultimately immortal. Crucially, not only are there multiple Buddhas in this view, but an infinite stream of Buddhas extending infinitely in space in the ten directions and through unquantifiable eons of time. The Lotus Sūtra illustrates a sense of timelessness and the inconceivable, often using large numbers and measurements of time and space. The Buddha
Buddha
of the Lotus Sūtra states:

In this way, since my attainment of Buddhahood
Buddhahood
it has been a very great interval of time. My life-span is incalculable asatkhyeyakalpas [rather a lot of aeons], ever enduring, never perishing. O good men! The life-span I achieved in my former treading of the bodhisattva path even now is not exhausted, for it is twice the above number. Yet even now, though in reality I am not to pass into extinction [enter final nirvana], yet I proclaim that I am about to accept extinction. By resort to these expedient devices [this skill-in-means] the Thus Come One [the Tathagata] teaches and converts the beings.[119]

Impact[edit] According to Donald Lopez, the Lotus Sutra
Sutra
is "arguably the most famous of all Buddhist texts," presenting "a radical re-vision of both the Buddhist path and of the person of the Buddha."[120][note 10] The Lotus Sutra
Sutra
was frequently cited in Indian works by Nagarjuna, Vasubandhu, Candrakirti, Santideva and several authors of the Madyamaka and the Yogacara
Yogacara
school.[121] The only extant Indian commentary on the Lotus Sutra
Sutra
is attributed to Vasubandhu.[122][123] According to Jonathan Silk, the influence of the Lotus Sūtra in India may have been limited, but "it is a prominent scripture in East Asian Buddhism."[124] The sutra has most prominence in Tiantai
Tiantai
(sometimes called "The Lotus School"[125]) and Nichiren
Nichiren
Buddhism.[126] It is also influential in Zen
Zen
Buddhism. Buddhism
Buddhism
in China[edit] Tao Sheng, a fifth-century Chinese Buddhist monk wrote the earliest extant commentary on the Lotus Sūtra.[127][128] Tao Sheng
Tao Sheng
was known for promoting the concept of Buddha
Buddha
nature and the idea that even deluded people will attain enlightenment. Daoxuan
Daoxuan
(596-667) of the Tang Dynasty wrote that the Lotus Sutra
Sutra
was "the most important sutra in China".[129][full citation needed] Zhiyi, the generally credited founder of the Tiantai
Tiantai
school of Buddhism, was the student of Nanyue Huisi[130] who was the leading authority of his time on the Lotus Sūtra.[125] Zhiyi's philosophical synthesis saw the Lotus Sūtra as the final teaching of the Buddha
Buddha
and the highest teaching of Buddhism.[131] He wrote two commentaries on the sutra: Profound meanings of the Lotus Sūtra and Words and phrases of the Lotus Sūtra. Zhiyi
Zhiyi
also linked the teachings of the Lotus Sūtra with the Buddha
Buddha
nature teachings of the Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra and made a distinction between the "Eternal Buddha" Vairocana
Vairocana
and the manifestations. In Tiantai, Vairocana
Vairocana
(the primeval Buddha) is seen as the 'Bliss body' – Sambhogakāya – of the historical Gautama Buddha.[131] Buddhism
Buddhism
in Japan[edit] The Lotus Sūtra is a very important sutra in Tiantai[132] and correspondingly, in Japanese Tendai
Tendai
(founded by Saicho, 767–822). Tendai
Tendai
Buddhism
Buddhism
was the dominant form of mainstream Buddhism
Buddhism
in Japan for many years and the influential founders of popular Japanese Buddhist sects including Nichiren, Honen, Shinran
Shinran
and Dogen[133] were trained as Tendai
Tendai
monks.

Calligraphic mandala (Gohonzon) inscribed by Nichiren
Nichiren
in 1280. The central characters are the title of the Lotus Sūtra.[134]

Nichiren, a 13th-century Japanese Buddhist monk, founded an entire school of Buddhism
Buddhism
based on his belief that the Lotus Sūtra is "the Buddha´s ultimate teaching",[135] and that the title is the essence of the sutra, "the seed of Buddhahood".[136] Nichiren
Nichiren
held that chanting the title of the Lotus Sūtra – Namu Myōhō Renge Kyō
Namu Myōhō Renge Kyō
– was the only way to practice Buddhism
Buddhism
in the degenerate age of Dharma decline and was the highest practice of Buddhism.[131] Dogen, the 13th-century Japanese founder of Sōtō
Sōtō
Zen
Zen
Buddhism, used the Lotus Sūtra often in his writings. According to Taigen Dan Leighton, "While Dogen's writings employ many sources, probably along with his own intuitive meditative awareness, his direct citations of the Lotus Sūtra indicate his conscious appropriation of its teachings as a significant source"[137] and that his writing "demonstrates that Dogen
Dogen
himself saw the Lotus Sutra, 'expounded by all buddhas in the three times,' as an important source for this self-proclamatory rhetorical style of expounding."[138] In his Shobogenzo, Dogen directly discusses the Lotus Sūtra in the essay Hokke-Ten-Hokke, "The Dharma
Dharma
Flower Turns the Dharma
Dharma
Flower". The essay uses a dialogue from the Platform Sutra
Sutra
between Huineng
Huineng
and a monk who has memorized the Lotus Sūtra to illustrate the non-dual nature of dharma practice and sutra study.[137] The Soto Zen
Zen
monk Ryōkan
Ryōkan
also studied the Lotus Sūtra extensively and this sutra was the biggest inspiration for his poetry and calligraphy.[139] During his final days, Dogen
Dogen
spent his time reciting and writing the Lotus Sutra
Sutra
in his room which he named "The Lotus Sutra
Sutra
Hermitage".[140] The Rinzai
Rinzai
Zen
Zen
master Hakuin Ekaku
Hakuin Ekaku
achieved enlightenment while reading the third chapter of the Lotus Sūtra.[141] Influence on East Asian culture[edit] The Lotus Sūtra has had a great impact on literature, art, and folklore for over 1400 years. Art[edit] Various events from it are depicted in religious art.[142][143][144] Wang argues that the explosion of art inspired by the Lotus Sutra, starting from the 7th and 8th centuries in China, was a confluence of text and the topography of the Chinese medieval mind in which the latter dominated.[145] Motifs from the Lotus Sutra
Sutra
figure prominently in the Dunhuang
Dunhuang
caves built in the Sui era.[146] The theme of Shakyamuni
Shakyamuni
and Prabhutaratna Buddhas seated together as depicted in the 11th chapter of the Lotus Sutra
Sutra
can be seen in a bronze plaque (year 686) at Hase-dera
Hase-dera
Temple in Japan[147] and, in Korea, at Dabotap
Dabotap
and Seokgatap
Seokgatap
Pagodas, built in 751, at Bulguksa
Bulguksa
Temple.[148] Literature[edit] Tamura refers to the "Lotus Sutra
Sutra
literary genre."[149] Its ideas and images are writ large in great works of Chinese and Japanese literature such as The Dream of the Red Chamber
Dream of the Red Chamber
and The Tale of Genji.[150] The Lotus Sutra
Sutra
has had an outsized influence on Japanese Buddhist poetry.[151] Far more poems have been Lotus Sutra-inspired than other sutras.[152] In the work Kanwa taisho myoho renge-kyo, a compendium of more than 120 collections of poetry from the Heian period, there are more than 1360 poems with references to the Lotus Sutra
Sutra
in just their titles.[153][154] Folklore[edit] The Lotus Sutra
Sutra
has inspired a branch of folklore based on figures in the sutra or subsequent people who have embraced it. The story of the Dragon King's daughter, who attained enlightenment in the 12th (Devadatta) chapter of the Lotus Sutra, appears in the Complete Tale of Avalokiteśvara
Avalokiteśvara
and the Southern Seas and the Precious Scroll of Sudhana and Longnü
Longnü
folkstories. The Miraculous Tales of the Lotus Sutra[155] is a collection of 129 stories with folklore motifs based on "Buddhist pseudo-biographies."[156] Modernist Scholarship and Internationalization[edit] Eugene Burnouf's's 1844 "Introduction à l'histoire du Buddhisme indien" marks the start of modern academic scholarship of Buddhism
Buddhism
in the West. His translation of the Lotus Sutra, "Le Lotus de la bonne loi," was published posthumously in 1852. Prior to publication, a chapter from the translation was included in the 1844 journal The Dial, a publication of the New England transcendentalists, translated from French to English by Elizabeth Palmer Peabody.[157] A translation of the Lotus Sutra
Sutra
from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
was completed by Kern in 1884.[158] Western interest in the Lotus Sutra
Sutra
waned in the latter 19th century as Indo-centric scholars focused on older Pali
Pali
and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts. However, Christian missionaries in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, based predominantly in China, became interested in Kumārajīva's translation of the Lotus Sutra
Sutra
into Chinese. These scholars attempted to draw parallels between the Old and New Testaments to earlier Nikaya
Nikaya
sutras and the Lotus Sutra. Abbreviated and "cristo-centric" translations were published by Richard and Soothill.[159] According to Shields, "modern(ist)" interpretations of the Lotus Sutra begin with the early 20th century nationalist applications of the Lotus Sutra
Sutra
by Chigaku Tanaka, Nissho Honda, Seno'o, and Nisshō Inoue.[160] In the post World War II years, scholarly attention to the Lotus Sutra
Sutra
was inspired by renewed interest in Japanese Buddhism
Buddhism
as well as archeological research in Dunhuang. This led to the 1976 Leon Hurvitz publication of the Lotus Sutra
Sutra
based on Kumarajiva's translation. Whereas the Hurvitz work was independent scholarship, other modern translations were sponsored by Buddhist groups: Kato Bunno (1975, Nichiren-shu/Rissho-kosei-kai), Murano Senchu (1974, Nichiren-shu), Burton Watson
Burton Watson
(1993, Soka Gakkai), and the Buddhist Text Translation Society (Xuanhua).[161] Japanese new religions
Japanese new religions
began forming in the 19th century and the trend accelerated after World War II. Some of these groups have pushed the study of the Lotus Sutra
Sutra
to a global scale.[162][163] While noting the importance of several Japanese New Religious Movements to Lotus Sutra scholarship, Lopez focuses on the contributions made by the Reiyukai and Soka Gakkai[164] and Stone discusses the contributions of the Soka Gakkai and Risshō Kōsei Kai.[165] Etai Yamada, the 253rd head priest of the Tendai
Tendai
denomination conducted ecumenical dialogues with religious leaders around the world based on his interpretation of the Lotus Sutra
Sutra
which culminated in a 1987 summit. He also used the Lotus Sutra
Sutra
to move his sect from a "temple Buddhism" perspective to one based on social engagement.[166] Nichiren-inspired Buddhist organizations have shared their interpretations of the Lotus Sutra through publications, academic symposia, and exhibitions.[167][168][169][170][171] See also[edit]

Amitabha Sutra Eternal Buddha Flower Sermon Heart Sutra Hokke Gisho, an annotated Japanese version of the sutra. Innumerable Meanings Sutra Mahayana
Mahayana
sutras Nichiren
Nichiren
Buddhism Nam(u) Myōhō Renge Kyō Sutra
Sutra
of Meditation on the Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Universal Worthy

Notes[edit]

^ Chapter numbers of the extant Sanskrit
Sanskrit
version are given here. The arrangement and numbering of chapters in Kumarajiva's translation is different.[5] ^ In the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
manuscripts chapter 5 contains the parable of a blind man who refuses to believe that vision exists.[10][11] ^ Weinstein states: "Japanese scholars demonstrated decades ago that this traditional list of six translations of the Lotus lost and three surviving-given in the K'ai-yiian-lu and elsewhere is incorrect. In fact, the so-called "lost" versions never existed as separate texts; their titles were simply variants of the titles of the three "surviving" versions."[15] ^ Jan Nattier has recently summarized this aspect of the early textual transmission of such Buddhist scriptures in China thus, bearing in mind that Dharmarakṣa's period of activity falls well within the period she defines: "Studies to date indicate that Buddhist scriptures arriving in China in the early centuries of the Common Era were composed not just in one Indian dialect but in several . . . in sum, the information available to us suggests that, barring strong evidence of another kind, we should assume that any text translated in the second or third century AD was not based on Sanskrit, but one or other of the many Prakrit
Prakrit
vernaculars."[20] ^ Sanskrit
Sanskrit
buddhaksetra, the realm of a Buddha, a pure land. Buswell and Lopez state that "Impure buddha-fields are synonymous with a world system (cacravada), the infinite number of “world discs” in Buddhist cosmology
Buddhist cosmology
that constitutes the universe (...)."[51] ^ Ryodo Shioiri states, "If I may speak very simply about the characteristics of section 2, chapter 10 and subsequent chapters emphasize the command to propagate the Lotus Sūtra in society as opposed to the predictions given in section 1 out (sic) the future attainment of buddhahood by the disciples....and the central concern is the actualization of the teaching--in other words, how to practice and transmit the spirit of the Lotus Sutra
Sutra
as contained in the original form of section 1."[78] ^ The "Passing of the Commission" is the final chapter in the Sanskrit versions and the alternative Chinese translations.[97][98] ^ Dhāraṇī
Dhāraṇī
is used in the "limited sense of mantra-dharani" in this chapter.[109] ^ The eight dragons who are mentioned in the Lotus Sūtra, are known in Japan as the hachidai ryuuou (八大竜王), and appear throughout Japanese Buddhist art.[118] ^ Donald Lopez: "Although composed in India, the Lotus Sutra
Sutra
became particularly important in China and Japan. In terms of Buddhist doctrine, it is renowned for two powerful proclamations by the Buddha. The first is that there are not three vehicles to enlightenment but one, that all beings in the universe will one day become buddhas. The second is that the Buddha
Buddha
did not die and pass into nirvana; in fact, his lifespan is immeasurable."[120]

References[edit]

^ Shields 2013, p. 512. ^ Williams 1989, p. 149. ^ Hurvitz 1976. ^ Pye 2003, p. 177-178. ^ Pye 2003, p. 173-174. ^ Teiser 2009, p. 7-8. ^ Kajiyama 2000, p. 73. ^ Karashima 2015, p. 163. ^ Apple 2012, pp. 161-162. ^ Bingenheimer 2009, p. 72. ^ Kern 1884, pp. 129-141. ^ Reeves 2008, p. 2. ^ a b The English Buddhist Dictionary Committee 2002. ^ Shioiri 1989, pp. 25-26. ^ Weinstein 1977, p. 90. ^ Stone 2003, p. 471. ^ Taisho vol.9, pp. 63-134 ^ Karashima 1988, p. VIII. ^ Zürcher 2006, p. 57-69. ^ Nattier 2008, p. 22. ^ Watson 1993, p. IX. ^ Tay 1980, pp. 374. ^ Taisho vol. 9, no. 262, CBETA ^ Karashima 2001, p. VII. ^ Robert 2011, p. 63. ^ Kern & 1908-1912. ^ Vaidya 1960. ^ Jamieson 2002, pp. 165–173. ^ Yuyama 1970. ^ Cole 2005, p. 59. ^ Hirakawa 1990, p. 286. ^ Suguro 1998, p. 4. ^ Buswell 2013, pp. 290. ^ Burnouf 1852. ^ Yuyama 2000, pp. 61-77. ^ Vetter 1999, pp. 129-141. ^ Kern 1884. ^ Soothill 1930. ^ Kato 1975. ^ Murano 1974. ^ Hurvitz 2009. ^ Kuo-lin 1977. ^ Kubo 2007. ^ Watson 2009. ^ Reeves 2008. ^ Robert 1997. ^ Tola 1999. ^ Borsig 2009. ^ Deeg 2007. ^ Teiser, edited by Stephen F.; Stone, Jacqueline I. (2009). "Translation of the Lotus Sutra
Sutra
into European Languages". Readings of the Lotus Sutra. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 6036–6151 (Kindle locations). ISBN 9780231520430. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Buswell 2013, p. 153. ^ Suguro 1998, p. 19. ^ Kern 1884, p. 7. ^ Apple 2012, p. 162. ^ Murano 1967, p. 25. ^ Suguro 1998, p. 31. ^ Suguro 1998, pp. 34-35. ^ Pye 2003, p. 23. ^ Groner 2014, pp. 8-9. ^ Williams 1989, p. 155. ^ Pye 2003, p. 37-39. ^ Suzuki 2015, p. 170. ^ Lai 1981, p. 91. ^ Pye 2003, p. 40-42. ^ Murano 1967, p. 34-35. ^ Pye 2003, p. 42-45. ^ Pye 2003, p. 48. ^ a b Williams 1989, p. 156. ^ Federman 2009, p. 132. ^ Lopez 2015, p. 29. ^ Murano 1967, pp. 38-39. ^ Pye 2003, p. 46. ^ Lopez 2015, p. 28. ^ Wawrytko 2007, p. 74. ^ Zimmermann 1999, p. 162. ^ Murano 1967, p. 39. ^ Tamura 1963, p. 812. ^ Shioiri 1989, pp. 31-33. ^ Buswell 2013, p. 654. ^ a b Strong 2007, p. 38. ^ Hirakawa 2005, p. 202. ^ Murano 1967, p. 42-43. ^ Lai 1981, p. 459-460. ^ Teiser 2009, p. 12. ^ Peach 2002, p. 57-58. ^ Silk 2016, p. 150. ^ Suguro 1998, pp. 115-118. ^ Apple 2012, p. 168. ^ Murano 1967, p. 50-52. ^ Pye 2003, p. 51-54. ^ Williams 1989, p. 157. ^ Zimmermann 1999, p. 159. ^ Suzuki 2016, p. 1162. ^ Murano 1967, pp. 65-66. ^ Tamura 1989, p. 45. ^ Murano 1967, p. 66. ^ Tamura 1963, p. 813. ^ a b Shioiri 1989, p. 29. ^ Williams 1989, p. 160. ^ Benn 2007, p. 59. ^ Ohnuma 1998, p. 324. ^ Suzuki 2015, p. 1187. ^ Murano 1967, pp. 73. ^ Chün-fang 1997, p. 414-415. ^ Baroni 2002, p. 15. ^ Wang 2005, p. 226. ^ Murano 1967, pp. 76-78. ^ Suguro 1998, p. 170. ^ Tay 1980, p. 373. ^ Wang 2005, pp. XXI-XXII. ^ Shioiri 1989, p. 30. ^ Murano 1967, pp. 81-83. ^ The Walters Art Museum. ^ Williams 1989, p. 151. ^ Abe 2015, p. 29, 36, 37. ^ Reeves 2008, p. 14. ^ Reeves 2008, p. 1. ^ Shiki 1983, p. 17. ^ Hurvitz 1976, p. 239. ^ a b Jessica Ganga (2016), Donald Lopez on the Lotus Sutra, Princeton University Press Blog ^ Mochizuki 2011, pp. 1169-1177. ^ Groner 2014, p. 5. ^ Abbot 2013, p. 87. ^ Silk 2001, pp. 87,90,91. ^ a b Kirchner 2009, p. 193. ^ "The Final Word: An Interview with Jacqueline Stone". Tricycle: The Buddhist Review. 2006. Retrieved April 27, 2013.  ^ Teiser 2009. ^ Kim 1985, pp. 3. ^ https://nirc.nanzan-u.ac.jp/nfile/4327 ^ Magnin 1979. ^ a b c Williams 1989, p. 162. ^ Groner 2000, pp. 199–200. ^ Tanahashi 1995, p. 4. ^ Stone 2003, p. 277. ^ Stone 2009, p. 220. ^ Stone 1998, p. 138. ^ a b Leighton 2005, pp. 85–105. ^ Leighton. ^ Leighton 2007, pp. 85–105. ^ The Lotus Sutra
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Text Society, XXXI: 125–54  Silk, Jonathan; Hinüber, Oskar von; Eltschinger, Vincent; eds. (2016). "Lotus Sutra", in Brill's Encyclopedia of Buddhism, Volume 1: Literature and Languages. Leiden: Brill. pp. 144–157 Soothill, William Edward, trans. (1930), The Lotus of the Wonderful Law or The Lotus Gospel, Clarendon Press, pp. 15–36  (Abridged) Stone, Jacqueline, I. (1998), Chanting the August Title of the Lotus Sutra: Daimoku Practices in Classical and Medieval Japan. In: Payne, Richard, K. (ed.); Re-Visioning Kamakura Buddhism, University of Hawaii Press, pp. 116–166, ISBN 0-8248-2078-9, Archived from the original on 2015-01-04 CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) Stone, Jacqueline, I. (2003), "Lotus Sutra". In: Buswell, Robert E. ed.; Encyclopedia of Buddhism
Buddhism
vol. 1, Macmillan Reference Lib., ISBN 0028657187  Stone, Jacqueline Ilyse (2003), Original Enlightenment and the Transformation of Medieval Japanese Buddhism, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-2771-7  Stone, Jacqueline, I. (2009), Realizing This World as the Buddha
Buddha
Land, in Teiser, Stephen F.; Stone, Jacqueline Ilyse; eds.; Readings of the Lotus Sutra, Columbia University Press, pp. 209–236, ISBN 0028657187  Strong, John (2007), Relics of the Buddha, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-3139-1  Suguro, Shinjo; Nichiren
Nichiren
Buddhist International Center, trans. (1998), Introduction to the Lotus Sutra, Jain Publishing Company, ISBN 0875730787  Suzuki, Takayasu (2016), "The Saddharmapundarika as the Prediction of All the Sentient Beings' Attaining Buddhahood: With Special
Special
Focus on the Sadaparibhuta-parivarta", Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies (印度學佛教學研究.), 64 (3): 1155–1163  Suzuki, Takayasu (2015), "Two parables on "The wealthy father and the poor son" in the Saddharmapundarika and the Mahaberisutra", Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies (印度學佛教學研究.), 63 (3): 169–176  Suzuki, Takayasu (2015), "The Compilers of the Bhaisajyarajapurvayoga-parivarta Who Did Not Know the Rigid Distinction between Stupa
Stupa
and Caitya in the Saddharmapundarika", Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies (印度學佛教學研究.), 62 (3): 1185–1193  Tamura, Yoshiro (1963), "The Characteristic of the Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Concept in the Lotus Sutra
Sutra
- The Apostle-idea", Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies (印度學佛教學研究.), 11 (2): 816–810  Tamura, Yoshio (1989), The Ideas of the Lotus Sutra, In: George Joji Tanabe; Willa Jane Tanabe, eds. The Lotus Sutra
Sutra
in Japanese Culture, University of Hawaii Press, pp. 37–, ISBN 978-0-8248-1198-3  Tamura, Yoshio; Reeves, Gene (ed) (2014), Introduction to the Lotus Sutra, Boston: Wisdom Publications, ISBN 9781614290803 CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Tanahashi, Kazuaki (1995), Moon in a Dewdrop, p. 4, ISBN 9780865471863  Tay, C. N. (1980), "Review: The Lotus Sutra
Sutra
in Its Latest Translation Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma
Dharma
by Leon Hurvitz", History of Religions, 19 (4): 372–377, doi:10.1086/462858  Teiser, Stephen F.; Stone, Jacqueline Ilyse (2009), Interpreting the Lotus Sutra; in: Teiser, Stephen F.; Stone, Jacqueline Ilyse; eds. Readings of the Lotus Sutra, New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 1–61, ISBN 9780231142885  The English Buddhist Dictionary Committee (2002), The Soka Gakkai Dictionary of Buddhism, Tōkyō: Soka Gakkai, ISBN 978-4-412-01205-9  Portable Buddhist Shrine, The Walters Art Museum  Tola, Fernando; Dragonetti, Carmen (1999), El Sūtra del Loto de la verdadera doctrina: Saddharmapuṇḍarīkasūtra, México, D.F.: El Colegio de México: Asociación Latinoamericana de Estudios Budistas, ISBN 968120915X  Vaidya, P. L. (1960), Saddharmapuṇḍarīkasūtram, Darbhanga: The Mithila Institute of Post-Graduate Studies and Research in Sanskrit Learning, ISBN 968120915X  (Romanized Sanskrit) Vetter, Tilmann (1999), " Hendrik Kern
Hendrik Kern
and the Lotus Sutra" (PDF), Annual Report of The International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology
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at Soka University, 2: 129–142  Wang, Eugene Yuejin (2005), Shaping the Lotus Sutra: Buddhist Visual Culture in Medieval China, University of Washington Press, ISBN 978-0-295-98462-9  Watson, Burton, tr. (1993), The Lotus Sutra, Columbia University Press, ISBN 023108160X  Watson, Burton, tr. (2009), The Lotus Sutra
Sutra
and Its Opening and Closing Sutras, Tokyo: Soka Gakkai, ISBN 023108160X  Wawrytko, Sandra (2007), "Holding Up the Mirror to Buddha-Nature: Discerning the Ghee in the Lotus Sutra", Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy, 6: 63–81, doi:10.1007/s11712-007-9004-2  Weinstein, Stanley (1977), "Review: Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma, by Leon Hurvitz", The Journal of Asian Studies, 37 (1): 89–90, doi:10.2307/2053331  Williams, Paul (1989), Mahāyāna Buddhism: the doctrinal foundations, 2nd Edition, Routledge, ISBN 9780415356534  Yamada, Shozen (1989), Tanabe, George J; Tanabe, Willa Jane, eds., Poetry and Meaning: Medieval Poets and the Lotus Sutra
Sutra
(Repr. ed.), Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 0824811984  Yampolsky, Philip B. [translator] (1971 ), Zen
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Master Hakuin's Letter in Answer to an Old Nun of the Hokke [Nichiren] Sect. In The Zen Master Hakuin: Selected Writings, New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 86–123 Yuyama, Akira (1970). A Bibliography of the Sanskrit-Texts of the Sadharmapuṇḍarīkasūtra. Faculty of Asian Studies in Association With Australian National University, Canberra, Australia Yuyama, Akira (1998), Eugene Burnouf: The Background to his Research into the Lotus Sutra, Bibliotheca Philologica et Philosophica Buddhica, Vol. III (PDF), Tokyo: The International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology, ISBN 4-9980622-2-0, Archived from the original on 2007-07-05 CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) Zimmermann, Michael (1999), The Tathagatagarbhasutra: Its Basic Structure and Relation to the Lotus Sutra
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Further reading[edit]

Hanh, Thich Nhat (2003). Opening the heart of the cosmos: insights from the Lotus Sutra. Berkeley, Calif.: Parallax. ISBN 1888375337.  Hanh, Thich Nhat (2009). Peaceful action, open heart: lessons from the Lotus Sutra. Berkeley, Calif.: Parallax Press. ISBN 1888375930.  Ikeda, Daisaku; Endo, Takanori; Saito, Katsuji; Sudo, Haruo (2000). Wisdom of the Lotus Sutra: A Discussion, Volume 1. Santa Monica, CA: World Tribune Press. ISBN 978-0915678693.  Niwano, Nikkyō (1976). Buddhism
Buddhism
for today : a modern interpretation of the Threefold Lotus sutra (PDF) (1st ed.). Tokyo: Kosei Publishing Co. ISBN 4333002702. Archived from the original on 2013-11-26. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) Rawlinson, Andrew (1972). Studies in the Lotus Sutra (Saddharmapuṇḍarīka), Ph. D. Thesis, University of Lancaster. OCLC 38717855 Tamura, Yoshiro (2014). Introduction to the lotus sutra. [S.l.]: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 1614290806.  Tanabe, George J.; Tanabe, Willa Jane (ed.) (1989). The Lotus Sutra
Sutra
in Japanese Culture. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1198-4. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Tola, Fernando, Dragonetti, Carmen (2009). Buddhist positiveness: studies on the Lotus Sūtra, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 978-81-208-3406-4.

External links[edit]

Chinese Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: 妙法蓮華經

An 1884 English translation from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
by H.Kern from the Sacred Texts Web site An English translation by the Buddhist Text Translation Society

v t e

Lotus Sūtra

Saddharma Puṇḍarīka Sūtra

Components

Threefold Lotus Sutra: Innumerable Meanings Sūtra Sutra
Sutra
of the Lotus Flower of the Wonderful Dharma Samantabhadra
Samantabhadra
Meditation Sūtra

Concepts

Bodhisattva Buddha-nature Emptiness Eternal Buddha Six Pāramitās Skillful Means Ten Suchnesses

Key figures

Bodhisattvas Avalokiteśvara
Avalokiteśvara
(Guanyin) Firm Practice Maitreya Manjusri Medicine King Never Disrespectful Pure Practice Samantabhadra Superior Practice Unlimited Practice

Buddhas Abundant Treasures Buddha Akshobhya Majestic Voice King Śākyamuni Buddha Vairocana
Vairocana
(in Samantabhadra
Samantabhadra
Meditation Sūtra)

Devas Brahmā Hārītī (her ten daughters and her give a Dharani) Nagakanya (female naga and daughter of Nagaraja
Nagaraja
who turns into a Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
and then Buddha
Buddha
instantly) Śakra

Śrāvakas Ānanda Aniruddha Kauṇḍinya Mahā-Kāśyapa Mahā-Kātyāyana Maha-Maudgalyayana Mahāprajāpatī Gautamī Nanda Pūrṇa Rāhula Śāriputra Subhūti Upāli Yasodharā

Nichiren
Nichiren
Buddhism Tiantai
Tiantai
Buddhism
Buddhism
(J. Tendai, K. Cheontae)

v t e

Buddhism
Buddhism
topics

Glossary Index Outline

Foundations

Three Jewels

Buddha Dharma Sangha

Four Noble Truths Noble Eightfold Path Nirvana Middle Way

The Buddha

Tathāgata Birthday Four sights Physical characteristics Footprint Relics Iconography in Laos and Thailand Films Miracles Family

Suddhodāna (father) Māyā (mother) Mahapajapati Gotamī (aunt, adoptive mother) Yasodhara (wife) Rāhula
Rāhula
(son) Ānanda (cousin) Devadatta
Devadatta
(cousin)

Places where the Buddha
Buddha
stayed Buddha
Buddha
in world religions

Key concepts

Avidyā (Ignorance) Bardo Bodhicitta Bodhisattva Buddha-nature Dhamma theory Dharma Enlightenment Five hindrances Indriya Karma Kleshas Mind Stream Parinirvana Pratītyasamutpāda Rebirth Saṃsāra Saṅkhāra Skandha Śūnyatā Taṇhā
Taṇhā
(Craving) Tathātā Ten Fetters Three marks of existence

Impermanence Dukkha Anatta

Two truths doctrine

Cosmology

Ten spiritual realms Six realms

Deva (Buddhism) Human realm Asura realm Hungry Ghost realm Animal realm Hell

Three planes of existence

Practices

Bhavana Bodhipakkhiyādhammā Brahmavihara

Mettā Karuṇā Mudita Upekkha

Buddhābhiseka Dāna Devotion Dhyāna Faith Five Strengths Iddhipada Meditation

Mantras Kammaṭṭhāna Recollection Smarana Anapanasati Samatha Vipassanā
Vipassanā
(Vipassana movement) Shikantaza Zazen Kōan Mandala Tonglen Tantra Tertön Terma

Merit Mindfulness

Satipatthana

Nekkhamma Pāramitā Paritta Puja

Offerings Prostration Chanting

Refuge Satya

Sacca

Seven Factors of Enlightenment

Sati Dhamma vicaya Pīti Passaddhi

Śīla

Five Precepts Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
vow Prātimokṣa

Threefold Training

Śīla Samadhi Prajñā

Vīrya

Four Right Exertions

Nirvana

Bodhi Bodhisattva Buddhahood Pratyekabuddha Four stages of enlightenment

Sotāpanna Sakadagami Anāgāmi Arhat

Monasticism

Bhikkhu Bhikkhuni Śrāmaṇera Śrāmaṇerī Anagarika Ajahn Sayadaw Zen
Zen
master Rōshi Lama Rinpoche Geshe Tulku Householder Upāsaka and Upāsikā Śrāvaka

The ten principal disciples

Shaolin Monastery

Major figures

Gautama Buddha Kaundinya Assaji Sāriputta Mahamoggallāna Mulian Ānanda Mahākassapa Anuruddha Mahākaccana Nanda Subhuti Punna Upali Mahapajapati Gotamī Khema Uppalavanna Asita Channa Yasa Buddhaghoṣa Nagasena Angulimala Bodhidharma Nagarjuna Asanga Vasubandhu Atiśa Padmasambhava Nichiren Songtsen Gampo Emperor Wen of Sui Dalai Lama Panchen Lama Karmapa Shamarpa Naropa Xuanzang Zhiyi

Texts

Tripiṭaka Madhyamakālaṃkāra Mahayana
Mahayana
sutras Pāli Canon Chinese Buddhist canon Tibetan Buddhist canon

Branches

Theravada Mahayana

Chan Buddhism

Zen Seon Thiền

Pure Land Tiantai Nichiren Madhyamaka Yogachara

Navayana Vajrayana

Tibetan Shingon Dzogchen

Early Buddhist schools Pre-sectarian Buddhism Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna

Countries

Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan Cambodia China India Indonesia Japan Korea Laos Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Pakistan Philippines Russia

Kalmykia Buryatia

Singapore Sri Lanka Taiwan Thailand Tibet Vietnam Middle East

Iran

Western countries

Argentina Australia Brazil France United Kingdom United States Venezuela

History

Timeline Ashoka Buddhist councils History of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution Greco-Buddhism Buddhism
Buddhism
and the Roman world Buddhism
Buddhism
in the West Silk Road transmission of Buddhism Persecution of Buddhists Banishment of Buddhist monks from Nepal Buddhist crisis Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism Buddhist modernism Vipassana movement 969 Movement Women in Buddhism

Philosophy

Abhidharma Atomism Buddhology Creator Economics Eight Consciousnesses Engaged Buddhism Eschatology Ethics Evolution Humanism Logic Reality Secular Buddhism Socialism The unanswered questions

Culture

Architecture

Temple Vihara Wat Stupa Pagoda Candi Dzong architecture Japanese Buddhist architecture Korean Buddhist temples Thai temple art and architecture Tibetan Buddhist architecture

Art

Greco-Buddhist

Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree Budai Buddharupa Calendar Cuisine Funeral Holidays

Vesak Uposatha Magha Puja Asalha Puja Vassa

Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi Kasaya Mahabodhi Temple Mantra

Om mani padme hum

Mudra Music Pilgrimage

Lumbini Maya Devi Temple Bodh Gaya Sarnath Kushinagar

Poetry Prayer beads Prayer wheel Symbolism

Dharmachakra Flag Bhavacakra Swastika Thangka

Temple of the Tooth Vegetarianism

Miscellaneous

Abhijñā Amitābha Avalokiteśvara

Guanyin

Brahmā Dhammapada Dharma
Dharma
talk Hinayana Kalpa Koliya Lineage Maitreya Māra Ṛddhi Sacred languages

Pali Sanskrit

Siddhi Sutra Vinaya

Comparison

Bahá'í Faith Christianity

Influences Comparison

East Asian religions Gnosticism Hinduism Jainism Judaism Psychology Science Theosophy Violence Western philosophy

Lists

Bodhisattvas Books Buddhas

named

Buddhists Suttas Temples

.