The Lotus Sūtra (Sanskrit:
Saddharma Puṇḍarīka Sūtra, literally "Sūtra on the White Lotus
of the Sublime Dharma") is one of the most popular and influential
Mahayana sutras, and the basis on which the Tiantai, Tendai, Cheontae,
Nichiren schools of
Buddhism were established. According to Paul
Williams, "For many East Asian Buddhists since early times the Lotus
Sutra contains the final teaching of the Buddha, complete and
sufficient for salvation."
2 Textual History
2.2 Translations into Chinese
2.3 Translations into Western languages
4.1 One vehicle, many skillful means
4.2 All beings have the potential to become Buddhas
4.3 The nature of the Buddhas
Buddhism in China
Buddhism in Japan
5.3 Influence on East Asian culture
6 Modernist Scholarship and Internationalization
7 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
Lotus Sūtra Mandala, Honpoji, Toyama, Japan, c. 1326-28
The earliest known
Sanskrit title for the sūtra is the Saddharma
Puṇḍarīka Sūtra, which translates to Scripture of the Lotus
Blossom of the Fine Dharma. In English, the shortened form Lotus
Sūtra is common. The Lotus Sūtra has also been highly regarded in a
number of Asian countries where Mahāyāna
Buddhism has been
traditionally practiced. Translations of this title into the languages
of some of these countries include:
सूत्र Saddharmapuṇḍarīka Sūtra
Chinese: 妙法蓮華經; pinyin: Miàofǎ Liánhuá jīng, shortened
to 法華經 Fǎhuá jīng
Japanese: (妙法蓮華経, Myōhō Renge Kyō), Hokke-kyō, Hoke-kyō
Korean: Hangul: 묘법연화경; RR: Myobeop Yeonhwa gyeong,
shortened to Beophwa gyeong
dam chos padma dkar po'i mdo, THL: Damchö Pema Karpo'i do
Vietnamese: Diệu pháp Liên hoa kinh, shortened to Pháp hoa kinh
In 1934, based on his text-critical analysis of Chinese and Sanskrit
versions, Kogaku Fuse concluded that the Lotus Sūtra was composed in
four main stages. According to Fuse, the verse sections of chapters
1-9 and 17 were probably created in the first century BCE, with the
prose sections of these chapters added in the first century CE. He
estimates the date of the third stage, chapters 10, 11, 13-16, 18-20
and 27, around 100 CE. Chapters 21-26 belong to the last stage (around
150 CE).[note 1]
Stephen F. Teiser and Jacqueline Stone, there is
consensus about the stages of composition but not about the dating of
Tamura argues that the first stage of composition, chapters 2-9, was
completed around 50 CE and expanded by chapters 10-21 around 100 CE.
He dates the third stage, chapters 22-27, around 150 CE.
Karashima proposes another modified version of Fuse's hypothesis with
the following sequence of composition:
chapters 2-9 form the earliest stratum. The first layer of this
stratum includes the tristubh verses of these chapters which may have
been transmitted orally in a
Prakrit dialect. The second layer
consists of the sloka verses and the prose of chapters 2-9.
chapters 1, 10-20, 27, and a part of chapter 5[note 2] that is missing
in Kumarajiva's translation.
chapters 21-26 and the section on
Devadatta in chapter 11 of the
Translations into Chinese
Three translations of the Lotus Sūtra into Chinese are
The Lotus Sūtra of the Correct
Dharma (Cheng fa-hua ching), in ten
volumes and twenty-seven chapters, translated by
Dharmarakṣa in 286
The Lotus Sūtra of the Wonderful
Dharma (Miàofǎ Liánhuá jīng),
in eight volumes and twenty-eight chapters, translated by Kumārajīva
in 406 CE.
The Supplemented Lotus Sūtra of the Wonderful
Dharma (T´ien p´in
miao-fa lien-hua-ching), in seven volumes and twenty-seven chapters, a
revised version of Kumarajiva's text, translated by Jnanagupta and
Dharmagupta in 601 CE.
The Lotus Sūtra was originally translated from
Sanskrit into Chinese
Dharmarakṣa in 286 CE in Chang'an during the Western Jin Period
(265-317 CE). However, the view that there is a high
degree of probability that the base text for that translation was
actually written in a
Prakrit language has gained widespread
acceptance.[note 4] It may have originally been composed in a Prakrit
dialect and then later translated into
Sanskrit to lend it greater
This early translation by
Dharmarakṣa was superseded by a
translation in seven fascicles by Kumārajīva´s team in 406
CE. According to Jean-Noël Robert,
heavily on the earlier version. The Sanskrit
editions are not widely used outside of academia.
In some Chinese and Japanese sources the Lotus Sūtra has been
compiled together with two other sutras which serve as a prologue and
epilogue, respectively the Innumerable Meanings
無量義經; pinyin: Wúliángyì jīng Muryōgi kyō) and the
Sutra (Chinese: 普賢經; pinyin: Pǔxián
jīng, Fugen kyō). This composite sutra is often called the
Threefold Lotus Sūtra or Three-Part
法華三部経; pinyin: Fǎhuá Sānbù jīng, Hokke Sambu kyō).
Translations into Western languages
The first French translation of the Lotus Sūtra, based on a Nepalese
Sanskrit manuscript, was published by
Eugène Burnouf in 1852.
Hendrik Kern completed his English translation of an ancient Nepalese
Sanskrit manuscript in 1884. Later translations into
English, French, Spanish and
German are based on Kumarajiva's Chinese text. Each of these
translations incorporate different approaches and styles that range
from complex to simplified.
Illustrated Lotus Sūtra handscroll, Kamakura period, c. 1257; ink,
color, and gold on paper.
Ch. 1, Introduction – During a gathering at Vulture Peak, Shakyamuni
Buddha goes into a state of deep meditative absorption, the earth
shakes in six ways, and he brings forth a ray of light which
illuminates thousands of buddha-fields in the east.[note 5]
Manjusri then states that the
Buddha is about to expound
his ultimate teaching.
Ch. 2, Ways and Means –
Shakyamuni explains his use of skillful
means to adapt his teachings according to the capacities of his
audience. He reveals that the ultimate purpose of the Buddhas is
to cause sentient beings "to obtain the insight of the Buddha" and "to
enter the way into the insight of the Buddha".
Ch. 3, A
Parable – The
Buddha teaches a parable in which a father
uses the promise of various toy carts to get his children out of a
burning house. Once they are outside, he gives them all one large
cart to travel in instead. This symbolizes how the
Buddha uses the
Three Vehicles: Arhatship,
Pratyekabuddhahood and Samyaksambuddhahood,
as skillful means to liberate all beings – even though there is only
one vehicle. The
Buddha also promises
Sariputra that he will
Ch. 4, Faith and Understanding – Four senior disciples address the
Buddha. They tell the parable of the poor son and his rich father,
who guides him with pedagogically skillful devices to regain
self-confidence and "recognize his own Buddha-wisdom".
Parable of the plants – This parable says that the
like a great monsoon rain that nourishes many different kinds of
plants who represent Śrāvakas, Pratyekabuddhas, and
Bodhisattvas, and all beings receiving the teachings according to
their respective capacities.
Ch. 6, Assurances of Becoming a
Buddha – The
Buddha prophesizes the
enlightenment of Mahakasyapa, Subhuti, Mahakatyayana and
Ch. 7, The Magic City – The
Buddha teaches a parable about a group
of people seeking a great treasure who are tired of their journey and
wish to quit. Their guide creates a magical phantom city for them to
rest in and then makes it disappear. The
that the magic city represents the "
Hinayana nirvana" and the treasure
Ch. 8, Assurances for 500 Arhats. – 500 Arhats are assured of their
future Buddhahood. They tell the parable of a man who has fallen
asleep after drinking and whose friend sews a jewel into his garment.
When he wakes up he continues a life of poverty without realizing he
is really rich, he only discovers the jewel after meeting his old
friend again. The hidden jewel has been interpreted as
a symbol of Buddha-nature. Zimmermann noted the similarity with
the nine parables in the Tathāgatagarbha Sūtra that illustrate how
Buddha in sentient beings is hidden by negative mental
Ch. 9, Assurances for the Trainees and Adepts. – Ananda,
two thousand Śrāvakas are assured of their future Buddhahood.
Ch. 10, Teacher of the
Dharma – Presents the practices of teaching
the sutra which includes accepting, embracing, reading, reciting,
copying, explaining, propagating it, and living in accordance with its
teachings. The teacher of the
Dharma is praised as the messenger of
the Buddha. The theme of propagating the Lotus Sūtra which starts
here, continues in the remaining chapters.[note 6]
The floating jeweled stupa.
Ch. 11, The Treasure stupa – A great jeweled stupa rises from the
earth and floats in the air; a voice is heard from within praising
the Lotus Sūtra. Another
Buddha resides in the tower, the Buddha
Prabhūtaratna who is said to have made a vow to make an appearance to
verify the truth of the Lotus
Sutra whenever it is preached.
Countless manifestations of
Buddha in the ten directions
are now summoned by the Buddha. Thereafter
Shakyamuni to sit beside him in the jeweled stupa. This
chapter reveals the existence of multiple Buddhas at the same time
and the doctrine of the eternal nature of Buddhahood.
Devadatta – Through the stories of the dragon king's
daughter and Devadatta, the
Buddha teaches that everyone can become
enlightened – women, animals, and even the most sinful
Ch. 13, Encouragement to uphold the sutra – The
all beings to embrace the teachings of the sutra in all times, even in
the most difficult ages to come. The
Buddha prophesizes that six
thousand nuns who are also present will become Buddhas.
Ch. 14, Peace and Contentment –
Manjusri asks how a bodhisattva
should spread the teaching. In his reply
the proper conduct and the appropriate sphere of relations of a
bodhisattva. A bodhisattva should not talk about the faults of
other preachers or their teachings. He is encouraged to explain the
Mahayana teachings when he answers questions. Virtues such as
patience, gentleness, a calm mind, wisdom and compassion are to be
Ch. 15, Springing Up from the Earth – In this chapter countless
bodhisattvas spring up from the earth, ready to teach, and the Buddha
declares that he has trained these bodhisattvas in the remote
past. This confuses some disciples including Maitreya, but the
Buddha affirms that he has taught all of these bodhisattvas himself.
Ch. 16, The eternal lifespan of the
Tathagata – The
that he is truly eternal and omniscient. He then teaches the Parable
of the Excellent Physician who entices his sons into taking his
medicine by feigning his death.
Ch. 17, Merits and Virtues of enlightenment – The
that since he has been teaching as many beings as the sands of the
Ganges have been saved.
Ch. 18, Merits and Virtues of Joyful Acceptance – Faith in the
teachings of the sutra brings much merit and lead to good rebirths.
Ch. 19, Merits and Virtues obtained by a Teacher of the
Dharma – The
relative importance of the merits of the six senses are explained by
Ch. 20, The
Sadāparibhūta – The
Buddha tells a story
about a previous life when he was a
Bodhisattva called Sadāparibhūta
(Never Disparaging) and how he treated every person he met, good or
bad, with respect, always remembering that they will too become
Ch. 21, The Spiritual Power of the
Tathagata – Reveals that the
sutra contains all of the Eternal Buddha’s secret spiritual powers.
The bodhisattvas who have sprung from the earth (ch 15) are entrusted
with the task of propagating it.
Ch. 22, The Passing of the Commission – The
Buddha transmits the
Sutra to all bodhisattvas in his congregation and entrusts them
with its safekeeping. The
Prabhūtaratna in his
jewelled stupa and the countless manifestations of
return to their respective buddha-fields.[note 7]
Avalokiteśvara, Ajanta cave no 1, 5th century
Ch. 23, The
Bodhisattva Bhaiṣajyarāja – The
Buddha tells the
story of the 'Medicine King' Bodhisattva, who, in a previous life,
burnt his body as a supreme offering to a Buddha. The
hearing and chanting of the Lotus Sūtra is also said to cure
Buddha uses nine similes to declare that the Lotus
Sūtra is the king of all sutras.
Ch. 24, The
Bodhisattva Gadgadasvara – "Wonderful Voice"
Bodhisattva from a distant world, visits Vulture
Peak to worship the Buddha.
Bodhisattva "Wonderful Voice" once made
offerings of various kinds of music to the Buddha
"Cloud-Thunder-King". His accumulated merits enable him to take 34
different forms to propagate the Lotus Sutra.
Ch. 25, The
Avalokiteśvara – This chapter is devoted to
Avalokiteśvara, describing him as a compassionate bodhisattva who
hears the cries of sentient beings, and rescues those who call upon
Hariti and several Bodhisattvas offer sacred
formulae (dhāraṇī) in order to protect those who keep and recite
the Lotus Sūtra.[note 8]
Ch. 27, King Wonderfully Adorned – A chapter on the conversion of
King 'Wonderful-Adornment' by his two sons.
Ch. 28, Encouragement of the
Samantabhadra – A
bodhisattva called "Universal Virtue" asks the
Buddha how to preserve
the sutra in the future.
Samantabhadra promises to protect and guard
all those who keep this sutra in the future Age of Dharma
Portable shrine depicting
Buddha Sakyamuni preaching the Lotus
Sūtra. The Walters Art Museum.
One vehicle, many skillful means
This Lotus Sūtra is known for its extensive instruction on the
concept and usage of skillful means – (Sanskrit: upāya, Japanese:
hōben), the seventh paramita or perfection of a
mostly in the form of parables. The many 'skillful' or 'expedient'
means and the "three vehicles" are revealed to all be part of the One
Vehicle (Ekayāna), which is also the
Bodhisattva path. This is also
one of the first sutras to use the term Mahāyāna, or "Great
Vehicle". In the Lotus Sūtra, the One Vehicle encompasses so many
different teachings because the Buddha's compassion and wish to save
all beings led him to adapt the teaching to suit many different kinds
of people. As Paul Williams explains:
Although the corpus of teachings attributed to the Buddha, if taken as
a whole, embodies many contradictions, these contradictions are only
apparent. Teachings are appropriate to the context in which they are
given and thus their contradictions evaporate. The Buddha’s
teachings are to be used like ladders, or, to apply an age-old
Buddhist image, like a raft employed to cross a river. There is no
point in carrying the raft once the journey has been completed and its
function fulfilled. When used, such a teaching transcends itself.
The sutra emphasizes that all these seemingly different teachings are
actually just skillful applications of the one
Dharma and thus all
constitute the "One
Buddha Vehicle and knowledge of all modes". The
Lotus Sūtra sees all other teachings are subservient to, propagated
by and in the service of the ultimate truth of the One Vehicle leading
to Buddhahood. The Lotus Sūtra also claims to be superior to
other sūtras and states that full
Buddhahood is only arrived at by
exposure to its teachings and skillful means. Chapter ten of the
Burton Watson translation states: "...Medicine King, now I say to you,
I have preached various sutras, and among those sutras the Lotus is
All beings have the potential to become Buddhas
The dragon king´s daughter offers her priceless pearl to the Buddha;
frontispiece of a 12th century Lotus
The Lotus Sūtra is also significant because it reveals that women,
evil people and even animals have the potential to become Buddhas. It
in fact teaches that beings have the potential to become Buddhas in
their present form, and provides instructions including: having faith
in, following and practicing, not slandering, and truly refuting any
slander of it and its teachings. That is, with the Lotus Sūtra,
people need neither practice austerities for countless kalpas nor wait
for rebirth in a different physical form to become a
teachings held that women must be reborn as men and then practice for
innumerable kalpas in order to become Buddhas). Thus through its many
similes and parables, the Lotus Sūtra affirms the potential for all
beings to become Buddhas, and furthermore provides instructions for
all beings to becoming a
Buddha in the present life.
The Lotus Sūtra also teaches that the
Buddha has many embodiments or
emanations and these are the countless bodhisattva disciples. These
bodhisattvas choose to remain in the world to save all beings and to
keep the teaching alive. According to Gene Reeves: "Because the Buddha
Dharma are alive in such bodhisattvas, he himself continues to
be alive. The fantastically long life of the Buddha, in other words,
is at least partly a function of and dependent on his being embodied
in others." The Lotus Sūtra also teaches various dhāraṇīs or
the prayers of different celestial bodhisattvas who out of compassion
protect and teach all beings. The lotus flower imagery points to this
quality of the bodhisattvas. The lotus symbolizes the bodhisattva who
is rooted in the earthly mud and yet flowers above the water in the
open air of enlightenment.
The universe outlined by the Lotus Sūtra encompasses realms of gods,
devas, dragons[note 9] and other mythological beings, requiring
numerous dimensions to contain them. Buddhas are described as the
patient teachers, who constantly guide all beings to enlightenment.
The radical message of the Lotus Sūtra therefore includes the fact
that all beings have the potential to become Buddhas and teach the
Dharma here and now.
The nature of the Buddhas
Another concept introduced by the Lotus Sūtra is the idea that the
Buddha is an eternal entity, who achieved nirvana eons ago, but
remains in the world to help teach beings the
Dharma time and again.
He reveals himself as the "father" of all beings and evinces the
loving care of just such a father. Moreover, the sutra indicates that
even after the parinirvana (apparent physical death) of a Buddha, that
Buddha continues to be real and to be capable of communicating with
The idea that the physical death of a
Buddha is the termination of
Buddha is graphically refuted by the appearance of another
Buddha, who passed long before. In the vision of the Lotus Sūtra,
Buddhas are ultimately immortal. Crucially, not only are there
multiple Buddhas in this view, but an infinite stream of Buddhas
extending infinitely in space in the ten directions and through
unquantifiable eons of time. The Lotus Sūtra illustrates a sense of
timelessness and the inconceivable, often using large numbers and
measurements of time and space. The
Buddha of the Lotus Sūtra states:
In this way, since my attainment of
Buddhahood it has been a very
great interval of time. My life-span is incalculable asatkhyeyakalpas
[rather a lot of aeons], ever enduring, never perishing. O good men!
The life-span I achieved in my former treading of the bodhisattva path
even now is not exhausted, for it is twice the above number. Yet even
now, though in reality I am not to pass into extinction [enter final
nirvana], yet I proclaim that I am about to accept extinction. By
resort to these expedient devices [this skill-in-means] the Thus Come
One [the Tathagata] teaches and converts the beings.
According to Donald Lopez, the Lotus
Sutra is "arguably the most
famous of all Buddhist texts," presenting "a radical re-vision of both
the Buddhist path and of the person of the Buddha."[note 10]
Sutra was frequently cited in Indian works by Nagarjuna,
Vasubandhu, Candrakirti, Santideva and several authors of the
Madyamaka and the
Yogacara school. The only extant Indian
commentary on the Lotus
Sutra is attributed to Vasubandhu.
According to Jonathan Silk, the influence of the Lotus Sūtra in India
may have been limited, but "it is a prominent scripture in East Asian
Buddhism." The sutra has most prominence in
called "The Lotus School") and
Nichiren Buddhism. It is also
Buddhism in China
Tao Sheng, a fifth-century Chinese Buddhist monk wrote the earliest
extant commentary on the Lotus Sūtra.
Tao Sheng was known
for promoting the concept of
Buddha nature and the idea that even
deluded people will attain enlightenment.
Daoxuan (596-667) of the
Tang Dynasty wrote that the Lotus
Sutra was "the most important sutra
in China".[full citation needed]
Zhiyi, the generally credited founder of the
Tiantai school of
Buddhism, was the student of Nanyue Huisi who was the leading
authority of his time on the Lotus Sūtra. Zhiyi's philosophical
synthesis saw the Lotus Sūtra as the final teaching of the
the highest teaching of Buddhism. He wrote two commentaries on
the sutra: Profound meanings of the Lotus Sūtra and Words and phrases
of the Lotus Sūtra.
Zhiyi also linked the teachings of the Lotus
Sūtra with the
Buddha nature teachings of the Mahāyāna
Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra and made a distinction between the "Eternal
Vairocana and the manifestations. In Tiantai,
primeval Buddha) is seen as the 'Bliss body' –
Sambhogakāya – of
the historical Gautama Buddha.
Buddhism in Japan
The Lotus Sūtra is a very important sutra in Tiantai and
correspondingly, in Japanese
Tendai (founded by Saicho, 767–822).
Buddhism was the dominant form of mainstream
Buddhism in Japan
for many years and the influential founders of popular Japanese
Buddhist sects including Nichiren, Honen,
Shinran and Dogen were
Calligraphic mandala (Gohonzon) inscribed by
Nichiren in 1280. The
central characters are the title of the Lotus Sūtra.
Nichiren, a 13th-century Japanese Buddhist monk, founded an entire
Buddhism based on his belief that the Lotus Sūtra is "the
Buddha´s ultimate teaching", and that the title is the essence
of the sutra, "the seed of Buddhahood".
Nichiren held that
chanting the title of the Lotus Sūtra –
Namu Myōhō Renge Kyō
Namu Myōhō Renge Kyō –
was the only way to practice
Buddhism in the degenerate age of Dharma
decline and was the highest practice of Buddhism.
Dogen, the 13th-century Japanese founder of
Zen Buddhism, used
the Lotus Sūtra often in his writings. According to Taigen Dan
Leighton, "While Dogen's writings employ many sources, probably along
with his own intuitive meditative awareness, his direct citations of
the Lotus Sūtra indicate his conscious appropriation of its teachings
as a significant source" and that his writing "demonstrates that
Dogen himself saw the Lotus Sutra, 'expounded by all buddhas in the
three times,' as an important source for this self-proclamatory
rhetorical style of expounding." In his Shobogenzo, Dogen
directly discusses the Lotus Sūtra in the essay Hokke-Ten-Hokke, "The
Dharma Flower Turns the
Dharma Flower". The essay uses a dialogue from
Huineng and a monk who has memorized the
Lotus Sūtra to illustrate the non-dual nature of dharma practice and
sutra study. The Soto
Ryōkan also studied the Lotus
Sūtra extensively and this sutra was the biggest inspiration for his
poetry and calligraphy. During his final days,
Dogen spent his
time reciting and writing the Lotus
Sutra in his room which he named
Hakuin Ekaku achieved enlightenment while
reading the third chapter of the Lotus Sūtra.
Influence on East Asian culture
The Lotus Sūtra has had a great impact on literature, art, and
folklore for over 1400 years.
Various events from it are depicted in religious art.
Wang argues that the explosion of art inspired by the Lotus Sutra,
starting from the 7th and 8th centuries in China, was a confluence of
text and the topography of the Chinese medieval mind in which the
Motifs from the Lotus
Sutra figure prominently in the
built in the Sui era. The theme of
Shakyamuni and Prabhutaratna
Buddhas seated together as depicted in the 11th chapter of the Lotus
Sutra can be seen in a bronze plaque (year 686) at
Hase-dera Temple in
Japan and, in Korea, at
Seokgatap Pagodas, built in
Tamura refers to the "Lotus
Sutra literary genre." Its ideas and
images are writ large in great works of Chinese and Japanese
literature such as The
Dream of the Red Chamber
Dream of the Red Chamber and The Tale of
Genji. The Lotus
Sutra has had an outsized influence on Japanese
Buddhist poetry. Far more poems have been Lotus Sutra-inspired
than other sutras. In the work Kanwa taisho myoho renge-kyo, a
compendium of more than 120 collections of poetry from the Heian
period, there are more than 1360 poems with references to the Lotus
Sutra in just their titles.
Sutra has inspired a branch of folklore based on figures in
the sutra or subsequent people who have embraced it. The story of the
Dragon King's daughter, who attained enlightenment in the 12th
(Devadatta) chapter of the Lotus Sutra, appears in the Complete Tale
Avalokiteśvara and the Southern Seas and the Precious Scroll of
Longnü folkstories. The Miraculous Tales of the Lotus
Sutra is a collection of 129 stories with folklore motifs based
on "Buddhist pseudo-biographies."
Modernist Scholarship and Internationalization
Eugene Burnouf's's 1844 "Introduction à l'histoire du Buddhisme
indien" marks the start of modern academic scholarship of
the West. His translation of the Lotus Sutra, "Le Lotus de la bonne
loi," was published posthumously in 1852. Prior to publication, a
chapter from the translation was included in the 1844 journal The
Dial, a publication of the New England transcendentalists, translated
from French to English by Elizabeth Palmer Peabody. A translation
of the Lotus
Sanskrit was completed by Kern in 1884.
Western interest in the Lotus
Sutra waned in the latter 19th century
as Indo-centric scholars focused on older
However, Christian missionaries in the late 19th and early 20th
centuries, based predominantly in China, became interested in
Kumārajīva's translation of the Lotus
Sutra into Chinese. These
scholars attempted to draw parallels between the Old and New
Testaments to earlier
Nikaya sutras and the Lotus Sutra. Abbreviated
and "cristo-centric" translations were published by Richard and
According to Shields, "modern(ist)" interpretations of the Lotus Sutra
begin with the early 20th century nationalist applications of the
Sutra by Chigaku Tanaka, Nissho Honda, Seno'o, and Nisshō
Inoue. In the post World War II years, scholarly attention to the
Sutra was inspired by renewed interest in Japanese
well as archeological research in Dunhuang. This led to the 1976 Leon
Hurvitz publication of the Lotus
Sutra based on Kumarajiva's
translation. Whereas the Hurvitz work was independent scholarship,
other modern translations were sponsored by Buddhist groups: Kato
Bunno (1975, Nichiren-shu/Rissho-kosei-kai), Murano Senchu (1974,
Burton Watson (1993, Soka Gakkai), and the Buddhist
Text Translation Society (Xuanhua).
Japanese new religions
Japanese new religions began forming in the 19th century and the trend
accelerated after World War II. Some of these groups have pushed the
study of the Lotus
Sutra to a global scale. While noting the
importance of several Japanese New Religious Movements to Lotus Sutra
scholarship, Lopez focuses on the contributions made by the Reiyukai
and Soka Gakkai and Stone discusses the contributions of the Soka
Gakkai and Risshō Kōsei Kai. Etai Yamada, the 253rd head priest
Tendai denomination conducted ecumenical dialogues with
religious leaders around the world based on his interpretation of the
Sutra which culminated in a 1987 summit. He also used the Lotus
Sutra to move his sect from a "temple Buddhism" perspective to one
based on social engagement. Nichiren-inspired Buddhist
organizations have shared their interpretations of the Lotus Sutra
through publications, academic symposia, and
Hokke Gisho, an annotated Japanese version of the sutra.
Innumerable Meanings Sutra
Nam(u) Myōhō Renge Kyō
Sutra of Meditation on the
Bodhisattva Universal Worthy
^ Chapter numbers of the extant
Sanskrit version are given here. The
arrangement and numbering of chapters in Kumarajiva's translation is
^ In the
Sanskrit manuscripts chapter 5 contains the parable of a
blind man who refuses to believe that vision exists.
^ Weinstein states: "Japanese scholars demonstrated decades ago that
this traditional list of six translations of the Lotus lost and three
surviving-given in the K'ai-yiian-lu and elsewhere is incorrect. In
fact, the so-called "lost" versions never existed as separate texts;
their titles were simply variants of the titles of the three
^ Jan Nattier has recently summarized this aspect of the early textual
transmission of such Buddhist scriptures in China thus, bearing in
mind that Dharmarakṣa's period of activity falls well within the
period she defines: "Studies to date indicate that Buddhist scriptures
arriving in China in the early centuries of the Common Era were
composed not just in one Indian dialect but in several . . . in sum,
the information available to us suggests that, barring strong evidence
of another kind, we should assume that any text translated in the
second or third century AD was not based on Sanskrit, but one or other
of the many
Sanskrit buddhaksetra, the realm of a Buddha, a pure land. Buswell
and Lopez state that "Impure buddha-fields are synonymous with a world
system (cacravada), the infinite number of “world discs” in
Buddhist cosmology that constitutes the universe (...)."
^ Ryodo Shioiri states, "If I may speak very simply about the
characteristics of section 2, chapter 10 and subsequent chapters
emphasize the command to propagate the Lotus Sūtra in society as
opposed to the predictions given in section 1 out (sic) the future
attainment of buddhahood by the disciples....and the central concern
is the actualization of the teaching--in other words, how to practice
and transmit the spirit of the Lotus
Sutra as contained in the
original form of section 1."
^ The "Passing of the Commission" is the final chapter in the Sanskrit
versions and the alternative Chinese translations.
Dhāraṇī is used in the "limited sense of mantra-dharani" in this
^ The eight dragons who are mentioned in the Lotus Sūtra, are known
in Japan as the hachidai ryuuou (八大竜王), and appear throughout
Japanese Buddhist art.
^ Donald Lopez: "Although composed in India, the Lotus
particularly important in China and Japan. In terms of Buddhist
doctrine, it is renowned for two powerful proclamations by the Buddha.
The first is that there are not three vehicles to enlightenment but
one, that all beings in the universe will one day become buddhas. The
second is that the
Buddha did not die and pass into nirvana; in fact,
his lifespan is immeasurable."
^ Shields 2013, p. 512.
^ Williams 1989, p. 149.
^ Hurvitz 1976.
^ Pye 2003, p. 177-178.
^ Pye 2003, p. 173-174.
^ Teiser 2009, p. 7-8.
^ Kajiyama 2000, p. 73.
^ Karashima 2015, p. 163.
^ Apple 2012, pp. 161-162.
^ Bingenheimer 2009, p. 72.
^ Kern 1884, pp. 129-141.
^ Reeves 2008, p. 2.
^ a b The English Buddhist Dictionary Committee 2002.
^ Shioiri 1989, pp. 25-26.
^ Weinstein 1977, p. 90.
^ Stone 2003, p. 471.
^ Taisho vol.9, pp. 63-134
^ Karashima 1988, p. VIII.
^ Zürcher 2006, p. 57-69.
^ Nattier 2008, p. 22.
^ Watson 1993, p. IX.
^ Tay 1980, pp. 374.
^ Taisho vol. 9, no. 262, CBETA
^ Karashima 2001, p. VII.
^ Robert 2011, p. 63.
^ Kern & 1908-1912.
^ Vaidya 1960.
^ Jamieson 2002, pp. 165–173.
^ Yuyama 1970.
^ Cole 2005, p. 59.
^ Hirakawa 1990, p. 286.
^ Suguro 1998, p. 4.
^ Buswell 2013, pp. 290.
^ Burnouf 1852.
^ Yuyama 2000, pp. 61-77.
^ Vetter 1999, pp. 129-141.
^ Kern 1884.
^ Soothill 1930.
^ Kato 1975.
^ Murano 1974.
^ Hurvitz 2009.
^ Kuo-lin 1977.
^ Kubo 2007.
^ Watson 2009.
^ Reeves 2008.
^ Robert 1997.
^ Tola 1999.
^ Borsig 2009.
^ Deeg 2007.
^ Teiser, edited by Stephen F.; Stone, Jacqueline I. (2009).
"Translation of the Lotus
Sutra into European Languages". Readings of
the Lotus Sutra. New York: Columbia University Press.
pp. 6036–6151 (Kindle locations).
ISBN 9780231520430. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list
^ Buswell 2013, p. 153.
^ Suguro 1998, p. 19.
^ Kern 1884, p. 7.
^ Apple 2012, p. 162.
^ Murano 1967, p. 25.
^ Suguro 1998, p. 31.
^ Suguro 1998, pp. 34-35.
^ Pye 2003, p. 23.
^ Groner 2014, pp. 8-9.
^ Williams 1989, p. 155.
^ Pye 2003, p. 37-39.
^ Suzuki 2015, p. 170.
^ Lai 1981, p. 91.
^ Pye 2003, p. 40-42.
^ Murano 1967, p. 34-35.
^ Pye 2003, p. 42-45.
^ Pye 2003, p. 48.
^ a b Williams 1989, p. 156.
^ Federman 2009, p. 132.
^ Lopez 2015, p. 29.
^ Murano 1967, pp. 38-39.
^ Pye 2003, p. 46.
^ Lopez 2015, p. 28.
^ Wawrytko 2007, p. 74.
^ Zimmermann 1999, p. 162.
^ Murano 1967, p. 39.
^ Tamura 1963, p. 812.
^ Shioiri 1989, pp. 31-33.
^ Buswell 2013, p. 654.
^ a b Strong 2007, p. 38.
^ Hirakawa 2005, p. 202.
^ Murano 1967, p. 42-43.
^ Lai 1981, p. 459-460.
^ Teiser 2009, p. 12.
^ Peach 2002, p. 57-58.
^ Silk 2016, p. 150.
^ Suguro 1998, pp. 115-118.
^ Apple 2012, p. 168.
^ Murano 1967, p. 50-52.
^ Pye 2003, p. 51-54.
^ Williams 1989, p. 157.
^ Zimmermann 1999, p. 159.
^ Suzuki 2016, p. 1162.
^ Murano 1967, pp. 65-66.
^ Tamura 1989, p. 45.
^ Murano 1967, p. 66.
^ Tamura 1963, p. 813.
^ a b Shioiri 1989, p. 29.
^ Williams 1989, p. 160.
^ Benn 2007, p. 59.
^ Ohnuma 1998, p. 324.
^ Suzuki 2015, p. 1187.
^ Murano 1967, pp. 73.
^ Chün-fang 1997, p. 414-415.
^ Baroni 2002, p. 15.
^ Wang 2005, p. 226.
^ Murano 1967, pp. 76-78.
^ Suguro 1998, p. 170.
^ Tay 1980, p. 373.
^ Wang 2005, pp. XXI-XXII.
^ Shioiri 1989, p. 30.
^ Murano 1967, pp. 81-83.
^ The Walters Art Museum.
^ Williams 1989, p. 151.
^ Abe 2015, p. 29, 36, 37.
^ Reeves 2008, p. 14.
^ Reeves 2008, p. 1.
^ Shiki 1983, p. 17.
^ Hurvitz 1976, p. 239.
^ a b Jessica Ganga (2016), Donald Lopez on the Lotus Sutra, Princeton
University Press Blog
^ Mochizuki 2011, pp. 1169-1177.
^ Groner 2014, p. 5.
^ Abbot 2013, p. 87.
^ Silk 2001, pp. 87,90,91.
^ a b Kirchner 2009, p. 193.
^ "The Final Word: An Interview with Jacqueline Stone". Tricycle: The
Buddhist Review. 2006. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
^ Teiser 2009.
^ Kim 1985, pp. 3.
^ Magnin 1979.
^ a b c Williams 1989, p. 162.
^ Groner 2000, pp. 199–200.
^ Tanahashi 1995, p. 4.
^ Stone 2003, p. 277.
^ Stone 2009, p. 220.
^ Stone 1998, p. 138.
^ a b Leighton 2005, pp. 85–105.
^ Leighton 2007, pp. 85–105.
^ The Lotus
Sutra in Japanese Culture, George Tanabe, University of
Hawaii Press, Page 40
^ Yampolsky 1971, pp. 86-123.
^ Watson 2009, p. xxix.
^ Lopez 2016, p. 17, 265.
^ Kurata 1987.
^ Wang 2005.
^ Wang 2005, p. 68.
^ Paine 1981, p. 41.
^ Lim 2014, p. 33.
^ Tamura 2009, p. 56.
^ Hurvitz 2009, p. 5.
^ Yamada 1989.
^ Tanabe, George J. Jr. (Ed); Tanabe, Willa Jane (Ed); Yamada, Shozen
(1989). The Lotus
Sutra in Japanese culture (Repr. ed.). Honolulu:
University of Hawaii Press. p. 105.
ISBN 9780824811983. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list
^ Shioiri 1989, p. 16.
^ Rubio, Carlos. "The Lotus
Sutra in Japanese literature: A spring
rain" (PDF). Institute of Oriental Philosophy. Institute of Oriental
^ Dykstra 1983.
^ Mulhern 1989, p. 16.
^ Lopez Jr., Donald S. (2016). "The Life of the Lotus Sutra". Tricycle
^ Silk 2012, pp. 125–54.
^ Deeg 2012, pp. 133–153.
^ Shields 2013, pp. 512–523.
^ Deeg 2012, p. 146.
^ Reader, Ian. "JAPANESE NEW RELIGIONS: AN OVERVIEW" (PDF). The World
Religions & Spirituality Project (WRSP). Virginia Commonwealth
University. p. 16. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
^ Metraux, Daniel (2010). How
Soka Gakkai Became a Global Buddhist
Movement: The Internationalization of a Japanese Religion. Virginia
Review of Asian Studies. ISBN 0-7734-3758-4.
^ Lopez, Donald S, Jr. (2016). The Lotus Sutra: A Biography. Princeton
and Oxford: Princeton University Press. pp. 232, 109–115,
191–195, 201–215. ISBN 978-0-691-15220-2.
^ Stone, Jacqueline I. Teiser, Stephen F.; Stone, Jacqueline I., eds.
Realizing This World as a Buddhaland (PDF). Columbia University Press.
pp. 227–230. ISBN 9780231142892.
^ Covell, Stephen G. (2014). "Interfaith Dialogue and a Lotus
Practitioner: Yamada Etai, the "Lotus Sutra", and the Religious Summit
Meeting on Mt. Hiei". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. 41 (1):
^ Reeves, Gene (Dec 1, 2001). "Introduction: The Lotus
Process Thought". Journal of Chinese Philosophy. 28 (4): 355.
^ Groner, Paul; Stone, Jacqueline I (2014). "The Lotus
Japan". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. 41 (1): 2.
^ O'Leary, Joseph S. (2003). "Review of Gene Reeves, ed. A Buddhist
Kaleidoscope: Essays on the Lotus Sutra". Japanese Journal of
Religious Studies. 30 (-/2): 175–178.
^ "A Discussion with Gene Reeves, Consultant, Rissho Kosei-kai and the
Niwano Peace Foundation". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace &
World Affairs. Georgetown University. November 25, 2009. Retrieved 13
^ MURUGAPPAN, REVATHI (May 24, 2014). "Lotus Sutra's Dance of Peace".
The Star Online. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
Abe, Ryuchi (2015). "Revisiting the Dragon Princess: Her Role in
Medieval Engi Stories and Their Implications in Reading the Lotus
Sutra". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. 42 (1): 27–70.
Archived from the original on 2015-09-07. CS1 maint: BOT:
original-url status unknown (link)
Abbot, Terry, trans. (2013), The Commentary on the Lotus Sutra, in:
Tsugunari Kubo; Terry Abbott; Masao Ichishima; David Wellington
Tiantai Lotus Texts (PDF), Berkeley, California: Bukkyō
Dendō Kyōkai America, pp. 83–149,
Apple, James B. (2012), "The Structure and Content of the
Sutra and Its Relation to the Lotus Sutra" (PDF),
Bulletin of the Institute of Oriental Philosophy, 28: 155–174,
Archived from the original on 2015-06-01 CS1 maint: BOT:
original-url status unknown (link)
Baroni, Helen Josephine (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Zen
Buddhism, The Rosen Publishing Group,
Benn, James A (2007), Burning for the Buddha, University of Hawaii
Press, ISBN 0824823710
Bielefeldt, Carl (2009), Expedient Devices, the One Vehicle, and the
Life Span of the Buddha. In Teiser, Stephen F.; Stone, Jacqueline
Ilyse; eds. Readings of the Lotus Sutra, New York: Columbia University
Press, ISBN 9780231142885
Borsig, Margareta von, trans. (2009), Lotos-
Sutra - Das große
Erleuchtungsbuch des Buddhismus, Verlag Herder,
Burnouf, Eugène, trans. (1852), Le Lotus de la Bonne Loi: Traduit du
sanskrit, accompagné d'un commentaire et de vingt et un mémoires
relatifs au Bouddhisme, Paris: Imprimerie Nationale,
Buswell, Robert Jr; Lopez, Donald S. Jr., eds. (2013), Princeton
Dictionary of Buddhism., Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press,
Chün-fang, Yü (1997), "Ambiguity of
Avalokiteśvara and the
Scriptural Sources for the Cult of Kuan-Yin in China" (PDF), Chung Hwa
Journal of Buddhism, 10: 409–463
Cole, Alan (2005), Text as Father: Paternal Seductions in Early
Mahayana Buddhist Literature, Los Angeles: University of California
Press, ISBN 0520242769
Deeg, Max (2007), Das Lotos-Sūtra, Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche
Buchgesellschaft, ISBN 9783534187539
Deeg, Max (2012), "From scholarly object to religious text - the story
of the Lotus-sutra in the West" (PDF), The Journal of Oriental
Studies, 22: 133–153
Dykstra, Yoshiko Kurata (1983), Miraculous tales of the Lotus sutra
from ancient Japan : the Dainihonkoku Hokekyōkenki of Priest
Chingen, Hirakata City, Osaka-fu, Japan: Intercultural Research
Institute, Kansai University of Foreign Studies,
Federman, Asaf (2009), "Literal means and hidden meanings: a new
analysis of skillful means" (PDF), Philosophy East and West, 59 (2):
Groner, Paul (2000), Saicho: The Establishment of the Japanese Tendai
School, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 0824823710
Groner, Paul; Stone, Jacqueline I. (2014), "Editors' Introduction: The
"Lotus Sutra" in Japan", Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 41
(1): 1–23, archived from the original on June 14, 2014
Hirakawa, Akira; Groner, Paul (trans.; ed.) (1990), A History of
Indian Buddhism, Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press,
Hirakawa, Akira (2005), The rise of
Buddhism and its
relationship to the worship of stupas. In: Paul Williams (Editor),
Buddhism: Critical Concepts in Religious Studies Series, Vol. 3, The
Origins and Nature of
Mahayana Buddhism, London, New York: Routledge,
Hurvitz, Leon (2009), Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine
Dharma : The Lotus Sutra) (Rev. ed.), New York: Columbia
university press, ISBN 023114895X
Jamieson, R.C. (2002), "Introduction to the
Sanskrit Lotus Sutra
Manuscripts" (PDF), Journal of Oriental Studies, 12 (6): 165–173,
Archived from the original on 2013-04-02 CS1 maint: BOT:
original-url status unknown (link)
Kajiyama, Yuichi (2000), "The Saddharmapundarika and Sunyata Thought"
(PDF), Journal of Oriental Studies, 10: 72–96
Karashima, Seishi (1998). A Glossary of Dharmarakṣa’s Translation
of the Lotus Sūtra, Bibliotheca Philologica et Philosophica Buddhica,
Vol. I, The International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology,
Tokyo, p. VIII, ISBN 4-9980622-0-4
Karashima, Seishi (2001). A Glossary of Kumarajiva's Translation of
the Lotus Sutra, Bibliotheca Philologica et Philosophica Buddhica, The
International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology, Vol. IV,
Tokyo, p. VII, ISBN 4-9980622-3-9
Karashima, Seishi (2015), "Vehicle (yāna) and Wisdom (jñāna) in the
Sutra - the Origin of the Notion of yāna in Mahayāna Buddhism"
(PDF), Annual Report of The International Research Institute for
Buddhology at Soka University, 18: 163–196, Archived from
the original on 2017-02-10 CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status
Kato, Bunno; Tamura, Yoshirō; Miyasaka, Kōjirō, trans. (1975), The
Threefold Lotus Sutra: The
Sutra of Innumerable Meanings; The
the Lotus Flower of the Wonderful Law; The
Sutra of Meditation on the
Bodhisattva Universal Virtue (PDF), New York/Tōkyō: Weatherhill
& Kōsei Publishing, Archived from the original on
2014-04-21 CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
Kern, Hendrik, trans. (1884), Saddharma Pundarîka or the Lotus of the
True Law, Sacred Books of the East, Vol. XXI, Oxford: Clarendon Press,
Kern, Hendrik; Nanjio, B.; eds. (1908-1912). Saddharmapuṇḍarīka;
St. Pétersbourg: Imprimerie de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences,
Bibliotheca Buddhica, 10, Vol.1, Vol. 2, Vol 3, Vol. 4, Vol. 5. (In
Kim, Young-Ho (1985), Tao-Sheng's Commentary on the Lotus Sutra: A
Study and Translation, dissertation, Albany, NY.: McMaster University,
Archived from the original on February 3, 2014 CS1 maint: Unfit
Kirchner, Thomas Yuho; Sasaki, Ruth Fuller (2009), The Record of
Linji, University of Hawaii Press, p. 193,
Kubo, Tsugunari; Yuyama, Akira, trans. (2007), The Lotus
Berkeley, Calif.: Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research,
ISBN 978-1-886439-39-9, Archived from the original on
2015-05-21 CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
Kuo-lin, Lethcoe, ed. (1977), The Wonderful
Dharma Lotus Flower Sutra
with the Commentary of Tripitaka Master Hsuan Hua, San Francisco:
Buddhist Text Translation Society CS1 maint: Extra text: authors
Kurata, Tamura; Tamura, Yoshirō; translated by Edna B. (1987),
Kurata, Bunsaku; Tamura, Yoshio, eds., Art of the Lotus Sutra:
Japanese masterpieces, Tokyo: Kōsei Pub. Co.,
Lai, Whalen (1981), "The Buddhist "Prodigal Son": A Story of
Misconceptions", Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 4 (2):
91–98, Archived from the original on August 10, 2014 CS1 maint:
Unfit url (link)
Lai, Whalen W. (1981), "The Predocetic "Finite Buddhakāya" in the
"Lotus Sūtra": In Search of the Illusive Dharmakāya Therein",
Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 49 (3): 447–469
Leighton, Taigen Dan (2005), "Dogen's Appropriation of Lotus Sutra
Ground and Space", Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 32 (1):
85–105, Archived from the original on January 9, 2014 CS1
maint: Unfit url (link)
Leighton, Taigen Dan (2007), Visions of Awakening Space and Time,
Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195320930
Leighton, Taigen Dan, The Lotus
Sutra as a Source for Dogen's
Discourse Style, Conference Paper: "Discourse and Rhetoric in the
Transformation of Medieval Japanese Buddhism; "thezensite, Archived
from the original on October 14, 2012, retrieved April 27,
2013 CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
Lim, Jinyoung; Ryoo, Seong Lyong (2014), K-architecture: tradition
meets modernity, Korean Culture and Information Service Ministry of
Culture, Sports and Tourism, p. 33, ISBN 9788973755820
Lopez Jr., Donald S. (2015),
Buddhism in Practice (Abridged Edition),
Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-1-4008-8007-2
Lopez, Donald (2016), The Lotus Sutra: A Biography (Kindle ed.),
Princeton University Press, ISBN 0691152209
Mochizuki, Kaie (2011). "How Did the Indian Masters Read the Lotus
Sutra? -". Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies. 59 (3):
Mulhern, Chieko, "Review: Miraculous Tales of the Lotus
Ancient Japan. The 'Dainihonkoku hokekyōkenki' of Priest Chingen by
Yoshiko Kurata Dykstra", Asian Folklore Studies 45 (1):
Murano, Senchū (trans.) (1974), The
Sutra of the Lotus Flower of the
Wonderful Law, Tokyo:
Nichiren Shu Headquarters,
Murano, Senchu (1967), "An Outline of the Lotus Sūtra", Contemporary
Religions in Japan, 8 (1): 16–84, Archived from the original on
2014-08-26 CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
Nattier, Jan (2008), A guide to the Earliest Chinese Buddhist
Translations (PDF), International Research Institute for Advanced
Buddhology, Soka University, ISBN 9784904234006, Archived from
the original on July 12, 2012 CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
Ohnuma, Reiko (1998), "The Gift of the Body and the Gift of Dharma",
History of Religions, 37 (4):
323–359 – via
JSTOR (subscription required)
Paine, Robert Treat; Soper, Alexander (1981), The art and architecture
of Japan (3. ed. / with rev. and updated notes and bibliography to
part one by D.B. Waterhouse. ed.), New Haven [u.a.]: Yale Univ. Press,
p. 41, ISBN 9780300053333
Peach, Lucinda Joy (2002), "Social responsibility, sex change, and
salvation: Gender justice in the Lotus Sūtra", Philosophy East and
West, 52: 50–74, doi:10.1353/pew.2002.0003, Archived from the
original on 2014-08-29 CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status
Pye, Michael (2003), Skilful Means - A concept in
Routledge, ISBN 0203503791
Reeves, Gene, trans. (2008), The Lotus Sutra: A Contemporary
Translation of a Buddhist Classic, Boston: Wisdom Publications,
Robert, Jean-Noël (1997), Le Sûtra du Lotus: suivi du Livre des sens
innombrables, Paris: Fayard, ISBN 2213598576
Robert, Jean Noël (2011), "On a Possible Origin of the "Ten
Suchnesses" List in Kumārajīva's Translation of the Lotus Sutra",
Journal of the International College for Postgraduate Buddhist
Studies, 15: 63
Shields, James Mark (2013), Political Interpretations of the Lotus
Sutra. In: Steven M. Emmanuel, ed. A Companion to Buddhist Philosophy,
London: John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 9781118324004
子規·正岡 (Shiki Masaoka) (1983), 歌よみに与ふる書
(Utayomi ni atauru sho), Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, p. 17
Shioiri, Ryodo (1989), The Meaning of the Formation and Structure of
the Lotus Sutra. In: George Joji Tanabe; Willa Jane Tanabe, eds. The
Sutra in Japanese Culture, University of Hawaii Press,
pp. 15–36, ISBN 978-0-8248-1198-3
Silk, Jonathan (2001), "The place of the Lotus
Sutra in Indian
Buddhism" (PDF), The Journal of Oriental Studies, 11: 87–105,
Archived from the original on August 26, 2014 CS1 maint: Unfit
Silk, Jonathan A. (2012), "Kern and the Study of Indian
a Speculative Note on the Ceylonese Dhammarucikas" (PDF), The Journal
Pali Text Society, XXXI: 125–54
Silk, Jonathan; Hinüber, Oskar von; Eltschinger, Vincent; eds.
(2016). "Lotus Sutra", in Brill's Encyclopedia of Buddhism, Volume 1:
Literature and Languages. Leiden: Brill. pp. 144–157
Soothill, William Edward, trans. (1930), The Lotus of the Wonderful
Law or The Lotus Gospel, Clarendon Press, pp. 15–36
Stone, Jacqueline, I. (1998), Chanting the August Title of the Lotus
Sutra: Daimoku Practices in Classical and Medieval Japan. In: Payne,
Richard, K. (ed.); Re-Visioning Kamakura Buddhism, University of
Hawaii Press, pp. 116–166, ISBN 0-8248-2078-9, Archived
from the original on 2015-01-04 CS1 maint: BOT: original-url
status unknown (link)
Stone, Jacqueline, I. (2003), "Lotus Sutra". In: Buswell, Robert E.
ed.; Encyclopedia of
Buddhism vol. 1, Macmillan Reference Lib.,
Stone, Jacqueline Ilyse (2003), Original Enlightenment and the
Transformation of Medieval Japanese Buddhism, University of Hawaii
Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-2771-7
Stone, Jacqueline, I. (2009), Realizing This World as the
in Teiser, Stephen F.; Stone, Jacqueline Ilyse; eds.; Readings of the
Lotus Sutra, Columbia University Press, pp. 209–236,
Strong, John (2007), Relics of the Buddha, Motilal Banarsidass,
Nichiren Buddhist International Center, trans. (1998),
Introduction to the Lotus Sutra, Jain Publishing Company,
Suzuki, Takayasu (2016), "The Saddharmapundarika as the Prediction of
All the Sentient Beings' Attaining Buddhahood: With
Special Focus on
the Sadaparibhuta-parivarta", Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies
(印度學佛教學研究.), 64 (3): 1155–1163
Suzuki, Takayasu (2015), "Two parables on "The wealthy father and the
poor son" in the Saddharmapundarika and the Mahaberisutra", Journal of
Indian and Buddhist Studies (印度學佛教學研究.), 63 (3):
Suzuki, Takayasu (2015), "The Compilers of the
Bhaisajyarajapurvayoga-parivarta Who Did Not Know the Rigid
Stupa and Caitya in the Saddharmapundarika",
Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies (印度學佛教學研究.), 62
Tamura, Yoshiro (1963), "The Characteristic of the
in the Lotus
Sutra - The Apostle-idea", Journal of Indian and Buddhist
Studies (印度學佛教學研究.), 11 (2): 816–810
Tamura, Yoshio (1989), The Ideas of the Lotus Sutra, In: George Joji
Tanabe; Willa Jane Tanabe, eds. The Lotus
Sutra in Japanese Culture,
University of Hawaii Press, pp. 37–,
Tamura, Yoshio; Reeves, Gene (ed) (2014), Introduction to the Lotus
Sutra, Boston: Wisdom Publications, ISBN 9781614290803 CS1
maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
Tanahashi, Kazuaki (1995), Moon in a Dewdrop, p. 4,
Tay, C. N. (1980), "Review: The Lotus
Sutra in Its Latest Translation
Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine
Dharma by Leon Hurvitz",
History of Religions, 19 (4): 372–377, doi:10.1086/462858
Teiser, Stephen F.; Stone, Jacqueline Ilyse (2009), Interpreting the
Lotus Sutra; in: Teiser, Stephen F.; Stone, Jacqueline Ilyse; eds.
Readings of the Lotus Sutra, New York: Columbia University Press,
pp. 1–61, ISBN 9780231142885
The English Buddhist Dictionary Committee (2002), The Soka Gakkai
Dictionary of Buddhism, Tōkyō: Soka Gakkai,
Portable Buddhist Shrine, The Walters Art Museum
Tola, Fernando; Dragonetti, Carmen (1999), El Sūtra del Loto de la
verdadera doctrina: Saddharmapuṇḍarīkasūtra, México, D.F.: El
Colegio de México: Asociación Latinoamericana de Estudios Budistas,
Vaidya, P. L. (1960), Saddharmapuṇḍarīkasūtram, Darbhanga: The
Mithila Institute of Post-Graduate Studies and Research in Sanskrit
Learning, ISBN 968120915X (Romanized Sanskrit)
Vetter, Tilmann (1999), "
Hendrik Kern and the Lotus Sutra" (PDF),
Annual Report of The International Research Institute for Advanced
Buddhology at Soka University, 2: 129–142
Wang, Eugene Yuejin (2005), Shaping the Lotus Sutra: Buddhist Visual
Culture in Medieval China, University of Washington Press,
Watson, Burton, tr. (1993), The Lotus Sutra, Columbia University
Press, ISBN 023108160X
Watson, Burton, tr. (2009), The Lotus
Sutra and Its Opening and
Closing Sutras, Tokyo: Soka Gakkai, ISBN 023108160X
Wawrytko, Sandra (2007), "Holding Up the Mirror to Buddha-Nature:
Discerning the Ghee in the Lotus Sutra", Dao: A Journal of Comparative
Philosophy, 6: 63–81, doi:10.1007/s11712-007-9004-2
Weinstein, Stanley (1977), "Review: Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of
the Fine Dharma, by Leon Hurvitz", The Journal of Asian Studies, 37
(1): 89–90, doi:10.2307/2053331
Williams, Paul (1989), Mahāyāna Buddhism: the doctrinal foundations,
2nd Edition, Routledge, ISBN 9780415356534
Yamada, Shozen (1989), Tanabe, George J; Tanabe, Willa Jane, eds.,
Poetry and Meaning: Medieval Poets and the Lotus
Sutra (Repr. ed.),
Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 0824811984
Yampolsky, Philip B. [translator] (1971 ),
Zen Master Hakuin's Letter
in Answer to an Old Nun of the Hokke [Nichiren] Sect. In The Zen
Master Hakuin: Selected Writings, New York: Columbia University Press.
Yuyama, Akira (1970). A Bibliography of the Sanskrit-Texts of the
Sadharmapuṇḍarīkasūtra. Faculty of Asian Studies in Association
With Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
Yuyama, Akira (1998), Eugene Burnouf: The Background to his Research
into the Lotus Sutra, Bibliotheca Philologica et Philosophica
Buddhica, Vol. III (PDF), Tokyo: The International Research Institute
for Advanced Buddhology, ISBN 4-9980622-2-0, Archived from the
original on 2007-07-05 CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status
Zimmermann, Michael (1999), The Tathagatagarbhasutra: Its Basic
Structure and Relation to the Lotus
Sutra (PDF), Annual Report of the
International Research Institute for Advanced
Buddhology at Soka
University for the Academic Year 1998, pp. 143–168, Archived
from the original on October 8, 2011 CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
Zürcher, Erik (2006). The Buddhist Conquest of China, Sinica
Leidensia (Book 11), Brill; 3rd edition. ISBN 9004156046
Hanh, Thich Nhat (2003). Opening the heart of the cosmos: insights
from the Lotus Sutra. Berkeley, Calif.: Parallax.
Hanh, Thich Nhat (2009). Peaceful action, open heart: lessons from the
Lotus Sutra. Berkeley, Calif.: Parallax Press.
Ikeda, Daisaku; Endo, Takanori; Saito, Katsuji; Sudo, Haruo (2000).
Wisdom of the Lotus Sutra: A Discussion, Volume 1. Santa Monica, CA:
World Tribune Press. ISBN 978-0915678693.
Niwano, Nikkyō (1976).
Buddhism for today : a modern
interpretation of the Threefold Lotus sutra (PDF) (1st ed.). Tokyo:
Kosei Publishing Co. ISBN 4333002702. Archived from the original
on 2013-11-26. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
Rawlinson, Andrew (1972). Studies in the Lotus Sutra
(Saddharmapuṇḍarīka), Ph. D. Thesis, University of Lancaster.
Tamura, Yoshiro (2014). Introduction to the lotus sutra. [S.l.]:
Wisdom Publications. ISBN 1614290806.
Tanabe, George J.; Tanabe, Willa Jane (ed.) (1989). The Lotus
Japanese Culture. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
ISBN 0-8248-1198-4. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list
Tola, Fernando, Dragonetti, Carmen (2009). Buddhist positiveness:
studies on the Lotus Sūtra, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publ.
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
An 1884 English translation from
Sanskrit by H.Kern from the Sacred
Texts Web site
An English translation by the Buddhist Text Translation Society
Saddharma Puṇḍarīka Sūtra
Threefold Lotus Sutra: Innumerable Meanings Sūtra
Sutra of the Lotus Flower of the Wonderful Dharma
Samantabhadra Meditation Sūtra
Abundant Treasures Buddha
Majestic Voice King
Samantabhadra Meditation Sūtra)
Hārītī (her ten daughters and her give a Dharani)
Nagakanya (female naga and daughter of
Nagaraja who turns into a
Bodhisattva and then
Buddhism (J. Tendai, K. Cheontae)
Four Noble Truths
Noble Eightfold Path
Iconography in Laos and Thailand
Mahapajapati Gotamī (aunt, adoptive mother)
Places where the
Buddha in world religions
Three marks of existence
Two truths doctrine
Ten spiritual realms
Hungry Ghost realm
Three planes of existence
Vipassanā (Vipassana movement)
Seven Factors of Enlightenment
Four Right Exertions
Four stages of enlightenment
Upāsaka and Upāsikā
The ten principal disciples
Emperor Wen of Sui
Chinese Buddhist canon
Tibetan Buddhist canon
Early Buddhist schools
Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna
Buddhism in India
Buddhism in India
Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution
Buddhism and the Roman world
Buddhism in the West
Silk Road transmission of Buddhism
Persecution of Buddhists
Banishment of Buddhist monks from Nepal
Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism
Women in Buddhism
The unanswered questions
Japanese Buddhist architecture
Korean Buddhist temples
Thai temple art and architecture
Tibetan Buddhist architecture
Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi
Om mani padme hum
Maya Devi Temple
Temple of the Tooth
East Asian religions