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MICROSOFT WINDOWS

* NA : February 1, 2012 * AU : February 1, 2012 * JP : February 1, 2012

DISCONTINUED XBOX 360

* WW: April 20, 2016

UNITS SOLD 24 million (as of February 12, 2013)

CAMERA 640×480 pixels @ 30 Hz (RGB camera) 640×480 pixels @ 30 Hz (IR depth-finding camera)

CONNECTIVITY USB 2.0 (type-A for original model; proprietary for Xbox 360
Xbox 360
S)

PLATFORM Xbox 360
Xbox 360
Xbox One Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows ( Windows 7
Windows 7
onwards)

PREDECESSOR Xbox Live Vision

Kinect
Kinect
for Xbox 360
Xbox 360
. The Xbox 360
Xbox 360
E revision has an Xbox
Xbox
logo to the left of the Xbox 360
Xbox 360
branding.

KINECT (codenamed PROJECT NATAL during development) is a line of motion sensing input devices by Microsoft
Microsoft
for Xbox 360
Xbox 360
and Xbox
Xbox
One video game consoles and Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows PCs . Based around a webcam -style add-on peripheral , it enables users to control and interact with their console/computer without the need for a game controller , through a natural user interface using gestures and spoken commands .

The first-generation Kinect
Kinect
was first introduced in November 2010 in an attempt to broaden Xbox
Xbox
360's audience beyond its typical gamer base. A version for Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows was released on February 1, 2012. A newer version, Kinect
Kinect
2.0, was released with the Xbox
Xbox
One platform starting in 2013.

Microsoft
Microsoft
released the first Beta of the Kinect
Kinect
software development kit for Windows 7
Windows 7
on June 16, 2011. This SDK was meant to allow developers to write Kinecting apps in C++/CLI , C# , or Visual Basic .NET .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Launch

* 2 Technology

* 2.1 Kinect
Kinect
for Xbox 360
Xbox 360
(2010) * 2.2 Kinect
Kinect
for Xbox One (2.0 2013)

* 2.3 Kinect
Kinect
for Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows

* 2.3.1 Version 1.5 * 2.3.2 Version 1.6, 1.7 and 1.8 * 2.3.3 Version 2

* 2.4 Software

* 2.4.1 Kinect Fun Labs * 2.4.2 Open source drivers * 2.4.3 Third-party development

* 3 Reception

* 3.1 Kinect
Kinect
for Xbox 360
Xbox 360
* 3.2 Kinect
Kinect
for Xbox One

* 4 Sales * 5 Other motion controllers * 6 Awards * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links

HISTORY

Kinect
Kinect
was first announced on June 1, 2009 at E3 2009 under the code name "Project Natal". Three demos were shown to showcase Kinect
Kinect
when it was revealed at Microsoft's E3 2009 Media Briefing: Ricochet, Paint Party and Milo "> The Xbox 360
Xbox 360
S and E models have dedicated ports for the Kinect, removing the need for an external power supply.

On March 25, 2010, Microsoft
Microsoft
sent out a save the date flier for an event called the "World Premiere 'Project Natal' for Xbox
Xbox
360 Experience" at E3 2010 . The event took place on the evening of Sunday, June 13, 2010 at Galen Center
Galen Center
and featured a performance by Cirque du Soleil
Cirque du Soleil
. It was announced that the system would officially be called Kinect, a portmanteau of the words "kinetic" and "connect", which describe key aspects of the initiative. Microsoft
Microsoft
also announced that the North American launch date for Kinect
Kinect
will be November 4, 2010. Despite previous statements dismissing speculation of a new Xbox 360
Xbox 360
to accompany the launch of the new control system, Microsoft
Microsoft
announced at E3 2010 that it was introducing a redesigned Xbox
Xbox
360, complete with a connector port ready for Kinect. In addition, on July 20, 2010, Microsoft
Microsoft
announced a Kinect
Kinect
bundle with a redesigned Xbox
Xbox
360, to be available with Kinect
Kinect
launch.

On June 16, 2011, Microsoft
Microsoft
announced its official release of its SDK for non-commercial use. On July 21, 2011, Microsoft
Microsoft
announced that the first ever white Kinect
Kinect
sensor would be available as part of "Xbox 360 Limited Edition Kinect
Kinect
Star Wars
Star Wars
Bundle", which also includes custom a Star Wars
Star Wars
-themed console and controller, and copies of Kinect Adventures and Star Wars
Star Wars
Kinect
Kinect
. Previously, all Kinect sensors had been glossy black.

On October 31, 2011, Microsoft
Microsoft
announced launching of the commercial version of Kinect
Kinect
for Windows program with release of SDK to companies. David Dennis, Product Manager at Microsoft, said, "There are hundreds of organizations we are working with to help them determine what's possible with the tech".

On February 1, 2012, Microsoft
Microsoft
released the commercial version of Kinect
Kinect
for Windows SDK and told that more than 300 companies from over 25 countries are working on Kinect-ready apps.

LAUNCH

A January 2010 promotional banner indicating the expected release of Kinect
Kinect
(then "Project Natal") by holiday 2010

The tabloid the New York Post
New York Post
claimed Microsoft
Microsoft
had a $500 million budget for advertising the launch of Kinect. While this claim was widely re-reported, an examination of the 10-Q from Microsoft reveals a 20% year-over-year increase ($85 million) for sales and marketing the quarter Kinect
Kinect
was launched for all of the Entertainment and Devices division, making the total sales and marketing spend $425 million for the entire division. The marketing campaign You Are the Controller, aiming to reach new audiences, included advertisements on Kellogg\'s cereal boxes and Pepsi
Pepsi
bottles, commercials during shows such as Dancing with the Stars
Dancing with the Stars
and Glee as well as print ads in various magazines such as People and InStyle
InStyle
.

On October 19, Microsoft
Microsoft
advertised Kinect
Kinect
on The Oprah Winfrey Show by giving free Xbox 360
Xbox 360
consoles and Kinect
Kinect
sensors to the people in the audience. Two weeks later, Kinect
Kinect
bundles with Xbox 360
Xbox 360
consoles were also given away to the audience of Late Night with Jimmy Fallon . On October 23, Microsoft
Microsoft
held a pre-launch party for Kinect
Kinect
in Beverly Hills. The party was hosted by Ashley Tisdale
Ashley Tisdale
and was attended by soccer star David Beckham
David Beckham
and his three sons, Cruz, Brooklyn, and Romeo. Guests were treated to sessions with Dance Central and Kinect Adventures , followed by Tisdale having a Kinect
Kinect
voice chat with Nick Cannon . Between November 1 and 28, Burger King
Burger King
gave away a free Kinect
Kinect
bundle "every 15 minutes".

A major event was organized on November 3 in Times Square
Times Square
, where singer Ne-Yo
Ne-Yo
performed with hundreds of dancers in anticipation of Kinect's midnight launch.

Kinect
Kinect
was launched in North America
North America
on November 4, 2010, in Europe on November 10, 2010, in Australia, New Zealand
New Zealand
and Singapore on November 18, 2010, and in Japan
Japan
on November 20, 2010. Purchase options for the sensor peripheral include a bundle with the game Kinect Adventures and console bundles with either a 4 GB or 250 GB Xbox 360
Xbox 360
console and Kinect
Kinect
Adventures.

TECHNOLOGY

KINECT FOR XBOX 360 (2010)

Kinect
Kinect
V1 was a combination of Microsoft
Microsoft
built software and hardware. Kinect
Kinect
V1 hardware included a range chipset technology by Israeli developer PrimeSense
PrimeSense
, which developed a system consisting of an infrared projector and camera and a special microchip that generates a grid from which the location of a nearby object in 3 dimensions can be ascertained. This 3D scanner system called Light Coding employs a variant of image-based 3D reconstruction.

The Kinect
Kinect
sensor is a horizontal bar connected to a small base with a motorized pivot and is designed to be positioned lengthwise above or below the video display. The device features an "RGB camera, depth sensor and multi-array microphone running proprietary software", which provide full-body 3D motion capture , facial recognition and voice recognition capabilities. At launch, voice recognition was only made available in Japan, United Kingdom, Canada
Canada
and United States. Mainland Europe
Europe
received the feature later in spring 2011. Currently voice recognition is supported in Australia
Australia
, Canada
Canada
, France
France
, Germany
Germany
, Ireland
Ireland
, Italy
Italy
, Japan
Japan
, Mexico
Mexico
, New Zealand
New Zealand
, United Kingdom and United States
United States
. Kinect
Kinect
sensor's microphone array enables Xbox 360
Xbox 360
to conduct acoustic source localization and ambient noise suppression , allowing for things such as headset-free party chat over Xbox Live .

The depth sensor consists of an infrared laser projector combined with a monochrome CMOS sensor , which captures video data in 3D under any ambient light conditions. The sensing range of the depth sensor is adjustable, and Kinect
Kinect
software is capable of automatically calibrating the sensor based on gameplay and the player's physical environment, accommodating for the presence of furniture or other obstacles.

Described by Microsoft
Microsoft
personnel as the primary innovation of Kinect, the software technology enables advanced gesture recognition , facial recognition and voice recognition. According to information supplied to retailers, Kinect
Kinect
is capable of simultaneously tracking up to six people, including two active players for motion analysis with a feature extraction of 20 joints per player. However, PrimeSense
PrimeSense
has stated that the number of people the device can "see" (but not process as players) is only limited by how many will fit in the field-of-view of the camera. This infrared image shows the laser grid Kinect uses to calculate depth The depth map is visualized here using color gradients from white (near) to blue (far)

Reverse engineering has determined that the Kinect's various sensors output video at a frame rate of ≈9 Hz to 30 Hz depending on resolution. The default RGB video stream uses 8-bit VGA resolution (640 × 480 pixels ) with a Bayer color filter , but the hardware is capable of resolutions up to 1280x1024 (at a lower frame rate) and other colour formats such as UYVY . The monochrome depth sensing video stream is in VGA resolution (640 × 480 pixels) with 11-bit depth , which provides 2,048 levels of sensitivity. The Kinect
Kinect
can also stream the view from its IR camera directly (i.e.: before it has been converted into a depth map) as 640x480 video, or 1280x1024 at a lower frame rate. The Kinect
Kinect
sensor has a practical ranging limit of 1.2–3.5 m (3.9–11.5 ft) distance when used with the Xbox
Xbox
software. The area required to play Kinect
Kinect
is roughly 6 m2, although the sensor can maintain tracking through an extended range of approximately 0.7–6 m (2.3–19.7 ft). The sensor has an angular field of view of 57° horizontally and 43° vertically, while the motorized pivot is capable of tilting the sensor up to 27° either up or down. The horizontal field of the Kinect
Kinect
sensor at the minimum viewing distance of ≈0.8 m (2.6 ft) is therefore ≈87 cm (34 in), and the vertical field is ≈63 cm (25 in), resulting in a resolution of just over 1.3 mm (0.051 in) per pixel. The microphone array features four microphone capsules and operates with each channel processing 16-bit audio at a sampling rate of 16 kHz .

Because the Kinect
Kinect
sensor's motorized tilt mechanism requires more power than the Xbox
Xbox
360's USB ports can supply, the device makes use of a proprietary connector combining USB communication with additional power. Redesigned Xbox 360
Xbox 360
S models include a special AUX port for accommodating the connector, while older models require a special power supply cable (included with the sensor) that splits the connection into separate USB and power connections; power is supplied from the mains by way of an AC adapter.

KINECT FOR XBOX ONE (2.0 2013)

Kinect
Kinect
2.0 was released with Xbox One on November 22, 2013. The hardware included a time-of-flight sensor developed by Microsoft, replacing the older technology from PrimeSense
PrimeSense
.

Xbox One consoles ship with an updated version of Kinect; the new Kinect
Kinect
uses a wide-angle time-of-flight camera , and processes 2 gigabits of data per second to read its environment. The new Kinect has greater accuracy with three times the fidelity over its predecessor and can track without visible light by using an active IR sensor. It has a 60% wider field of vision that can detect a user up to 3 feet from the sensor, compared to six feet for the original Kinect, and can track up to 6 skeletons at once. It can also detect a player's heart rate , facial expression, the position and orientation of 25 individual joints (including thumbs), the weight put on each limb, speed of player movements, and track gestures performed with a standard controller. The color camera captures 1080p video that can be displayed in the same resolution as the viewing screen, allowing for a broad range of scenarios. In addition to improving video communications and video analytics applications, this provides a stable input on which to build interactive applications. Kinect's microphone is used to provide voice commands for actions such as navigation, starting games, and waking the console from sleep mode .

All Xbox One consoles were initially shipped with the Kinect
Kinect
sensor included—a holdover from a previously-announced, but retracted mandate requiring Kinect
Kinect
to be plugged into the console at all times for it to function. In June 2014, bundles without Kinect
Kinect
were made available, along with an updated Xbox One SDK allowing game developers to explicitly disable Kinect
Kinect
skeletal tracking, freeing up system resources that were previously reserved for Kinect
Kinect
even if it was disabled or unplugged.

A standalone Kinect
Kinect
for Xbox
Xbox
One, bundled with a digital copy of Dance Central Spotlight , was released on October 7, 2014.

KINECT FOR MICROSOFT WINDOWS

On February 21, 2011 Microsoft
Microsoft
announced that it would release a non-commercial Kinect
Kinect
software development kit (SDK ) for Microsoft Windows in spring 2011, and the first beta was released for Windows 7 on June 16, 2011. Beta 2 was released on the 1 year anniversary of Kinect
Kinect
for Xbox
Xbox
360, on November 3, 2011. Version 1.0 was released at the same time as the officially supported Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows hardware on February 1, 2012.

The SDK includes Windows 7
Windows 7
compatible PC drivers for Kinect
Kinect
device. It provides Kinect
Kinect
capabilities to developers to build applications with C++
C++
, C# , or Visual Basic by using Microsoft
Microsoft
Visual Studio 2010 and includes following features:

* Raw sensor streams: Access to low-level streams from the depth sensor, color camera sensor, and four-element microphone array. * Skeletal tracking: The capability to track the skeleton image of one or two people moving within Kinect's field of view for gesture-driven applications. * Advanced audio capabilities: Audio processing capabilities include sophisticated acoustic noise suppression and echo cancellation , beam formation to identify the current sound source, and integration with Windows speech recognition API. * Sample code and Documentation.

In March 2012, Craig Eisler, the general manager of Kinect
Kinect
for Windows, said that almost 350 companies are working with Microsoft
Microsoft
on custom Kinect
Kinect
applications for Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows.

Version 1.5

In March 2012, Microsoft
Microsoft
announced that next version of Kinect
Kinect
for Windows SDK would be available in May 2012. Kinect
Kinect
for Windows 1.5 was released on May 21, 2012. It adds new features, support for many new languages and debut in 19 more countries.

* Kinect
Kinect
for Windows 1.5 SDK would include ' Kinect
Kinect
Studio' a new app that allows developers to record, playback, and debug clips of users interacting with applications. * Support for new "seated" or "10-joint" skeletal system that will let apps track the head, neck, and arms of a Kinect
Kinect
user - whether they're sitting down or standing; which would work in default and near mode. * Support for four new languages for speech recognition – French, Spanish, Italian, and Japanese. Additionally it would add support for regional dialects of these languages along with English. * It would be available in Hong Kong, South Korea, and Taiwan in May and Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Denmark, Finland, India, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Arab Emirates in June.

Version 1.6, 1.7 And 1.8

Kinect
Kinect
for Windows SDK for the first-generation sensor was updated a few more times, with version 1.6 released October 8, 2012, version 1.7 released March 18, 2013, and version 1.8 released September 17, 2013.

Version 2

The second-generation Kinect
Kinect
for Windows, based on the same core technology as Kinect
Kinect
for Xbox
Xbox
One, including a new sensor, was first released in 2014.

SOFTWARE

See also: List of Kinect games and List of Xbox Live Arcade Kinect games

Requiring at least 190 MB of available storage space, Kinect
Kinect
system software allows users to operate Xbox 360
Xbox 360
Dashboard console user interface through voice commands and hand gestures. Techniques such as voice recognition and facial recognition are employed to automatically identify users. Among the applications for Kinect
Kinect
is Video Kinect, which enables voice chat or video chat with other Xbox 360
Xbox 360
users or users of Windows Live Messenger
Windows Live Messenger
. The application can use Kinect's tracking functionality and Kinect
Kinect
sensor's motorized pivot to keep users in frame even as they move around. Other applications with Kinect
Kinect
support include ESPN
ESPN
, Zune Marketplace , Netflix
Netflix
, Hulu Plus and Last.fm
Last.fm
. Microsoft
Microsoft
later confirmed that all forthcoming applications would be required to have Kinect
Kinect
functionality for certification.

Xbox 360
Xbox 360
games that require Kinect
Kinect
are packaged in special purple cases (as opposed to the green cases used by all other Xbox
Xbox
360 games), and contain a prominent "Requires Kinect
Kinect
Sensor" logo on their front cover. Games that include features utilizing Kinect, but do not require it for standard gameplay, contain a "Better with Kinect Sensor" branding on their front covers.

Kinect
Kinect
launched on November 4, 2010 with 17 titles. Third-party publishers of available and announced Kinect
Kinect
games include, among others, Ubisoft
Ubisoft
, Electronic Arts
Electronic Arts
, LucasArts
LucasArts
, THQ , Activision
Activision
, Konami
Konami
, Sega
Sega
, Capcom
Capcom
, Namco Bandai
Namco Bandai
and MTV Games . Along with retail games, there are also select Xbox Live Arcade titles which require the peripheral.

Kinect
Kinect
Fun Labs

At E3 2011
E3 2011
, Microsoft
Microsoft
announced Kinect
Kinect
Fun Labs: a collection of various gadgets and minigames that are accessible from Xbox
Xbox
360 Dashboard. These gadgets includes Build A Buddy, Air Band, Kinect Googly Eyes, Kinect
Kinect
Me, Bobblehead, Kinect
Kinect
Sparkler, Junk Fu and Avatar Kinect.

Open Source Drivers

In November 2010, Adafruit Industries offered a bounty for an open-source driver for Kinect. Microsoft
Microsoft
initially voiced its disapproval of the bounty, stating that it "does not condone the modification of its products" and that it had "built in numerous hardware and software safeguards designed to reduce the chances of product tampering". This reaction, however, was caused by a misunderstanding within Microsoft, and the company later clarified its position, claiming that while it does not condone hacking of either the physical device or the console, the USB connection was left open by design.

“ The first thing to talk about is, Kinect
Kinect
was not actually hacked. Hacking would mean that someone got to our algorithms that sit inside of the Xbox
Xbox
and was able to actually use them, which hasn't happened. Or, it means that you put a device between the sensor and the Xbox
Xbox
for means of cheating, which also has not happened. That's what we call hacking, and that's what we have put a ton of work and effort to make sure doesn't actually occur. What has happened is someone wrote an open-source driver for PCs that essentially opens the USB connection, which we didn't protect, by design, and reads the inputs from the sensor. The sensor, again, as I talked earlier, has eyes and ears, and that's a whole bunch of noise that someone needs to take and turn into signal. ”

— Microsoft's Alex Kipman speaking formally on NPR's Science Friday

On November 10, Adafruit announced Héctor Martín as the winner, who had produced a Linux
Linux
driver that allows the use of both the RGB camera and depth sensitivity functions of the device. It was later revealed that Johnny Lee , a core member of Microsoft's Kinect development team, had secretly approached Adafruit with the idea of a driver development contest and had personally financed it.

In December 2010, PrimeSense
PrimeSense
, whose depth sensing chips were used in the Kinect
Kinect
v1 hardware, released their own open source drivers along with motion tracking middleware called NITE. PrimeSense
PrimeSense
later announced that it had teamed up with Asus
Asus
to develop a PC-compatible device similar to Kinect
Kinect
for Chinese markets, called the Wavi Xtion. The product was released in October 2011.

OpenNI is an open-source software framework that is able to read sensor data from Kinect, among other natural user interface sensors.

Third-party Development

A demonstration of a third-party use of Kinect
Kinect
at Maker Faire
Maker Faire
. The visualization on the left, provided through Kinect, is of a user with a jacket featuring wearable electronic controls for VJing
VJing
.

Numerous developers are researching possible applications of Kinect that go beyond the system's intended purpose of playing games. For example, Philipp Robbel of MIT combined Kinect
Kinect
with iRobot Create to map a room in 3D and have the robot respond to human gestures, while an MIT Media Lab team is working on a JavaScript extension for Google Chrome called depthJS that allows users to control the browser with hand gestures. Other programmers, including Robot Locomotion Group at MIT, are using the drivers to develop a motion-controller user interface similar to the one envisioned in Minority Report . The developers of MRPT have integrated open source drivers into their libraries and provided examples of live 3D rendering and basic 3D visual SLAM . Another team has shown an application that allows Kinect
Kinect
users to play a virtual piano by tapping their fingers on an empty desk. Oliver Kreylos , a researcher at University of California, Davis , adopted the technology to improve live 3-dimensional videoconferencing , which NASA
NASA
has shown interest in.

Alexandre Alahi from EPFL presented a video surveillance system that combines multiple Kinect
Kinect
devices to track groups of people even in complete darkness. Companies So touch and Evoluce have developed presentation software for Kinect
Kinect
that can be controlled by hand gestures; among its features is a multi-touch zoom mode. In December 2010, the free public beta of HTPC software KinEmote was launched; it allows navigation of Boxee and XBMC menus using a Kinect
Kinect
sensor. Soroush Falahati wrote an application that can be used to create stereoscopic 3D images with a Kinect
Kinect
sensor.

For a limited time in May 2011, a Topshop
Topshop
store in Moscow set up a Kinect
Kinect
kiosk that could overlay a collection of dresses onto the live video feed of customers. Through automatic tracking, position and rotation of the virtual dress were updated even as customers turned around to see the back of the outfit.

Kinect
Kinect
also shows compelling potential for use in medicine. Researchers at the University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
have used Kinect
Kinect
to measure a range of disorder symptoms in children, creating new ways of objective evaluation to detect such conditions as autism, attention-deficit disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Several groups have reported using Kinect
Kinect
for intraoperative, review of medical imaging, allowing the surgeon to access the information without contamination. This technique is already in use at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre
Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre
in Toronto
Toronto
, where doctors use it to guide imaging during cancer surgery. At least one company, GestSure Technologies, is pursuing the commercialization of such a system.

NASA
NASA
's Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
(JPL) signed up for the Kinect
Kinect
for Windows Developer program in November 2013 to use the new Kinect
Kinect
to manipulate a robotic arm in combination with an Oculus Rift
Oculus Rift
virtual reality headset, creating "the most immersive interface" the unit had built to date.

Another application of Kinect
Kinect
is for multi-touch displays. A Seattle-based company that graduated from Microsoft's Kinect Accelerator, Ubi Interactive, developed software for the Kinect
Kinect
to work with projectors to allow touchscreen-like capabilities on various surfaces.

Kinect
Kinect
is used with a number of ROS robots via OpenNI.

RECEPTION

KINECT FOR XBOX 360

RECEPTION

REVIEW SCORES

PUBLICATION SCORE

CVG 8.8/10

Game Informer
Game Informer
8/10

IGN
IGN
7.5/10

CNET
CNET
3.5/5

Engadget
Engadget
6/10

USA Today
USA Today

TechRadar
TechRadar

The Washington Post
The Washington Post

PC Magazine
PC Magazine
4/5

Game Guru 9/10

Tech Shout 9.2/10

Upon its release, the Kinect
Kinect
garnered positive opinions from reviewers and critics. IGN
IGN
gave the device 7.5 out of 10, saying that " Kinect
Kinect
can be a tremendous amount of fun for casual players, and the creative, controller-free concept is undeniably appealing", though adding that for "$149.99, a motion-tracking camera add-on for Xbox
Xbox
360 is a tough sell, especially considering that the entry level variation of Xbox 360
Xbox 360
itself is only $199.99". Game Informer
Game Informer
rated Kinect
Kinect
8 out of 10, praising the technology but noting that the experience takes a while to get used to and that the spatial requirement may pose a barrier. Computer and Video Games called the device a technological gem and applauded the gesture and voice controls, while criticizing the launch lineup and Kinect
Kinect
Hub.

CNET
CNET
's review pointed out how Kinect
Kinect
keeps players active with its full-body motion sensing but criticized the learning curve, the additional power supply needed for older Xbox 360
Xbox 360
consoles and the space requirements. Engadget
Engadget
, too, listed the large space requirements as a negative, along with Kinect's launch lineup and the slowness of the hand gesture UI. The review praised the system's powerful technology and the potential of its yoga and dance games. Kotaku
Kotaku
considered the device revolutionary upon first use but noted that games were sometimes unable to recognize gestures or had slow responses, concluding that Kinect
Kinect
is "not must-own yet, more like must-eventually own." TechRadar
TechRadar
praised the voice control and saw a great deal of potential in the device whose lag and space requirements were identified as issues. Gizmodo
Gizmodo
also noted Kinect's potential and expressed curiosity in how more mainstream titles would utilize the technology. Ars Technica
Ars Technica
's review expressed concern that the core feature of Kinect, its lack of a controller, would hamper development of games beyond those that have either stationary players or control the player's movement automatically.

The mainstream press also reviewed Kinect. USA Today
USA Today
compared it to the futuristic control scheme seen in Minority Report , stating that "playing games feels great" and giving the device 3.5 out of 4 stars. David Pogue
David Pogue
from The New York Times
The New York Times
predicted players will feel a "crazy, magical, omigosh rush the first time you try the Kinect." Despite calling the motion tracking less precise than Wii
Wii
's implementation, Pogue concluded that "Kinect’s astonishing technology creates a completely new activity that’s social, age-spanning and even athletic." The Globe and Mail
The Globe and Mail
titled Kinect
Kinect
as setting a "new standard for motion control." The slight input lag between making a physical movement and Kinect
Kinect
registering it was not considered a major issue with most games, and the review called Kinect "a good and innovative product," rating it 3.5 out of 4 stars.

KINECT FOR XBOX ONE

Although featuring improved performance over the original Kinect, its successor has been subject to mixed responses. In its Xbox One review, Engadget
Engadget
praised Xbox
Xbox
One's Kinect
Kinect
functionality, such as face recognition login and improved motion tracking, but that whilst "magical", "every false positive or unrecognized command had us reaching for the controller." The Kinect's inability to understand some accents in English was criticized. Writing for Time , Matt Peckham described the device as being "chunky" in appearance, but that the facial recognition login feature was "creepy but equally sci-fi-future cool", and that the new voice recognition system was a "powerful, addictive way to navigate the console, and save for a few exceptions that seem to be smoothing out with use". However, its accuracy was found to be affected by background noise, and Peckham further noted that launching games using voice recognition required that the full title of the game be given rather than an abbreviated name that the console "ought to semantically understand", such as Forza Motorsport 5
Forza Motorsport 5
rather than "Forza 5".

Prior to Xbox
Xbox
One's launch, privacy concerns were raised over the new Kinect; critics showed concerns the device could be used for surveillance , stemming from the originally announced requirements that Xbox
Xbox
One's Kinect
Kinect
be plugged in at all times, plus the initial always-on DRM system that required the console to be connected to the internet to ensure continued functionality. Privacy advocates contended that the increased amount of data which could be collected with the new Kinect
Kinect
(such as a person's eye movements, heart rate, and mood) could be used for targeted advertising . Reports also surfaced regarding recent Microsoft
Microsoft
patents involving Kinect, such as a DRM system based on detecting the number of viewers in a room, and tracking viewing habits by awarding achievements for watching television programs and advertising . While Microsoft
Microsoft
stated that its privacy policy "prohibit the collection, storage, or use of Kinect data for the purpose of advertising", critics did not rule out the possibility that these policies could be changed prior to the release of the console. Concerns were also raised that the device could also record conversations, as its microphone remains active at all times. In response to the criticism, a Microsoft
Microsoft
spokesperson stated that users are "in control of when Kinect
Kinect
sensing is On, Off or Paused", will be provided with key privacy information and settings during the console's initial setup, and that user-generated content such as photos and videos "will not leave your Xbox One without your explicit permission." Microsoft
Microsoft
ultimately decided to reverse its decision to require Kinect
Kinect
usage on Xbox
Xbox
One, but the console still shipped with the device upon its launch in November 2013.

SALES

24 million units of Kinect
Kinect
had been shipped by February 2013. Having sold 8 million units in its first 60 days on the market, Kinect
Kinect
has claimed the Guinness World Record
Guinness World Record
of being the "fastest selling consumer electronics device". According to Wedbush analyst Michael Pachter, Kinect
Kinect
bundles accounted for about half of all Xbox
Xbox
360 console sales in December 2010 and for more than two-thirds in February 2011. More than 750,000 Kinect
Kinect
units were sold during the week of Black Friday 2011.

OTHER MOTION CONTROLLERS

Main article: Motion controller § Gaming

Kinect
Kinect
competes with several motion controllers on other home consoles, such as Wii
Wii
Remote Plus for Wii
Wii
and Wii
Wii
U , PlayStation Move / PlayStation Eye for PlayStation 3
PlayStation 3
, and PlayStation Camera for PlayStation 4
PlayStation 4
.

AWARDS

* The machine learning work on human motion capture within Kinect won the 2011 MacRobert Award for engineering innovation. * Kinect
Kinect
Won T3 's "Gadget of the Year" award for 2011. It also won the "Gaming Gadget of the Year" prize. * ' Microsoft
Microsoft
Kinect
Kinect
for Windows Software Development Kit' was ranked second in "The 10 Most Innovative Tech Products of 2011" at Popular Mechanics Breakthrough Awards ceremony in New York City. * Microsoft
Microsoft
Kinect
Kinect
for Windows won Innovation of the Year in the 2012 Seattle 2.0 Startup Awards.

SEE ALSO

* Dreameye * EyeToy * List of Kinect games * Motion capture * PlayStation 4
PlayStation 4
Camera * PlayStation Eye * PlayStation Move
PlayStation Move
* Sega
Sega
Activator * Structured-light 3D scanner * Wii
Wii
Balance Board * Wii
Wii
Remote * Xbox Live Vision

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