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Katharine Houghton
Katharine Houghton
Hepburn (May 12, 1907 – June 29, 2003) was an American actress known for her fierce independence and spirited personality, Hepburn was a leading lady in Hollywood for more than 60 years. She appeared in a range of genres, from screwball comedy to literary drama, and she received four Academy Awards—a record for any performer—for Best Actress. In 1999, Hepburn was named by the American Film Institute
American Film Institute
as the greatest female star of Classic Hollywood Cinema. Raised in Connecticut
Connecticut
by wealthy, progressive parents, Hepburn began to act while studying at Bryn Mawr College. After four years in the theatre, favorable reviews of her work on Broadway brought her to the attention of Hollywood. Her early years in the film industry were marked with success, including an Academy Award
Academy Award
for her third picture, Morning Glory (1933), but this was followed by a series of commercial failures that led her to be labeled "box office poison" in 1938. Hepburn masterminded her own comeback, buying out her contract with RKO Radio Pictures and acquiring the film rights to The Philadelphia Story, which she sold on the condition that she be the star. In the 1940s, she was contracted to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, where her career focused on an alliance with Spencer Tracy. The screen partnership spanned 25 years and produced nine movies. Hepburn challenged herself in the latter half of her life, as she regularly appeared in Shakespearean stage productions and tackled a range of literary roles. She found a niche playing middle-aged spinsters, such as in The African Queen (1951), a persona the public embraced. Three more Oscars came for her work in Guess Who's Coming to Dinner (1967), The Lion in Winter (1968), and On Golden Pond (1981). In the 1970s, she began appearing in television films, which became the focus of her career in later life. She remained active into old age, making her final screen appearance in 1994 at the age of 87. After a period of inactivity and ill health, Hepburn died in 2003 at the age of 96. Hepburn famously shunned the Hollywood publicity machine and refused to conform to society's expectations of women. She was outspoken, assertive, athletic, and wore trousers before it was fashionable for women to do so. She was briefly married as a young woman, but thereafter lived independently. A 26-year affair with her co-star Spencer Tracy
Spencer Tracy
was hidden from the public. With her unconventional lifestyle and the independent characters she brought to the screen, Hepburn epitomized the "modern woman" in the 20th-century United States and is remembered as an important cultural figure.

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 Career

2.1 Breaking into theatre (1928–32) 2.2 Hollywood success (1932–34) 2.3 Career setbacks (1934–38) 2.4 Revival (1939–42) 2.5 Slowing in the 1940s (1942–49) 2.6 Professional expansion (1950–52) 2.7 Spinsters and Shakespeare (1953–62) 2.8 Success in later years (1963–70) 2.9 Film, television, and theatre (1971–83) 2.10 Focus on television (1984–94)

3 Personal life

3.1 Public image and character 3.2 Relationships

3.2.1 Spencer Tracy

3.3 Final years and death

4 Acting style and screen persona 5 Legacy

5.1 Memorials 5.2 Characterizations

6 Awards and nominations 7 Filmography and theatre credits 8 References 9 Sources 10 External links

Early life and education[edit]

Hepburn (left) with her mother and siblings, 1921

Hepburn was born on May 12, 1907, in Hartford, Connecticut, the second of six children. Her parents were Thomas Norval Hepburn (1879–1962), a urologist at Hartford
Hartford
Hospital, and Katharine Martha Houghton (1878–1951), a feminist campaigner. Both parents fought for social change in the US: Thomas Hepburn helped establish the New England Social Hygiene Association, which educated the public about venereal disease,[1] while the elder Katharine headed the Connecticut
Connecticut
Woman Suffrage Association and later campaigned for birth control with Margaret Sanger.[2] As a child, Hepburn joined her mother on several "Votes For Women" demonstrations.[3] The Hepburn children were raised to exercise freedom of speech and encouraged to think and debate on any topic they wished.[4] Her parents were criticized by the community for their progressive views, which stimulated Hepburn to fight against barriers she encountered.[5][6] Hepburn said she realized from a young age that she was the product of "two very remarkable parents",[7] and credited her "enormously lucky" upbringing with providing the foundation for her success.[8][9] She remained close to her family throughout her life.[10] The young Hepburn was a tomboy who liked to call herself Jimmy, and cut her hair short.[11] Thomas Hepburn was eager for his children to use their minds and bodies to the limit, and taught them to swim, run, dive, ride, wrestle, and play golf and tennis.[12] Golf became a passion of Hepburn's; she took daily lessons and became very adept, reaching the semi-final of the Connecticut
Connecticut
Young Women's Golf Championship.[13] She loved swimming in Long Island Sound, and took ice-cold baths every morning in the belief that "the bitterer the medicine, the better it was for you."[14] Hepburn was a fan of movies from a young age, and went to see one every Saturday night.[15] She would put on plays and perform for her neighbors with friends and siblings for 50 cents a ticket to raise money for the Navajo people.[16]

Hepburn's yearbook photo, 1928, Bryn Mawr College

On April 3, 1921, while visiting friends in Greenwich Village, Hepburn discovered the body of her adored older brother, Tom,[17] dead from an apparent suicide. He had tied a sheet around a beam and hanged himself.[18] The Hepburn family denied it was suicide and maintained that Tom's death must have been an experiment that had gone wrong.[19] The incident made the teenage Hepburn nervous, moody, and suspicious of people.[20] She shied away from other children, dropped out of Oxford School, and began receiving private tutoring.[21] For many years she used Tom's birthday (November 8) as her own. It was not until her 1991 autobiography, Me: Stories of My Life, that Hepburn revealed her true birth date.[22] In 1924 Hepburn gained a place at Bryn Mawr College. She attended the institution primarily to satisfy her mother, who had studied there, and recalled disliking the experience.[23] It was the first time she had been in school for several years, and she was self-conscious and uncomfortable with her classmates.[24] She struggled with the scholastic demands of university, and once was suspended for smoking in her room.[25] Hepburn was drawn to acting, but roles in college plays were conditional on good grades. Once her marks had improved, she began performing regularly.[25] She performed the lead role in a production of The Woman in the Moon
The Woman in the Moon
in her senior year, and the positive response it received cemented Hepburn's plans to pursue a theatrical career.[13] She graduated with a degree in history and philosophy in June 1928.[26] Career[edit] Breaking into theatre (1928–32)[edit] Hepburn left university determined to become an actress.[27] The day after graduating, she traveled to Baltimore
Baltimore
to meet Edwin H. Knopf, who ran a successful stock theatre company.[28] Impressed by her eagerness, Knopf cast Hepburn in his current production, The Czarina.[29] She received good reviews for her small role, and the Printed Word described her performance as "arresting".[30] She was given a part in the following week's show, but her second performance was less well received. She was criticized for her shrill voice, and so left Baltimore
Baltimore
to study with a voice tutor in New York City.[31]

Hepburn in the role that brought her to the attention of Hollywood, 1932's The Warrior's Husband

Knopf decided to produce The Big Pond
The Big Pond
in New York and appointed Hepburn the understudy to the leading lady. A week before opening, the lead was fired and replaced with Hepburn, which gave her a starring role only four weeks into her theatre career.[32] On opening night, she turned up late, mixed her lines, tripped over her feet, and spoke too quickly to be comprehensible.[31] She was immediately fired, and the original leading lady rehired. Undeterred, Hepburn joined forces with the producer Arthur Hopkins and accepted the role of a schoolgirl in These Days. Her Broadway debut came on November 12, 1928, at the Cort Theatre, but reviews for the show were poor and it closed after eight nights.[31] Hopkins promptly hired Hepburn as the lead understudy in Philip Barry's play Holiday. In early December, after only two weeks, she quit to marry Ludlow Ogden Smith, a college acquaintance. She planned to leave the theatre behind, but began to miss the work and quickly resumed the understudy role in Holiday, which she held for six months.[33] In 1929, Hepburn turned down a role with the Theatre Guild
Theatre Guild
to play the lead in Death Takes a Holiday. She felt the role was perfect, but again she was fired.[34] She went back to the Guild and took an understudy role for minimum pay in A Month in the Country. In the spring of 1930, Hepburn joined a theatre company in Stockbridge, Massachusetts. She left halfway through the summer season, and continued studying with a drama tutor.[35] In early 1931, she was cast in the Broadway production of Art and Mrs. Bottle. She was released from the role after the playwright took a dislike to her, saying "She looks a fright, her manner is objectionable, and she has no talent", but Hepburn was rehired when no other actress could be found.[36] It went on to be a small success.[37] Hepburn appeared in a number of plays with a summer stock company in Ivoryton, Connecticut, and she proved to be a hit.[36] During the summer of 1931, Philip Barry
Philip Barry
asked her to appear in his new play, The Animal Kingdom, alongside Leslie Howard. They began rehearsals in November, Hepburn feeling sure the role would make her a star, but Howard disliked the actress and again she was fired.[38] When she asked Barry why she had been let go, he responded, "Well, to be brutally frank, you weren't very good."[38] This unsettled the self-assured Hepburn, but she continued to look for work.[39] She took a small role in an upcoming play, but as rehearsals began she was asked to read for the lead in the Greek fable The Warrior's Husband.[40] The Warrior's Husband proved to be Hepburn's breakout performance. Biographer Charles Higham states that the role was ideal for the actress, requiring an aggressive energy and athleticism, and she enthusiastically involved herself with its production.[41] The play opened March 11, 1932, at the Morosco Theatre
Morosco Theatre
on Broadway. Hepburn's first entrance called for her to leap down a narrow stairway with a stag over her shoulder, wearing a short silver tunic. The show ran for three months, and Hepburn received positive reviews.[42] Richard Garland of the New York World-Telegram
New York World-Telegram
wrote, "It's been many a night since so glowing a performance has brightened the Broadway scene."[43] Hollywood success (1932–34)[edit]

Hepburn's first movie appearance, in the melodrama A Bill of Divorcement (1932). Critics loved the performance and she became an instant star.

A scout for the Hollywood agent Leland Hayward
Leland Hayward
spotted Hepburn's appearance in The Warrior's Husband, and asked her to test for the part of Sydney Fairfield in the upcoming RKO film A Bill of Divorcement.[44] Director George Cukor
George Cukor
was impressed by what he saw: "There was this odd creature," he recalled, "she was unlike anybody I'd ever heard." He particularly liked the manner in which she picked up a glass: "I thought she was very talented in that action."[45] Offered the role, Hepburn demanded $1,500 a week, a large amount for an unknown actress.[46] Cukor encouraged the studio to accept her demands and they signed Hepburn to a temporary contract with a three-week guarantee.[27][47] RKO head David O. Selznick
David O. Selznick
recounted that he took a "tremendous chance" in casting the unusual actress.[48] Hepburn arrived in California in July 1932, at 25 years old. She starred in A Bill of Divorcement opposite John Barrymore, but showed no sign of intimidation.[48][49] Although she struggled to adapt to the nature of film acting, Hepburn was fascinated by the industry from the start.[50] The picture was a success and Hepburn received positive reviews.[51] Mordaunt Hall of The New York Times
The New York Times
called her performance "exceptionally fine ... Miss Hepburn's characterization is one of the finest seen on the screen".[52] The Variety review declared, "Standout here is the smash impression made by Katharine Hepburn in her first picture assignment. She has a vital something that sets her apart from the picture galaxy."[53] On the strength of A Bill of Divorcement, RKO signed her to a long-term contract.[54] George Cukor
George Cukor
became a lifetime friend and colleague—he and Hepburn made ten films together.[55]

As Jo March
Jo March
in Little Women (1933), which was one of the most popular movies of its day

Hepburn's second film was Christopher Strong
Christopher Strong
(1933), the story of an aviator and her affair with a married man. The picture was not commercially successful, but Hepburn's reviews were good.[56] Regina Crewe wrote in the Journal American that although her mannerisms were grating, "they compel attention, and they fascinate an audience. She is a distinct, definite, positive personality."[57] Hepburn's third picture confirmed her as a major actress in Hollywood.[58] For playing aspiring actress Eva Lovelace—a role intended for Constance Bennett—in Morning Glory, she won an Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Actress. She had seen the script on the desk of producer Pandro S. Berman
Pandro S. Berman
and, convinced that she was born to play the part, insisted that the role be hers.[59] Hepburn chose not to attend the awards ceremony—as she would not for the duration of her career—but was thrilled with the win.[60] Her success continued with the role of Jo in the film Little Women (1933). The picture was a hit, one of the film industry's biggest successes to date,[48] and Hepburn won the Best Actress prize at the Venice Film Festival. Little Women was one of Hepburn's personal favorites and she was proud of her performance, later saying, "I defy anyone to be as good [as Jo] as I was".[58] By the end of 1933 Hepburn was a respected film actress, but she yearned to prove herself on Broadway.[61] Jed Harris, one of the most successful theatre producers of the 1920s, was going through a career slump.[62] He asked Hepburn to appear in the play The Lake, which she agreed to do for a low salary.[63] Before she was given leave, RKO asked that she film Spitfire (1934). Hepburn's role in the movie was Trigger Hicks, an uneducated mountain girl. It is widely considered one of her worst films, and Hepburn received poor reviews for the effort.[64] She kept a picture of Hicks in her bedroom throughout her life to "[keep] me humble."[65] The Lake previewed in Washington, D.C., where there was a large advance sale.[63] Harris' poor direction had eroded Hepburn's confidence, and she struggled with the performance.[66] Despite this, Harris moved the play to New York without further rehearsal. It opened at the Martin Beck Theatre
Martin Beck Theatre
on December 26, 1933, and Hepburn was roundly panned by the critics.[67] Dorothy Parker
Dorothy Parker
quipped, "She runs the gamut of emotions all the way from A to B."[68] Already tied to a ten-week contract, she had to endure the embarrassment of rapidly declining box office sales.[69] Harris decided to take the show to Chicago, saying to Hepburn, "My dear, the only interest I have in you is the money I can make out of you." Hepburn refused, and paid Harris $14,000 to close the production instead.[70] She later referred to Harris as "hands-down the most diabolical person I have ever met",[62] and claimed this experience was important in teaching her to take responsibility for her career.[71] Career setbacks (1934–38)[edit]

In Mary of Scotland (1936), one of a series of unsuccessful films Hepburn made in this period.

After the failure of Spitfire and The Lake, RKO cast Hepburn in The Little Minister (1934), based on a Victorian novel by James Barrie, in an attempt to repeat the success of Little Women.[72] There was no such recurrence, and the picture was a commercial failure.[73] The romantic drama Break of Hearts
Break of Hearts
(1935) with Charles Boyer
Charles Boyer
was poorly reviewed and also lost money.[74] After three forgettable films, success returned to Hepburn with Alice Adams (1935), the story of a girl's desperation to climb the social ladder. Hepburn loved the book and was delighted to be offered the role.[75] The film was a hit, one of Hepburn's personal favorites, and gave the actress her second Oscar nomination. She received the second most votes, after winner Bette Davis.[76] Given the choice of her next feature, Hepburn decided to star in George Cukor's new project, Sylvia Scarlett
Sylvia Scarlett
(1935), which paired her for the first time with Cary Grant.[76] Her hair was cut short for the part, as her character masquerades as a boy for much of the film. Critics disliked Sylvia Scarlett
Sylvia Scarlett
and it was unpopular with the public.[77] She next played Mary Stuart in John Ford's Mary of Scotland (1936), which met with a similarly poor reception.[78] A Woman Rebels (1936) followed, a Victorian era drama where Hepburn's character defied convention by having a child out of wedlock.[79] Quality Street (1937) also had a period setting, this time a comedy. Neither movie was popular with the public, which meant she had made four unsuccessful pictures in a row.[80] Alongside a series of unpopular films, problems arose from Hepburn's attitude.[81] She had a difficult relationship with the press, with whom she could be rude and provocative.[82] When asked if she had any children, she snapped back, "Yes I have five: two white and three colored."[83] She would not give interviews and denied requests for autographs,[84] which earned her the nickname "Katharine of Arrogance".[85] The public was also baffled by her boyish behavior and fashion choices, and she became a largely unpopular figure.[82][86] Hepburn sensed that she needed to leave Hollywood,[87] so she returned east to star in a theatrical adaptation of Jane Eyre. It had a successful tour,[88] but, uncertain about the script and unwilling to risk failure after the disaster of The Lake, Hepburn decided against taking the show to Broadway.[87] Towards the end of 1936, Hepburn vied for the role of Scarlett O'Hara
Scarlett O'Hara
in Gone with the Wind.[89] Producer David O. Selznick
David O. Selznick
refused to offer her the part because he felt she had no sex appeal. He reportedly told Hepburn, "I can't see Rhett Butler chasing you for twelve years."[90]

Hepburn made four films with Cary Grant. They are seen here in Bringing Up Baby
Bringing Up Baby
(1938), which flopped on release but has since become renowned as a classic screwball comedy.[91]

Hepburn's next feature, Stage Door
Stage Door
(1937), paired her with Ginger Rogers in a role that mirrored her own life—that of a wealthy society girl trying to make it as an actress.[92] Hepburn was praised for her work at early previews, which gave her top billing over Rogers.[93] The film was nominated for Best Picture at the Academy Awards, but it was not the box-office hit RKO had hoped for.[92] Industry pundits blamed Hepburn for the small profit, but the studio continued its commitment to resurrecting her popularity.[94] She was cast in Howard Hawks' screwball comedy Bringing Up Baby
Bringing Up Baby
(1938), where she played a flighty heiress who loses a leopard while trying to woo a palaeontologist (Cary Grant). She approached the physical comedy of the film with confidence,[94] and took tips on comedic timing from her costar Walter Catlett.[95] Bringing Up Baby
Bringing Up Baby
was acclaimed by critics, but it was nevertheless unsuccessful at the box office.[96] With the genre and Grant both hugely popular at the time, biographer A. Scott Berg believes the blame lay with moviegoers' rejection of Hepburn.[97] After the release of Bringing up Baby, the Independent Theatre Owners of America included Hepburn on a list of actors considered "box office poison".[97] Her reputation at a low, the next film RKO offered her was Mother Carey's Chickens, a B movie
B movie
with poor prospects.[97] Hepburn turned it down, and instead opted to buy out her contract for $75,000.[98] Many actors were afraid to leave the stability of the studio system at the time, but Hepburn's personal wealth meant she could afford to be independent.[99] She signed on for the film version of Holiday (1938) with Columbia Pictures, pairing her for the third time with Grant, to play a stifled society girl who finds joy with her sister's fiancé. The comedy was positively reviewed, but it failed to draw much of an audience,[100] and the next script offered to Hepburn came with a salary of $10,000—less than she had received at the start of her film career.[101] Reflecting on this change in fortunes, Andrew Britton writes of Hepburn, "No other star has emerged with greater rapidity or with more ecstatic acclaim. No other star, either, has become so unpopular so quickly for so long a time."[102] Revival (1939–42)[edit]

Hepburn on Broadway in The Philadelphia Story (1939)

As Tracy Lord in The Philadelphia Story (1940), alongside James Stewart. Hepburn said of the role, "I gave her life and she gave me back my career."[28]

Following this decline in her career, Hepburn took action to create her own comeback vehicle. She left Hollywood to look for a stage project, and signed on to star in Philip Barry's new play, The Philadelphia Story. It was tailored to showcase the actress, with the character of socialite Tracy Lord incorporating a mixture of humor, aggression, nervousness, and vulnerability.[103] Howard Hughes, Hepburn's partner at the time, sensed that the play could be her ticket back to Hollywood stardom and bought her the film rights before it even debuted on stage.[104] The Philadelphia Story first toured the United States, to positive reviews, and then opened in New York at the Schubert Theatre on March 28, 1939.[105][106] It was a big hit, critically and financially, running for 417 performances and then going on a second successful tour.[27] Several of the major film studios approached Hepburn to produce the movie version of Barry's play.[107] She chose to sell the rights to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
(MGM), Hollywood's number one studio,[108] on the condition that she be the star. As part of the deal she also received the director of her choice, George Cukor, and picked James Stewart
James Stewart
and Cary Grant
Cary Grant
(to whom she ceded top-billing) as co-stars.[109] Before filming began, Hepburn shrewdly noted, "I don't want to make a grand entrance in this picture. Moviegoers ... think I'm too la-di-da or something. A lot of people want to see me fall flat on my face." Thus the film began with Grant knocking the actress flat on her backside.[110] Berg describes how the character was crafted to have audiences "laugh at her enough that they would ultimately sympathize with her", which Hepburn felt was crucial in "recreating" her public image.[111] The Philadelphia Story was one of the biggest hits of 1940, breaking records at Radio City Music Hall.[27] The review in Time declared, "Come on back, Katie, all is forgiven."[112] Herb Golden of Variety stated, "It's Katharine Hepburn's picture ... The perfect conception of all flighty but characterful Main Line socialite gals rolled into one, the story without her is almost inconceivable."[113] Hepburn was nominated for her third Academy Award for Best Actress, and won the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress.[114][115] Hepburn was also responsible for the development of her next project, the romantic comedy Woman of the Year
Woman of the Year
about a political journalist and sports journalist whose relationship is challenged by her independence. The idea for the film was proposed to her by Garson Kanin in 1941, who recalled how Hepburn contributed to the script.[116] She presented the finished product to MGM and demanded $250,000—half for her, half for the authors.[117] Her terms accepted, Hepburn was also given the director and co-star of her choice, George Stevens
George Stevens
and Spencer Tracy. Released in 1942, Woman of the Year was another success. Critics praised the chemistry between the stars, and, says Higham, noted Hepburn's "increasing maturity and polish".[118] The World-Telegram commended two "brilliant performances",[119] and Hepburn received a fourth Academy Award nomination. During the course of the movie, Hepburn signed a star contract with MGM.[109] Slowing in the 1940s (1942–49)[edit] In 1942, Hepburn returned to Broadway to appear in another Philip Barry play, Without Love, which was also written with the actress in mind.[119] Critics were unenthusiastic about the production but with Hepburn's popularity at a high it ran for 16 sold-out weeks.[120] MGM was eager to reunite Tracy and Hepburn for a new picture, and settled on Keeper of the Flame (1942). A dark mystery with a propaganda message on the dangers of fascism, the film was seen by Hepburn as an opportunity to make a worthy political statement.[121] It received poor notices but was a financial success, confirming the popularity of the Tracy–Hepburn pairing.[122]

The majority of films Hepburn did in this period were with Spencer Tracy. She later said the partnership did much to advance her career, as he was the more popular star at the time.[123] Seen here in Adam's Rib (1949).

Since Woman of the Year, Hepburn had committed to a romantic relationship with Tracy and dedicated herself to helping the star, who suffered from alcoholism and insomnia.[124] Her career slowed as a result, and she worked less for the remainder of the decade than she had done in the 1930s—notably by not appearing on-stage again until 1950.[125] Her only appearance in 1943 was a cameo in the morale-building wartime film Stage Door
Stage Door
Canteen, playing herself. She took an atypical role in 1944, playing a Chinese peasant in the high-budget drama Dragon Seed. Hepburn was enthusiastic about the film, but it met with a tepid response and she was described as miscast.[126] She then reunited with Tracy for the film version of Without Love (1945), after which she turned down a role in The Razor's Edge to support Tracy through his return to Broadway.[127] Without Love received poor reviews, but a new Tracy–Hepburn picture was a big event and it was popular on release, selling a record number of tickets over Easter-weekend 1945.[128] Hepburn's next film was Undercurrent (1946), a film noir with Robert Taylor and Robert Mitchum
Robert Mitchum
that was poorly received.[129] A fourth film with Tracy came in 1947: a drama set in the American Old West
American Old West
entitled The Sea of Grass. Similarly to Keeper of the Flame and Without Love, a lukewarm response from critics did not stop it from being a financial success both at home and abroad.[130] The same year, Hepburn portrayed Clara Wieck Schumann
Clara Wieck Schumann
in Song of Love. She trained intensively with a pianist for the role.[131] By the time of its release in October, Hepburn's career had been significantly affected by her public opposition to the growing anti-communist movement in Hollywood. Viewed by some as dangerously progressive, she was not offered work for nine months and people reportedly threw things at screenings of Song of Love.[132] Her next film role came unexpectedly, as she agreed to replace Claudette Colbert
Claudette Colbert
only days before shooting began on Frank Capra's political drama State of the Union (1948).[133] Tracy had long been signed to play the male lead, and so Hepburn was already familiar with the script and stepped up for the fifth Tracy–Hepburn picture.[132] Critics responded positively to the film and it performed well at the box-office.[134] Tracy and Hepburn appeared onscreen together for a third consecutive year in the 1949 film Adam's Rib. Like Woman of the Year, it was a "battle of the sexes" comedy and was written specifically for the duo by their friends Garson Kanin
Garson Kanin
and Ruth Gordon. A story of married lawyers who oppose each other in court, Hepburn described it as "perfect for [Tracy] and me".[135] Although her political views still prompted scattered picketing at theatres around the country, Adam's Rib was a hit, favorably reviewed and the most profitable Tracy–Hepburn picture to date.[136] The New York Times
The New York Times
critic Bosley Crowther was full of praise for the film and hailed the duo's "perfect compatibility".[137] Professional expansion (1950–52)[edit]

Hepburn often worked abroad in the 1950s, beginning with The African Queen. With co-star Humphrey Bogart.

The 1950s saw Hepburn take on a series of professional challenges, and stretch herself further than at any other point in her life at an age when most other actresses began to retreat.[138] Berg describes the decade as "the heart of her vast legacy" and "the period in which she truly came into her own."[139] In January 1950, Hepburn ventured into Shakespeare, playing Rosalind on stage in As You Like It. She hoped to prove that she could play already established material,[28] and said, "It's better to try something difficult and flop than to play it safe all the time."[140] It opened at the Cort Theatre
Cort Theatre
in New York to a capacity audience, and was virtually sold out for 148 shows.[141] The production then went on tour. Reviews for Hepburn varied, but she was noted as the only leading lady in Hollywood who was performing high-caliber material onstage.[142] In 1951, Hepburn filmed The African Queen, her first movie in Technicolor. She played Rose Sayer, a prim spinster missionary living in German East Africa
German East Africa
at the outbreak of World War I. Costarring Humphrey Bogart, The African Queen was shot mostly on location in the Belgian Congo, an opportunity Hepburn embraced.[143] It proved a difficult experience, however, and Hepburn became ill with dysentery during filming.[144] Later in life, she released a memoir about the experience.[145] The movie was released at the end of 1951 to popular support and critical acclaim,[146] and gave Hepburn her fifth Best Actress nomination at the Academy Awards. The first successful film she had made without Tracy since The Philadelphia Story a decade earlier, it proved that she could be a hit without him and fully reestablished her popularity.[147] Hepburn went on to make the sports comedy Pat and Mike
Pat and Mike
(1952), the second film written specifically as a Tracy–Hepburn vehicle by Kanin and Gordon. She was a keen athlete, and Kanin later described this as his inspiration for the film: "As I watched Kate playing tennis one day ... it occurred to me that her audience was missing a treat."[148] Hepburn was under pressure to perform several sports to a high standard, many of which did not end up in the film.[149] Pat and Mike was one of the team's most popular and critically acclaimed films, and it was also Hepburn's personal favorite of the nine films she made with Tracy.[150] The performance brought her a nomination for the Golden Globe
Golden Globe
Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy.[151]

Hepburn in the Theatre Guild
Theatre Guild
production of The Millionairess (1952)

In the summer of 1952, Hepburn appeared in London's West End for a ten-week run of George Bernard Shaw's The Millionairess. Her parents had read Shaw to her when she was a child, which made the play a special experience for the actress.[152] Two years of intense work had left her exhausted, however, and her friend Constance Collier
Constance Collier
wrote that Hepburn was "on the verge of a nervous breakdown".[153] Widely acclaimed, The Millionairess was brought to Broadway.[154] In October 1952 it opened at the Shubert Theatre, where despite a lukewarm critical response it sold out its ten-week run.[153] Hepburn subsequently tried to get the play adapted into a film: a script was written by Preston Sturges, and she offered to work for nothing and pay the director herself, but no studio picked up the project.[155] She later referred to this as the biggest disappointment of her career.[152] Spinsters and Shakespeare (1953–62)[edit]

In David Lean's romantic drama Summertime (1955). Jane Hudson is one of the popular "spinster" roles Hepburn played in the 1950s.

Pat and Mike
Pat and Mike
was the last film Hepburn completed on her MGM contract, making her free to select her own projects.[154] She spent two years resting and traveling, before committing to David Lean's romantic drama Summertime (1955). The movie was filmed in Venice, with Hepburn playing a lonely spinster who has a passionate love affair. She described it as "a very emotional part" and found it fascinating to work with Lean.[156] At her own insistence, Hepburn performed a fall into a canal and developed a chronic eye infection as a result.[157] The role earned her another Academy Award
Academy Award
nomination and has been cited as some of her finest work.[158][159] Lean later said it was his personal favorite of the films he made, and Hepburn his favorite actress.[160] The following year, Hepburn spent six months touring Australia with the Old Vic
Old Vic
theatre company, playing Portia in The Merchant of Venice, Kate in The Taming of the Shrew, and Isabella in Measure for Measure. The tour was successful and Hepburn earned significant plaudits for the effort.[161] Hepburn received an Academy Award
Academy Award
nomination for the second year running for her work opposite Burt Lancaster
Burt Lancaster
in The Rainmaker (1956). Again she played a lonely woman empowered by a love affair, and it became apparent that Hepburn had found a niche in playing "love-starved spinsters" that critics and audiences enjoyed.[162] Hepburn said of playing such roles, "With Lizzie Curry [The Rainmaker] and Jane Hudson [Summertime] and Rosie Sayer [The African Queen]—I was playing me. It wasn't difficult for me to play those women, because I'm the maiden aunt."[162] Less success that year came from The Iron Petticoat
The Iron Petticoat
(1956), a reworking of the classic comedy Ninotchka, with Bob Hope. Hepburn played a cold-hearted Soviet pilot, a performance Bosley Crowther called "horrible".[163] It was a critical and commercial failure, and Hepburn considered it the worst film on her resume.[162][163] Tracy and Hepburn reunited on screen for the first time in five years for the office-based comedy Desk Set
Desk Set
(1957). Berg notes that it worked as a hybrid of their earlier romantic-comedy successes and Hepburn's spinster persona,[164] but it performed poorly at the box-office.[165] That summer, Hepburn returned to Shakespeare. Appearing in Stratford, Connecticut, at the American Shakespeare Theatre, she repeated her Portia in The Merchant of Venice
The Merchant of Venice
and played Beatrice in Much Ado About Nothing. The shows were positively received.[164]

From the trailer for Suddenly, Last Summer
Suddenly, Last Summer
(1959), based on the play by Tennessee Williams

After two years away from the screen, Hepburn starred in a film adaptation of Tennessee Williams' controversial play Suddenly, Last Summer (1959) with Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
and Montgomery Clift. The movie was shot in London, and was "a completely miserable experience" for Hepburn.[166] She clashed with director Joseph L. Mankiewicz
Joseph L. Mankiewicz
during filming, which culminated with her spitting at him in disgust.[167] The picture was a financial success, and her work as creepy aunt Violet Venable gave Hepburn her eighth Oscar nomination.[168] Williams was pleased with the performance, writing, "Kate is a playwright's dream-actress. She makes dialogue sound better than it is by a matchless beauty and clarity of diction".[169] He wrote The Night of the Iguana (1961) with Hepburn in mind, but the actress, although flattered, felt the play was wrong for her and declined the part, which went to Bette Davis.[170] Hepburn returned to Stratford in the summer of 1960 to play Viola in Twelfth Night
Twelfth Night
and Cleopatra in Antony and Cleopatra. The New York Post wrote of her Cleopatra, "Hepburn offers a highly versatile performance ... once or twice going in for her famous mannerisms and always being fascinating to watch."[171] Hepburn herself was proud of the role.[172] Her repertoire was further improved when she appeared in Sidney Lumet's film version of Eugene O'Neill's Long Day's Journey Into Night (1962). It was a low-budget production, and she appeared in the film for a tenth of her established salary.[173] She called it "the greatest [play] this country has ever produced" and the role of morphine-addicted Mary Tyrone "the most challenging female role in American drama", and felt her performance was the best screen work of her career.[174] Long Day's Journey Into Night earned Hepburn an Oscar nomination and the Best Actress Award at the Cannes Film Festival. It remains one of her most praised performances.[175] Success in later years (1963–70)[edit]

In Guess Who's Coming to Dinner
Guess Who's Coming to Dinner
(1967), which won Hepburn her second of four Academy Awards

Following the completion of Long Day's Journey Into Night, Hepburn took a break in her career to care for ailing Spencer Tracy.[176] She did not work again until 1967's Guess Who's Coming to Dinner, her ninth film with Tracy. The movie dealt with the subject of interracial marriage, with Hepburn's niece, Katharine Houghton, playing her daughter. Tracy was dying by this point, suffering the effects of heart disease,[177] and Houghton later commented that her aunt was "extremely tense" during the production.[178] Tracy died 17 days after filming his last scene. Guess Who's Coming to Dinner
Guess Who's Coming to Dinner
was a triumphant return for Hepburn and her most commercially successful picture to that point.[179] She won her second Best Actress Award at the Oscars, 34 years after winning her first. Hepburn felt the award was not just for her, but was also given to honor Tracy.[179] Hepburn quickly returned to acting after Tracy's death, choosing to preoccupy herself as a remedy against grief.[180] She received numerous scripts[181] and chose to play Eleanor of Aquitaine
Eleanor of Aquitaine
in The Lion in Winter (1968), a part she called "fascinating".[182] She read extensively in preparation for the role, in which she starred opposite Peter O'Toole.[183] Filming took place in Montmajour Abbey
Montmajour Abbey
in the south of France, an experience she loved despite being—according to director Anthony Harvey—"enormously vulnerable" throughout.[184] John Russell Taylor of The Times
The Times
suggested that Eleanor was "the performance of her ... career", and proved that she was "a growing, developing, still surprising actress".[185] The movie was nominated in all the major categories at the Academy Awards, and for the second year running Hepburn won the Oscar for Best Actress (shared with Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
for Funny Girl).[186] The role, combined with her performance in Guess Who's Coming to Dinner, also received a British Academy Film Award (BAFTA) for Best Actress. Hepburn's next appearance was in The Madwoman of Chaillot (1969), which she filmed in Nice immediately after completing The Lion in Winter.[187] The picture was a failure critically and financially, and reviews targeted Hepburn for giving a misguided performance.[188] From December 1969 to August 1970, Hepburn starred in the Broadway musical Coco, about the life of Coco Chanel. She admitted that before the show, she had never sat through a theatrical musical.[189] She was not a strong singer, but found the offer irresistible and, as Berg puts it, "what she lacked in euphony she made up for in guts".[190] The actress took vocal lessons six times a week in preparation for the show.[190] She was nervous about every performance, and recalled "wondering what the hell I was doing there."[191] Reviews for the production were mediocre, but Hepburn herself was praised and Coco was popular with the public—with its run twice extended.[192] She later said Coco marked the first time she accepted that the public was not against her, but actually seemed to love her.[28] Her work earned a Tony Award
Tony Award
nomination for Best Actress in a Musical.[193] Film, television, and theatre (1971–83)[edit] Hepburn stayed active throughout the 1970s, focusing on roles described by Andrew Britton as "either a devouring mother or a batty old lady living [alone]".[1] First she traveled to Spain to film a version of Euripides' The Trojan Women (1971) alongside Vanessa Redgrave. When asked why she had taken the role, she responded that she wanted to broaden her range and try everything while she still had time.[194] The movie was poorly received,[194] but the Kansas City Film Critics Circle named Hepburn's performance the best from an actress that year. In 1971 she signed on to star in an adaptation of Graham Greene's Travels with My Aunt, but was unhappy with early versions of the script and took to rewriting it herself. The studio disliked her changes, so Hepburn abandoned the project and was replaced with Maggie Smith.[195] Her next film, an adaptation of Edward Albee's A Delicate Balance (1973) directed by Tony Richardson, had a small release and received generally unfavorable reviews.[196] In 1973, Hepburn ventured into television for the first time, starring in a production of Tennessee Williams' The Glass Menagerie. She had been wary of the medium but it proved to be one of the main television events of the year, scoring high in the Nielsen ratings.[197] Hepburn received an Emmy Award
Emmy Award
nomination for playing wistful Southern mother Amanda Wingfield, which opened her mind to future work on the small screen.[198] Her next project was the television movie Love Among the Ruins (1975), a London-based Edwardian drama with her friend Laurence Olivier. It received positive reviews and high ratings, and earned Hepburn her only Emmy Award.[199]

In the western Rooster Cogburn (1975), which Hepburn starred in with John Wayne

Hepburn made her only appearance at the Academy Awards
Academy Awards
in 1974, to present the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award
Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award
to Lawrence Weingarten. She received a standing ovation, and joked with the audience, "I'm very happy I didn't hear anyone call out 'It's about time'."[200] The following year, she was paired with John Wayne
John Wayne
in the western Rooster Cogburn, a sequel to his Oscar-winning film True Grit. Echoing her African Queen character, Hepburn again played a deeply religious spinster who teams up with a masculine loner to avenge a family member's death.[196] The movie received mediocre reviews. Its casting was enough to draw some people to the box office, but it did not meet studio expectations and was only moderately successful.[201] In 1976, Hepburn returned to Broadway for a three-month run of Enid Bagnold's play A Matter of Gravity. The role of eccentric Mrs. Basil was deemed a perfect showcase for the actress,[202] and the play was popular despite poor reviews.[203] It later went on a successful nationwide tour.[204] During its Los Angeles run, Hepburn fractured her hip, but she chose to continue the tour performing in a wheelchair.[205] That year, she was voted "Favorite Motion Picture Actress" by the People's Choice Awards.[206] After three years away from the screen, Hepburn starred in the 1978 film Olly Olly Oxen Free. The adventure comedy was one of the biggest failures of her career—the screenwriter James Prideaux, who worked with Hepburn, later wrote that it "died at the moment of release" and referred to it as her "lost film".[207] Hepburn claimed the main reason she had done it was the opportunity to ride in a hot-air balloon.[208] The television movie The Corn Is Green (1979), which was filmed in Wales, followed. It was the last of ten films Hepburn made with George Cukor, and gained her a third Emmy nomination.[209] By the 1980s, Hepburn had developed a noticeable tremor, giving her a permanently shaking head.[200][210] She did not work for two years, saying in a television interview, "I've had my day—let the kids scramble and sweat it out."[211] During this period she saw the Broadway production On Golden Pond, and was impressed by its depiction of an elderly married couple coping with the difficulties of old age.[212] Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
had purchased the screen rights for her father, actor Henry Fonda, and Hepburn sought to play opposite him in the role of quirky Ethel Thayer.[213] On Golden Pond was a success, the second-highest grossing film of 1981.[214] It demonstrated how energetic the 74-year-old Hepburn was, as she dived fully clothed into Squam Lake
Squam Lake
and gave a lively singing performance.[212] The movie won her a second BAFTA
BAFTA
and a record fourth Academy Award. Homer Dickens, in his book on Hepburn, notes that it was widely considered a sentimental win, "a tribute to her enduring career."[215] Hepburn also returned to the stage in 1981. She received a second Tony nomination for her portrayal in The West Side Waltz of a septuagenarian widow with a zest for life. Variety observed that the role was "an obvious and entirely acceptable version of [Hepburn's] own public image."[216] Walter Kerr of The New York Times
The New York Times
wrote of Hepburn and her performance, "One mysterious thing she has learned to do is breathe unchallengeable life into lifeless lines."[217] She hoped to make a film out of the production, but nobody purchased the rights.[218] Hepburn's reputation as one of America's best loved actors was firmly established by this point, as she was named favorite movie actress in a survey by People magazine and again won the popularity award from People's Choice.[219][220] Focus on television (1984–94)[edit] In 1984, Hepburn starred in the dark-comedy Grace Quigley, the story of an elderly woman who enlists a hitman (Nick Nolte) to kill her. Hepburn found humor in the morbid theme, but reviews were negative and the box-office was poor.[221] In 1985, she presented a television documentary about the life and career of Spencer Tracy.[222] The majority of Hepburn's roles from this point were in television movies, which did not receive the critical praise of her earlier work in the medium but remained popular with audiences.[223] With each release, Hepburn would declare it her final screen appearance, but she continued to take on new roles.[224] She received an Emmy nomination for 1986's Mrs. Delafield Wants to Marry, then two years later returned for the comedy Laura Lansing Slept Here, which allowed her to act with her grandniece, Schuyler Grant.[225]

Hepburn's final movie role was in Love Affair (1994). Critics commented that the 87-year-old had lost none of her powerful screen presence.

In 1991, Hepburn released her autobiography, Me: Stories of my Life, which topped best-seller lists for over a year.[226] She returned to television screens in 1992 for The Man Upstairs, co-starring Ryan O'Neal, for which she received a Golden Globe
Golden Globe
nomination. In 1994 she worked opposite Anthony Quinn
Anthony Quinn
in This Can't Be Love, which was largely based on Hepburn's own life, with numerous references to her personality and career. These later roles have been described as "a fictional version of the typically feisty Kate Hepburn character" and critics have remarked that Hepburn was essentially playing herself.[217][224] Hepburn's final appearance in a theatrically released film, and her first since Grace Quigley
Grace Quigley
nine years earlier, was Love Affair (1994). At 87 years old, she played a supporting role, alongside Annette Bening and Warren Beatty. It was the only film of Hepburn's career, other than the cameo appearance in Stage Door
Stage Door
Canteen, in which she did not play a leading role.[227] Roger Ebert
Roger Ebert
noted that it was the first time she had looked frail, but that the "magnificent spirit" was still there and said her scenes "steal the show."[228] The New York Times made similar observations as they reflected on the actress's final big-screen appearance, stating that "if she moved more slowly than before, in demeanor she was as game and modern as she had ever been."[217] Hepburn filmed one final role, in the television film One Christmas (1994), for which she received a Screen Actors Guild Award nomination at 87 years old.[229] Personal life[edit] Public image and character[edit] Hepburn was known for being fiercely private,[217] and would not give interviews or talk to fans for much of her career.[84] She distanced herself from the celebrity lifestyle, uninterested in a social scene she saw as tedious and superficial,[230] and she wore casual clothes that went strongly against convention in an era of glamour.[231] She rarely appeared in public, even avoiding restaurants,[232] and once wrestled a camera out of a photographer's hand when he took a picture without asking.[233] Despite her zeal for privacy, she enjoyed her fame, and later confessed that she would not have liked the press to ignore her completely.[234] The protective attitude thawed as she aged; beginning with a two-hour-long interview on The Dick Cavett Show in 1973, Hepburn became increasingly open with the public.[235]

"I strike people as peculiar in some way, although I don't quite understand why. Of course, I have an angular face, an angular body and, I suppose, an angular personality, which jabs into people."[217]

"I'm a personality as well as an actress. Show me an actress who isn't a personality and you'll show me a woman who isn't a star."[236]

—Hepburn commenting on her personality.

Hepburn's relentless energy and enthusiasm for life is often cited in biographies,[237] while a headstrong independence became key to her celebrity status.[82][217][238] This self-assuredness meant she could be controlling and difficult; her friend Garson Kanin
Garson Kanin
likened her to a schoolmistress,[239] and she was famously blunt and outspoken.[231] Katharine Houghton
Katharine Houghton
commented that her aunt could be "maddeningly self-righteous and bossy".[240] Hepburn confessed to being, especially early in life, "a me me me person".[241] She saw herself as having a happy nature, reasoning "I like life and I've been so lucky, why shouldn't I be happy?"[176] A. Scott Berg
A. Scott Berg
knew Hepburn well in her later years, and said that while she was demanding, she retained a sense of humility and humanity.[242] The actress led an active private life, reportedly swimming and playing tennis every morning.[148] In her eighties she was still playing tennis regularly, as indicated in her 1993 documentary All About Me.[28] She also enjoyed painting, which became a passion later in life.[243] When questioned about politics, Hepburn told an interviewer, "I always just say be on the affirmative and liberal side. Don't be a 'no' person."[5] The anti-Communist attitude in 1940s Hollywood prompted her to political activity, as she joined the Committee for the First Amendment. Her name was mentioned at the hearings of the House Un-American Activities Committee
House Un-American Activities Committee
but Hepburn denied being a Communist sympathizer.[244] Later in life, she openly promoted birth control and supported abortion.[28][82] She described herself as a "dedicated Democrat[245]. She practiced Albert Schweitzer's theory of "Reverence for Life",[246] but did not believe in religion or the afterlife.[5] In 1991, Hepburn told a journalist, "I'm an atheist, and that's it. I believe there's nothing we can know except that we should be kind to each other and do what we can for other people."[247] Her public declarations of these beliefs led the American Humanist Association
American Humanist Association
to award her the Humanist Arts Award in 1985.[248] Relationships[edit] Hepburn's only husband was Ludlow Ogden Smith, a socialite-businessman from Philadelphia whom she met while a student at Bryn Mawr. The couple married on December 12, 1928, when she was 21 and he was 29.[249] Hepburn had Smith change his name to S. Ogden Ludlow so that she would not be known as "Kate Smith", which she considered too plain.[33] She never fully committed to the marriage and prioritized her career.[249] The move to Hollywood in 1932 cemented the couple's estrangement,[250] and in 1934, she traveled to Mexico to get a quick divorce. Hepburn often expressed her gratitude toward Smith for his financial and moral support in the early days of her career, and in her autobiography called herself "a terrible pig" for exploiting his love.[251] The pair remained friends until his death in 1979.[252] Soon after moving to California, Hepburn began a relationship with her agent, Leland Hayward, although they were both married.[65] Hayward proposed to the actress once they had each divorced but she declined, later explaining, "I liked the idea of being my own single self."[253] They were involved for four years.[254] In 1936, while she was touring Jane Eyre, Hepburn began a relationship with entrepreneur Howard Hughes. She had been introduced to him a year earlier by their mutual friend Cary Grant.[255] Hughes wished to marry her, and the tabloids reported their impending nuptials, but Hepburn was too focused on resurrecting her failing career.[256] They separated in 1938, when Hepburn left Hollywood after being labeled "box office poison".[257] Hepburn stuck to her decision not to remarry, and made a conscious choice not to have children. She believed that motherhood should be a full-time commitment, and said it was not one she was willing to make.[5] "I would have been a terrible mother," she told Berg, "because I'm basically a very selfish human being."[258] She felt she had partially experienced parenthood through her much younger siblings, which fulfilled any need to have children of her own.[259] Rumors have existed since the 1930s that Hepburn may have been a lesbian or bisexual, which she often joked about.[260] In 2007, William J. Mann released a biography of the actress in which he argued this was the case.[261] In response to this speculation about her aunt, Katharine Houghton
Katharine Houghton
said, "I've never discovered any evidence whatsoever that she was a lesbian."[262] However, in a 2017 documentary, columnist Liz Smith, who was a close friend,[263] attested to the fact that she was.[264][265] Spencer Tracy[edit]

Hepburn had a 26-year relationship with actor Spencer Tracy, although he never divorced his wife. Promotional image for Desk Set
Desk Set
(1957).

The most significant relationship of Hepburn's life was with Spencer Tracy, her co-star in nine films. In her autobiography she wrote, "It was a unique feeling that I had for [Tracy]. I would have done anything for him."[266] Lauren Bacall, a close friend, later wrote of how "blindingly" in love Hepburn was with the actor.[267] The relationship has subsequently received much publicity, and it is often cited as one of Hollywood's legendary love affairs.[217][235][268] Meeting when she was 34 and he was 41, Tracy was initially wary of Hepburn, unimpressed by her dirty fingernails and suspecting that she was a lesbian,[269] but Hepburn said she "knew right away that I found him irresistible."[270] Tracy remained married throughout their relationship; although he and his wife Louise had been living separate lives since the 1930s, there was never an official split and neither party pursued a divorce.[271] Hepburn did not interfere, and never fought for marriage.[272] With Tracy determined to conceal the relationship with Hepburn from his wife, it had to remain private.[273] They were careful not to be seen in public together, and maintained separate residences.[268][274] Tracy was an alcoholic and was frequently depressed; Hepburn described him as "tortured",[275] and she devoted herself to making his life easier.[276] Reports from people who saw them together describe how Hepburn's entire demeanor changed when around Tracy.[277] She mothered and obeyed him, and Tracy became heavily dependent on her.[278] They often spent stretches of time apart due to their work, particularly in the 1950s when Hepburn was frequently abroad for career commitments.[279] Tracy's health declined significantly in the 1960s, and Hepburn took a five-year break in her career to care for him.[176] She moved into Tracy's house for this period, and was with him when he died on June 10, 1967.[280] Out of consideration for Tracy's family, she did not attend his funeral.[281] It was only after Louise Tracy's death, in 1983, that Hepburn began to speak publicly about her feelings for her frequent co-star.[282] In response to the question of why she stayed with Tracy for so long, despite the nature of their relationship, she said, "I honestly don't know. I can only say that I could never have left him."[176] She claimed to not know how he felt about her[283] and that they "just passed twenty-seven years [sic] together in what was to me absolute bliss."[283] Final years and death[edit]

Hepburn's gravestone in Hartford, Connecticut

Hepburn stated in her eighties, "I have no fear of death. Must be wonderful, like a long sleep."[28] Her health began to deteriorate not long after her final screen appearance, and she was hospitalized in March 1993 for exhaustion.[284] In the winter of 1996, she was hospitalized with pneumonia.[285] By 1997, she had become very weak, was speaking and eating very little, and it was feared she would die.[286] She showed signs of dementia in her final years.[287] In May 2003, an aggressive tumor was found in Hepburn's neck. The decision was made not to medically intervene,[288] and she died from a cardiac arrest on June 29, 2003, a month after her 96th birthday at the Hepburn family home in Fenwick, Connecticut. She was buried in Cedar Hill Cemetery in Hartford. Hepburn requested that there be no memorial service.[289] Hepburn's death received considerable public attention. Many tributes were held on television, and newspapers and magazines dedicated issues to the actress.[290] American president George W. Bush
George W. Bush
said Hepburn "will be remembered as one of the nation's artistic treasures."[291] In honor of her extensive theatre work, the lights of Broadway were dimmed for the evening of July 1, 2003.[291] In 2004, in accordance with Hepburn's wishes, her belongings were put up for auction with Sotheby's
Sotheby's
in New York City. The event garnered $5.8 million, which Hepburn willed to her family.[292] Acting style and screen persona[edit]

"Her best films were when she was presented as a woman on her high horse with slightly pretentious, often comically stated ideas about the world. It was for men to bring her down and get her to reveal herself as quite a good gal, sporty and democratic. We liked the idea that aristocratic people would be humanized by democratic values—in her case, by slightly rough-necked and good-natured males."[175]

—Film historian and critic Richard Schickel explains the typical Hepburn role and its appeal.

According to reports, Hepburn was not an instinctive actor.[293] She liked to study the text and character carefully beforehand, making sure she knew them thoroughly, and then to rehearse as much as possible and film multiple takes of a scene.[183] With a genuine passion for acting she committed heavily to each role[294] and insisted on learning any necessary skills and performing stunts herself.[295] She was known to learn not only her own lines but also those of her costars.[296] Commenting on her motivation, Stanley Kramer said, "Work, work, work. She can work till everyone drops."[297] Hepburn involved herself in the production of each of her films, making suggestions for the script and stating her opinion on everything from costumes to lighting to camerawork.[298] The characters Hepburn played were, with very few exceptions, wealthy and intelligent, and often strong and independent.[299] These tough characters tended to be humbled in some form and revealed to have a hidden vulnerability.[300] Garson Kanin
Garson Kanin
described what he called "the formula for a Hepburn success: A high-class, or stuck-up ... girl is brought down to earth by an earthy type, or a lowbrow ... or a cataclysmic situation. It seems to have worked time and time again."[301] Due to this repeated character arc, Britton sees Hepburn as embodying the "contradictions" of the "nature and status of women",[302] as the strong females she depicts are eventually "restored to a safe position within the status quo".[303] Film critic Molly Haskell
Molly Haskell
has commented on the importance of this to Hepburn's career: with an intimidating presence, it was necessary that her characters "do some kind of self-abasement, to stay on the good side of the audience."[82] Hepburn is one of the most celebrated American actresses,[304] but she has also been criticized for a lack of versatility. Her on-screen persona closely matched her own real personality, something Hepburn admitted herself. In 1991 she told a journalist, "I think I'm always the same. I had a very definite personality and I liked material that showed that personality."[268] Playwright and author David Macaray has said, "Picture Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
in every movie she ever starred in and ask yourself if she's not playing, essentially, the same part over and over ... Icon or no icon, let's not confuse a truly fascinating and unique woman with a superior actress."[305] Another repeated criticism is that her demeanor was too cold.[268] Legacy[edit]

Hepburn, with her unconventional lifestyle and the independent females she played on screen (such as Tess Harding in Woman of the Year, pictured), represented the emancipated woman.

Hepburn is considered an important and influential cultural figure. Ros Horton and Sally Simmons included her in their book Women Who Changed The World, which honors 50 women who helped shape world history and culture. She is also named in Encyclopædia Britannica's list of "300 Women Who Changed the World",[231] Ladies Home Journal's book 100 Most Important Women of the 20th century,[306] Variety magazine's "100 Icons of the Century",[307] and she is number 84 on VH1's list of the "200 Greatest Pop Culture Icons of All Time".[308] In 1999, the American Film Institute
American Film Institute
named Hepburn the "greatest American screen legend" among females.[309] Regarding Hepburn's film legacy, one of her biographers, Sheridan Morley, said she "broke the mold" for women in Hollywood,[310] where she brought a new breed of strong-willed females to the screen.[231] Film academic Andrew Britton wrote a monograph studying Hepburn's "key presence within classical Hollywood, a consistent, potentially radical disturbance",[303] and pinpoints her "central" influence in bringing feminist issues to the screen.[302] Maryann Pasda DiEdwardo has claimed that Hepburn's performances fostered a "decisiveness toward a new vision of women."[311] Off screen, Hepburn lived in a manner ahead of her time;[238] she thus came to symbolize the "modern woman" and played a part in changing attitudes towards the gender.[82][312] Horton and Simmons write, "Confident, intelligent and witty, four-time Oscar winner Katharine Hepburn defied convention throughout her professional and personal life ... Hepburn provided an image of an assertive woman whom [females] could watch and learn from."[313] After Hepburn's death, film historian Jeanine Basinger stated, "What she brought us was a new kind of heroine—modern and independent. She was beautiful, but she did not rely on that."[175] Mary McNamara, an entertainment journalist and reviewer for the Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
wrote, "More than a movie star, Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
was the patron saint of the independent American female."[82] She was not universally revered by feminists, however, who were angered by her public declarations that women "cannot have it all," meaning a family and a career.[82] Hepburn's legacy extends to fashion, where she was a pioneer for wearing trousers at a time when it was radical for a woman to do so.[314] She contributed towards making trousers acceptable for women, as fans began to imitate her clothing.[217][315] In 1986 she received a lifetime achievement award from the Council of Fashion Designers of America in recognition of the influence she played in women's fashion.[217] A number of Hepburn's films have become classics of American cinema, with four of her pictures (The African Queen, The Philadelphia Story, Bringing Up Baby, and Guess Who's Coming to Dinner) featured on the American Film Institute's list of the 100 Greatest American Films of all time.[316] Adam's Rib
Adam's Rib
and Woman of the Year were included in the AFI's list of the Greatest American Comedies.[317] Her clipped, patrician voice is considered one of the most distinctive in film history.[175] [ Sample, from Stage Door (1937) (help·info)] Memorials[edit]

East 49th Street in New York City, named after Katharine Hepburn

Hepburn has been honored with several memorials. The Turtle Bay community in Manhattan, New York City, where she maintained a residence for over 60 years, dedicated a garden in her name in 1997.[318] After Hepburn's death in 2003, the intersection of East 49th Street and 2nd Avenue was renamed " Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
Place".[319] Three years later Bryn Mawr College, Hepburn's alma mater, launched the Katharine Houghton
Katharine Houghton
Hepburn Center. It is dedicated to both the actress and her mother, and encourages women to address important issues affecting their gender. The center awards the annual Katharine Hepburn Medal, which "recognizes women whose lives, work and contributions embody the intelligence, drive and independence of the four-time-Oscar-winning actress" and whose award recipients "are chosen on the basis of their commitment and contributions to the Hepburn women’s greatest passions—civic engagement and the arts".[320] The Katharine Hepburn Cultural Arts Center
The Katharine Hepburn Cultural Arts Center
was opened in 2009 in Old Saybrook, Connecticut, the location of the Hepburn family beach home, which she loved and later owned.[321] The building includes a performance space and a Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
museum.[322] The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
library[323] and the New York Public Library
New York Public Library
hold collections of Hepburn's personal papers. Selections from the New York collection, which documents Hepburn's theatrical career, were presented in a five-month exhibition, Katharine Hepburn: In Her Own Files, in 2009.[324] Other exhibitions have been held to showcase Hepburn's career. One Life: Kate, A Centennial Celebration was held at the National Portrait Gallery in Washington from November 2007 to September 2008.[325] Kent State University exhibited a selection of her film and theatre costumes from October 2010 to September 2011 in Katharine Hepburn: Dressed for Stage and Screen.[326] Hepburn has also been honored with her own postal stamp as part of the "Legends of Hollywood" stamp series.[327] In 2015, the British Film Institute
British Film Institute
held a two-month retrospective of Hepburn's work.[328] Characterizations[edit] Hepburn is the subject of a one-woman play, Tea at Five, written by Matthew Lombardo. The first act features Hepburn in 1938, after being labeled "box office poison", and the second act in 1983, where she reflects on her life and career.[329] It was first performed in 2002 at the Hartford
Hartford
Stage.[330] Hepburn has been portrayed in Tea at Five by Kate Mulgrew,[329] Tovah Feldshuh,[331] Stephanie Zimbalist,[332] and Charles Busch.[333] Feldshuh also appeared as Hepburn in The Amazing Howard Hughes, a 1977 television movie, while Mearle Ann Taylor later portrayed her in The Scarlett O'Hara
Scarlett O'Hara
War (1980). In Martin Scorsese's 2004 biopic of Howard Hughes, The Aviator, Hepburn was portrayed by Cate Blanchett, who won the Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Supporting Actress for her performance. This marked the first instance where the portrayal of an Academy Award-winning actress was turned into an Academy Award-winning role.[334] In 2014, two Hepburn biopics were announced to be in development. The first deals with her relationship with Spencer Tracy, and the second covers her early years in Hollywood (based on William Mann's account).[335][336] Awards and nominations[edit] Main article: List of awards and nominations received by Katharine Hepburn Hepburn won four Academy Awards, the record number for a performer, and a total of 12 Oscar nominations for Best Actress—a number surpassed only by Meryl Streep.[337] Hepburn also holds the record for the longest time span between first and last Oscar nominations, at 48 years.[337] She received two awards and five nominations from the British Academy Film Awards, one award and six nominations from the Emmy Awards, eight Golden Globe
Golden Globe
nominations, two Tony Award nominations, and awards from the Cannes Film Festival, Venice Film Festival, the New York Film Critics Circle Awards, the People's Choice Awards, and others. Hepburn was inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame in 1979. She also won a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Screen Actors Guild in 1979 and received the Kennedy Center Honors, which recognize a lifetime of accomplishments in the arts, in 1990.[338][339] Hepburn was recognized by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences for the following performances:

6th Academy Awards
Academy Awards
(1934): Best Actress, win, for Morning Glory 8th Academy Awards
Academy Awards
(1936): Best Actress, nomination, for Alice Adams 13th Academy Awards
Academy Awards
(1941): Best Actress, nomination, for The Philadelphia Story 15th Academy Awards
Academy Awards
(1943): Best Actress, nomination, for Woman of the Year 24th Academy Awards
Academy Awards
(1952): Best Actress, nomination, for The African Queen 28th Academy Awards
Academy Awards
(1956): Best Actress, nomination, for Summertime 29th Academy Awards
Academy Awards
(1957): Best Actress, nomination, for The Rainmaker 32nd Academy Awards
Academy Awards
(1960): Best Actress, nomination, for Suddenly, Last Summer 35th Academy Awards
Academy Awards
(1963): Best Actress, nomination, for Long Day's Journey into Night 40th Academy Awards
Academy Awards
(1968): Best Actress, win, for Guess Who's Coming to Dinner 41st Academy Awards
Academy Awards
(1969): Best Actress, win, for The Lion in Winter (shared with Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
for Funny Girl) 54th Academy Awards
Academy Awards
(1982): Best Actress, win, for On Golden Pond

Filmography and theatre credits[edit] Main article: Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
performances During her 66-year career, Hepburn appeared in 44 feature films, 8 television movies, and 33 plays. Her movie career covered a range of genres, including screwball comedies, period dramas, and adaptations of works by top American playwrights. She appeared on the stage in every decade from the 1920s to the 1980s, performing plays by Shakespeare and Shaw, and a Broadway musical.[340][341][342] Select filmography:

Morning Glory (1933) Little Women (1933) Alice Adams (1935) Stage Door
Stage Door
(1937) Bringing Up Baby
Bringing Up Baby
(1938) Holiday (1938) The Philadelphia Story (1940) Woman of the Year
Woman of the Year
(1942) Adam's Rib
Adam's Rib
(1949) The African Queen (1951) Pat and Mike
Pat and Mike
(1952) Summertime (1955) Desk Set
Desk Set
(1957) Suddenly, Last Summer
Suddenly, Last Summer
(1959) Long Day's Journey into Night (1962) Guess Who's Coming to Dinner
Guess Who's Coming to Dinner
(1967) The Lion in Winter (1968) Love Among the Ruins (1975) Rooster Cogburn (1975) On Golden Pond (1981)

Select theatre roles:

The Philadelphia Story (1939–1941) As You Like It
As You Like It
(1950) The Millionairess (1952) The Taming of the Shrew
The Taming of the Shrew
(1955) Measure for Measure
Measure for Measure
(1955) The Merchant of Venice
The Merchant of Venice
(1955 and 1957) Much Ado About Nothing
Much Ado About Nothing
(1957) Twelfth Night
Twelfth Night
(1960) Antony and Cleopatra
Antony and Cleopatra
(1960) Coco (1969–1970) A Matter of Gravity (1976–77) The West Side Waltz (1981)

References[edit]

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Vault. Archived from the original on October 8, 2015. Retrieved November 2, 2015. 

Sources[edit]

Bacall, Lauren (2005). By Myself and Then Some. London: Headline. ISBN 0-7553-1350-X.  Berg, Scott A. (2004) [2003]. Kate Remembered: Katharine Hepburn, a Personal Biography. London: Pocket. ISBN 0-7434-1563-9.  Britton, Andrew (2003) [1984]. Katharine Hepburn: Star as Feminist. New York City, NY: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-13277-8.  Chandler, Charlotte (2011) [2010]. I Know Where I'm Going: Katharine Hepburn, a Personal Biography. Milwaukee, WI: Applause. ISBN 1-907532-01-3.  Curtis, James (2011). Spencer Tracy: A Biography. London: Hutchinson. ISBN 0-09-178524-3.  Dickens, Homer (1990) [1971]. The Films of Katharine Hepburn. New York City, NY: Carol Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8065-1175-3.  DiEdwardo, Maryann Pasda (2006). The Legacy of Katharine Hepburn: Fine Art as a Way of Life: A Memoir. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse. ISBN 1-4259-6089-8. [self-published source?] Edwards, Anne (1985). A Remarkable Woman: A Biography of Katharine Hepburn. New York City, NY: William Morrow & Company, Inc. ISBN 0-688-04528-6.  Haver, Ronald (1980). David O. Selznick's Hollywood. London: Martin Secker & Warburg Ltd. ISBN 0-394-42595-2.  Hendrickson, Robert (2013). God Bless America: The Origins of Over 1,500 Patriotic Words and Phrases. New York City, NY: Skyhorse Publishing. ISBN 978-1-62087-597-1.  Hepburn, Katharine (1991). Me: Stories of My Life. New York City, NY: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-679-40051-6.  Higham, Charles (2004) [1975]. Kate: The Life of Katharine Hepburn. New York City, NY: W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-32598-9.  Horton, Ros and Sally Simmons (2007). Women Who Changed the World. London: Quercus Publishing Plc. ISBN 1-84724-026-7.  Kanin, Garson (1971). Tracy and Hepburn: An Intimate Memoir. New York City, NY: Viking. ISBN 0-670-72293-6.  Mann, William J. (2007). Kate: The Woman Who Was Hepburn. New York City, NY: Picador. ISBN 0-312-42740-9. 

Dickstein, Morris (2002). Bringing Up Baby
Bringing Up Baby
(1938), in The A List: The National Society of Film Critics' 100 Essential Films. Cambridge: Da Capo. ISBN 0-306-81096-4. 

Prideaux, James (1996). Knowing Hepburn and Other Curious Experiences. Boston, MA: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-19892-9.  Verlhac, Pierre-Henri (2009). Katharine Hepburn: A Life in Pictures. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books. ISBN 0-8118-6947-4. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutKatharine Hepburnat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Data from Wikidata

Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
on IMDb Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
at the Internet Broadway Database
Internet Broadway Database
Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
at the TCM Movie Database " Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
collected news and commentary". The Guardian. 

Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
in libraries ( WorldCat
WorldCat
catalog) Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
papers at the Margaret Herrick Library "One Life: Kate, A Centennial Celebration". Online exhibition from the National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
papers, circa 1854–1997 and undated, held by the Billy Rose Theatre Division, New York Public Library
New York Public Library
for the Performing Arts Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
– book

v t e

Katharine Hepburn

Performances Awards and nominations

The Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
Cultural Arts Center Kate Remembered Tea at Five (2002 play) The Aviator (2004 film) Spencer Tracy Houghton family Katharine Martha Houghton Hepburn
Katharine Martha Houghton Hepburn
(mother)

v t e

Connecticut
Connecticut
Women's Hall of Fame

1994

Mary Jobe Akeley Anni Albers Marian Anderson Beatrice Fox Auerbach Emma Fielding Baker Evelyn Beatrice Longman Catharine Beecher Jody Cohen Prudence Crandall Katharine Seymour Day Fidelia Fielding Charlotte Perkins Gilman Dorothy Goodwin Ella T. Grasso Estelle Griswold Mary Hall Alice Hamilton Katharine Hepburn Katharine Martha Houghton Hepburn Isabella Beecher Hooker Emeline Roberts Jones Barbara B. Kennelly Clare Boothe Luce Rachel Taylor Milton Alice Paul Ellen Ash Peters Ann Petry Sarah Porter Theodate Pope Riddle Edna Negron Rosario Margaret Rudkin Susan Saint James Lydia Sigourney Virginia Thrall Smith Smiths of Glastonbury Hilda Crosby Standish Harriet Beecher Stowe Gladys Tantaquidgeon Betty Tianti Hannah Bunce Watson Chase G. Woodhouse

1995

Helen M. Feeney Caroline Hewins Donna Lopiano María Colón Sánchez

1996

Edythe J. Gaines Madeleine L'Engle Susanne Langer

1997

Elizabeth Hart Jarvis Colt Annie Dillard Margo Rose Laura Wheeler Waring

1998

Dorrit Hoffleit Constance Baker Motley Rosa Ponselle Lillian Vernon Mabel Osgood Wright

1999

Jane Hamilton-Merritt Sophie Tucker Ann Uccello Florence Wald

2000

Emily Barringer Adrianne Baughns-Wallace Mary Goodrich Jenson

2001

Laura Nyro Catherine Roraback Maria Miller Stewart

2002

Florence Griswold Eileen Kraus Miriam Therese Winter

2003

Dotha Bushnell Hillyer Clarice McLean

2005

Martha Coolidge Helen Frankenthaler Rosalind Russell

2006

Helen Keller Mary Townsend Seymour Anne Stanback

2007

Dorothy Hamill Joan Joyce Glenna Collett-Vare

2008

Jewel Plummer Cobb Patricia Goldman-Rakic Barbara McClintock Joan A. Steitz

2009

Martha Minerva Franklin Carolyn M. Mazure Helen L. Smits

2010

Anne M. Mulcahy Martha Parsons Maggie Wilderotter

2011

Isabelle M. Kelley Denise Lynn Nappier Patricia Wald

2012

Anne Garrels Annie Leibovitz Faith Middleton

2013

Rosa DeLauro Barbara Franklin Linda Lorimer Augusta Lewis Troup

2014

Beatrix Farrand Jennifer Lawton Marian Salzman

2015

Margaret Bourke-White Carolyn Miles Indra Nooyi

2016

Rebecca Lobo Jane Pauley Joyce Yerwood

Awards for Katharine Hepburn

v t e

Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Actress

1928–1950

Janet Gaynor
Janet Gaynor
(1928) Mary Pickford
Mary Pickford
(1929) Norma Shearer
Norma Shearer
(1930) Marie Dressler
Marie Dressler
(1931) Helen Hayes
Helen Hayes
(1932) Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
(1933) Claudette Colbert
Claudette Colbert
(1934) Bette Davis
Bette Davis
(1935) Luise Rainer
Luise Rainer
(1936) Luise Rainer
Luise Rainer
(1937) Bette Davis
Bette Davis
(1938) Vivien Leigh
Vivien Leigh
(1939) Ginger Rogers
Ginger Rogers
(1940) Joan Fontaine
Joan Fontaine
(1941) Greer Garson
Greer Garson
(1942) Jennifer Jones
Jennifer Jones
(1943) Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
(1944) Joan Crawford
Joan Crawford
(1945) Olivia de Havilland
Olivia de Havilland
(1946) Loretta Young
Loretta Young
(1947) Jane Wyman
Jane Wyman
(1948) Olivia de Havilland
Olivia de Havilland
(1949) Judy Holliday
Judy Holliday
(1950)

1951–1975

Vivien Leigh
Vivien Leigh
(1951) Shirley Booth
Shirley Booth
(1952) Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
(1953) Grace Kelly
Grace Kelly
(1954) Anna Magnani
Anna Magnani
(1955) Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
(1956) Joanne Woodward
Joanne Woodward
(1957) Susan Hayward
Susan Hayward
(1958) Simone Signoret
Simone Signoret
(1959) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(1960) Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
(1961) Anne Bancroft
Anne Bancroft
(1962) Patricia Neal
Patricia Neal
(1963) Julie Andrews
Julie Andrews
(1964) Julie Christie
Julie Christie
(1965) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(1966) Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
(1967) Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
/ Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
(1968) Maggie Smith
Maggie Smith
(1969) Glenda Jackson
Glenda Jackson
(1970) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
(1971) Liza Minnelli
Liza Minnelli
(1972) Glenda Jackson
Glenda Jackson
(1973) Ellen Burstyn
Ellen Burstyn
(1974) Louise Fletcher
Louise Fletcher
(1975)

1976–2000

Faye Dunaway
Faye Dunaway
(1976) Diane Keaton
Diane Keaton
(1977) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
(1978) Sally Field
Sally Field
(1979) Sissy Spacek
Sissy Spacek
(1980) Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
(1981) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(1982) Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
(1983) Sally Field
Sally Field
(1984) Geraldine Page
Geraldine Page
(1985) Marlee Matlin
Marlee Matlin
(1986) Cher
Cher
(1987) Jodie Foster
Jodie Foster
(1988) Jessica Tandy
Jessica Tandy
(1989) Kathy Bates
Kathy Bates
(1990) Jodie Foster
Jodie Foster
(1991) Emma Thompson
Emma Thompson
(1992) Holly Hunter
Holly Hunter
(1993) Jessica Lange
Jessica Lange
(1994) Susan Sarandon
Susan Sarandon
(1995) Frances McDormand
Frances McDormand
(1996) Helen Hunt
Helen Hunt
(1997) Gwyneth Paltrow
Gwyneth Paltrow
(1998) Hilary Swank
Hilary Swank
(1999) Julia Roberts
Julia Roberts
(2000)

2001–present

Halle Berry
Halle Berry
(2001) Nicole Kidman
Nicole Kidman
(2002) Charlize Theron
Charlize Theron
(2003) Hilary Swank
Hilary Swank
(2004) Reese Witherspoon
Reese Witherspoon
(2005) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(2006) Marion Cotillard
Marion Cotillard
(2007) Kate Winslet
Kate Winslet
(2008) Sandra Bullock
Sandra Bullock
(2009) Natalie Portman
Natalie Portman
(2010) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(2011) Jennifer Lawrence
Jennifer Lawrence
(2012) Cate Blanchett
Cate Blanchett
(2013) Julianne Moore
Julianne Moore
(2014) Brie Larson
Brie Larson
(2015) Emma Stone
Emma Stone
(2016) Frances McDormand
Frances McDormand
(2017)

v t e

BAFTA
BAFTA
Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role

1952–1967

Vivien Leigh
Vivien Leigh
British, Simone Signoret
Simone Signoret
Foreign (1952) Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
British, Leslie Caron
Leslie Caron
Foreign (1953) Yvonne Mitchell
Yvonne Mitchell
British, Cornell Borchers
Cornell Borchers
Foreign (1954) Katie Johnson British, Betsy Blair
Betsy Blair
Foreign (1955) Virginia McKenna
Virginia McKenna
British, Anna Magnani
Anna Magnani
Foreign (1956) Heather Sears
Heather Sears
British, Simone Signoret
Simone Signoret
Foreign (1957) Irene Worth
Irene Worth
British, Simone Signoret
Simone Signoret
Foreign (1958) Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
British, Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
Foreign (1959) Rachel Roberts British, Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
Foreign (1960) Dora Bryan
Dora Bryan
British, Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
Foreign (1961) Leslie Caron
Leslie Caron
British, Anne Bancroft
Anne Bancroft
Foreign (1962) Rachel Roberts British, Patricia Neal
Patricia Neal
Foreign (1963) Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
British, Anne Bancroft
Anne Bancroft
Foreign (1964) Julie Christie
Julie Christie
British, Patricia Neal
Patricia Neal
Foreign (1965) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
British, Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau
Foreign (1966) Edith Evans
Edith Evans
British, Anouk Aimée
Anouk Aimée
Foreign (1967)

1968–present

Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
(1968) Maggie Smith
Maggie Smith
(1969) Katharine Ross
Katharine Ross
(1970) Glenda Jackson
Glenda Jackson
(1971) Liza Minnelli
Liza Minnelli
(1972) Stéphane Audran (1973) Joanne Woodward
Joanne Woodward
(1974) Ellen Burstyn
Ellen Burstyn
(1975) Louise Fletcher
Louise Fletcher
(1976) Diane Keaton
Diane Keaton
(1977) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
(1978) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
(1979) Judy Davis
Judy Davis
(1980) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(1981) Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
(1982) Julie Walters
Julie Walters
(1983) Maggie Smith
Maggie Smith
(1984) Peggy Ashcroft
Peggy Ashcroft
(1985) Maggie Smith
Maggie Smith
(1986) Anne Bancroft
Anne Bancroft
(1987) Maggie Smith
Maggie Smith
(1988) Pauline Collins
Pauline Collins
(1989) Jessica Tandy
Jessica Tandy
(1990) Jodie Foster
Jodie Foster
(1991) Emma Thompson
Emma Thompson
(1992) Holly Hunter
Holly Hunter
(1993) Susan Sarandon
Susan Sarandon
(1994) Emma Thompson
Emma Thompson
(1995) Brenda Blethyn
Brenda Blethyn
(1996) Judi Dench
Judi Dench
(1997) Cate Blanchett
Cate Blanchett
(1998) Annette Bening
Annette Bening
(1999) Julia Roberts
Julia Roberts
(2000) Judi Dench
Judi Dench
(2001) Nicole Kidman
Nicole Kidman
(2002) Scarlett Johansson
Scarlett Johansson
(2003) Imelda Staunton
Imelda Staunton
(2004) Reese Witherspoon
Reese Witherspoon
(2005) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(2006) Marion Cotillard
Marion Cotillard
(2007) Kate Winslet
Kate Winslet
(2008) Carey Mulligan
Carey Mulligan
(2009) Natalie Portman
Natalie Portman
(2010) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(2011) Emmanuelle Riva
Emmanuelle Riva
(2012) Cate Blanchett
Cate Blanchett
(2013) Julianne Moore
Julianne Moore
(2014) Brie Larson
Brie Larson
(2015) Emma Stone
Emma Stone
(2016) Frances McDormand
Frances McDormand
(2017)

v t e

Cannes Film Festival
Cannes Film Festival
Award for Best Actress

1946–1975

Michèle Morgan
Michèle Morgan
(1946) Isa Miranda
Isa Miranda
(1949) Bette Davis
Bette Davis
(1951) Lee Grant
Lee Grant
(1952) Shirley Booth
Shirley Booth
(1953) cast of Bolshaya Semya (1955) Susan Hayward
Susan Hayward
(1956) Giulietta Masina
Giulietta Masina
(1957) Bibi Andersson
Bibi Andersson
/ Eva Dahlbeck
Eva Dahlbeck
/ Barbro Hiort af Ornäs / Ingrid Thulin (1958) Simone Signoret
Simone Signoret
(1959) Melina Mercouri
Melina Mercouri
/ Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau
(1960) Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
(1961) Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
/ Rita Tushingham
Rita Tushingham
(1962) Marina Vlady
Marina Vlady
(1963) Anne Bancroft
Anne Bancroft
/ Barbara Barrie
Barbara Barrie
(1964) Samantha Eggar
Samantha Eggar
(1965) Vanessa Redgrave
Vanessa Redgrave
(1966) Pia Degermark
Pia Degermark
(1967) Vanessa Redgrave
Vanessa Redgrave
(1969) Ottavia Piccolo
Ottavia Piccolo
(1970) Kitty Winn (1971) Susannah York
Susannah York
(1972) Joanne Woodward
Joanne Woodward
(1973) Marie-José Nat
Marie-José Nat
(1974) Valerie Perrine
Valerie Perrine
(1975)

1976–2000

Dominique Sanda
Dominique Sanda
/ Mari Törőcsik
Mari Törőcsik
(1976) Shelley Duvall
Shelley Duvall
/ Monique Mercure (1977) Jill Clayburgh
Jill Clayburgh
/ Isabelle Huppert
Isabelle Huppert
(1978) Sally Field
Sally Field
(1979) Anouk Aimée
Anouk Aimée
(1980) Isabelle Adjani
Isabelle Adjani
(1981) Jadwiga Jankowska-Cieślak
Jadwiga Jankowska-Cieślak
(1982) Hanna Schygulla
Hanna Schygulla
(1983) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(1984) Norma Aleandro
Norma Aleandro
/ Cher
Cher
(1985) Barbara Sukowa
Barbara Sukowa
/ Fernanda Torres
Fernanda Torres
(1986) Barbara Hershey
Barbara Hershey
(1987) Barbara Hershey
Barbara Hershey
/ Jodhi May / Linda Mvusi
Linda Mvusi
(1988) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(1989) Krystyna Janda
Krystyna Janda
(1990) Irène Jacob
Irène Jacob
(1991) Pernilla August
Pernilla August
(1992) Holly Hunter
Holly Hunter
(1993) Virna Lisi
Virna Lisi
(1994) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(1995) Brenda Blethyn
Brenda Blethyn
(1996) Kathy Burke (1997) Élodie Bouchez
Élodie Bouchez
/ Natacha Régnier
Natacha Régnier
(1998) Séverine Caneele
Séverine Caneele
/ Émilie Dequenne
Émilie Dequenne
(1999) Björk
Björk
(2000)

2001–present

Isabelle Huppert
Isabelle Huppert
(2001) Kati Outinen (2002) Marie-Josée Croze
Marie-Josée Croze
(2003) Maggie Cheung
Maggie Cheung
(2004) Hana Laszlo
Hana Laszlo
(2005) Penélope Cruz
Penélope Cruz
/ Carmen Maura
Carmen Maura
/ Lola Dueñas
Lola Dueñas
/ Chus Lampreave
Chus Lampreave
/ Blanca Portillo / Yohana Cobo
Yohana Cobo
(2006) Jeon Do-yeon
Jeon Do-yeon
(2007) Sandra Corveloni (2008) Charlotte Gainsbourg
Charlotte Gainsbourg
(2009) Juliette Binoche
Juliette Binoche
(2010) Kirsten Dunst
Kirsten Dunst
(2011) Cristina Flutur / Cosmina Stratan (2012) Bérénice Bejo
Bérénice Bejo
(2013) Julianne Moore
Julianne Moore
(2014) Emmanuelle Bercot
Emmanuelle Bercot
/ Rooney Mara
Rooney Mara
(2015) Jaclyn Jose (2016) Diane Kruger
Diane Kruger
(2017)

v t e

David di Donatello
David di Donatello
Award for Best Foreign Actress

Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
(1957) Deborah Kerr
Deborah Kerr
(1959) Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
(1960) Brigitte Bardot
Brigitte Bardot
(1961) Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
(1962) Geraldine Page
Geraldine Page
(1963) Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
(1964) Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
(1965) Julie Andrews
Julie Andrews
(1966) Julie Christie
Julie Christie
/ Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(1967) Faye Dunaway
Faye Dunaway
/ Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
(1968) Mia Farrow
Mia Farrow
/ Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
(1969) Liza Minnelli
Liza Minnelli
(1970) Ali MacGraw
Ali MacGraw
(1971) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(1972) Liza Minnelli
Liza Minnelli
(1973) Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
/ Tatum O'Neal
Tatum O'Neal
(1974) Liv Ullmann
Liv Ullmann
(1975) Isabelle Adjani
Isabelle Adjani
/ Glenda Jackson
Glenda Jackson
(1976) Faye Dunaway
Faye Dunaway
/ Annie Girardot
Annie Girardot
(1977) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
/ Simone Signoret
Simone Signoret
(1978) Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
/ Liv Ullmann
Liv Ullmann
(1979) Isabelle Huppert
Isabelle Huppert
(1980) Catherine Deneuve
Catherine Deneuve
(1981) Diane Keaton
Diane Keaton
(1982) Julie Andrews
Julie Andrews
(1983) Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
(1984) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(1985) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(1986) Norma Aleandro
Norma Aleandro
(1987) Cher
Cher
(1988) Jodie Foster
Jodie Foster
(1989) Jessica Tandy
Jessica Tandy
(1990) Anne Parillaud
Anne Parillaud
(1991) Geena Davis
Geena Davis
/ Susan Sarandon
Susan Sarandon
(1992) Emmanuelle Béart
Emmanuelle Béart
/ Tilda Swinton
Tilda Swinton
/ Emma Thompson
Emma Thompson
(1993) Emma Thompson
Emma Thompson
(1994) Jodie Foster
Jodie Foster
(1995) Susan Sarandon
Susan Sarandon
(1996)

v t e

Primetime Emmy Award
Emmy Award
for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Limited Series or Movie

Judith Anderson
Judith Anderson
(1954) Mary Martin
Mary Martin
(1955) Claire Trevor
Claire Trevor
(1956) Polly Bergen
Polly Bergen
(1957) Julie Harris (1959) Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
(1960) Judith Anderson
Judith Anderson
(1961) Julie Harris (1962) Kim Stanley
Kim Stanley
(1963) Shelley Winters
Shelley Winters
(1964) Lynn Fontanne
Lynn Fontanne
(1965) Simone Signoret
Simone Signoret
(1966) Geraldine Page
Geraldine Page
(1967) Maureen Stapleton
Maureen Stapleton
(1968) Geraldine Page
Geraldine Page
(1969) Patty Duke
Patty Duke
(1970) Lee Grant
Lee Grant
(1971) Glenda Jackson
Glenda Jackson
(1972) Susan Hampshire
Susan Hampshire
/ Cloris Leachman
Cloris Leachman
(1973) Cicely Tyson
Cicely Tyson
/ Mildred Natwick
Mildred Natwick
(1974) Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
/ Jessica Walter
Jessica Walter
(1975) Susan Clark
Susan Clark
/ Rosemary Harris
Rosemary Harris
(1976) Sally Field
Sally Field
/ Patty Duke
Patty Duke
(1977) Joanne Woodward
Joanne Woodward
/ Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(1978) Bette Davis
Bette Davis
(1979) Patty Duke
Patty Duke
(1980) Vanessa Redgrave
Vanessa Redgrave
(1981) Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
(1982) Barbara Stanwyck
Barbara Stanwyck
(1983) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
(1984) Joanne Woodward
Joanne Woodward
(1985) Marlo Thomas
Marlo Thomas
(1986) Gena Rowlands
Gena Rowlands
(1987) Jessica Tandy
Jessica Tandy
(1988) Holly Hunter
Holly Hunter
(1989) Barbara Hershey
Barbara Hershey
(1990) Lynn Whitfield
Lynn Whitfield
(1991) Gena Rowlands
Gena Rowlands
(1992) Holly Hunter
Holly Hunter
(1993) Kirstie Alley
Kirstie Alley
(1994) Glenn Close
Glenn Close
(1995) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(1996) Alfre Woodard
Alfre Woodard
(1997) Ellen Barkin
Ellen Barkin
(1998) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(1999) Halle Berry
Halle Berry
(2000) Judy Davis
Judy Davis
(2001) Laura Linney
Laura Linney
(2002) Maggie Smith
Maggie Smith
(2003) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(2004) S. Epatha Merkerson
S. Epatha Merkerson
(2005) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(2006) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(2007) Laura Linney
Laura Linney
(2008) Jessica Lange
Jessica Lange
(2009) Claire Danes
Claire Danes
(2010) Kate Winslet
Kate Winslet
(2011) Julianne Moore
Julianne Moore
(2012) Laura Linney
Laura Linney
(2013) Jessica Lange
Jessica Lange
(2014) Frances McDormand
Frances McDormand
(2015) Sarah Paulson
Sarah Paulson
(2016) Nicole Kidman
Nicole Kidman
(2017)

v t e

Hasty Pudding Woman of the Year

1951–1975

Gertrude Lawrence
Gertrude Lawrence
(1951) Barbara Bel Geddes
Barbara Bel Geddes
(1952) Mamie Eisenhower
Mamie Eisenhower
(1953) Shirley Booth
Shirley Booth
(1954) Debbie Reynolds
Debbie Reynolds
(1955) Peggy Ann Garner
Peggy Ann Garner
(1956) Carroll Baker
Carroll Baker
(1957) Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
(1958) Joanne Woodward
Joanne Woodward
(1959) Carol Lawrence
Carol Lawrence
(1960) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
(1961) Piper Laurie
Piper Laurie
(1962) Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
(1963) Rosalind Russell
Rosalind Russell
(1964) Lee Remick
Lee Remick
(1965) Ethel Merman
Ethel Merman
(1966) Lauren Bacall
Lauren Bacall
(1967) Angela Lansbury
Angela Lansbury
(1968) Carol Burnett
Carol Burnett
(1969) Dionne Warwick
Dionne Warwick
(1970) Carol Channing
Carol Channing
(1971) Ruby Keeler
Ruby Keeler
(1972) Liza Minnelli
Liza Minnelli
(1973) Faye Dunaway
Faye Dunaway
(1974) Valerie Harper
Valerie Harper
(1975)

1976–2000

Bette Midler
Bette Midler
(1976) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(1977) Beverly Sills
Beverly Sills
(1978) Candice Bergen
Candice Bergen
(1979) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(1980) Mary Tyler Moore
Mary Tyler Moore
(1981) Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
(1982) Julie Andrews
Julie Andrews
(1983) Joan Rivers
Joan Rivers
(1984) Cher
Cher
(1985) Sally Field
Sally Field
(1986) Bernadette Peters
Bernadette Peters
(1987) Lucille Ball
Lucille Ball
(1988) Kathleen Turner
Kathleen Turner
(1989) Glenn Close
Glenn Close
(1990) Diane Keaton
Diane Keaton
(1991) Jodie Foster
Jodie Foster
(1992) Whoopi Goldberg
Whoopi Goldberg
(1993) Meg Ryan
Meg Ryan
(1994) Michelle Pfeiffer
Michelle Pfeiffer
(1995) Susan Sarandon
Susan Sarandon
(1996) Julia Roberts
Julia Roberts
(1997) Sigourney Weaver
Sigourney Weaver
(1998) Goldie Hawn
Goldie Hawn
(1999) Jamie Lee Curtis
Jamie Lee Curtis
(2000)

2001–present

Drew Barrymore
Drew Barrymore
(2001) Sarah Jessica Parker
Sarah Jessica Parker
(2002) Anjelica Huston
Anjelica Huston
(2003) Sandra Bullock
Sandra Bullock
(2004) Catherine Zeta-Jones
Catherine Zeta-Jones
(2005) Halle Berry
Halle Berry
(2006) Scarlett Johansson
Scarlett Johansson
(2007) Charlize Theron
Charlize Theron
(2008) Renée Zellweger
Renée Zellweger
(2009) Anne Hathaway
Anne Hathaway
(2010) Julianne Moore
Julianne Moore
(2011) Claire Danes
Claire Danes
(2012) Marion Cotillard
Marion Cotillard
(2013) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(2014) Amy Poehler
Amy Poehler
(2015) Kerry Washington
Kerry Washington
(2016) Octavia Spencer
Octavia Spencer
(2017) Mila Kunis
Mila Kunis
(2018)

v t e

Kennedy Center Honorees (1990s)

1990

Dizzy Gillespie Katharine Hepburn Risë Stevens Jule Styne Billy Wilder

1991

Roy Acuff Betty Comden
Betty Comden
and Adolph Green Fayard and Harold Nicholas Gregory Peck Robert Shaw

1992

Lionel Hampton Paul Newman
Paul Newman
and Joanne Woodward Ginger Rogers Mstislav Rostropovich Paul Taylor

1993

Johnny Carson Arthur Mitchell Sir Georg Solti Stephen Sondheim Marion Williams

1994

Kirk Douglas Aretha Franklin Morton Gould Harold Prince Pete Seeger

1995

Jacques d'Amboise Marilyn Horne B.B. King Sidney Poitier Neil Simon

1996

Edward Albee Benny Carter Johnny Cash Jack Lemmon Maria Tallchief

1997

Lauren Bacall Bob Dylan Charlton Heston Jessye Norman Edward Villella

1998

Bill Cosby Fred Ebb
Fred Ebb
and John Kander Willie Nelson André Previn Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
Black

1999

Victor Borge Sean Connery Judith Jamison Jason Robards Stevie Wonder

Complete list 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s

v t e

New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress

Greta Garbo
Greta Garbo
(1935) Luise Rainer
Luise Rainer
(1936) Greta Garbo
Greta Garbo
(1937) Margaret Sullavan
Margaret Sullavan
(1938) Vivien Leigh
Vivien Leigh
(1939) Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
(1940) Joan Fontaine
Joan Fontaine
(1941) Agnes Moorehead
Agnes Moorehead
(1942) Ida Lupino
Ida Lupino
(1943) Tallulah Bankhead
Tallulah Bankhead
(1944) Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
(1945) Celia Johnson
Celia Johnson
(1946) Deborah Kerr
Deborah Kerr
(1947) Olivia de Havilland
Olivia de Havilland
(1948) Olivia de Havilland
Olivia de Havilland
(1949) Bette Davis
Bette Davis
(1950) Vivien Leigh
Vivien Leigh
(1951) Shirley Booth
Shirley Booth
(1952) Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
(1953) Grace Kelly
Grace Kelly
(1954) Anna Magnani
Anna Magnani
(1955) Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
(1956) Deborah Kerr
Deborah Kerr
(1957) Susan Hayward
Susan Hayward
(1958) Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
(1959) Deborah Kerr
Deborah Kerr
(1960) Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
(1961) No Award (1962) Patricia Neal
Patricia Neal
(1963) Kim Stanley
Kim Stanley
(1964) Julie Christie
Julie Christie
(1965) Elizabeth Taylor/ Lynn Redgrave
Lynn Redgrave
(1966) Edith Evans
Edith Evans
(1967) Joanne Woodward
Joanne Woodward
(1968) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
(1969) Glenda Jackson
Glenda Jackson
(1970) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
(1971) Liv Ullmann
Liv Ullmann
(1972) Joanne Woodward
Joanne Woodward
(1973) Liv Ullmann
Liv Ullmann
(1974) Isabelle Adjani
Isabelle Adjani
(1975) Liv Ullmann
Liv Ullmann
(1976) Diane Keaton
Diane Keaton
(1977) Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
(1978) Sally Field
Sally Field
(1979) Sissy Spacek
Sissy Spacek
(1980) Glenda Jackson
Glenda Jackson
(1981) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(1982) Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
(1983) Peggy Ashcroft
Peggy Ashcroft
(1984) Norma Aleandro
Norma Aleandro
(1985) Sissy Spacek
Sissy Spacek
(1986) Holly Hunter
Holly Hunter
(1987) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(1988) Michelle Pfeiffer
Michelle Pfeiffer
(1989) Joanne Woodward
Joanne Woodward
(1990) Jodie Foster
Jodie Foster
(1991) Emma Thompson
Emma Thompson
(1992) Holly Hunter
Holly Hunter
(1993) Linda Fiorentino (1994) Jennifer Jason Leigh
Jennifer Jason Leigh
(1995) Emily Watson
Emily Watson
(1996) Julie Christie
Julie Christie
(1997) Cameron Diaz
Cameron Diaz
(1998) Hilary Swank
Hilary Swank
(1999) Laura Linney
Laura Linney
(2000) Sissy Spacek
Sissy Spacek
(2001) Diane Lane
Diane Lane
(2002) Hope Davis
Hope Davis
(2003) Imelda Staunton
Imelda Staunton
(2004) Reese Witherspoon
Reese Witherspoon
(2005) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(2006) Julie Christie
Julie Christie
(2007) Sally Hawkins
Sally Hawkins
(2008) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(2009) Annette Bening
Annette Bening
(2010) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(2011) Rachel Weisz
Rachel Weisz
(2012) Cate Blanchett
Cate Blanchett
(2013) Marion Cotillard
Marion Cotillard
(2014) Saoirse Ronan
Saoirse Ronan
(2015) Isabelle Huppert
Isabelle Huppert
(2016) Saoirse Ronan
Saoirse Ronan
(2017)

v t e

People's Choice Award for Favorite Movie Actress

Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
(1975) Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
(1976) Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
(1977) Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
(1978) Olivia Newton-John
Olivia Newton-John
(1979) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
(1980) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
/ Goldie Hawn
Goldie Hawn
(1981) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
/ Sally Field
Sally Field
(1982) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
/ Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
(1983) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(1984) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(1985) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(1986) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(1987) Glenn Close
Glenn Close
(1988) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(1990) Julia Roberts
Julia Roberts
(1991) Whoopi Goldberg
Whoopi Goldberg
(1993) Sandra Bullock
Sandra Bullock
(1996) Sandra Bullock
Sandra Bullock
(1997) Julia Roberts
Julia Roberts
(1998) Sandra Bullock
Sandra Bullock
(1999) Julia Roberts
Julia Roberts
(2000) Julia Roberts
Julia Roberts
(2001) Julia Roberts
Julia Roberts
(2002) Julia Roberts
Julia Roberts
(2003) Julia Roberts
Julia Roberts
(2004) Julia Roberts
Julia Roberts
(2005) Reese Witherspoon
Reese Witherspoon
(2006) Jennifer Aniston
Jennifer Aniston
(2007) Reese Witherspoon
Reese Witherspoon
(2008) Reese Witherspoon
Reese Witherspoon
(2009) Sandra Bullock
Sandra Bullock
(2010) Kristen Stewart
Kristen Stewart
(2011) Emma Stone
Emma Stone
(2012) Jennifer Lawrence
Jennifer Lawrence
(2013) Sandra Bullock
Sandra Bullock
(2014) Jennifer Lawrence
Jennifer Lawrence
(2015) Sandra Bullock
Sandra Bullock
(2016) Jennifer Lawrence
Jennifer Lawrence
(2017)

v t e

Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award

1962: Eddie Cantor 1963: Stan Laurel 1965: Bob Hope 1966: Barbara Stanwyck 1967: William Gargan 1968: James Stewart 1969: Edward G. Robinson 1970: Gregory Peck 1971: Charlton Heston 1972: Frank Sinatra 1973: Martha Raye 1974: Walter Pidgeon 1975: Rosalind Russell 1976: Pearl Bailey 1977: James Cagney 1978: Edgar Bergen 1979: Katharine Hepburn 1980: Leon Ames 1982: Danny Kaye 1983: Ralph Bellamy 1984: Iggie Wolfington 1985: Paul Newman
Paul Newman
and Joanne Woodward 1986: Nanette Fabray 1987: Red Skelton 1988: Gene Kelly 1989: Jack Lemmon 1990: Brock Peters 1991: Burt Lancaster 1992: Audrey Hepburn 1993: Ricardo Montalbán 1994: George Burns 1995: Robert Redford 1996: Angela Lansbury 1997: Elizabeth Taylor 1998: Kirk Douglas 1999: Sidney Poitier 2000: Ossie Davis
Ossie Davis
and Ruby Dee 2001: Ed Asner 2002: Clint Eastwood 2003: Karl Malden 2004: James Garner 2005: Shirley Temple 2006: Julie Andrews 2007: Charles Durning 2008: James Earl Jones 2009: Betty White 2010: Ernest Borgnine 2011: Mary Tyler Moore 2012: Dick Van Dyke 2013: Rita Moreno 2014: Debbie Reynolds 2015: Carol Burnett 2016: Lily Tomlin 2017: Morgan Freeman

v t e

Volpi Cup
Volpi Cup
for Best Actress

1934–1968

Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
(1934) Paula Wessely
Paula Wessely
(1935) Annabella (1936) Bette Davis
Bette Davis
(1937) Norma Shearer
Norma Shearer
(1938) Luise Ullrich
Luise Ullrich
(1941) Kristina Söderbaum
Kristina Söderbaum
(1942) Anna Magnani
Anna Magnani
(1947) Jean Simmons
Jean Simmons
(1948) Olivia de Havilland
Olivia de Havilland
(1949) Eleanor Parker
Eleanor Parker
(1950) Vivien Leigh
Vivien Leigh
(1951) Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
(1952) Lilli Palmer
Lilli Palmer
(1953) Maria Schell
Maria Schell
(1956) Dzidra Ritenberga (1957) Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
(1958) Madeleine Robinson (1959) Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
(1960) Suzanne Flon
Suzanne Flon
(1961) Emmanuelle Riva
Emmanuelle Riva
(1962) Delphine Seyrig
Delphine Seyrig
(1963) Harriet Andersson
Harriet Andersson
(1964) Annie Girardot
Annie Girardot
(1965) Natalya Arinbasarova
Natalya Arinbasarova
(1966) Shirley Knight
Shirley Knight
(1967) Laura Betti
Laura Betti
(1968)

1983–present

Darling Légitimus
Darling Légitimus
(1983) Pascale Ogier
Pascale Ogier
(1984) Valeria Golino
Valeria Golino
(1986) Kang Soo-yeon (1987) Isabelle Huppert/ Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
(1988) Peggy Ashcroft/ Geraldine James (1989) Gloria Münchmeyer
Gloria Münchmeyer
(1990) Tilda Swinton
Tilda Swinton
(1991) Gong Li
Gong Li
(1992) Juliette Binoche/ Anna Bonaiuto
Anna Bonaiuto
(1993) Maria de Medeiros/ Vanessa Redgrave
Vanessa Redgrave
(1994) Sandrine Bonnaire/Isabelle Huppert/ Isabella Ferrari
Isabella Ferrari
(1995) Victoire Thivisol (1996) Robin Tunney
Robin Tunney
(1997) Catherine Deneuve
Catherine Deneuve
(1998) Nathalie Baye
Nathalie Baye
(1999) Rose Byrne
Rose Byrne
(2000) Sandra Ceccarelli (2001) Julianne Moore
Julianne Moore
(2002) Katja Riemann
Katja Riemann
(2003) Imelda Staunton
Imelda Staunton
(2004) Giovanna Mezzogiorno
Giovanna Mezzogiorno
(2005) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(2006) Cate Blanchett
Cate Blanchett
(2007) Dominique Blanc
Dominique Blanc
(2008) Kseniya Rappoport
Kseniya Rappoport
(2009) Ariane Labed
Ariane Labed
(2010) Deanie Ip (2011) Hadas Yaron
Hadas Yaron
(2012) Elena Cotta
Elena Cotta
(2013) Alba Rohrwacher
Alba Rohrwacher
(2014) Valeria Golino
Valeria Golino
(2015) Emma Stone
Emma Stone
(2016) Charlotte Rampling
Charlotte Rampling
(2017)

Authority control

WorldCat
WorldCat
Identities VIAF: 22168112 LCCN: n50038123 ISNI: 0000 0001 2277 3571 GND: 118549391 SELIBR: 260705 SUDOC: 02742961X BNF: cb12087309q (data) ULAN: 500280079 MusicBrainz: 106d01a9-9704-4d3f-8138-21d94fedfa6e NLA: 36528413 NDL: 00468249 NKC: jn20000700696 BNE: XX820229 RKD: 313

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