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The Kannada
Kannada
people known as the Kannadigas and Kannadigaru[2] are the people who natively speak Kannada.[3] Kannadigas are mainly found in the state of Karnataka
Karnataka
in India. Significant Kannada
Kannada
minorities are found in the Indian states of Maharashtra,[4] Tamil Nadu,[5] Andhra Pradesh, Goa[6][7] and in other Indian states.[4] The English plural is Kannadigas. After a millennium of disintegration from Old Kannada into various languages,[8][9] sister languages[10] and Kannada dialects, modern Kannada
Kannada
stands among 30 most widely spoken languages of the world as of 2001.[11]

Contents

1 Early settlements

1.1 Immigrants from Karnataka

2 Kannada
Kannada
art

2.1 Architecture 2.2 Music 2.3 Theater 2.4 Dance forms 2.5 Kalaa Kshetras (the abode of art) 2.6 Martial arts 2.7 Festivals

3 Cuisine 4 Costumes 5 Literature 6 Kannada
Kannada
journalism 7 Contemporary popular Kannadigas

7.1 Spiritual leaders 7.2 Gandhian philosophers 7.3 Modern science and technology 7.4 Environmentalists 7.5 Current cricketers

8 Retired cricketers 9 The Kannadiga culture

9.1 Purana 9.2 Punya Koti 9.3 Vishwa Maanava 9.4 Political sphere 9.5 Horanadu Kannadiga

10 Kannada
Kannada
Kannadiga Karnataka

10.1 First and Second World Wars 10.2 The post 1947 Scene

11 Kannada
Kannada
ethnic flag 12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

Early settlements[edit] Main article: History of Karnataka

Sala fighting the lion, the royal emblem of Hoysala
Hoysala
Empire

Settlement in Karnataka
Karnataka
is found to be existent at least from the 2nd millennium BC as explored in Brahmagiri archaeological site near Chitradurga
Chitradurga
district, central Karnataka. Chandravalli
Chandravalli
exploration has revealed interaction of Roman and Chinese travelers around the 2nd and 3rd century BC.[12] Talagunda[13] and Halmidi
Halmidi
stand as the oldest excavated inscriptions as available today. The language was once popular from Kaveri to Godavari as mentioned in the Kannada
Kannada
classic Kavirajamarga
Kavirajamarga
of 850 CE.[14] Archaeological evidences show Kannada
Kannada
inscriptions found as far north as Madhya Pradesh (Inscription of Krishna III) and Bihar.[15] The great Karnataka
Karnataka
Expansion provides insights to kingdoms of northern India whose originators were from Kannada
Kannada
country.[16] The major empires and kingdoms, their regal capital and most distinguished kings were:

Western Ganga Dynasty
Western Ganga Dynasty
- Talakadu - Durvinita Kadamba Dynasty
Kadamba Dynasty
- Banavasi
Banavasi
- Mayurasharma
Mayurasharma
(Mayuravarma) Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
- Badami
Badami
- Pulakeshin II Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
- Manyakheta
Manyakheta
- Amoghavarsha
Amoghavarsha
I Hoysala
Hoysala
- Belur
Belur
and Halebidu
Halebidu
- Veera Ballala II Kalyani Chalukya
Chalukya
- Basavakalyana - Vikramaditya VI Southern Kalachuri - Kalyani - Bijjala II Vijayanagara Empire
Vijayanagara Empire
- Hampi
Hampi
- Hakka, Bukka Keladi Nayaka
Keladi Nayaka
- Ikkeri
Ikkeri
- Shivappa Nayaka Haleri Kingdom
Haleri Kingdom
- Kodagu
Kodagu
- Mudduraja Kingdom of Mysore
Kingdom of Mysore
- Mysooru
Mysooru
- Chikka Devaraja
Chikka Devaraja
Wodeyar

Gold coins issued by Kadamba King Toyimadeva, 1048 - 1075 A.D

Minor dynasties that have played an important role in the development of Kannada
Kannada
language, culture and polity were Chutus of Banavasi (feudatory to Satavahana
Satavahana
Empire),[17][18] Tuluva Dynasty
Tuluva Dynasty
of Canara,[19] Rattas of Saundatti (Belgaum),[19] Guttas of Guttal (Dharwad region),[20] Banas of Kolar,[21] Nolambas of Nolambavadi,[22][23] Vaidumbas,[24][25] Chengalvas,[19] Kongalvas,[19] Sendrakas of Nagarkhanda ( Banavasi
Banavasi
province), Yalahanka Nadaprabhu kempegowda,[26] Sindas of Yelburga (Bijapur-Gulbarga),[20] Kadamba of Hangal.[27] In addition, other well known kingdoms that patronized Kannadiga poets and Kannada language
Kannada language
were:

Eastern Chalukyas[19] Kakatiya dynasty[19] Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri[28] Shilahara[19] Kadambas of Goa[29]

Immigrants from Karnataka[edit] In addition to those empires that ruled from the Karnataka
Karnataka
region, based on inscriptions and literary evidence historians have discussed the possibility that kingdoms of Kannada
Kannada
origin were established in other parts of India
India
as well.

The Karnata Dynasty (founded by Nanyadeva I) of Mithila and Nepal,[15][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37] However contrary evidence also suggests that this dynasty may have been of Parmar Rajput origin.[38][39][40][41][42] The Chalukyas of Gujarat,[43][44] The Chalukyas of Vengi (Eastern Chalukya),[43][45][46] The Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri,[47][48][49][50] The Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
family ruling from Berar (modern Amravati district, Maharashtra),[51] The Rashtrakutas branch of Gujarat (Lata branch),[52][53] The Sena dynasty
Sena dynasty
of Bengal[54][55][56] The Eastern Gangas of Orissa (descendants of the Western Ganga Dynasty)

Kannada
Kannada
art[edit] Main articles: Folk arts of Karnataka
Karnataka
and Art and culture of Karnataka Architecture[edit] Main article: Temples of Karnataka

Hampi, capital of Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Empire

Architecture
Architecture
and Sculpture
Sculpture
has been the epitome of art in Karnataka. Be it the musical pillars of Hampi, which is listed as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site,[57] the ekashila (monolithic) statue of Gommateshvara Bahubali
Bahubali
that was voted by Indians as the first of Seven Wonders of India,[58] the Yelu Sutthina Kote of Chitradurga
Chitradurga
(The Fort of Seven Laps) cutting across hill or the wholesomeness of carvings of temples which bared down all desires to be left out of it and formless (above all forms) all encompassing — the inner garbhagrihas.[citation needed] The temples of Karnataka
Karnataka
had in them many shaili or varieties to credit. A majority of the temples were built using the locally available stones.

57-foot monolithic statue of Gommateshvara Bahubali
Bahubali
dated 978–993 AD.

Traditional folk house with courtyard and tulasi katte.

Some of the places of interest are:

Ellora Caves
Ellora Caves
houses the Kailasanatha temple of Ellooru was built by the Rashtrakutas Dynasty and is declared as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO[57] Elephanta Caves
Elephanta Caves
island was a summer resort of Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
kings and is declared as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO.[57] Konark Sun Temple
Konark Sun Temple
also called Surya Devalaya and Black Pagoda built in coastline of Odisha, India
India
by Narasimhadeva I of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty is declared as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO.[57] Ajanta Caves
Ajanta Caves
have sculptures of Rashrakutas and Badami
Badami
Chalukyas and is declared as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO.[57] Hampi
Hampi
houses the ruins of the Vijayanagara Empire
Vijayanagara Empire
and is declared as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO[57] Pattadakal
Pattadakal
is a vesara style of Hindu
Hindu
temple architecture, a UNESCO World Heritage Site[59] Badami
Badami
cave temples, a regal capital of the Badami
Badami
Chalukyas, now famous for its sandstone cave temples[60] Aihole
Aihole
is known for its many temples[61] and inscriptions of Chalukya Pulakeshin II
Pulakeshin II
in the Old Kannada
Kannada
script[62] Basavakalyan, a major centre of social and religious movement in the 12th century by Basava, consists of temples in Chalukyan architecture[63] Itagi
Itagi
is home to the Shiva
Shiva
temple built by Vikramāditya. Considered to be the best specimen of Kalyani Chalukyan art, it has as many as 68 decorated pillars, an ornate tower and a doorway of great workmanship[64] Lakkundi Belur Halebeedu Shravanabelagola Saumyakeshava Temple, Nagamangala Lakshminarayana Temple, Hosaholalu Mallikarjuna Temple, Basaralu Ikkeri Keladi Banavasi

Pioneer sculptors include:

Amarashilpi Jakanachari Ruvari Malithamma Chavundaraya Siddalinga Swami K. Venkatappa

Modern day contemporaries include visionary architects such as:

Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya, father of modern Indian engineering, Kannambadi Katte or KRS dam Kengal Hanumanthaiah, Vidhana Soudha

Music[edit] Main articles: Musicians of Mysore
Mysore
kingdom, Dasa sahitya, Haridasa, and Vachana
Vachana
Sahitya Dasa Sahitya is the literature of Bhakti movement
Bhakti movement
composed by devotees in honor of Lord Vishnu
Vishnu
or one of his avatars. Dasa is literally "servant" in Kannada
Kannada
and sahitya is literature. Haridasas ("servants of God") were preachers of Bhakti
Bhakti
to Vishnu. The bhakti literature of these Haridasas is collectively referred to as Dasa Sahitya. It is composed in the Kannada
Kannada
language.[65] The Haridasas richly contributed to the heritage of Karntataka music.[65][66] They made an indelible impression on the religious and cultural life of Karnataka
Karnataka
by spreading the didactic teachings in a musical form to the hearts of the common folk.[67] Like other doyens of Indian classical music, these scholars offered prayer to Vishnu through music, called naadopasana. The Lord is described as Samagana priya, and bhakti through music is the most preferred path to 'reach' Him.[68] The Haridasa
Haridasa
compositions are popularly known as Devaranamas. Compositions like Krishna Nee Begane Baaro, Venkatachala Nilayam, Jagadoddharana, Tamboori Meetidava are some of the many examples of their scholarly work.

Veena
Veena
is the most commonly used instrument in Carnatic music.

Some noted Haridasas or composers of Dasa Sahitya are:

Purandara Dasa, widely regarded as Karnataka
Karnataka
Sangeeta Pitamaha or "Father of Carnatic music"[69] Kanaka Dasa, a younger contemporary of Purandara Dasa Sripadaraja Vyasatirtha Vadirajatirtha Jagannatha Dasa Jayatirtha Gopala Dasa Vijaya Dasa Naraharitirtha

One of the oldest forms of music in the region is Karnataka
Karnataka
Shastreeya Sangeetha which has evolved over ages. Both Hindustani and Karnataka variations are respected and nurtured by Kannadigas. Bhavageete and Sugama Sangeetha are some innovations. Other forms of music include Gamaka,[70] Joogera Pada and Lavani.[71] Yakshagana
Yakshagana
is considered a unique and indigenous form of both music and dance of Karnataka.[72] Contemporary musical thespians are:

Veene Sheshanna
Veene Sheshanna
(1852-1926) notable Veena
Veena
player and composer.

Pandit Bhimsen Joshi, recipient of the Bharat Ratna
Bharat Ratna
— India's highest civilian honor[73] Gangubai Hangal, awarded both Padma Bhushan
Padma Bhushan
and Padma Vibhushan
Padma Vibhushan
in 1971 and 2002 respectively[74] C. Aswath, recipient of Karnataka
Karnataka
Rajyotsava Prashasti for his immense contribution to Bhavageete[75] Veene Doraiswamy Iyengar Puttaraj Gawai Honnappa Bhagavathar P. Kalinga Rao Balappa Hukkeri Mallikarjuna Mansur Basavaraja Rajguru Veene Sheshanna T. Chowdiah Sawai Gandharva Kumar Gandharva Mysore
Mysore
Ananthaswamy Mysore
Mysore
Manjunath

Theater[edit]

Jaanapada
Jaanapada
artists at government-sponsored Jaanapadha Jaatre

Rangabhoomi or the theater culture is a tradition with Kannadigas. While a lot of gadhya (literature) is written in praise of the heroic characters of the epics and puranas, there are major works depicting the kings and their rule. These are called Naataka (plays having wide-ranging stages for performance like Rangamancha staged in either theaters or on streets) and Bayalata (ಬಯಲಾಟ).[76] As its etymology indicates, bayalu means open-air field and ata means theater. In southern Karnataka, the eastern and western varieties of Yakshagana
Yakshagana
are termed Bayalata, whereas in the north several other distinct genres are included under the name.[77] Harikathe which covers an entire night is another form where one (or more) person tells a story in an outstanding manner accompanied by music at background.[78] It is a common feature to narrate battles, stories, devotions or vratha in front of temples on auspicious days like Dasara and Maha Shivaratri.[79] Harikathe is a composite art form composed of story telling, poetry, music, drama, dance, and philosophy. Today, late-night Harikathe sessions are organized overseas where Kannadiga population is considerable.[80] Vasanta Habba (ವಸಂತ ಹಬ್ಬ), which means "spring festival" in Kannada
Kannada
is a cultural festival organized by the Nrityagram
Nrityagram
foundation in Bengaluru. It is a very popular event and is considered the classical Woodstock
Woodstock
of India.[81] First held in 1990, it now attracts the best musicians, dancers and cultural artists from across India.[82] Similarly,'Bengaluru Habba (ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು ಹಬ್ಬ is a congregation of art performances at places in the city which is successfully celebrated every year. It aims to provide aesthetic entertainment to a wide cultural, social and demographic cross-section of the city's people by partnering with corporates and other stakeholders since 2003.[83] In 2006, the Government of Karnataka
Karnataka
tried to bring the folklore and art into the city of Bengaluru by initiating Jaanapada
Jaanapada
Jaatre (ಜಾನಪದ ಜಾತ್ರೆ) which was hugely successful and received well by art lovers. It is usually held on select weekends in Lalbagh
Lalbagh
and other parts of the city.[84] Some famous theatrical, cinematic and television personalities like T P Kailasam, Gubbi Veeranna, C. Honappa Bhagavathar, G V Iyer, Dr. Rajkumar, V. Shantaram, Puttanna Kanagal, Kalpana, B. S. Ranga, B V Karanth, Girish Kasaravalli, Shankar Nag, T.S. Nagabharana, T N Seetharam have contributed for its richness. Dance forms[edit] Main article: Dances of Karnataka The mystic and spirited reliving of legends and epics are the major depictions in dance forms. With the theater of battle scenes of heroism, loyalty and treachery, colour and pageantry are the main subjects. More are adapted with the course of nature and seasons adding colour to the harvesting seasons. Tribal forms of dance can be found limited in the regions inhabited by Soligas, of which Pinasee is a traditional dance form.[85] The people of Kodagu
Kodagu
in the Western Ghats also have their own dance forms. Some of the folk dances and classical dance forms in Karnataka include:

Dollu Kunitha, a popular drum dance accompanied by singing Kamsale, danced to the tune of a rhythm instrument of the same name made of brass Veeragase, a vigorous dance based on Hindu
Hindu
mythology which is demonstrated at the Mysore Dasara
Mysore Dasara
procession Yakshagana
Yakshagana
is a musical theater popular in coastal and Malenadu regions of Karnataka Gaarudi Gombe, where dancers adorn themselves with giant doll-suits made of bamboo sticks Moodalapaya Bayalata featuring stories of Puranas
Puranas
rendered as dance

Kalaa Kshetras (the abode of art)[edit]

Mysore
Mysore
religious icon painting depicting Goddess Saraswathi

Karnataka
Karnataka
Chitrakala Parishat Chowdiah
Chowdiah
Memorial Hall Gaayana Samaja Ranga Shankara Nrithya Grama Ravindra Kalakshetra Gubbi Veeranna Rangamandira Janapada Loka Rangayana Ninasam Prabhat Kalavidaru

Martial arts[edit] The martial arts more prevalent in parts of North Karnataka
Karnataka
with Garadi Mane present in every village and a head to train the youngsters into fit individuals. Kusthi, Malla Yuddha, Kathi Varase (which can be seen depicted in Veeragase
Veeragase
and similar to sword fighting), Malla Kambha (gymnastics on a pole structure with/without rope) are some of the prominent arts practised. The Mysore
Mysore
Odeyars arrange kaalaga or fights like Vajra Mushti during Dasara festival which is made less frightening these days as they are publicly staged. Rock lifting, Bull race, Kusthi, and Kabaddi are popular sports.[86] Yogasana, Praanayama and health-related camps are very popular throughout the state and some of the best Yoga
Yoga
practitioners can be found here. Art of Living
Art of Living
is one such organization immensely popular all over the world.

Malladihalli Sri Raghavendra Swami K. Pattabhi Jois

Festivals[edit] Kannadigas celebrate festivals throughout the year presenting the diverse culture and belief of the ethnicity. Festivals have varied reasons to celebrate.

Agriculture: Upon onset of monsoon, sowing or harvest there are festivals celebrated like Chaandramana Ugaadi (marking of new year), Makara Sankranthi
Makara Sankranthi
and Huttari. Monsoon: Dasara/Navarathri, Ayudha Puja Puraana: Maha Shivarathri, Varamahalakshmi Vrata, Bheemana Amavasye, Swarna Gowri Vratha, Ganesha Chaturthi, Naagara Panchami, Ratha Sapthami, Krishna Janmashtami, Rama Navami, Vijaya Dashami, Vaikunta Ekadashi, Naraka Chaturdashi, Bali Padyami
Bali Padyami
and others.

In the countryside, a dana jaathre (livestock fair) is held which is a conglomeration of people where a local demigod is worshiped and a ratha or theru (chariots) are moved by the bhakthas and daasoha (free food) is arranged for the visitors. North Karnataka
Karnataka
has a unique blend of Hindu
Hindu
and Muslim
Muslim
brotherhood with people celebrating festivals in unison and exchanging goodwills owing to great revolutionary Shishunala Sharif and Guru Govinda Bhatta who had displayed their religious tolerance and spiritual unity of all religions. Christmas
Christmas
is celebrated at large in Bengaluru and Mangalooru which host some of the oldest churches and educational institutions of the country. Buddha, Mahaveera, Shankara, Basavanna
Basavanna
and Gandhi
Gandhi
are remembered on their birth anniversaries. Cuisine[edit] Main article: Cuisine of Karnataka

Mysore
Mysore
Masala dosa

The cuisine of Karnataka
Karnataka
includes many vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes. The varieties reflect influences from the food habits of many regions and communities from the three neighbouring South Indian states, as well as the state of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
to its north. Soopa Shastra is notable medieval Kannada
Kannada
literally work written in 1508 A.D on the subject of Kannada
Kannada
cuisine.[87] Some typical everyday dishes in Kannadiga homes include Bisi Bele Bath, Jolada Rotti, Ragi Rotti, Akki Rotti, Saaru, Huli, Davanagere Benne Dosa, Ragi mudde, Chitranna (lemon rice) and Uppittu. The famous masala dosa traces its origin to Udupi cuisine.[88] Plain and rave Idli, Mysore
Mysore
Masala Dosa
Masala Dosa
and Maddur Vade are very popular in South Karnataka. Kadabu, a kind of rice dumplings, is a popular and ethnic food in South Malnad regions such as Sakaleshpura, Mudigere, Somwarapete, etc. and is consumed with huchellu (black sesame) chutney. Among sweets, Mysore
Mysore
Pak, Dharwad Pedha, Chiroti, Belagavi Kunda are well known. Hurnagadab, Hurnaholige, Karadantu
Karadantu
of Gokak
Gokak
and Amingarh, Shenga Holige and Sajka have origins in the Malnad region. Indis (chutneys) of Karnataka
Karnataka
have a very distinct taste and flavour. Some popular ones include Shenga indi (groundnut), Agashi indi, Karal indi, Inichi indi and Mavina indi (mango). Similarly, Karnataka
Karnataka
uppinakai (pickles) too are very distinct from the rest like Mavina thokku (fine mango pickles), Nimbekai uppinakai (lemon pickles), Tenga Mavina uppinakai (entire mango pickle), gaajri uppinkai (carrot pickle) and menshinikai uppinakai (chili pickle). Costumes[edit]

Children dressed in traditional clothes

The costume of Kannada
Kannada
people varies from place to place. The Kannadiga male costume mainly include Panchey (some tie as Kachche) or Lungi
Lungi
(wrapping style depends on the region), Angi a traditional form of shirt and Peta turban worn in Mysuru style or Dharwad style. Shalya is a piece of long cloth which is put on shoulder commonly seen in countryside. Many use Khadi
Khadi
in their clothing till date of which politicians are prominent ones. Female costumes include Seere of which Ilakal Seere and Mysore
Mysore
silk are famous. Seere has variations of draping depending on regions like Kodagu, North and South Karnataka
Karnataka
and Karavali. Young women in some parts of Karnataka
Karnataka
traditionally wear the Langa davani. Kasuti
Kasuti
is a form of embroidery work which is very popularly sought-after art on dress and costumes. An Urban male costumes comprises a trouser, shirt and sandals while that of females include shalwar and moderate heeled sandals. Jeans are popular among the youth, while new age Khadi/silk printed with art or emblem also find place. Karnataka
Karnataka
has the only village in the country which produces authentic Indian national flags according to manufacturing process and specifications for the flag are laid out by the Bureau of Indian Standards at Hubli.[89] Literature[edit] Main articles: Kannada
Kannada
literature, Karnataka
Karnataka
literature, and Modern Kannada
Kannada
literature Kannada
Kannada
literature is filled with literary figures and pioneers all through. With an unbroken literary history of over a thousand years,[90] the excellence of Kannada
Kannada
literature continues into the present day: works of Kannada
Kannada
literature have received eight Jnanpith awards[91] and fifty-six Sahitya Akademi
Sahitya Akademi
awards. Pampa, Ranna
Ranna
and Ponna are considered as three jewels of Old Kannada (Halegannada). Janna
Janna
was another notable poet of this genre. Basavanna, Akka Mahadevi, Allama Prabhu, Madhvacharya, Vidyaranya, Harihara, Raghavanka, Kumara Vyasa, Sarvajna, Purandara Dasa, Kanaka Dasa, Shishunala Shareefa, Raghavendra Swami
Raghavendra Swami
etc. were pioneers of Nadugannada. All these have been inviolved with social and cultural movements and hence this was the golden era of literature which brought about a renaissance in Kannada
Kannada
literature. They all had a characteristic naamankita (insignia) which would denote a power equaling a God in popular comparison. The literature saw the Vachana (said), Tattva
Tattva
(that-ness), Sharana
Sharana
(saviour of God), and Dasa (servant to God) Padas (short poetries) reach the common man's ignorance into great depths leading to Siddhanta (philosophies). Kuvempu, D. V. Gundappa, Da Ra Bendre, B. M. Srikantaiah, Masti Venkatesha Iyengar, Shivaram Karanth, V K Gokak, U R Ananthamurthy, P. Lankesh, Girish Karnad, G S Shivarudrappa, Gorur Ramaswamy Iyengar, Pu thi Narasimhachar, Chennavira Kanavi, Gopalakrishna Adiga, TaRaSu, A N Krishna Rao, Govinda Pai, S.L. Bhyrappa, Poornachandra Tejaswi, Thriveni, K. S. Nissar Ahmed, K.S. Narasimhaswamy, Chandrashekhara Kambara, Siddhaiah Puranik, G.P. Rajarathnam, T P Kailasam, Anupama Niranjana, M. K. Indira, M M Kalburgi, T. V. Venkatachala Sastry, Dodda Rangegowda etc. are popular literary figures. This period was amalgamation of literature works which crossed across boundaries under a vast roof encompassed by art and theater fields. The literature works of Kannada
Kannada
in Navodaya is crowned with eight Jnanpith awards.[92] Kannada
Kannada
Thantramsha or software is developed under Kuvempu
Kuvempu
University. There is a sizable open-source community based in Bengaluru. Some of the contemporary active institutions of Kannada
Kannada
literature are

Kannada
Kannada
Sahitya Parishat Academies operating as its wings include Tulu, Konkani, Kodava, and Urdu. A Byari
Byari
academy is the latest academy opened in Karnataka.[93] Jaya Bharata Jananiya Tanujate

Noted travellers and linguists have also contributed during pre and post imperial era like Germany's Ferdinand Kittel, England's Thomas Hodson, Persia's Abd-al-Razzāq Samarqandī and China's Huen-tsang. Kannada
Kannada
journalism[edit]

Bhashyam Bhashyachar published "Mysuru Vrittanta Bodhini" in 1859.

Mangaluru Samachara
Mangaluru Samachara
was the first Kannada
Kannada
news publication as early as 1843 by German missionary Hermann Mögling.[94] Followed by Bhashyam Bhashyachar who is credited with publishing the first Kannada
Kannada
weekly from Mysore
Mysore
"Mysuru Vrittanta Bodhini" in 1859 under the royal patronage of Krishnaraja Wadiyar III.[95] Shortly after Indian independence in 1948, K. N. Guruswamy founded The Printers (Mysore) Private Limited and began publishing two newspapers, Deccan Herald and Prajavani. Presently the Times of India
India
and Vijaya Karnataka
Karnataka
are the largest-selling English and Kannada
Kannada
newspapers respectively.[96][97] D. V. Gundappa
D. V. Gundappa
was notable Kannada
Kannada
journalist, he was awarded third-highest civilian award Padmabhushan in 1974.[98] List of a few major newspapers:

Prajavani Samyuktha Karnataka Kannadaprabha Udayavani Vijayavani Hosa Digantha Vishwavani News Vijaya Karnataka

Contemporary popular Kannadigas[edit] Spiritual leaders[edit]

Shivakumara Swami, Siddaganga Matha, Tumkur, Karnataka Balagangadharanatha Swamiji, Sri Adichunchanagiri Maha Samsthana Math Shivamurthy Shivacharya Mahaswamiji Taralabalu Jagadguru Brihanmath, Sirigere Sri Vishwesha Teertharu (Pejavara Shreegalavaru) Beerendra Keshava Tarakananda Puri Ravi Shankar, Art of Living

Gandhian philosophers[edit]

H. Narasimhaiah Kollur Mallappa B D Jatti
B D Jatti
- former president and vice president of India Mailara Mahadevappa- only person from Karnataka
Karnataka
to accompany Gandhiji in Dandi salt sathyagraha/march Gudleppa Hallikeri Dore Swamy

Modern science and technology[edit]

Raja Ramanna - Indian nuclear scientist and father of the Indian nuclear bomb. Udupi Ramachandra Rao
Udupi Ramachandra Rao
(U.R.Rao) - Indian space scientist and father of the Indian modern space technology. Served as the chairman of the Indian Space Research Organisation
Indian Space Research Organisation
and as the chancellor of Indian Institute for Space Science and Technology (IIST) Dr. M.C. Modi - Ophthalmologist and humanist. C. N. R. Rao
C. N. R. Rao
- Notable Solid-state scientist and chairman of Science Advisory Council of GOI. Recently awarded with India's highest civilian award Bharat Ratna K. N. Shankara
K. N. Shankara
- Indian space scientist and master in satellite payload technology. Shakuntala Devi
Shakuntala Devi
- Mathematics. Vivek Murthy
Vivek Murthy
American physician serves as the 19th Surgeon General of the United States. Dr. Jayaram K. Udupa - Father of 3-D Medical Imaging, PhD 1991- Chief of Medical Imaging Section, Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania Medical UPENN MED Narayan Hosmane
Narayan Hosmane
- Biochemistry and Cancer research. S. K. Shivkumar
S. K. Shivkumar
- Scientist, ISRO
ISRO
telemetry (ISRO), associated with Chandrayaan-1
Chandrayaan-1
lunar probe. Roddam Narasimha[99] - senior scientist IISc, chairman JNCASR. C. R. Rao
C. R. Rao
- Statistics, Mathematician. Professor emeritus at Penn State University. Shrinivas Kulkarni
Shrinivas Kulkarni
- Professor of astrophysics and planetary science at Caltech, United States
United States
of America. S. Shankar Sastry - Dean of the College of Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. L. S. Shashidhara
L. S. Shashidhara
- Developmental biologist, geneticist and a professor and chair of Biology at Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research (IISER). M. Visvesvaraya
M. Visvesvaraya
- Indian scholar and engineer, who also served as the Diwan of Mysore.

Environmentalists[edit] Karnataka
Karnataka
is one of the few states which, while a leading contributor for GDP of the country[100] and home for industries, has preserved its forests and wildlife. The evergreen Sahyadri and Western Ghats
Western Ghats
are home to protected Wildlife of Karnataka. The Kannadiga culture protects and balances Kaadu (forest) and Naadu (state) as can be seen. Although seen scantly still the state enjoys the diversity owing to tribal sects of Soliga, Badaga, Jenu Kuruba, Hakki Pikki, Lambani, Siddis and other inhabitants of forests. See Appiko Chaluvali. Some noted environmentalists include

Ullas Karanth
Ullas Karanth
(tiger research biologists/zoologist) S. R. Ramaswamy Saalumarada Thimmakka Suresh Heblikar Poornachandra Tejaswi
Poornachandra Tejaswi
(ornithologist / littérateur) Snake Shyam Krupakar-Senani

Current cricketers[edit]

KL Rahul Abhimanyu Mithun Vinay Kumar Stuart Binny Sreenath Arvind Karu Jain

Retired cricketers[edit]

Anil Kumble Javagal Srinath Gundappa Vishwanath Vijay Bhardwaj Venkatesh Prasad B.S. Chandrashekhar E. A. S. Prasanna Roger Binny Sunil Joshi Syed Kirmani Sujith Somasunder Dodda Ganesh David Johnson

The Kannadiga culture[edit] Purana[edit] The Puranas
Puranas
describe the region as Kishkindha in the age of the Ramayana. There is also literary evidence that the region of Mysore was called "Mahisha Mandala" after the mythological demon Mahishasura. Parashurama and Hanumantha are some epic characters to be cited relating to this place. Punya Koti[edit] One of the most popular and acknowledged Jaanapada
Jaanapada
songs is "Dharani mandala madhyadolage" which narrates an incidence between mother cow and an aggressive tiger in a place called Karnataka. Vishwa Maanava[edit] Karnataka
Karnataka
as now can be viewed as a multicultural state — almost all the religions that can be found in India
India
can be found here and there has been lot emigration as well due to which multi-ethnic diaspora can be seen. As the kingdoms provided a safe centres for development of all cultures we can see a huge diversities from region to region. Even the language and dialects varies from place to place. The language has evolved distinctly in both the backyard (folk/basic/prakrutha) and frontyard (refined and related to Samskrutha/Sankrit) of the culture.[citation needed] It can be said that the major works of Sanskrit have originated and continues to evolve here.[citation needed] Shringeri, Udupi are some of nerve centres. One of the leading examples include a village near Shivamogga
Shivamogga
where people speak only Sanskrit till date. Bengaluru has almost all language speakers of India.

Tha aikya linga of Basavanna
Basavanna
— the ab-initio of social spiritual reformation and a known vachanakaara, at Kudalasangama

One of the most acknowledged concept is to be a Vishwa Maanava or universal being. In Kuvempu's ideology this has a renowned explanation "Every Child is born as a Vishwa Maanava or a Universal Human. It is we who make him Alpa Maanava or Little Human by putting various constrictions of borders rituals and castes. It hence becomes responsibility of our culture to again make him a Universal Being unbound and free." The Kannadiga culture is known to provide shelter and self-respect to people by owning them and their culture.[citation needed] Two colonies for refugees from Tibet are formed, one near Mundgod
Mundgod
and one near Kushalanagara, protecting them from Chinese atrocities. Karnataka
Karnataka
has sheltered flood victims of northeastern India
India
like Assam and provided them jobs. One of the easily seen diversity is the surnames which vary from hugely like some may involve names involving a Hindu
Hindu
and Muslim
Muslim
name or having a Hindu
Hindu
Christian name (more found in Mangalore) or even a Muslim
Muslim
Christian
Christian
name. Karnataka
Karnataka
and parts of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
are the only states which have diversity of including Malenadu
Malenadu
Nithyaharidwarna — evergreen ghats and Bayaluseeme
Bayaluseeme
which have different ways of living in the same state.[citation needed] Not only this but it acts as a gateway to North and South Indian
South Indian
cultures. It may come as a surprise that Karnataka
Karnataka
is next only to Rajasthan
Rajasthan
in India
India
when it comes to area under arid land but still Southern Karnataka
Karnataka
is referred to as Gandhada Gudi — temple of sandalwood found in its protected forests.[101] Political sphere[edit] After the Odeyar
Odeyar
era who already had established democracy by naming elected representative called Saamantha in southern regions as early as the 19th century, the 1947 partition brought a centre into being under democracy and Karnataka
Karnataka
accepted a bicameral legislature. But this was a functionally a failure as there always has been a tug of war from centre and states to an extent that from the 1990s to 2010 there have always been different political parties operating at centre and state. North Karnataka
Karnataka
had other problems of getting independence more from Nizams. So there were two spheres. Lack of will and coordination and constant fights have been hallmark of politics which has prevented a regional party/media from arising in the land. Kerala being a neighbour where hugely successful communist ideology in bringing up literacy levels has a backing here and a few naxalite outfits function in Karnataka. Functional failure of all pillars of democracy even being upper riparian state can be clearly seen in the Kaveri River
Kaveri River
Water Dispute issue. The failure extended to bureaucracy and Karnataka
Karnataka
reached the position of being fourth most corrupt state of India[102] due to political and bureaucratic lobby. Because of this, Lokayukta (see N. Venkatachala) was formed but could not get the required powers to deal with the powerful. In the field of press and journalism P. Lankesh and S. Gurumurthy[103] are some of the noted ones famous for their leftist affiliations. Horanadu Kannadiga[edit] Horanadu Kannadigas (or non-resident Kannadigas) are Kannadigas who have migrated to another state or country, people of Kannada
Kannada
origin born outside Karnataka, or people of Kannada
Kannada
origin who reside permanently outside of Karnataka. N R Narayana Murthy, speaking at the 2011 World Kannada
Kannada
Conference, opined that Kannadigas who move out of the state are respected everywhere.[104] Although the failure in political arena has reflected in the cultural isolation of emigrants, some of the successful functional bodies include Singara (Singapore),[105] Dehali Kannadiga (New Delhi), Mumbai
Mumbai
Karnataka Sangha (Mumbai),[106] Mallige Kannada
Kannada
Balaga (Mauritius),[107] North America Vishwa Kannada
Kannada
Association (NAVIKA) and Association of Kannada Kootas of America (AKKA) in the United States
United States
have promoted cultural involvement[108] through events such as Kannadotsava. The Kannadiga diaspora are found all over the world, mainly in the USA, the United Kingdom, Singapore, the UAE.[109][110][111][112][113][114] Kannada
Kannada
Kannadiga Karnataka[edit] Main articles: Unification of Karnataka
Karnataka
and History of Karnataka First and Second World Wars[edit] After occupying Mysore, British had baited 8 acres & a Rs 75 salary for battalions for World Wars from Karnataka.[115] Kannadiga regiments got disbanded after world war 2 as per Imperial War Museum[116][117] records, as historians still debate about exclusion of revolts from south of Vindhyas against British Indian Army.[118] From September 1939 until August 1945, recruitment was done at Regimental Centre at Belagavi for the Madras Regiment, the Mahar Regiment, and the Lingayat Regiment.[119] In 2017, a panel has been setup to look into legalities of separate flag for Karnataka.[120] The post 1947 Scene[edit] During the period of British rule, state of Karnataka
Karnataka
as it stands today did not exist. Areas that today comprise Karnataka
Karnataka
were under as many as 20 different administrative units with the princely state of Mysore, Nizam's Hyderabad, the Bombay Presidency, the Madras Presidency and the territory of Kodagu
Kodagu
being the most important ones. In effect, nearly two-thirds of what is now Karnataka
Karnataka
fell outside the rule of the Wodeyar
Wodeyar
kings of Mysore. In addition the proposed state had six neighbours — Goa, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala
Kerala
— and all had Kannadigas along the borders overlapping these regions. What this meant for the Kannadigas in these regions was that they were reduced to linguistic minorities wherever they were. Kannadigas in the Hubli- Karnataka
Karnataka
region for example, came under the rule of the Bombay presidency where Marathi was the official language. Those in the Hyderabad- Karnataka
Karnataka
region came under the Nizam's rule where Urdu ruled, while in Mysore
Mysore
Kingdom, Kannada
Kannada
was the official language. It was in this backdrop that the movement that first started as a protest against linguistic oppression, soon morphed into one that began demanding a separate state be created consolidating all Kannada speaking regions. This was essentially a movement that was spearheaded by the poets, journalists and writers and was called the Ekikarana or 'Unification' movement. India
India
gained independence in 1947. The joy of independence soon gave way to disappointment as the new government started dragging its feet on Karnataka
Karnataka
Ekikarana movement. Kannada speaking areas now got grouped under five administrative units of the Bombay and Madras provinces, Kodagu, and the princely states of Mysore and Hyderabad. The Akhila Karnataka
Karnataka
Ekikarana Parishat met in Kasargod and reiterated the demand for a separate state for Kannadigas. The ratification in parliament of the recommendations of the Fazal Ali Committee brought joy to the Kannadiga population that now was merged under the state of Mysore. On 1 November 1973, under Devaraj Urs
Devaraj Urs
as chief minister, Mysore
Mysore
state was renamed as Karnataka
Karnataka
since it was felt that Karnataka
Karnataka
was more 'inclusive' of all the other regions of Karnataka
Karnataka
than the name Mysore. Kannada
Kannada
unification organisations currently active include:

Karnataka
Karnataka
Vidyavardhaka Sangha Karnataka
Karnataka
Ekikarana Samithi Karnataka
Karnataka
Rakshana Vedike Kannada
Kannada
Chalavali Vatal Paksha

Kannada
Kannada
ethnic flag[edit]

Karnataka
Karnataka
Emblem

Karnataka
Karnataka
Popular Flag

The Kannada
Kannada
ethnic flag is a banner with two horizontal stripes, yellow on top and red on the bottom. The flag neither is official nor represents any legendary empire but has become accepted in recent times representing a symbol of welfare.The flag was first conceived by Ma Ramamurthy, a Bangalore-based writer, journalist and social activist, often considered as a commander of Kannada
Kannada
movement in 1960s. See also[edit]

Karnataka
Karnataka
portal

Kannada
Kannada
film industry Kannada
Kannada
language Kannada
Kannada
literature Kannada
Kannada
poetry Karnataka Karnataka
Karnataka
literature List of people from Bangalore List of people from Karnataka List of people of North Karnataka North Karnataka Sanganakallu Siribhoovalaya
Siribhoovalaya
- a unique literary work[121]

References[edit]

^ a b "Census of India". Archived from the original on 13 May 2010. Retrieved 2008-01-07.  ^ Kannada
Kannada
masculine Kannaḍiga, feminine Kannaḍati, plural Kannaḍigaru ^ "Encyclopedia of World Cultures - Canarese, Kannadiga". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 17 September 2013.  ^ a b http://www.ciil-lisindia.net/Kannada/Kan_demo.html ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bengaluru/Kannadigas-TNs-3rd-biggest-group/articleshow/2954903.cms ^ "Indiaspeak: English is our 2nd language". Times of India. 14 March 2010. Retrieved 12 February 2013.  ^ "Kannadigas outnumber Malayalis 2:1 in Tamil Nadu". Times of India. 15 April 2008.  ^ http://www.engr.mun.ca/~adluri/telugu/language/script/script1a.html ^ https://www.quora.com/Was-Maharashtra-a-Kannada-speaking-land-before-and-was-it-ruled-by-kannadigas ^ https://books.google.co.in/books?id=rnNxtHfKxZAC&pg=PA45&lpg=PA45&dq=kannada+sister+languages&source=bl&ots=pc9GBFfjfE&sig=XpHTihTm_CkULqYhT2riuROrbhw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjLgv6ukZLVAhWDjJQKHffHAAYQ6AEIWjAI#v=onepage&q=kannada%20sister%20languages&f=false ^ http://censusindia.gov.in/2011-common/censusdataonline.html ^ Chandravalli ^ http://www.deccanherald.com/content/591046/kannada-inscription-talagunda-may-replace.html ^ Sastri (1955), pp. 355–356 ^ a b Thapar, Romila (2003), p. 433, The Penguin History of Early India, From Origin to 1300 AD., 2003, Penguin, New Delhi, ISBN 0-14-302989-4 ^ Kamath (2001), pp. 84, 90 ^ Moraes (1931), p 4 ^ Purava HaleGannada or Pre-old Kannada
Kannada
was the language of Banavasi in the early Christian
Christian
era, the Satavahana
Satavahana
and Kadamba eras (Wilks in Rice, B.L. (1897), p 490 ^ a b c d e f g Narasimhacharya (1988), p 68 ^ a b Cousens (1996), p15 ^ Mahalingam in Adiga (2006), p 130 ^ Adiga (2006), p. 134 ^ Their territory included modern Tumkur, Chitradurga, Kolar, Bellary and Bangalore
Bangalore
districts. Chopra et al. (2003), part 1, p. 163 ^ Adiga (2006), p. 142 ^ They were an Andhra dynasty who ruled over Kurnool, Cuddappah in the 10th century. There inscriptions are in Telugu and Kannada. Chopra et al. (2003), part 1, p. 163 ^ Also known as the Kempegowda family, builders of modern Bangalore-Kamath (2001), pp. 240–241 ^ Two coins of the Hangal Kadambas exist, one with the Kannada inscription Saarvadhari and other with Nakara. They are preserved in the Royal Asiatic Society and Indian Historical Research Institute, Mumbai
Mumbai
- Moraes (1931), p 385 ^ Kamath (2001), pp. 143-144 ^ The coins of the Kadambas of Goa
Goa
are unique in that they have alternate inscription of the king's name in Kannada
Kannada
and Devanagari in triplicate. This shows that the native vernacular of the Goa
Goa
Kadambas was Kannada. Moraes (1931), p 384 ^ Kamat, Suryanath U., (2001), p.8, A Concise history of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC, Bangalore, 2001 (Reprinted 2002), OCLC: 7796041 ^ Bose, Manilal (1998), p.28, Social and Cultural History of Ancient India, Concept Publishing Company, ISBN 81-7022-598-1 ^ Makhan Jha, (1997), pp52-53, Anthropology of Ancient Hindu
Hindu
Kingdoms: A Study in Civilizational Perspective, M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd, ISBN 81-7533-034-1 ^ S.R. Bakshi, S. Gajrani, Hari Singh (2005), p.254, Early Aryans to Swaraj, Sarup & Sons, ISBN 81-7625-537-8 ^ Sengupta, Nitish K (2011), p50, Land of Two Rivers: A History of Bengal from the Mahabharata to Mujib, Penguin Books, Chapter:The Sen Dynasty, ISBN 9780143416784 ^ Desai, Pandurang Bhimarao (1970), p.213, A History of Karnataka: From Pre-history to Unification, Kannada
Kannada
Research Institute, Karnatak University, OCLC:203297 ^ Mishra, Jayakanta in Ayyappa Paniker (1997), p.280, p.289, Medieval Indian Literature: Surveys and selections, Sahitya Akademi, ISBN 81-260-0365-0 ^ Pollock, Sheldon (2006), p.417, note.79, The Language of the Gods in the World of Men: Sanskrit, Culture, and Power in Premodern India, University of California Press, ISBN 9780520260030 ^ "The Journal of the Bihar
Bihar
Purävid Parishad, Volumes 4-5". p. 414. Retrieved 26 January 2017.  ^ "Mithila Under the Karnatas, C. 1097-1325 A.D". p. 55. Retrieved 26 January 2017.  ^ "History of Muslim
Muslim
rule in Tirhut, 1206-1765, A.D." p. 28. Retrieved 26 January 2017.  ^ "The Journal of the Bihar
Bihar
Research Society, Volume 46". pp. 22–25. Retrieved 26 January 2017.  ^ "Publications, Volume 33". p. 193. Retrieved 26 January 2017.  ^ a b Altekar in Kamath (2001), p. 73 ^ Altekar 1934, pp. 21–22 ^ Keay (2000), p 170 ^ The Eastern Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
were originally of Kannada
Kannada
stock who later encouraged Telugu Dr. K.S.S. Seshan, University of Hyderabad. "APOnline-History of Andhra Pradesh-ancient period-Eastern Chalukyas". Revenue Department (Gazetteers), Government of Andhra Pradesh. Tata Consultancy Services. Archived from the original on 6 December 2006. Retrieved 12 November 2006.  ^ Shrinivas Ritti and A.V. Narasimha Murthy in Kamath 2001, p. 137 ^ Seuna coins carry Kannada
Kannada
legends from the beginning of their rule (O.P. Varma in Kamath 2001, p. 137) ^ Masica, Colin P. (1991). "Subsequent Spread of Indo-Aryan". The Indo-Aryan Languages. Cambridge University Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-521-29944-6.  ^ Majority of the Seuna inscriptions are in Kannada
Kannada
and during the formation of the kingdom, the Nasik-Ahamadnagar region (Seuna Desa) was a Kannada
Kannada
territory (Kamath 2001, p. 137) ^ A Kannada
Kannada
dynasty may have been created in Berar under the rule of Badami
Badami
Chalukyas, (Altekar 1934, pp. 21–22) ^ The Gujarat Rashtrakutas signed even their Sanskrit records in Kannada
Kannada
because that was the language of the place of their origin (D.R. Bhandarkar in Kamath 2001, p 73) ^ The Gujarat Rashtrakutas would not have signed their inscriptions in Kannada language
Kannada language
in far away Gujarat unless they were Kannadigas (Altekar 1934, pp 21–22) ^ B.P. Sinha in George E. Somers, Dynastic History Of Magadha, p. 214, Abhinav Publications, 1977, New Delhi, ISBN 81-7017-059-1 ^ Sen (1999), p282 ^ Majumdar, R. C. (1977), Ancient India, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, p. 320, New Delhi, ISBN 81-208-0436-8 ^ a b c d e f "Group of Monuments at Hampi/Hampei". World Heritage. Retrieved 20 December 2006.  ^ "And India's 7 wonders". The Times of India. 5 August 2007.  ^ The Chalukyan magnificence Archived 22 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Badami
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Aihole
Temple relocation". The Hindu. 20 February 2007. Retrieved 17 September 2013.  ^ "Message with Long Life: Indian Inscriptions". Dr. Jyotsna Kamat. Retrieved 5 May 2009.  ^ " Basavakalyan
Basavakalyan
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Haridasa
Contribution to Kannada
Kannada
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from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-560686-8.  ^ Sharma, B.N.K (2000) [1961]. History of Dvaita school of Vedanta and its Literature. Bombay: Motilal Banarasidass. ISBN 81-208-1575-0.  ^ OurKarnataka.com(OKC). "History of Karnataka
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- The Haridasa Movement". Ourkarnataka.com. Retrieved 17 September 2013.  ^ "The Hindu
Hindu
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Music and the Violin By Gordon N. Swift" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 June 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.  ^ Thielemann, Selina (2000). The Music of South Asia. New Delhi: A. P. H. Publishing Corp. p. 521. ISBN 978-81-7648-057-4.  ^ OurKarnataka.com(OKC). "YAKSHAGANA - The music of celestial beings". Ourkarnataka.com. Retrieved 17 September 2013.  ^ " Bharat Ratna
Bharat Ratna
for Vocalist Pandit Bhimsen Joshi". Rediff. Retrieved 21 February 2009.  ^ "Padma Awards". Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (India). Retrieved 16 May 2009.  ^ "About C. Aswath". Caswath.com. Retrieved 17 September 2013.  ^ Manohar Laxman Varadpande (1992). History of Indian theatre, Volume 2. Abhinav Publications. p. 311. ISBN 9788170172789.  ^ " Karnataka
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Jaatre, The Hindu ^ Soliga welcome planned for Kalam, The Hindu ^ Details regarding Dasara Wrestling
Wrestling
competition held in Mysore
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meet in US from September 2". Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 17 September 2013.  ^ http://www.nriforumkarnataka.org/ ^ http://dallas.navika.org/ ^ http://www.akkaonline.org/ ^ https://singara.org/ ^ http://sackannadasangha.org/ ^ http://www.kuwaitkannadakoota.org/ ^ https://pbs.twimg.com/media/BsmVIxXCQAAmPBJ.jpg ^ Raghu Karnad [@rkarnad] (15 July 2014). "#Kannadigas in #WW2! Joining up for the swag (8 acres & a Rs 75 salary). A full Lingayat battalion was raised in '41" (Tweet) – via Twitter.  ^ https://www.telegraphindia.com/1130507/jsp/opinion/story_16864561.jsp ^ http://www.deccanchronicle.com/nation/current-affairs/210717/historians-pick-vizag-revolt-as-first-war-of-independence.html ^ http://lingayatreligion.com/Lingayat_Battalion.htm ^ http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/karnataka-demands-state-flag-sets-up-panel-to-stufy-legal-provisions/story-QnZfWCZ65Fkj1sJ8dDb2IP.html ^ [1] Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine.

Further reading[edit]

John Keay, History of India, 2000, Grove publications, New York, ISBN 0-8021-3797-0 Suryanath U. Kamat, A Concise history of Karnataka
Karnataka
from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC, Bangalore, 2001 (Reprinted 2002) OCLC: 7796041 Dr. Romila Thapar, The Penguin History of Early India, From Origin to 1300 AD., 2003, Penguin, New Delhi, ISBN 0-14-302989-4 Altekar, Anant Sadashiv (1934), The Rashtrakutas And Their Times; being a political, administrative, religious, social, economic and literary history of the Deccan during c. 750 AD to c. 1000 AD, Oriental Book Agency, Poona, OCLC 3793499 K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, 1955, OUP, New Delhi
New Delhi
(Reprinted 2002), ISBN 0-19-560686-8 R. Narasimhacharya, History of Kannada
Kannada
Literature, 1988, Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, Madras, 1988 ISBN 81-206-0303-6. Malini Adiga (2006), The Making of Southern Karnataka: Society, Polity and Culture in the early medieval period, AD 400-1030, Orient Longman, Chennai, ISBN 81-250-2912-5 George M. Moraes (1931), The Kadamba Kula, A History of Ancient and Medieval Karnataka, Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, Madras, 1990 ISBN 81-206-0595-0 Rice, B.L. [1897] (2001). Mysore
Mysore
Gazetteer Compiled for Government-vol 1. New Delhi, Madras: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0977-8. Chopra P.N., Ravindran T.K., Subrahmanian N. (2003), History of South India
India
(Ancient, Medieval and Modern), Chand publications, New Delhi ISBN 81-219-0153-7 Cousens, Henry, (1926), The Chalukyan Architecture
Architecture
of Kanarese Districts, Archaeological Survey of India, New Delhi, OCLC 37526233 Sen, Sailendra Nath (1999) [1999]. Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age Publishers. ISBN 81-224-1198-3. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Kannada
Kannada
people at Wikimedia Commons

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Indian state of Karnataka

Overviews

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History

Aihole Alupa dynasty Amoghavarsha Badami Banavasi Balligavi Belur Chalukya
Chalukya
dynasty Chitradurga
Chitradurga
Nayakas Deva Raya II Durvinita Halebidu Haleri Kingdom Halmidi Hampi Hoysala
Hoysala
Empire Kadamba dynasty Kalyani Chalukyas Keladi
Keladi
Nayakas Shivappa Nayaka Kittur Chennamma Kingdom of Mysore Mayurasharma Pattadakal Pulakeshin II Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
dynasty Sringeri Srirangapatna Tipu Sultan Unification of Karnataka Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Empire Vijayanagara Vishnuvardhana Veera Ballala II Vikramaditya II Vikramaditya VI Western Ganga dynasty

Geography

Cities and towns Districts Rivers Dams and Reservoirs Taluks Villages Highest point Bayalu Seeme Malenadu Karavali Western Ghats

Culture

Bharata Natyam Bhuta Kola Bidriware Channapatna toys Chitrakala Parishat Gaarudi Gombe Ilkal saree Kamsale Kannada Karnatik music Kasuti Khedda Mysore
Mysore
Dasara Togalu Gombeyaata Udupi cuisine Veeragase Yakshagana Mysore
Mysore
musicians

Literature

Kannada

Milestones Epics Medieval Rashtrakuta Western Ganga Western Chalukya Hoysala Vijayanagara Vachana Haridasa Mysore Play Modern

Kannada
Kannada
Sahitya Parishat Kannada
Kannada
Sahitya Sammelana Karnataka

Noted poets

Asaga Gunavarma I Adikavi Pampa Sri Ponna Ranna Devar Dasimayya Basava Akka Mahadevi Allama Prabhu Siddharama Harihara Raghavanka Rudrabhatta Janna Kumara Vyasa Chamarasa Nijaguna Shivayogi Ratnakaravarni Purandara Dasa Kanaka Dasa Vijaya Dasa Gopala Dasa Jagannatha Dasa Lakshmisa Sarvajna Shishunala Sharif Krishnaraja Wadiyar III D. R. Bendre Gopalakrishna Adiga K. S. Narasimhaswamy M. Govinda Pai Kuvempu D. V. Gundappa G. S. Shivarudrappa

People and Society

Karnataka
Karnataka
ethnic groups List of people from Karnataka

Tourism

Beaches Dams Forts National Parks Hindu
Hindu
Temples Jain Temples Waterfalls

Awards

Karnataka
Karnataka
Ratna Pampa Award Nrupatunga Award Basava
Basava
Puraskara Rajyotsava Prashasti Jakanachari Award Varnashilpi Venkatappa Award

v t e

Ethnic groups of India

This tree diagram depicts the relationships of the major ethnic, linguistic and religious groups in India. For example, an H under Gujarati implies a Hindu, Gujarati-speaking Indian of Indo-Aryan ancestry. This list excludes caste groups like the Dalits which is a socio-political identity across linguistic, religious and racial lines. In addition, it should be noted that the terms 'Indo-Aryan' and 'Dravidian' refer to linguistic differences that exist between both groups.

Indians

Indo-Aryans

Assamese (অসমীয়া)

Bengali (বাঙালী)

Dogra (डोगरा / ڈوگرا)

Gujarati (ગુજરાતી)

Hindi (हिन्दी)

Konkani (कोंकणे)

Marathi (मराठी माणसं)

Punjabi (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ / पंजाबी / پنجابی)

Odia (ଓଡିଆ)

H, M, C, S

H, M, A

H, S, M

H, M, J

H, M

HC

H, M, B, J

H, M, C, S

Dards

Brokpa (ब्रोक्पा)

Kashmiri (कॉशुर / کٲشُر)

Shina (षीना / شینا‎)

Kho (کھو)

B

H, M

B, H, M

Tibeto-Burmans

Arunachali (རྫོང་ཁ་)

Manipuri (মনিপুরি)

Bodo-Garo

Mizo

Naga

Sikkimese - Lepcha (Róng) (རྫོང)

Tripuri (ত্রিপুরা)

B, T, H

H, C

C, H, T

C, T

C, T

B, H

H, T

Dravidians

Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡಿಗ)

Malayali (മലയാളി)

Tamil (தமிழர்)

Telugu (తెలుగు)

H, C

H, C, M, A

H, C, M, A

H, C

Iranic

Parsi (પારસી)

Pathan
Pathan
(پٹھان / पठान)

Austroasians

Khasi (খাসি)

Nicobarese
Nicobarese
(निकोबारी)

Munda (मुण्डा)

C, T

.