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Kana
Kana
(仮名) are syllabic Japanese scripts, a part of the Japanese writing system contrasted with the logographic Chinese characters known in Japan
Japan
as kanji (漢字). There are three kana scripts: modern cursive hiragana (ひらがな);[2] modern angular katakana (カタカナ); and the old syllabic use of kanji known as man'yōgana (万葉仮名) that was ancestral to both. Hentaigana
Hentaigana
(変体仮名, "variant kana") are historical variants of modern standard hiragana. In modern Japanese, hiragana and katakana have directly corresponding character sets (different sets of characters representing the same sounds). Katakana
Katakana
with a few additions is also used to write Ainu. Taiwanese kana was used in Taiwanese Hokkien
Taiwanese Hokkien
as a gloss (furigana) for Chinese characters during Taiwan under Japanese rule. Each kana character (syllabogram) corresponds to one sound in the Japanese language. This is always CV (consonant onset with vowel nucleus), such as ka, ki, etc., or V (vowel), such as a, i, etc., with the sole exception of the C grapheme for nasal codas usually romanised as n. This structure had some scholars label the system moraic instead of syllabic, because it requires the combination of two syllabograms to represent a CVC syllable with coda (i.e. CVn, CVm, CVng), a CVV syllable with complex nucleus (i.e. multiple or expressively long vowels), or a CCV syllable with complex onset (i.e. including a glide, CyV, CwV). Due to the limited number of phonemes in Japanese, as well as the relatively rigid syllable structure, the kana system is a very accurate representation of spoken Japanese.

Contents

1 Hiragana
Hiragana
and katakana

1.1 Diacritics 1.2 Digraphs

2 Modern usage 3 History 4 Collation 5 In Unicode 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Hiragana
Hiragana
and katakana[edit] The following table reads, in gojūon order, as a, i, u, e, o (down first column), then ka, ki, ku, ke, ko (down second column), and so on. n appears on its own at the end. Asterisks mark unused combinations.

Japanese kana: hiragana (left) and katakana (right) (Image of this table)

– k s t n h m y r w

a あア かカ さサ たタ なナ はハ まマ やヤ らラ わワ

i いイ きキ しシ ちチ にニ ひヒ みミ ※ りリ ゐヰ

u うウ くク すス つツ ぬヌ ふフ むム ゆユ るル ※

e えエ けケ せセ てテ ねネ へヘ めメ ※ れレ ゑヱ

o おオ こコ そソ とト のノ ほホ もモ よヨ ろロ をヲ

   

んン (n)

There are presently no kana for ye, yi or wu, as corresponding syllables do not occur in modern Japanese natively.

The [jɛ] (ye) sound is believed to have existed in pre-Classical Japanese, mostly prior to the advent of kana, and can be represented by the man'yōgana kanji 江.[3][4] There was an archaic Hiragana ()[5] derived from the man'yōgana ye kanji 江,[3] which is encoded into Unicode
Unicode
at codepoint U+1B001 (𛀁),[6][7] but it is not widely supported. It is believed that e and ye become both pronounced mostly as ye, and that the pronunciation e surpassed ye during the Edo period.[4] A hiragana we, ゑ, which also came to be pronounced as [jɛ] (ye), as demonstrated by 17th century-era European sources,[8] still exists but is considered archaic, and it was eliminated from official orthography in 1946. In modern orthography, if necessary, [je] (ye) may be written as いぇ (イェ);[citation needed] however, this usage is limited and nonstandard. The modern Katakana
Katakana
e, エ, derives from the man'yōgana 江, originally pronounced ye;[5] a " Katakana
Katakana
letter Archaic E" () derived from the man'yōgana 衣 (e)[5] is encoded into Unicode
Unicode
at codepoint U+1B000 (𛀀),[6] due to being used for that purpose in scholarly works on classical Japanese.[9] Some gojūon tables published during the 19th century list additional Katakana
Katakana
in the ye (), wu () and yi () positions.[10] These are not presently used, and the latter two sounds never existed in Japanese.[4][11] They do not presently exist in Unicode. These sources also list ( Unicode
Unicode
U+1B006, 𛀆) in the Hiragana
Hiragana
yi position, and in the ye position.[10]

While no longer part of standard Japanese orthography, wi and we are sometimes used stylistically, as in ウヰスキー for whisky and ヱビ
or ゑび
for Japanese kami Ebisu, and Yebisu, a brand of beer named after Ebisu. Hiragana
Hiragana
wi and we are still used in certain Okinawan scripts, while katakana wi and we are still used in Ainu. wo is preserved only in a single use, as a grammatical particle, normally written in hiragana. si, ti, tu, hu, wi, we and wo are often romanized respectively as shi, chi, tsu, fu, i, e and o instead, according to contemporary pronunciation.

Diacritics[edit] See also: Dakuten and handakuten, Yōon, and Historical kana orthography Syllables beginning with the voiced consonants [g], [z], [d] and [b] are spelled with kana from the corresponding unvoiced columns (k, s, t and h) and the voicing mark, dakuten. Syllables beginning with [p] are spelled with kana from the h column and the half-voicing mark, handakuten.

Dakuten diacritic marks, hiragana (left) and katakana (right)

g z d b p ng

a




パ か゚ カ゚

i




ピ き゚ キ゚

u




プ く゚ ク゚

e




ペ け゚ ケ゚

o




ポ こ゚ コ゚

Note that the か゚, カ゚ and remaining entries in the rightmost column, though they exist, are not used in standard Japanese orthography. zi, di, and du are often transcribed into English as ji, ji, and zu instead, respectively, according to contemporary pronunciation. Usually, [va], [vi], [vu], [ve], [vo] are represented respectively by バ[ba], ビ[bi], ブ[bu], ベ[be], and ボ[bo], for example, in loanwords such as バイオリ
(baiorin "violin"), but (less usually) the distinction can be preserved by using ヴァ, ヴィ, ヴ, ヴェ, and ヴォ. Note that ヴ did not have a JIS-encoded Hiragana
Hiragana
form until JIS X 0213.

Digraphs[edit] Syllables beginning with palatalized consonants are spelled with one of the seven consonantal kana from the i row followed by small ya, yu or yo. These digraphs are called yōon.

Yōon digraphs, hiragana

k s t n h m r

ya きゃ しゃ ちゃ にゃ ひゃ みゃ りゃ

yu きゅ しゅ ちゅ にゅ ひゅ みゅ りゅ

yo きょ しょ ちょ にょ ひょ みょ りょ

There are no digraphs for the semivowel y and w columns. The digraphs are usually transcribed with three letters, leaving out the i: CyV. For example, きゃ is transcribed as kya. si+y* and ti+y* are often transcribed sh* and ch* instead of sy* and ty*. For example, しゃ is transcribed as sha. In earlier Japanese, digraphs could also be formed with w-kana. Although obsolete in modern Japanese, the digraphs くゎ (/kwa/) and くゐ/くうぃ(/kwi/), are still used in certain Okinawan orthographies. In addition, the kana
can be used in Okinawan to form the digraph くぇ, which represents the /kwe/ sound.

Yōon digraphs, hiragana

g j b p ng

ya ぎゃ じゃ びゃ ぴゃ き゚ゃ

yu ぎゅ じゅ びゅ ぴゅ き゚ゅ

yo ぎょ じょ びょ ぴょ き゚ょ

Note that the き゚ゃ, き゚ゅ and remaining entries in the rightmost column, though they exist, are not used in standard Japanese orthography. jya, jyu, and jyo are often transcribed into English as ja, ju, and jo instead, respectively, according to contemporary pronunciation.

Modern usage[edit]

See also: Japanese writing system, Hiragana, Katakana.

The difference in usage between hiragana and katakana is stylistic. Usually, hiragana is the default syllabary, and katakana is used in certain special cases. Hiragana
Hiragana
is used to write native Japanese words with no kanji representation (or whose kanji is thought obscure or difficult), as well as grammatical elements such as particles and inflections (okurigana). Today katakana is most commonly used to write words of foreign origin that do not have kanji representations, as well as foreign personal and place names. Katakana
Katakana
is also used to represent onomatopoeia and interjections, emphasis, technical and scientific terms, transcriptions of the Sino-Japanese readings of kanji, and some corporate branding. Kana
Kana
can be written in small form above or next to lesser-known kanji in order to show pronunciation; this is called furigana. Furigana
Furigana
is used most widely in children's or learners' books. Literature for young children who do not yet know kanji may dispense with it altogether and instead use hiragana combined with spaces. History[edit]

Development of hiragana and katakana

The first kana was a system called man'yōgana, a set of kanji used solely for their phonetic values, much as Chinese uses characters for their phonetic values in foreign loanwords (especially proper nouns) today. Man'yōshū (万葉集), a poetry anthology assembled in 759, is written in this early script. Hiragana
Hiragana
developed as a distinct script from cursive man'yōgana, whereas katakana developed from abbreviated parts of regular script man'yōgana as a glossing system to add readings or explanations to Buddhist sutras. Kana
Kana
is traditionally said to have been invented by the Buddhist priest Kūkai
Kūkai
in the ninth century. Kūkai
Kūkai
certainly brought the Siddhaṃ script
Siddhaṃ script
of India home on his return from China
China
in 806; his interest in the sacred aspects of speech and writing led him to the conclusion that Japanese would be better represented by a phonetic alphabet than by the kanji which had been used up to that point. The modern arrangement of kana reflects that of Siddhaṃ, but the traditional iroha arrangement follows a poem which uses each kana once. The present set of kana was codified in 1900, and rules for their usage in 1946.[12]

Identical man’yōgana roots of katakana and hiragana glyphs

a i u e o =:≠

- ≠ ≠ = ≠ = 2:3

k = = = ≠ = 4:1

s ≠ = ≠ = = 3:2

t ≠ ≠ = = = 3:2

n = = = = = 5:0

h ≠ = = = = 4:1

m = ≠ ≠ = = 3:2

y =

=

= 3:0

r = = ≠ = = 4:1

w = ≠

= ≠ 2:2

n

0:1

=:≠ 6:4 5:4 6:4 7:2 9:1 33:15

Collation[edit] Kana
Kana
are the basis for collation in Japanese. They are taken in the order given by the gojūon (






ん), though iroha (








(ん)) ordering is used for enumeration in some circumstances. Dictionaries differ in the sequence order for long/short vowel distinction, small tsu and diacritics. As Japanese does not use word spaces (except as a tool for children), there can be no word-by-word collation; all collation is kana-by-kana. In Unicode[edit] Main articles: Hiragana
Hiragana
( Unicode
Unicode
block), Katakana
Katakana
( Unicode
Unicode
block), Katakana
Katakana
Phonetic Extensions, Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms (Unicode block), and Kana Supplement ( Unicode
Unicode
block) The hiragana range in Unicode
Unicode
is U+3040 ... U+309F, and the katakana range is U+30A0 ... U+30FF. The obsolete and rare characters (wi and we) also have their proper code points.

Hiragana[1][2] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+304x

ぁ あ ぃ い ぅ う ぇ え ぉ お か が き ぎ く

U+305x ぐ け げ こ ご さ ざ し じ す ず せ ぜ そ ぞ た

U+306x だ ち ぢ っ つ づ て で と ど な に ぬ ね の は

U+307x ば ぱ ひ び ぴ ふ ぶ ぷ へ べ ぺ ほ ぼ ぽ ま み

U+308x む め も ゃ や ゅ ゆ ょ よ ら り る れ ろ ゎ わ

U+309x ゐ ゑ を ん ゔ ゕ ゖ

゙ ゚ ゛ ゜ ゝ ゞ ゟ

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Katakana[1] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+30Ax ゠ ァ ア ィ イ ゥ ウ ェ エ ォ オ カ ガ キ ギ ク

U+30Bx グ ケ ゲ コ ゴ サ ザ シ ジ ス ズ セ ゼ ソ ゾ タ

U+30Cx ダ チ ヂ ッ ツ ヅ テ デ ト ド ナ ニ ヌ ネ ノ ハ

U+30Dx バ パ ヒ ビ ピ フ ブ プ ヘ ベ ペ ホ ボ ポ マ ミ

U+30Ex ム メ モ ャ ヤ ュ ユ ョ ヨ ラ リ ル レ ロ ヮ ワ

U+30Fx ヰ ヱ ヲ ン ヴ ヵ ヶ ヷ ヸ ヹ ヺ ・ ー ヽ ヾ ヿ

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0

Characters U+3095 and U+3096 are hiragana small ka and small ke, respectively. U+30F5 and U+30F6 are their katakana equivalents. Characters U+3099 and U+309A are combining dakuten and handakuten, which correspond to the spacing characters U+309B and U+309C. U+309D is the hiragana iteration mark, used to repeat a previous hiragana. U+309E is the voiced hiragana iteration mark, which stands in for the previous hiragana but with the consonant voiced (k becomes g, h becomes b, etc.). U+30FD and U+30FE are the katakana iteration marks. U+309F is a ligature of yori (より) sometimes used in vertical writing. U+30FF is a ligature of koto (コト), also found in vertical writing. Additionally, there are halfwidth equivalents to the standard fullwidth katakana. These are encoded within the Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms block (U+FF00–U+FFEF), starting at U+FF65 and ending at U+FF9F (characters U+FF61–U+FF64 are halfwidth punctuation marks):

Katakana
Katakana
subset of Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms[1] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

... (U+FF00–U+FF64 omitted)

U+FF6x

・ ヲ ァ ィ ゥ ェ ォ ャ ュ ョ ッ

U+FF7x ー ア イ ウ エ オ カ キ ク ケ コ サ シ ス セ ソ

U+FF8x タ チ ツ テ ト ナ ニ ヌ ネ ノ ハ ヒ フ ヘ ホ マ

U+FF9x ミ ム メ モ ヤ ユ ヨ ラ リ ル レ ロ ワ ン ゙ ゚

... (U+FFA0–U+FFEF omitted)

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0

There is also a small " Katakana
Katakana
Phonetic Extensions" range (U+31F0 ... U+31FF), which includes some extra characters for writing the Ainu language.

Katakana
Katakana
Phonetic Extensions[1] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+31Fx ㇰ ㇱ ㇲ ㇳ ㇴ ㇵ ㇶ ㇷ ㇸ ㇹ ㇺ ㇻ ㇼ ㇽ ㇾ ㇿ

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0

Unicode
Unicode
also includes " Katakana
Katakana
letter archaic E" (U+1B000), as well as 255 archaic Hiragana, in the Kana Supplement block.[13] It also includes a further 31 archaic Hiragana
Hiragana
in the Kana
Kana
Extended-A block.[14]

Kana
Kana
Supplement[1] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+1B00x 𛀀 𛀁 𛀂 𛀃 𛀄 𛀅 𛀆 𛀇 𛀈 𛀉 𛀊 𛀋 𛀌 𛀍 𛀎 𛀏

U+1B01x 𛀐 𛀑 𛀒 𛀓 𛀔 𛀕 𛀖 𛀗 𛀘 𛀙 𛀚 𛀛 𛀜 𛀝 𛀞 𛀟

U+1B02x 𛀠 𛀡 𛀢 𛀣 𛀤 𛀥 𛀦 𛀧 𛀨 𛀩 𛀪 𛀫 𛀬 𛀭 𛀮 𛀯

U+1B03x 𛀰 𛀱 𛀲 𛀳 𛀴 𛀵 𛀶 𛀷 𛀸 𛀹 𛀺 𛀻 𛀼 𛀽 𛀾 𛀿

U+1B04x 𛁀 𛁁 𛁂 𛁃 𛁄 𛁅 𛁆 𛁇 𛁈 𛁉 𛁊 𛁋 𛁌 𛁍 𛁎 𛁏

U+1B05x 𛁐 𛁑 𛁒 𛁓 𛁔 𛁕 𛁖 𛁗 𛁘 𛁙 𛁚 𛁛 𛁜 𛁝 𛁞 𛁟

U+1B06x 𛁠 𛁡 𛁢 𛁣 𛁤 𛁥 𛁦 𛁧 𛁨 𛁩 𛁪 𛁫 𛁬 𛁭 𛁮 𛁯

U+1B07x 𛁰 𛁱 𛁲 𛁳 𛁴 𛁵 𛁶 𛁷 𛁸 𛁹 𛁺 𛁻 𛁼 𛁽 𛁾 𛁿

U+1B08x 𛂀 𛂁 𛂂 𛂃 𛂄 𛂅 𛂆 𛂇 𛂈 𛂉 𛂊 𛂋 𛂌 𛂍 𛂎 𛂏

U+1B09x 𛂐 𛂑 𛂒 𛂓 𛂔 𛂕 𛂖 𛂗 𛂘 𛂙 𛂚 𛂛 𛂜 𛂝 𛂞 𛂟

U+1B0Ax 𛂠 𛂡 𛂢 𛂣 𛂤 𛂥 𛂦 𛂧 𛂨 𛂩 𛂪 𛂫 𛂬 𛂭 𛂮 𛂯

U+1B0Bx 𛂰 𛂱 𛂲 𛂳 𛂴 𛂵 𛂶 𛂷 𛂸 𛂹 𛂺 𛂻 𛂼 𛂽 𛂾 𛂿

U+1B0Cx 𛃀 𛃁 𛃂 𛃃 𛃄 𛃅 𛃆 𛃇 𛃈 𛃉 𛃊 𛃋 𛃌 𛃍 𛃎 𛃏

U+1B0Dx 𛃐 𛃑 𛃒 𛃓 𛃔 𛃕 𛃖 𛃗 𛃘 𛃙 𛃚 𛃛 𛃜 𛃝 𛃞 𛃟

U+1B0Ex 𛃠 𛃡 𛃢 𛃣 𛃤 𛃥 𛃦 𛃧 𛃨 𛃩 𛃪 𛃫 𛃬 𛃭 𛃮 𛃯

U+1B0Fx 𛃰 𛃱 𛃲 𛃳 𛃴 𛃵 𛃶 𛃷 𛃸 𛃹 𛃺 𛃻 𛃼 𛃽 𛃾 𛃿

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0

Kana
Kana
Extended-A[1][2] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+1B10x 𛄀 𛄁 𛄂 𛄃 𛄄 𛄅 𛄆 𛄇 𛄈 𛄉 𛄊 𛄋 𛄌 𛄍 𛄎 𛄏

U+1B11x 𛄐 𛄑 𛄒 𛄓 𛄔 𛄕 𛄖 𛄗 𛄘 𛄙 𛄚 𛄛 𛄜 𛄝 𛄞

U+1B12x

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

See also[edit]

Japanese writing

Components

Kanji

Stroke order Radicals Kyōiku kanji Jōyō kanji Jinmeiyō kanji Hyōgai kanji List of kanji by stroke count List of kanji by concept

Kana

Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Man'yōgana Sogana Gojūon

Typographic symbols

Japanese punctuation Iteration mark

Uses

Syllabograms

Furigana Okurigana Braille

Romanization

Rōmaji

Hepburn (colloquial) Kunrei (ISO) Nihon (ISO transliteration) JSL (transliteration) Wāpuro (keyboard)

v t e

Gojūon Romanization of Japanese Transliteration
Transliteration
and Transcription (linguistics) Historical kana orthography Man'yōgana Hentaigana

References[edit]

^ Thomas E. McAuley, Language change in East Asia, 2001:90 ^ Hatasa, Yukiko Abe; Kazumi Hatasa; Seiichi Makino (2010). Nakama 1: Introductory Japanese: Communication, Culture, Context 2nd ed. Heinle. p. 2. ISBN 0495798185.  ^ a b Seeley, Christopher (1991). A History of Writing
Writing
in Japan. pp. 109 (footnote 18). ISBN 90 04 09081 9.  ^ a b c "Is there a kana symbol for ye or yi?". SLJ FAQ. Retrieved 4 August 2016.  ^ a b c Katō, Nozomu (2008-01-14). "JTC1/SC2/WG2 N3388: Proposal to encode two Kana
Kana
characters concerning YE" (PDF). Retrieved 4 August 2016.  ^ a b " Kana
Kana
Supplement" (PDF). Unicode
Unicode
6.0. Unicode. 2010. Retrieved 22 June 2016.  ^ More information is available at ja:ヤ行
on the Japanese Wikipedia. ^ http://www.raccoonbend.com/languages/canna.html ^ Katō, Nozomu. "L2/08-359: About WG2 N3528" (PDF).  ^ a b https://web.archive.org/web/20080303234206/http://www.geocities.jp/itikun01/hibi/zat2.html ^ More information is available at ja:わ行う, ja:ヤ行
and ja:五十音#51全てが異なる字・音: 江戸後期から明治 on the Japanese. ^ " Writing
Writing
reforms in modern Japan".  ^ https://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/U1B000.pdf ^ https://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/U1B100.pdf

External links[edit]

Hiragana
Hiragana
& katakana chart and writing practice sheet Practice pronunciation and stroke order of Kana Origin of Hiragana Origin of Katakana Kana
Kana
web translator - Transliterate Kana
Kana
to Rōmaji Kana
Kana
Copybook (PDF)

v t e

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Wasei-eigo Engrish Honorific speech Honorifics Court lady language (nyōbō kotoba) Gender differences Dictionaries

Phonology

Pitch accent Sound symbolism Rendaku

Transliteration

Romanization

Hepburn Nihon-shiki Kunrei JSL Wāpuro rōmaji

Cyrillization

Literature

Books Poetry Writers Classical Japanese

texts

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Types of writing systems

Overview

History of writing Grapheme

Lists

Writing
Writing
systems

undeciphered inventors constructed

Languages by writing system / by first written accounts

Types

Abjads

Numerals

Aramaic

Hatran

Arabic Pitman shorthand Hebrew

Ashuri Cursive Rashi Solitreo

Tifinagh Manichaean Nabataean Old North Arabian Pahlavi Pegon Phoenician

Paleo-Hebrew

Proto-Sinaitic Psalter Punic Samaritan South Arabian

Zabur Musnad

Sogdian Syriac

ʾEsṭrangēlā Serṭā Maḏnḥāyā

Teeline Shorthand Ugaritic

Abugidas

Brahmic

Northern

Asamiya (Ôxômiya) Bānglā Bhaikshuki Bhujinmol Brāhmī Devanāgarī Dogri Gujarati Gupta Gurmukhī Kaithi Kalinga Khojki Khotanese Khudawadi Laṇḍā Lepcha Limbu Mahajani Meitei Mayek Modi Multani Nāgarī Nandinagari Odia 'Phags-pa Newar Ranjana Sharada Saurashtra Siddhaṃ Soyombo Sylheti Nagari Takri Tibetan

Uchen Umê

Tirhuta Tocharian Zanabazar Square Zhang-Zhung

Drusha Marchen Marchung Pungs-chen Pungs-chung

Southern

Ahom Balinese Batak Baybayin Bhattiprolu Buhid Burmese Chakma Cham Grantha Goykanadi Hanunó'o Javanese Kadamba Kannada Karen Kawi Khmer Kulitan Lanna Lao Leke Lontara Malayalam Maldivian

Dhives Akuru Eveyla Akuru Thaana

Mon Old Makassarese Old Sundanese Pallava Pyu Rejang Rencong Sinhala Sundanese Tagbanwa Tai Le Tai Tham Tai Viet Tamil Telugu Thai Tigalari Vatteluttu

Kolezhuthu Malayanma

Visayan

Others

Boyd's syllabic shorthand Canadian syllabics

Blackfoot Déné syllabics

Fox I Ge'ez Gunjala Gondi Japanese Braille Jenticha Kayah Li Kharosthi Mandombe Masaram Gondi Meroitic Miao Mwangwego Sorang Sompeng Pahawh Hmong Thomas Natural Shorthand

Alphabets

Linear

Abkhaz Adlam Armenian Avestan Avoiuli Bassa Vah Borama Carian Caucasian Albanian Coorgi–Cox alphabet Coptic Cyrillic Deseret Duployan shorthand

Chinook writing

Early Cyrillic Eclectic shorthand Elbasan Etruscan Evenki Fox II Fraser Gabelsberger shorthand Garay Georgian

Asomtavruli Nuskhuri Mkhedruli

Glagolitic Gothic Gregg shorthand Greek Greco-Iberian alphabet Hangul Hanifi IPA Kaddare Latin

Beneventan Blackletter Carolingian minuscule Fraktur Gaelic Insular Kurrent Merovingian Sigla Sütterlin Tironian notes Visigothic

Luo Lycian Lydian Manchu Mandaic Medefaidrin Molodtsov Mongolian Mru Neo-Tifinagh New Tai Lue N'Ko Ogham Oirat Ol Chiki Old Hungarian Old Italic Old Permic Orkhon Old Uyghur Osage Osmanya Pau Cin Hau Runic

Anglo-Saxon Cipher Dalecarlian Elder Futhark Younger Futhark Gothic Marcomannic Medieval Staveless

Sidetic Shavian Somali Tifinagh Vagindra Visible Speech Vithkuqi Wancho Zaghawa

Non-linear

Braille Maritime flags Morse code New York Point Semaphore line Flag semaphore Moon type

Ideograms/Pictograms

Adinkra Aztec Blissymbol Dongba Ersu Shaba Emoji IConji Isotype Kaidā Míkmaq Mixtec New Epoch Notation Painting Nsibidi Ojibwe Hieroglyphs Siglas poveiras Testerian Yerkish Zapotec

Logograms

Chinese family of scripts

Chinese Characters

Simplified Traditional Oracle bone script Bronze Script Seal Script

large small bird-worm

Hanja Idu Kanji Chữ nôm Zhuang

Chinese-influenced

Jurchen Khitan large script Sui Tangut

Cuneiform

Akkadian Assyrian Elamite Hittite Luwian Sumerian

Other logo-syllabic

Anatolian Bagam Cretan Isthmian Maya Proto-Elamite Yi (Classical)

Logo-consonantal

Demotic Hieratic Hieroglyphs

Numerals

Hindu-Arabic Abjad Attic (Greek) Muisca Roman

Semi-syllabaries

Full

Celtiberian Northeastern Iberian Southeastern Iberian Khom

Redundant

Espanca Pahawh Hmong Khitan small script Southwest Paleohispanic Zhuyin fuhao

Somacheirograms

ASLwrite SignWriting si5s Stokoe Notation

Syllabaries

Afaka Bamum Bété Byblos Cherokee Cypriot Cypro-Minoan Ditema tsa Dinoko Eskayan Geba Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics Iban Japanese

Hiragana Katakana Man'yōgana Hentaigana Sogana Jindai moji

Kikakui Kpelle Linear B Linear Elamite Lisu Loma Nüshu Nwagu Aneke script Old Persian Cuneiform Vai Woleai Yi (Modern) Yugtun

v t e

Braille
Braille
 ⠃⠗⠁⠊⠇⠇⠑

Braille
Braille
cell

1829 braille International uniformity ASCII braille Unicode
Unicode
braille patterns

Braille
Braille
scripts

French-ordered scripts (see for more)

Albanian Amharic Arabic Armenian Azerbaijani Belarusian Bharati

Devanagari
Devanagari
(Hindi  / Marathi  / Nepali) Bengali Punjabi Sinhalese Tamil Urdu etc.

Bulgarian Burmese Cambodian Cantonese Catalan Chinese (Mandarin, mainland) Czech Dutch Dzongkha (Bhutanese) English (Unified English) Esperanto Estonian Faroese French Georgian German Ghanaian Greek Guarani Hawaiian Hebrew Hungarian Icelandic Inuktitut (reassigned vowels) Iñupiaq IPA Irish Italian Kazakh Kyrgyz Latvian Lithuanian Maltese Mongolian Māori Navajo Nigerian Northern Sami Persian Philippine Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Samoan Scandinavian Slovak South African Spanish Tatar Taiwanese Mandarin (largely reassigned) Thai & Lao (Japanese vowels) Tibetan Turkish Ukrainian Vietnamese Welsh Yugoslav

Reordered scripts

Algerian Braille
Braille
(obsolete)

Frequency-based scripts

American Braille
Braille
(obsolete)

Independent scripts

Japanese Korean Two-Cell Chinese

Eight-dot scripts

Luxembourgish Kanji Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8)

Symbols in braille

Braille
Braille
music Canadian currency marks Computer Braille
Braille
Code Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8/GS6) International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
(IPA) Nemeth braille code

Braille
Braille
technology

Braille
Braille
e-book Braille
Braille
embosser Braille
Braille
translator Braille
Braille
watch Mountbatten Brailler Optical braille recognition Perforation Perkins Brailler Refreshable braille display Slate and stylus Braigo

Persons

Louis Braille Charles Barbier Valentin Haüy Thakur Vishva Narain Singh Sabriye Tenberken William Bell Wait

Organisations

Braille
Braille
Institute of America Braille
Braille
Without Borders Japan
Japan
Braille
Braille
Library National Braille
Braille
Association Blindness organizations Schools for the blind American Printing House for the Blind

Other tactile alphabets

Decapoint Moon type New York Point Night writing Vibratese

Related topics

Accessible publishing Braille
Braille
literacy RoboBraille

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Electronic writing systems

Emoticons Emoji iConji Leet Unicode

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Internet slang
Internet slang
dialects

3arabizi Alay (Indonesia) Denglisch Doge Fingilish (Persian) Greeklish Gyaru-moji (Japan) Jejemon (Philippines) Leet
Leet
("1337") Lolspeak / LOLspeak / Kitteh Martian language (Chinese) Miguxês (Portuguese) Padonkaffsky jargon
Padonkaffsky jargon
(Russian) Translit Volapuk

See also English internet slang (at Wiktionary) SMS language

Authority control

LCCN: sh85069661 BNF: cb12544656c (data) NDL: 00564829 BN

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