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Lady Justice
Justice
is an allegorical personification of the moral force in judicial systems.[1][2] Her attributes are a blindfold, a balance, and a sword. She often appears as a pair with Prudentia, who holds a mirror and a snake. Lady Justice
Justice
originates from the personification of Justice
Justice
in Ancient Roman art known as Iustitia or Justitia
Justitia
after Latin: Iustitia,[3] who is equivalent to the Greek goddesses Themis
Themis
and Dike.

Contents

1 The Goddess Iustitia 2 Depiction

2.1 Scales 2.2 Blindfold 2.3 Sword 2.4 Toga

3 Lady Justice
Justice
in art 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

The Goddess Iustitia[edit] The origin of Lady Justice
Justice
was Iustitia, the goddess of Justice
Justice
within Roman mythology. Iustitia was introduced by emperor Augustus, and was thus not a very old deity in the Roman pantheon. Iustice was one of the virtues celebrated by emperor Augustus
Augustus
in his clipeus virtutis, and a Temple of Iustitia was established in Rome 8 January 13 CE by emperor Tiberius.[3] Iustitia became a symbol for the virtue of justice that every emperor wished to associate his regime with; emperor Vespasian
Vespasian
minted coins with the image of the goddess seated on a throne called Iustitia Augusta, and many emperors after him used the image of the goddess to proclaim themselves protectors of justice.[3] Though formally called a goddess with her own temple and cult shrine in Rome, it appears that she was from the onset viewed more as an artistic symbolic personification rather than as an actual deity with religious significance. Depiction[edit]

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The Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead
Book of the Dead
depicts a scene in which a deceased person's heart is weighed against the feather of truth.

The personification of justice balancing the scales dates back to the Goddess Maat, and later Isis, of ancient Egypt. The Hellenic deities Themis
Themis
and Dike were later goddesses of justice. Themis
Themis
was the embodiment of divine order, law, and custom, in her aspect as the personification of the divine rightness of law. There are three distinctive features of Lady Justice: a set of scales, a blindfold, and a sword. Scales[edit] Lady Justice
Justice
is most often depicted with a set of scales typically suspended from her left hand, upon which she measures the strengths of a case's support and opposition. The depiction dates back to ancient Egypt, where the God Anubis
Anubis
was frequently depicted with a set of scales on which he weighed a deceased's heart against the Feather of Truth.[4] The Greek goddess Dike is depicted holding a set of scales. Bacchylides, Fragment 5 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric IV) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.):

If some god had been holding level the balance of Dike (Justice).

The scales represent the weighing of evidence, and the scales lack a foundation in order to signify that evidence should stand on its own. Blindfold[edit]

18th-century Lady Justice
Justice
at the Castellania

Since the 16th century, Lady Justice
Justice
has often been depicted wearing a blindfold. The blindfold represents impartiality, the ideal that justice should be applied without regard to wealth, power, or other status. The earliest Roman coins depicted Justitia
Justitia
with the sword in one hand and the scale in the other, but with her eyes uncovered.[5] Justitia
Justitia
was only commonly represented as "blind" since about the end of the 15th century. The first known representation of blind Justice is Hans Gieng's 1543 statue on the Gerechtigkeitsbrunnen (Fountain of Justice) in Berne.[6] Instead of using the Janus
Janus
approach, many sculptures simply leave out the blindfold altogether. For example, atop the Old Bailey
Old Bailey
courthouse in London, a statue of Lady Justice
Justice
stands without a blindfold;[7] the courthouse brochures explain that this is because Lady Justice
Justice
was originally not blindfolded, and because her "maidenly form" is supposed to guarantee her impartiality which renders the blindfold redundant.[8] Another variation is to depict a blindfolded Lady Justice
Justice
as a human scale, weighing competing claims in each hand. An example of this can be seen at the Shelby County Courthouse in Memphis, Tennessee.[9] The cover of a 2006 issue of Rolling Stone proclaimed TIME TO GO!, focusing on the perceived corruption that dominated Congress. The drawing showed a bunch of figures evoking reactionary politics emerging from the Capitol. One of the figures was Lady Justice
Justice
lifting her blindfold, implying that the then-composition of Congress had politicized the criminal justice system. Sword[edit] The last distinctive feature of Lady Justice
Justice
is her sword. The sword represented authority in ancient times, and conveys the idea that justice can be swift and final.[4] Toga[edit] The Greco-Roman
Greco-Roman
garment symbolizes the status of the philosophical attitude that embodies justice.[4][unreliable source?] Lady Justice
Justice
in art[edit]

Justice
Justice
in sculpture

Lady Justice
Justice
with sword, scales and blindfold on the Gerechtigkeitsbrunnen in Berne, Switzerland—1543

The Justice, in front of the Supreme Court of Brazil

Lady Justice
Justice
seated at the entrance of The Palace of Justice, Rome, Italy

Sculpture of Lady Justice
Justice
on the Gerechtigkeitsbrunnen (Frankfurt) (de) in Frankfurt, Germany

Justitia, outside the Supreme Court of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

The Central Criminal Court or Old Bailey, London, UK

Themis, Itojyuku, Shibuya-ku, Japan

19th-century sculpture of the Power of Law at Olomouc, Czech Republic—lacks the blindfold and scales of Justice, replacing the latter with a book

Themis, Chuo University, Tama-shi, Japan

Themis, Chuo University
Chuo University
Suginami high school, Suginami-ku, Japan

The Law, by Jean Feuchère

Shelby County Courthouse, Memphis, Tennessee, United States

Justitia, Tehran
Tehran
courthouse, Tehran, Iran

Themis, outside the Supreme Court of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

Justice
Justice
by Diana Moore, Government Center, Newark, New Jersey

Justitia
Justitia
in the Superior Courts Building in Budapest, Hungary

Justice
Justice
in painting

Fresco in the Sala di Costantino (it), Raphael
Raphael
Rooms, Raphael, c. 1520

Gerechtigkeit, Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1537

Luca Giordano, Palazzo Medici Riccardi
Palazzo Medici Riccardi
in Florence, 1684–1686

Justitia
Justitia
(Spitzweg) (de), Carl Spitzweg, c. 1857

Lady Justice
Justice
and her symbols are used in heraldry, especially in the arms of legal government agencies.

Justice
Justice
in heraldry

Justitia
Justitia
in arms of Ilshofen in Baden-Württemberg

Scales and sword in the arms of a Swedish court of law

Scales balanced on a sword in the arms of Hörby

Prudentia
Prudentia
and Justitia
Justitia
as supporters in the armorial achievement of Landskrona

Justice
Justice
in numismatics

Justice
Justice
holding scales, $0.50 U.S. fractional currency.

See also[edit]

(Goddesses of Justice): Astraea, Dike, Themis, Prudentia (Goddesses of Injustice): Adikia (Aspects of Justice): (see also: Triple goddess/Triple goddesses/Triple deity/Triple Goddess (neopaganism))

(Justice) Themis/Dike/ Justitia
Justitia
(Lady Justice), Raguel (the Angel of Justice) (Retribution) Nemesis/Rhamnousia/Rhamnusia/Adrasteia/Adrestia/Invidia (Redemption) Eleos/Soteria/Clementia, Zadkiel/ Zachariel (the Angel of Mercy)

5 Astraea, 24 Themis, 99 Dike and 269 Justitia, main belt asteroids all named for Astraea, Themis, Dike and Justitia, Classical goddesses of justice. Durga, Hindu
Hindu
goddess of justice Lady Luck Lady Liberty

References[edit]

^ Hamilton, Marci. God vs. the Gavel, page 296 (Cambridge University Press 2005): "The symbol of the judicial system, seen in courtrooms throughout the United States, is blindfolded Lady Justice." ^ Fabri, The challenge of change for judicial systems, page 137 (IOS Press 2000): "the judicial system is intended to be apolitical, its symbol being that of a blindfolded Lady Justice
Justice
holding balanced scales." ^ a b c "IUSTITIA". treccani.it.  ^ a b c Brent T. Edwards. "Symbolism of Lady Justice". Retrieved 24 February 2017.  ^ See "The Scales of Justice
Justice
as Represented in Engravings, Emblems, Reliefs and Sculptures of Early Modern Europe" in G. Lamoine, ed., Images et representations de la justice du XVie au XIXe siecle (Toulouse: University of Toulose-Le Mirail, 1983)" at page 8. ^ Image of Lady Justice
Justice
in Berne. ^ Image of Lady Justice
Justice
in London. ^ Colomb, Gregory. Designs on Truth, p. 50 (Penn State Press, 1992). ^ Image of Lady Justice
Justice
in Memphis.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Iustitia.

DOJ Seal - History and Motto Origin of Lady of Justice Images of the Goddess of Justice Photos of Lady Justice ladyjusticesculpture.com

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 25397

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