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Justinian I
Justinian I
(/dʒʌˈstɪniən/; Latin: Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ἰουστινιανός Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; c. 482 – 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint
Saint
Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church,[3][4] was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire. Justinian's rule constitutes a distinct epoch in the history of the Later Roman empire, and his reign is marked by the ambitious but only partly realized renovatio imperii, or "restoration of the Empire".[5] Because of his restoration activities, Justinian has sometimes been known as the "last Roman" in modern historiography.[6] This ambition was expressed by the partial recovery of the territories of the defunct Western Roman Empire.[7] His general, Belisarius, swiftly conquered the Vandal Kingdom
Vandal Kingdom
in North Africa. Subsequently, Belisarius, Narses, and other generals conquered the Ostrogothic kingdom, restoring Dalmatia, Sicily, Italy, and Rome
Rome
to the empire after more than half a century of rule by the Ostrogoths. The prefect Liberius reclaimed the south of the Iberian peninsula, establishing the province of Spania. These campaigns re-established Roman control over the western Mediterranean, increasing the Empire's annual revenue by over a million solidi.[8] During his reign Justinian also subdued the Tzani, a people on the east coast of the Black Sea
Black Sea
that had never been under Roman rule before.[9] A still more resonant aspect of his legacy was the uniform rewriting of Roman law, the Corpus Juris Civilis, which is still the basis of civil law in many modern states.[10] His reign also marked a blossoming of Byzantine culture, and his building program yielded such masterpieces as the church of Hagia Sophia. A devastating outbreak of bubonic plague in the early 540s marked the end of an age of splendour.

Contents

1 Life 2 Reign

2.1 Legislative activities 2.2 Nika riots 2.3 Military activities

2.3.1 War with the Sassanid Empire, 527–532 2.3.2 Conquest of North Africa, 533–534 2.3.3 War in Italy, first phase, 535–540 2.3.4 War with the Sassanid Empire, 540–562 2.3.5 War in Italy, second phase, 541–554 2.3.6 Other campaigns

2.4 Results 2.5 Religious activities

2.5.1 Religious policy 2.5.2 Religious relations with Rome 2.5.3 Suppression of other religions and philosophies

2.6 Architecture, learning, art and literature 2.7 Economy and administration

3 Natural disasters 4 Cultural depictions 5 Historical sources 6 See also 7 Notes 8 Primary sources 9 Bibliography 10 External links

Life[edit]

The ancient town of Tauresium, the birthplace of Justinian I, located in today's Republic of Macedonia

Justinian was born in Tauresium[11] around 482. A native speaker of Latin
Latin
(possibly the last Roman emperor to be one[12]), he came from a peasant family believed to have been of Illyro-Roman[13][14][15] or Thraco-Roman
Thraco-Roman
origins.[16][17][18] The cognomen Iustinianus, which he took later, is indicative of adoption by his uncle Justin.[19] During his reign, he founded Justiniana Prima
Justiniana Prima
not far from his birthplace, which today is in South East Serbia.[20][21][22] His mother was Vigilantia, the sister of Justin. Justin, who was in the imperial guard (the Excubitors) before he became emperor,[23] adopted Justinian, brought him to Constantinople, and ensured the boy's education.[23] As a result, Justinian was well educated in jurisprudence, theology and Roman history.[23] Justinian served for some time with the Excubitors
Excubitors
but the details of his early career are unknown.[23] Chronicler John Malalas, who lived during the reign of Justinian, tells of his appearance that he was short, fair skinned, curly haired, round faced and handsome. Another contemporary chronicler, Procopius, compares Justinian's appearance to that of tyrannical Emperor Domitian, although this is probably slander.[24] When Emperor Anastasius died in 518, Justin was proclaimed the new emperor, with significant help from Justinian.[23] During Justin's reign (518–527), Justinian was the emperor's close confidant. Justinian showed much ambition, and it has been thought that he was functioning as virtual regent long before Justin made him associate emperor on 1 April 527, although there is no conclusive evidence for this.[25] As Justin became senile near the end of his reign, Justinian became the de facto ruler.[23] Justinian was appointed consul in 521 and later commander of the army of the east.[23][26] Upon Justin's death on 1 August 527, Justinian became the sole sovereign.[23] As a ruler, Justinian showed great energy. He was known as "the emperor who never sleeps" on account of his work habits. Nevertheless, he seems to have been amiable and easy to approach.[27] Around 525, he married his mistress, Theodora, in Constantinople. She was by profession a courtesan and some twenty years his junior. In earlier times, Justinian could not have married her because of her class, but his uncle, Emperor Justin I, had passed a law allowing intermarriage between social classes.[28][29] Theodora would become very influential in the politics of the Empire, and later emperors would follow Justinian's precedent in marrying outside the aristocratic class. The marriage caused a scandal, but Theodora would prove to be a shrewd judge of character and Justinian's greatest supporter. Other talented individuals included Tribonian, his legal adviser; Peter the Patrician, the diplomat and longtime head of the palace bureaucracy; Justinian's finance ministers John the Cappadocian
John the Cappadocian
and Peter Barsymes, who managed to collect taxes more efficiently than any before, thereby funding Justinian's wars; and finally, his prodigiously talented generals, Belisarius
Belisarius
and Narses. Justinian's rule was not universally popular; early in his reign he nearly lost his throne during the Nika riots, and a conspiracy against the emperor's life by dissatisfied businessmen was discovered as late as 562.[30] Justinian was struck by the plague in the early 540s but recovered. Theodora died in 548[31] at a relatively young age, possibly of cancer; Justinian outlived her by nearly twenty years. Justinian, who had always had a keen interest in theological matters and actively participated in debates on Christian doctrine,[32] became even more devoted to religion during the later years of his life. When he died on 14 November 565, he left no children, though his wife Theodora had given birth to a stillborn son several years into his reign. He was succeeded by Justin II, who was the son of his sister Vigilantia and married to Sophia, the niece of Empress Theodora. Justinian's body was entombed in a specially built mausoleum in the Church of the Holy Apostles
Church of the Holy Apostles
until it was desecrated and robbed during the pillage of the city in 1204 by the Latin
Latin
States of the Fourth Crusade.[33] Reign[edit] Legislative activities[edit] Main article: Corpus Juris Civilis

The Barberini Ivory, which is thought to portray either Justinian or Anastasius I

Justinian achieved lasting fame through his judicial reforms, particularly through the complete revision of all Roman law,[34] something that had not previously been attempted. The total of Justinian's legislature is known today as the Corpus juris civilis. It consists of the Codex Iustinianus, the Digesta or Pandectae, the Institutiones, and the Novellae. Early in his reign, Justinian appointed the quaestor Tribonian
Tribonian
to oversee this task. The first draft of the Codex Iustinianus, a codification of imperial constitutions from the 2nd century onward, was issued on 7 April 529. (The final version appeared in 534.) It was followed by the Digesta (or Pandectae), a compilation of older legal texts, in 533, and by the Institutiones, a textbook explaining the principles of law. The Novellae, a collection of new laws issued during Justinian's reign, supplements the Corpus. As opposed to the rest of the corpus, the Novellae appeared in Greek, the common language of the Eastern Empire. The Corpus forms the basis of Latin
Latin
jurisprudence (including ecclesiastical Canon Law) and, for historians, provides a valuable insight into the concerns and activities of the later Roman Empire. As a collection it gathers together the many sources in which the leges (laws) and the other rules were expressed or published: proper laws, senatorial consults (senatusconsulta), imperial decrees, case law, and jurists' opinions and interpretations (responsa prudentum). Tribonian's code ensured the survival of Roman law. It formed the basis of later Byzantine law, as expressed in the Basilika of Basil I and Leo VI the Wise. The only western province where the Justinianic code was introduced was Italy
Italy
(after the conquest by the so-called Pragmatic Sanction of 554),[35] from where it was to pass to Western Europe in the 12th century and become the basis of much European law code. It eventually passed to Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
where it appeared in Slavic editions, and it also passed on to Russia.[36] It remains influential to this day. He passed laws to protect prostitutes from exploitation and women from being forced into prostitution. Rapists were treated severely. Further, by his policies: women charged with major crimes should be guarded by other women to prevent sexual abuse; if a woman was widowed, her dowry should be returned; and a husband could not take on a major debt without his wife giving her consent twice.[37] Nika riots[edit] Main article: Nika riots Justinian's habit of choosing efficient, but unpopular advisers nearly cost him his throne early in his reign. In January 532, partisans of the chariot racing factions in Constantinople, normally divided among themselves, united against Justinian in a revolt that has become known as the Nika riots. They forced him to dismiss Tribonian
Tribonian
and two of his other ministers, and then attempted to overthrow Justinian himself and replace him with the senator Hypatius, who was a nephew of the late emperor Anastasius. While the crowd was rioting in the streets, Justinian considered fleeing the capital by sea, but eventually decided to stay, apparently on the prompting of Theodora, who refused to leave. In the next two days, he ordered the brutal suppression of the riots by his generals Belisarius
Belisarius
and Mundus. Procopius
Procopius
relates that 30,000[38] unarmed civilians were killed in the Hippodrome. On Theodora's insistence, and apparently against his own judgment,[39] Justinian had Anastasius' nephews executed.[40] The destruction that had taken place during the revolt provided Justinian with an opportunity to tie his name to a series of splendid new buildings, most notably the architectural innovation of the domed Hagia Sophia. Military activities[edit]

v t e

Wars of Justinian I

Iberian War

Thannuris Dara Satala Callinicum

Vandalic War
Vandalic War
and Moorish Wars

Ad Decimum Tricamarum Mammes and Bourgaon Babosis and Zerboule Cillium Marta Fields of Cato

Gothic War

1st Naples 1st Rome Treviso Verona Faventia Mucellium 2nd Naples 2nd Rome 3rd Rome Sena Gallica Taginae Mons Lactarius Volturnus

Lazic War

Petra Phasis

Other

Conquest of Spania Melantias

One of the most spectacular features of Justinian's reign was the recovery of large stretches of land around the Western Mediterranean basin that had slipped out of Imperial control in the 5th century.[41] As a Christian Roman emperor, Justinian considered it his divine duty to restore the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
to its ancient boundaries. Although he never personally took part in military campaigns, he boasted of his successes in the prefaces to his laws and had them commemorated in art.[42] The re-conquests were in large part carried out by his general Belisarius.[43] War with the Sassanid Empire, 527–532[edit] Main article: Iberian War From his uncle, Justinian inherited ongoing hostilities with the Sassanid Empire.[44] In 530 a Persian army was defeated at Dara, but the next year saw the defeat of Roman forces under Belisarius
Belisarius
near Callinicum. When king Kavadh I of Persia
Kavadh I of Persia
died (September 531), Justinian concluded an "Eternal Peace" (which cost him 11,000 pounds of gold)[45] with his successor Khosrau I
Khosrau I
(532). Having thus secured his eastern frontier, Justinian turned his attention to the West, where Germanic kingdoms had been established in the territories of the former Western Roman Empire. Conquest of North Africa, 533–534[edit] Main article: Vandalic War

An older Justinian; mosaic in Basilica
Basilica
of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna
Ravenna
(possibly a modified portrait of Theodoric)

The first of the western kingdoms Justinian attacked was that of the Vandals
Vandals
in North Africa. King Hilderic, who had maintained good relations with Justinian and the North African Catholic clergy, had been overthrown by his cousin Gelimer
Gelimer
in 530 A.D. Imprisoned, the deposed king appealed to Justinian. In 533, Belisarius
Belisarius
sailed to Africa
Africa
with a fleet of 92 dromons, escorting 500 transports carrying an army of about 15,000 men, as well as a number of barbarian troops. They landed at Caput Vada (modern Ras Kaboudia) in modern Tunisia. They defeated the Vandals, who were caught completely off guard, at Ad Decimum
Ad Decimum
on 14 September 533 and Tricamarum in December; Belisarius
Belisarius
took Carthage. King Gelimer
Gelimer
fled to Mount Pappua in Numidia, but surrendered the next spring. He was taken to Constantinople, where he was paraded in a triumph. Sardinia
Sardinia
and Corsica, the Balearic Islands, and the stronghold Septem Fratres near Gibraltar
Gibraltar
were recovered in the same campaign.[46] An African prefecture, centered in Carthage, was established in April 534,[47] but it would teeter on the brink of collapse during the next 15 years, amidst warfare with the Moors
Moors
and military mutinies. The area was not completely pacified until 548,[48] but remained peaceful thereafter and enjoyed a measure of prosperity. The recovery of Africa cost the empire about 100,000 pounds of gold.[49] War in Italy, first phase, 535–540[edit] Main article: Gothic War (535–554) As in Africa, dynastic struggles in Ostrogothic Italy
Ostrogothic Italy
provided an opportunity for intervention. The young king Athalaric
Athalaric
had died on 2 October 534, and a usurper, Theodahad, had imprisoned queen Amalasuntha, Theodoric's daughter and mother of Athalaric, on the island of Martana in Lake Bolsena, where he had her assassinated in 535. Thereupon Belisarius
Belisarius
with 7,500 men,[50] invaded Sicily
Sicily
(535) and advanced into Italy, sacking Naples
Naples
and capturing Rome
Rome
on 9 December 536. By that time Theodahad
Theodahad
had been deposed by the Ostrogothic army, who had elected Vitigis
Vitigis
as their new king. He gathered a large army and besieged Rome
Rome
from February 537 to March 538 without being able to retake the city. Justinian sent another general, Narses, to Italy, but tensions between Narses
Narses
and Belisarius
Belisarius
hampered the progress of the campaign. Milan
Milan
was taken, but was soon recaptured and razed by the Ostrogoths. Justinian recalled Narses
Narses
in 539. By then the military situation had turned in favour of the Romans, and in 540 Belisarius
Belisarius
reached the Ostrogothic capital Ravenna. There he was offered the title of Western Roman Emperor by the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
at the same time that envoys of Justinian were arriving to negotiate a peace that would leave the region north of the Po River
Po River
in Gothic hands. Belisarius
Belisarius
feigned to accept the offer, entered the city in May 540, and reclaimed it for the Empire.[51] Then, having been recalled by Justinian, Belisarius returned to Constantinople, taking the captured Vitigis
Vitigis
and his wife Matasuntha with him. War with the Sassanid Empire, 540–562[edit]

Modern or early modern drawing of a medallion celebrating the reconquest of Africa, c. 535

Belisarius
Belisarius
had been recalled in the face of renewed hostilities by the Persians. Following a revolt against the Empire in Armenia in the late 530s and possibly motivated by the pleas of Ostrogothic ambassadors, King Khosrau I
Khosrau I
broke the "Eternal Peace" and invaded Roman territory in the spring of 540.[52] He first sacked Beroea and then Antioch (allowing the garrison of 6,000 men to leave the city),[53] besieged Daras, and then went on to attack the small but strategically significant satellite kingdom of Lazica near the Black Sea, exacting tribute from the towns he passed along his way. He forced Justinian I to pay him 5,000 pounds of gold, plus 500 pounds of gold more each year.[53] Belisarius
Belisarius
arrived in the East in 541, but after some success, was again recalled to Constantinople
Constantinople
in 542. The reasons for his withdrawal are not known, but it may have been instigated by rumours of disloyalty on behalf of the general reaching the court.[54] The outbreak of the plague caused a lull in the fighting during the year 543. The following year Khosrau defeated a Byzantine army of 30,000 men,[55] but unsuccessfully besieged the major city of Edessa. Both parties made little headway, and in 545 a truce was agreed upon for the southern part of the Roman-Persian frontier. After that the Lazic War in the North continued for several years, until a second truce in 557, followed by a Fifty Years' Peace in 562. Under its terms, the Persians agreed to abandon Lazica in exchange for an annual tribute of 400 or 500 pounds of gold (30,000 solidi) to be paid by the Romans.[56] War in Italy, second phase, 541–554[edit] While military efforts were directed to the East, the situation in Italy
Italy
took a turn for the worse. Under their respective kings Ildibad and Eraric
Eraric
(both murdered in 541) and especially Totila, the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
made quick gains. After a victory at Faenza
Faenza
in 542, they reconquered the major cities of Southern Italy
Italy
and soon held almost the entire Italian peninsula. Belisarius
Belisarius
was sent back to Italy
Italy
late in 544 but lacked sufficient troops and supplies. Making no headway, he was relieved of his command in 548. Belisarius
Belisarius
succeeded in defeating a Gothic fleet of 200 ships.[citation needed] During this period the city of Rome
Rome
changed hands three more times, first taken and depopulated by the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
in December 546, then reconquered by the Byzantines in 547, and then again by the Goths
Goths
in January 550. Totila
Totila
also plundered Sicily
Sicily
and attacked Greek coastlines. Finally, Justinian dispatched a force of approximately 35,000 men (2,000 men were detached and sent to invade southern Visigothic Hispania) under the command of Narses.[57] The army reached Ravenna
Ravenna
in June 552 and defeated the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
decisively within a month at the battle of Busta Gallorum in the Apennines, where Totila
Totila
was slain. After a second battle at Mons Lactarius in October that year, the resistance of the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
was finally broken. In 554, a large-scale Frankish invasion was defeated at Casilinum, and Italy
Italy
was secured for the Empire, though it would take Narses
Narses
several years to reduce the remaining Gothic strongholds. At the end of the war, Italy
Italy
was garrisoned with an army of 16,000 men.[58] The recovery of Italy
Italy
cost the empire about 300,000 pounds of gold.[49] Other campaigns[edit]

Spanish Visigothic
Visigothic
gold tremisses in the name of emperor Justinian I, 7th century. The Christian cross
Christian cross
on the breast defines the Visigothic attribution. British Museum.

In addition to the other conquests, the Empire established a presence in Visigothic
Visigothic
Hispania, when the usurper Athanagild
Athanagild
requested assistance in his rebellion against King Agila I. In 552, Justinian dispatched a force of 2,000 men; according to the historian Jordanes, this army was led by the octogenarian Liberius.[59] The Byzantines took Cartagena and other cities on the southeastern coast and founded the new province of Spania
Spania
before being checked by their former ally Athanagild, who had by now become king. This campaign marked the apogee of Byzantine expansion. During Justinian's reign, the Balkans
Balkans
suffered from several incursions by the Turkic and Slavic peoples
Slavic peoples
who lived north of the Danube. Here, Justinian resorted mainly to a combination of diplomacy and a system of defensive works. In 559 a particularly dangerous invasion of Sklavinoi and Kutrigurs
Kutrigurs
under their khan Zabergan threatened Constantinople, but they were repulsed by the aged general Belisarius. Results[edit]

Emperor Justinian reconquered many former territories of the Western Roman Empire, including Italy, Dalmatia, Africa, and southern Hispania.

Justinian's ambition to restore the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
to its former glory was only partly realized. In the West, the brilliant early military successes of the 530s were followed by years of stagnation. The dragging war with the Goths
Goths
was a disaster for Italy, even though its long-lasting effects may have been less severe than is sometimes thought.[60] The heavy taxes that the administration imposed upon its population were deeply resented. The final victory in Italy
Italy
and the conquest of Africa
Africa
and the coast of southern Hispania
Hispania
significantly enlarged the area over which the Empire could project its power and eliminated all naval threats to the empire. Despite losing much of Italy
Italy
soon after Justinian's death, the empire retained several important cities, including Rome, Naples, and Ravenna, leaving the Lombards as a regional threat. The newly founded province of Spania kept the Visigoths as a threat to Hispania
Hispania
alone and not to the western Mediterranean and Africa. Events of the later years of the reign showed that Constantinople
Constantinople
itself was not safe from barbarian incursions from the north, and even the relatively benevolent historian Menander Protector felt the need to attribute the Emperor's failure to protect the capital to the weakness of his body in his old age.[61] In his efforts to renew the Roman Empire, Justinian dangerously stretched its resources while failing to take into account the changed realities of 6th-century Europe.[62] Religious activities[edit] Justinian saw the orthodoxy of his empire threatened by diverging religious currents, especially Monophysitism, which had many adherents in the eastern provinces of Syria and Egypt. Monophysite doctrine, which maintains that Jesus Christ had one divine nature or a synthesis of a divine and human nature, had been condemned as a heresy by the Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
in 451, and the tolerant policies towards Monophysitism
Monophysitism
of Zeno and Anastasius I had been a source of tension in the relationship with the bishops of Rome. Justin reversed this trend and confirmed the Chalcedonian doctrine, openly condemning the Monophysites. Justinian, who continued this policy, tried to impose religious unity on his subjects by forcing them to accept doctrinal compromises that might appeal to all parties, a policy that proved unsuccessful as he satisfied none of them.[63] Near the end of his life, Justinian became ever more inclined towards the Monophysite doctrine, especially in the form of Aphthartodocetism, but he died before being able to issue any legislation. The empress Theodora sympathized with the Monophysites and is said to have been a constant source of pro-Monophysite intrigues at the court in Constantinople
Constantinople
in the earlier years. In the course of his reign, Justinian, who had a genuine interest in matters of theology, authored a small number of theological treatises.[64] Religious policy[edit]

Justinian I, depicted on an AE Follis coin

As in his secular administration, despotism appeared also in the Emperor's ecclesiastical policy. He regulated everything, both in religion and in law. At the very beginning of his reign, he deemed it proper to promulgate by law the Church's belief in the Trinity
Trinity
and the Incarnation; and to threaten all heretics with the appropriate penalties;[65] whereas he subsequently declared that he intended to deprive all disturbers of orthodoxy of the opportunity for such offense by due process of law.[66] He made the Nicaeno-Constantinopolitan creed the sole symbol of the Church[67] and accorded legal force to the canons of the four ecumenical councils.[68] The bishops in attendance at the Second Council of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 553 recognized that nothing could be done in the Church contrary to the emperor's will and command,[69] while, on his side, the emperor, in the case of the Patriarch Anthimus, reinforced the ban of the Church with temporal proscription.[70] Justinian protected the purity of the church by suppressing heretics. He neglected no opportunity for securing the rights of the Church and clergy, for protecting and extending monasticism. He granted the monks the right to inherit property from private citizens and the right to receive solemnia or annual gifts from the Imperial treasury or from the taxes of certain provinces and he prohibited lay confiscation of monastic estates. Although the despotic character of his measures is contrary to modern sensibilities, he was indeed a "nursing father" of the Church. Both the Codex and the Novellae contain many enactments regarding donations, foundations, and the administration of ecclesiastical property; election and rights of bishops, priests and abbots; monastic life, residential obligations of the clergy, conduct of divine service, episcopal jurisdiction, et cetera. Justinian also rebuilt the Church of Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
(which cost 20,000 pounds of gold),[71] the original site having been destroyed during the Nika riots. The new Hagia Sophia, with its numerous chapels and shrines, gilded octagonal dome, and mosaics, became the centre and most visible monument of Eastern Orthodoxy
Eastern Orthodoxy
in Constantinople. Religious relations with Rome[edit]

Consular diptych displaying Justinian's full name ( Constantinople
Constantinople
521)

From the middle of the 5th century onward, increasingly arduous tasks confronted the emperors of the East in ecclesiastical matters. Justinian entered the arena of ecclesiastical statecraft shortly after his uncle's accession in 518, and put an end to the Acacian schism. Previous Emperors had tried to alleviate theological conflicts by declarations that deemphasized the Council of Chalcedon, which had condemned Monophysitism, which had strongholds in Egypt
Egypt
and Syria, and by tolerating the appointment of Monophysites to church offices. The Popes reacted by severing ties with the Patriarch of Constantinople who supported these policies. Emperors Justin I
Justin I
(and later Justinian himself) rescinded these policies and reestablished the union between Constantinople
Constantinople
and Rome.[72] After this, Justinian also felt entitled to settle disputes in papal elections, as he did when he favoured Vigilius and had his rival Silverius deported. This new-found unity between East and West did not, however, solve the ongoing disputes in the east. Justinian's policies switched between attempts to force Monophysites to accept the Chalcedonian creed by persecuting their bishops and monks – thereby embittering their sympathizers in Egypt
Egypt
and other provinces – and attempts at a compromise that would win over the Monophysites without surrendering the Chalcedonian faith. Such an approach was supported by the Empress Theodora, who favoured the Monophysites unreservedly. In the condemnation of the Three Chapters, three theologians that had opposed Monophysitism
Monophysitism
before and after the Council of Chalcedon, Justinian tried to win over the opposition. At the Fifth Ecumenical
Ecumenical
Council, most of the Eastern church yielded to the Emperor's demands, and Pope Vigilius, who was forcibly brought to Constantinople
Constantinople
and besieged at a champel, finally also gave his assent. However, the condemnation was received unfavourably in the west, where it led to new (albeit temporal) schism, and failed to reach its goal in the east, as the Monophysites, remained unsatisfied; all the more bitter for him because during his last years he took an even greater interest in theological matters. Suppression of other religions and philosophies[edit]

Justinian was one of the first Roman Emperors to be depicted wielding the cross on the obverse of a coin.

Justinian's religious policy reflected the Imperial conviction that the unity of the Empire presupposed unity of faith, and it appeared to him obvious that this faith could only be the orthodox (Nicaean). Those of a different belief were subjected to persecution, which imperial legislation had effected from the time of Constantius II
Constantius II
and which would now vigorously continue. The Codex contained two statutes[73] that decreed the total destruction of paganism, even in private life; these provisions were zealously enforced. Contemporary sources (John Malalas, Theophanes, John of Ephesus) tell of severe persecutions, even of men in high position. In 529, the Neoplatonic Academy of Athens
Athens
was placed under state control as paganism, strangling this training school for this branch of Hellenistic philosophy.[dubious – discuss]. The original Platonic Academy
Platonic Academy
was destroyed most likely by the Roman dictator Sulla in 86 BCE.[74] Several centuries later, in 410 AD, a "revived" academy, which had no institutional continuity with Plato's school, was established as a center for Neoplatonism
Neoplatonism
and mysticism, persisting until 529 AD when it was finally closed by Justinian I. Other schools in Constantinople, Antioch
Antioch
and Alexandria, which were the centres of Justinian's empire, continued. In Asia Minor
Asia Minor
alone, John of Ephesus reported to have converted 70,000 pagans.[75] Other peoples also accepted Christianity: the Heruli,[76] the Huns
Huns
dwelling near the Don,[77] the Abasgi,[78] and the Tzanni
Tzanni
in Caucasia.[79] The worship of Amun
Amun
at oasis of Awjila
Awjila
in the Libyan desert was abolished;[80] and so were the remnants of the worship of Isis
Isis
on the island of Philae, at the first cataract of the Nile.[81] The Presbyter Julian[82] and the Bishop Longinus[83] conducted a mission among the Nabataeans, and Justinian attempted to strengthen Christianity
Christianity
in Yemen
Yemen
by despatching a bishop from Egypt.[84] The civil rights of Jews were restricted[85] and their religious privileges threatened.[86] Justinian also interfered in the internal affairs of the synagogue[87] and encouraged the Jews to use the Greek Septuagint
Septuagint
in their synagogues in Constantinople.[88] The Emperor faced significant opposition from the Samaritans, who resisted conversion to Christianity
Christianity
and were repeatedly in insurrection. He persecuted them with rigorous edicts, but yet could not prevent reprisals towards Christians from taking place in Samaria toward the close of his reign. The consistency of Justinian's policy meant that the Manicheans
Manicheans
too suffered persecution, experiencing both exile and threat of capital punishment.[89] At Constantinople, on one occasion, not a few Manicheans, after strict inquisition, were executed in the emperor's very presence: some by burning, others by drowning.[90] Architecture, learning, art and literature[edit]

The Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
in 2013

Justinian was a prolific builder; the historian Procopius
Procopius
bears witness to his activities in this area.[91] Under Justinian's patronage the San Vitale in Ravenna, which features two famous mosaics representing Justinian and Theodora, was completed.[23] Most notably, he had the Hagia Sophia, originally a basilica-style church that had been burnt down during the Nika riots, splendidly rebuilt according to a completely different ground plan, under the architectural supervision of Isidore of Miletus
Isidore of Miletus
and Anthemius
Anthemius
of Tralles. According to Procopius, Justinian stated at the completion of this edifice, "Solomon, I have outdone thee" (in reference to the first Jewish temple). This new cathedral, with its magnificent dome filled with mosaics, remained the centre of eastern Christianity
Christianity
for centuries. Another prominent church in the capital, the Church of the Holy Apostles, which had been in a very poor state near the end of the 5th century, was likewise rebuilt.[92] Works of embellishment were not confined to churches alone: excavations at the site of the Great Palace of Constantinople
Constantinople
have yielded several high-quality mosaics dating from Justinian's reign, and a column topped by a bronze statue of Justinian on horseback and dressed in a military costume was erected in the Augustaeum
Augustaeum
in Constantinople
Constantinople
in 543.[93] Rivalry with other, more established patrons from the Constantinopolitan and exiled Roman aristocracy (like Anicia Juliana) might have enforced Justinian's building activities in the capital as a means of strengthening his dynasty's prestige.[94] Justinian also strengthened the borders of the Empire from Africa
Africa
to the East through the construction of fortifications and ensured Constantinople
Constantinople
of its water supply through construction of underground cisterns (see Basilica
Basilica
Cistern). To prevent floods from damaging the strategically important border town Dara, an advanced arch dam was built. During his reign the large Sangarius Bridge
Sangarius Bridge
was built in Bithynia, securing a major military supply route to the east. Furthermore, Justinian restored cities damaged by earthquake or war and built a new city near his place of birth called Justiniana Prima, which was intended to replace Thessalonica
Thessalonica
as the political and religious centre of Illyricum. In Justinian's reign, and partly under his patronage, Byzantine culture produced noteworthy historians, including Procopius
Procopius
and Agathias, and poets such as Paul the Silentiary
Paul the Silentiary
and Romanus the Melodist flourished. On the other hand, centres of learning as the Neoplatonic Academy
Neoplatonic Academy
in Athens
Athens
and the famous Law School of Beirut[95] lost their importance during his reign. Despite Justinian's passion for the glorious Roman past, the practice of choosing Roman consul
Roman consul
was allowed to lapse after 541.[96] Economy and administration[edit] Further information: Byzantine silk

Gold coin of Justinian I
Justinian I
(527–565 CE) excavated in India
India
probably in the south, an example of Indo-Roman trade
Indo-Roman trade
during the period

As was the case under Justinian's predecessors, the Empire's economic health rested primarily on agriculture. In addition, long-distance trade flourished, reaching as far north as Cornwall
Cornwall
where tin was exchanged for Roman wheat.[97] Within the Empire, convoys sailing from Alexandria
Alexandria
provided Constantinople
Constantinople
with wheat and grains. Justinian made the traffic more efficient by building a large granary on the island of Tenedos for storage and further transport to Constantinople.[98] Justinian also tried to find new routes for the eastern trade, which was suffering badly from the wars with the Persians. One important luxury product was silk, which was imported and then processed in the Empire. In order to protect the manufacture of silk products, Justinian granted a monopoly to the imperial factories in 541.[99] In order to bypass the Persian landroute, Justinian established friendly relations with the Abyssinians, whom he wanted to act as trade mediators by transporting Indian silk to the Empire; the Abyssinians, however, were unable to compete with the Persian merchants in India.[100] Then, in the early 550s, two monks succeeded in smuggling eggs of silk worms from Central Asia
Central Asia
back to Constantinople,[101] and silk became an indigenous product. Gold and silver were mined in the Balkans, Anatolia, Armenia, Cyprus, Egypt
Egypt
and Nubia.[102]

Scene from daily life on a mosaic from the Great Palace of Constantinople, early 6th century

At the start of Justinian I's reign he had inherited a surplus 28,800,000 solidi (400,000 pounds of gold) in the imperial treasury from Anastasius I and Justin I.[49] Under Justinian's rule, measures were taken to counter corruption in the provinces and to make tax collection more efficient. Greater administrative power was given to both the leaders of the prefectures and of the provinces, while power was taken away from the vicariates of the dioceses, of which a number were abolished. The overall trend was towards a simplification of administrative infrastructure.[103] According to Brown (1971), the increased professionalization of tax collection did much to destroy the traditional structures of provincial life, as it weakened the autonomy of the town councils in the Greek towns.[104] It has been estimated that before Justinian I's reconquests the state had an annual revenue of 5,000,000 solidi in AD 530, but after his reconquests, the annual revenue was increased to 6,000,000 solidi in AD 550.[49] Throughout Justinian's reign, the cities and villages of the East prospered, although Antioch
Antioch
was struck by two earthquakes (526, 528) and sacked and evacuated by the Persians (540). Justinian had the city rebuilt, but on a slightly smaller scale.[105] Despite all these measures, the Empire suffered several major setbacks in the course of the 6th century. The first one was the plague, which lasted from 541 to 543 and, by decimating the Empire's population, probably created a scarcity of labor and a rising of wages.[106] The lack of manpower also led to a significant increase in the number of "barbarians" in the Byzantine armies after the early 540s.[107] The protracted war in Italy
Italy
and the wars with the Persians themselves laid a heavy burden on the Empire's resources, and Justinian was criticized for curtailing the government-run post service, which he limited to only one eastern route of military importance.[108] Natural disasters[edit] Main articles: 551 Beirut earthquake, Extreme weather events of 535–536, and Plague of Justinian During the decade of the 530s, it seemed to many that God had abandoned the Christian Roman Empire. There were noxious fumes in the air; and the Sun, while still providing day, refused to give much heat. This caused famine unlike anything those of the time had seen before, weakening the people of Europe and the Middle East. The cause of these disasters aren't precisely known, but the Rabaul caldera, Lake Ilopango
Lake Ilopango
and Krakatoa
Krakatoa
volcanoes or a collision with a swarm of meteors are all suspected. Scientists have spent decades on the mystery. Seven years later, in 542, a devastating outbreak of Bubonic Plague, known as the Plague of Justinian
Plague of Justinian
and second only to that of the 14th century, laid siege to the world, killing tens of millions. As ruler of the Empire, Justinian, and members of his court, were physically unaffected by famine. However, the Imperial Court did prove susceptible to plague, with Justinian himself contracting, but surviving, the pestilence. In July 551, the eastern Mediterranean was rocked by the 551 Beirut earthquake, which triggered a tsunami. The combined fatalities of both events probably exceeded 30,000, with tremors being felt from Antioch to Alexandria. Cultural depictions[edit] In the Paradiso section of the Divine Comedy
Divine Comedy
by Dante Alighieri, Justinian I
Justinian I
is prominently featured as a spirit residing on the sphere of Mercury, which holds the ambitious souls of Heaven. His legacy is elaborated on, and he is portrayed as a defender of the Christian faith and the restorer of Rome
Rome
to the Empire. However, Justinian confesses that he was partially motivated by fame rather than duty to God, which tainted the justice of his rule in spite of his proud accomplishments. In his introduction, "Cesare fui e son Iustinïano" ("Caesar I was, and am Justinian"[109]), his mortal title is contrasted with his immortal soul, to emphasize that glory in life is ephemeral, while contributing to God's glory is eternal, according to Dorothy L. Sayers.[110] Dante also uses Justinian to criticize the factious politics of his 14th Century Italy, in contrast to the unified Italy
Italy
of the Roman Empire. Justinian appears as a character in the 1939 time travel novel Lest Darkness Fall, by L. Sprague de Camp. The Glittering Horn: Secret Memoirs of the Court of Justinian was a novel written by Pierson Dixon in 1958 about the court of Justinian. Historical sources[edit] Procopius
Procopius
provides the primary source for the history of Justinian's reign. The Syriac chronicle of John of Ephesus, which does not survive, was used as a source for later chronicles, contributing many additional details of value. Both historians became very bitter towards Justinian and his empress, Theodora.[111] Other sources include the histories of Agathias, Menander Protector, John Malalas, the Paschal Chronicle, the chronicles of Marcellinus Comes and Victor of Tunnuna. Justinian is widely regarded as a saint by Orthodox Christians, and is also commemorated by some Lutheran churches on 14 November.[112] See also[edit]

Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
portal

Flavia (gens) List of Byzantine emperors

Notes[edit]

^ Britannica Concise Encyclopedia, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2008, ISBN 1593394926, p. 1007. ^ History of the Later Roman Empire
Roman Empire
from Arcadius
Arcadius
to Irene, Volume 2, J. B. Bury, Cosimo, Inc., 2008, ISBN 1605204056, p. 7. ^ Also known as Saint
Saint
Justinian the Emperor and other various venerable epithets. ^ "St. Justinian the Emperor". Orthodox Church in America. Retrieved 2017-11-25.  ^ J. F. Haldon, Byzantium in the seventh century (Cambridge, 2003), 17–19. ^ For instance by G. P. Baker (Justinian, New York 1938), or in the Outline of Great Books series (Justinian the Great). ^ On the western Roman Empire, see now H. Börm, Westrom (Stuttgart 2013). ^ "History 303: Finances under Justinian". Tulane.edu. Archived from the original on 9 March 2008. Retrieved 14 November 2012.  ^ Evans, J. A. S., The Age of Justinian: the circumstances of imperial power. pp. 93–94 ^ John Henry Merryman and Rogelio Pérez-Perdomo, The Civil Law Tradition: An Introduction to the Legal Systems of Europe and Latin America, 3rd ed. (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007), pp. 9–11. ^ The precise location of this site is disputed; the possible locations include Justiniana Prima
Justiniana Prima
near the modern town of Lebane
Lebane
in southern Serbia
Serbia
and Taor near Skopje, Macedonia ^ The Inheritance of Rome, Chris Wickham, Penguin Books Ltd. 2009, ISBN 978-0-670-02098-0 (page 90). Justinian referred to Latin
Latin
as his native tongue in several of his laws. See Moorhead (1994), p. 18. ^ Michael Maas (2005-04-18). The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139826877.  ^ Treadgold, Warren T. (1997). A history of the Byzantine state and society. Stanford University Press. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-8047-2630-6. Retrieved 12 October 2010. ^ Barker, John W. (1966). Justinian and the later Roman Empire. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-299-03944-8. Retrieved 28 November 2011.  ^ Robert Browning (2003). Justinian and Theodora. Gorgias Press. ISBN 9781593330538.  ^ Shifting Genres in Late Antiquity, Hugh Elton, Geoffrey Greatrex, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2015, ISBN 1472443500, p. 259. ^ Pannonia and Upper Moesia: A History of the Middle Danube
Danube
Provinces of the Roman Empire, András Mócsy, Routledge, 2014, ISBN 1317754255, p. 350. ^ The sole source for Justinian's full name, Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus (sometimes called Flavius Anicius Iustinianus), are consular diptychs of the year 521 bearing his name. ^ Sima M. Cirkovic (7 June 2004). The Serbs. Wiley. ISBN 9780631204718.  ^ Justiniana Prima
Justiniana Prima
Site of an early Byzantine city located 30 km south-west of Leskovci in Kosovo. Grove's Dictionaries. 2006.  ^ Byzantine Constantinople: Monuments, Topography and Everyday Life. BRILL. 2001. ISBN 9004116257.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Robert Browning. "Justinian I" in Dictionary of the Middle Ages, volume VII (1986). ^ Cambridge Ancient History p. 65 ^ Moorhead (1994), pp. 21–22, with a reference to Procopius, Secret History 8.3. ^ This post seems to have been titular; there is no evidence that Justinian had any military experience. See A.D. Lee, "The Empire at War", in Michael Maas (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian (Cambridge 2005), pp. 113–133 (pp. 113–114). ^ See Procopius, Secret history, ch. 13. ^ M. Meier, Justinian, p. 57. ^ P. N. Ure, Justinian and his age, p. 200. ^ "DIR Justinian". Roman Emperors. 1998-07-25. Retrieved 2012-11-14.  ^ Robert Browning, Justinian and Theodora (1987), 129; James Allan Evans, The Empress Theodora: Partner of Justinian (2002), 104 ^ Theological treatises authored by Justinian can be found in Migne's Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 86. ^ Crowley, Roger (2011). City of Fortune, How Venice Won and Lost a Naval Empire. London: Faber & Faber Ltd. p. 109. ISBN 978-0-571-24595-6.  ^ "S. P. Scott: The Civil Law". Constitution.org. 2002-06-19. Retrieved 2012-11-14.  ^ Kunkel, W. (translated by J. M. Kelly) An introduction to Roman legal and constitutional history. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1966; 168 ^ Darrell P. Hammer. " Russia
Russia
and the Roman Law". JSTOR. JSTOR 3001333.  ^ Garland (1999), pp. 16–17 ^ J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, 200 ^ Diehl, Charles. Theodora, Empress of Byzantium ((c) 1972 by Frederick Ungar Publishing, Inc., transl. by S.R. Rosenbaum from the original French Theodora, Imperatice de Byzance), 89. ^ Vasiliev (1958), p. 157. ^ For an account of Justinian's wars, see Moorhead (1994), pp. 22–24, 63–98, and 101–9. ^ See A. D. Lee, "The Empire at War", in Michael Maas (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian (Cambridge 2005), pp. 113–33 (pp. 113–14). For Justinian's own views, see the texts of Codex Iustinianus
Codex Iustinianus
1.27.1 and Novellae 8.10.2 and 30.11.2. ^ Justinian himself took the field only once, during a campaign against the Huns
Huns
in 559, when he was already an old man. This enterprise was largely symbolic and although no battle was fought, the emperor held a triumphal entry in the capital afterwards. (See Browning, R. Justinian and Theodora. London 1971, 193.) ^ See Geoffrey Greatrex, "Byzantium and the East in the Sixth Century" in Michael Maas (ed.). Age of Justinian (2005), pp. 477–509. ^ J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, p. 195. ^ Moorhead (1994), p. 68. ^ Moorhead (1994), p. 70. ^ Procopius. "II.XXVIII". De Bello Vandalico.  ^ a b c d "Early Medieval and Byzantine Civilization: Constantine to Crusades". Tulane. Archived from the original on 9 March 2008.  ^ J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, 215 ^ Moorhead (1994), pp. 84–86. ^ See for this section Moorhead (1994), p. 89 ff., Greatrex (2005), p. 488 ff., and especially H. Börm, "Der Perserkönig im Imperium Romanum", in Chiron 36, 2006, p. 299 ff. ^ a b J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, 229 ^ Procopius
Procopius
mentions this event both in the Wars and in the Secret History, but gives two entirely different explanations for it. The evidence is briefly discussed in Moorhead (1994), pp. 97–98. ^ J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, 235 ^ Moorhead ((1994), p. 164) gives the lower, Greatrex ((2005), p. 489) the higher figure. ^ J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, 251 ^ J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, 233 ^ Getica, 303 ^ See Lee (2005), p. 125 ff. ^ W. Pohl, "Justinian and the Barbarian Kingdoms", in Maas (2005), pp. 448–476; 472 ^ See Haldon (2003), pp. 17–19. ^ Meyendorff 1989, pp. 207–250. ^ Treatises written by Justinian can be found in Migne's Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 86. ^ Cod., I., i. 5. ^ MPG, lxxxvi. 1, p. 993. ^ Cod., I., i. 7. ^ Novellae, cxxxi. ^ Mansi, Concilia, viii. 970B. ^ Novellae, xlii. ^ P. Heather, The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome
Rome
and the Barbarians, 283 ^ cf. Novellae, cxxxi. ^ Cod., I., xi. 9 and 10. ^ Lindberg, David C. "The Beginnings of Western Science", page 70 ^ François Nau, in Revue de l'orient chretien, ii., 1897, 482. ^ Procopius, Bellum Gothicum, ii. 14; Evagrius, Hist. eccl., iv. 20 ^ Procopius, iv. 4; Evagrius, iv. 23. ^ Procopius, iv. 3; Evagrius, iv. 22. ^ Procopius, Bellum Persicum, i. 15. ^ Procopius, De Aedificiis, vi. 2. ^ Procopius, Bellum Persicum, i. 19. ^ DCB, iii. 482 ^ John of Ephesus, Hist. eccl., iv. 5 sqq. ^ Procopius, Bellum Persicum, i. 20; Malalas, ed. Niebuhr, Bonn, 1831, pp. 433 sqq. ^ Cod., I., v. 12 ^ Procopius, Historia Arcana, 28; ^ Nov., cxlvi., 8 February 553 ^ Michael Maas (2005), The Cambridge companion to the Age of Justinian, Cambridge University Press, pp. 16–, ISBN 978-0-521-81746-2, retrieved 18 August 2010  ^ Cod., I., v. 12. ^ F. Nau, in Revue de l'orient, ii., 1897, p. 481. ^ See Procopius, Buildings. ^ Vasiliev (1952), p. 189 ^ Brian Croke, "Justinian's Constantinople", in Michael Maas (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian (Cambridge 2005), pp. 60–86 (p. 66) ^ See Croke (2005), p. 364 ff., and Moorhead (1994). ^ Following a terrible earthquake in 551, the school at Beirut was transferred to Sidon and had no further significance after that date. (Vasiliev (1952), p. 147) ^ Vasiliev (1952), p. I 192. ^ John F. Haldon, "Economy and Administration", in Michael Maas (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian (Cambridge 2005), pp. 28–59 (p. 35) ^ John Moorhead, Justinian (London/New York 1994), p. 57 ^ Peter Brown, The World of Late Antiquity (London 1971), pp. 157–158 ^ Vasiliev (1952), p. 167 ^ See Moorhead (1994), p. 167; Procopius, Wars, 8.17.1–8 ^ "Justinian's Gold Mines – Mining Technology TechnoMine". Technology.infomine.com. 2008-12-03. Retrieved 2012-11-14.  ^ Haldon (2005), p. 50 ^ Brown (1971), p. 157 ^ Kenneth G. Holum, "The Classical City in the Sixth Century", in Michael Maas (ed.), Age of Justinian (2005), pp. 99–100 ^ Moorhead (1994), pp. 100–101 ^ John L. Teall, "The Barbarians in Justinian's Armies", in Speculum, vol. 40, No. 2, 1965, 294–322. The total strength of the Byzantine army under Justinian is estimated at 150,000 men (J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, 259). ^ Brown (1971), p. 158; Moorhead (1994), p. 101 ^ Paradiso, Canto VI verse 10 ^ Dorothy L. Sayers, Paradiso, notes on Canto VI. ^ While he glorified Justinian's achievements in his panegyric and his Wars, Procopius
Procopius
also wrote a hostile account, Anekdota (the so-called Secret History), in which Justinian is depicted as a cruel, venal, and incompetent ruler. ^ In various Eastern Orthodox Churches, including the Orthodox Church in America, Justinian and his empress Theodora are commemorated on the anniversary of his death, 14 November. Some denominations translate the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
date to 27 November on the Gregorian calendar. The Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod
Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod
and the Lutheran Church–Canada
Lutheran Church–Canada
also remember Justinian on November 14.

This article incorporates text from the Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge.

Primary sources[edit]

Procopii Caesariensis opera omnia. Edited by J. Haury; revised by G. Wirth. 3 vols. Leipzig: Teubner, 1962–64. Greek text. Procopius. Edited by H. B. Dewing. 7 vols. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press and London, Hutchinson, 1914–40. Greek text and English translation. Procopius, The Secret History, translated by G.A. Williamson. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1966. A readable and accessible English translation of the Anecdota. Elizabeth Jeffreys, Michael Jeffreys, Roger Scott et al. 1986, The Chronicle of John Malalas: A Translation, Byzantina Australiensia 4 (Melbourne: Australian Association for Byzantine Studies) ISBN 0-9593626-2-2 Edward Walford, translator (1846) The Ecclesiastical History of Evagrius: A History of the Church from AD 431 to AD 594, Reprinted 2008. Evolution Publishing, ISBN 978-1-889758-88-6. (According to "The Christian Roman Empire
Roman Empire
series". Evolpub.com. Retrieved 2012-11-14. )

Bibliography[edit]

Barker, John W. (1966). Justinian and the Later Roman Empire. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.  Ostrogorsky, George (1956). History of the Byzantine State. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.  Bury, J. B. (1958). History of the later Roman Empire. 2. New York (reprint).  Meyendorff, John (1989). Imperial unity and Christian divisions: The Church 450–680 A.D. The Church in history. 2. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. ISBN 978-0-88-141056-3.  Cameron, Averil et al.(eds.) (2000). "Justinian Era". The Cambridge Ancient History (Second ed.). Cambridge. 14. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Cumberland Jacobsen, Torsten (2009). The Gothic War. Westholme.  Dixon, Pierson (1958). The Glittering Horn: Secret Memoirs of the Court of Justinian.  Evans, James Allan (2005). The Emperor Justinian and the Byzantine Empire. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-32582-0.  Garland, Lynda (1999). Byzantine empresses: women and power in Byzantium, AD 527–1204. London: Routledge.  Maas, Michael (ed.) (2005). The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian. Cambridge. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Meier, Mischa (2003). Das andere Zeitalter Justinians. Kontingenz Erfahrung und Kontingenzbewältigung im 6. Jahrhundert n. Chr (in German). Gottingen.  Meier, Mischa (2004). Justinian. Herrschaft, Reich, und Religion (in German). Munich.  Moorhead, John (1994). Justinian. London.  Rosen, William (2007). Justinian's Flea: Plague, Empire, and the Birth of Europe. Viking Adult. ISBN 978-0-670-03855-8.  Rubin, Berthold (1960). Das Zeitalter Iustinians. Berlin.  – German standard work; partially obsolete, but still useful. Sarris, Peter (2006). Economy and society in the age of Justinian. Cambridge.  Ure, PN (1951). Justinian and his Age. Penguin, Harmondsworth.  Vasiliev, A. A. (1952). History of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
(Second ed.). Madison.  Sidney Dean, Duncan B. Campbell, Ian Hughes, Ross Cowan, Raffaele D'Amato, and Christopher Lillington-Martin, eds. (Jun–Jul 2010). "Justinian's fireman: Belisarius
Belisarius
and the Byzantine empire". Ancient Warfare. IV (3). CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Iustinianus I.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Iustinianus I

St Justinian the Emperor Orthodox Icon and Synaxarion (14 November) The Anekdota ("Secret history") of Procopius
Procopius
in English translation. The Buildings of Procopius
Procopius
in English translation. The Roman Law Library by Professor Yves Lassard and Alexandr Koptev Lecture series covering 12 Byzantine Rulers, including Justinian – by Lars Brownworth De Imperatoribus Romanis. An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors Reconstruction of column of Justinian in Constantinople Opera Omnia by Migne Patrologia Graeca with analytical indexes Preface to the Digest of Emperor Justinian Annotated Justinian Code (University of Wyoming website) Mosaic
Mosaic
of Justinian in Hagia Sophia)

Justinian I Justinian Dynasty Born: 482/483 Died: 13 November/14 November 565

Regnal titles

Preceded by Justin I Byzantine Emperor 527–565 with Justin I
Justin I
(527) Succeeded by Justin II

Political offices

Preceded by Flavius Rusticius, Flavius Vitalianus Consul
Consul
of the Roman Empire 521 With: Flavius Valerius Succeeded by Flavius Symmachus, Flavius Boethius

Preceded by Vettius Agorius Basilius Mavortius Consul
Consul
of the Roman Empire 528 Succeeded by Flavius Decius, II post consulatum Mavortii (West)

Vacant Title last held by Rufius Gennadius Probus Orestes, Lampadius Consul
Consul
of the Roman Empire 533–534 With: Decius
Decius
Paulinus Succeeded by Belisarius

v t e

Roman and Byzantine emperors

Principate 27 BC – 235 AD

Augustus Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero Galba Otho Vitellius Vespasian Titus Domitian Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
and Lucius Verus Commodus Pertinax Didius Julianus (Pescennius Niger) (Clodius Albinus) Septimius Severus Caracalla
Caracalla
with Geta Macrinus
Macrinus
with Diadumenian Elagabalus Severus Alexander

Crisis 235–284

Maximinus Thrax Gordian I
Gordian I
and Gordian II Pupienus
Pupienus
and Balbinus Gordian III Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
with Philip II Decius
Decius
with Herennius Etruscus Hostilian Trebonianus Gallus
Trebonianus Gallus
with Volusianus Aemilianus Valerian Gallienus
Gallienus
with Saloninus and Valerian II Claudius
Claudius
Gothicus Quintillus Aurelian Tacitus Florian Probus Carus Carinus
Carinus
and Numerian

Gallic Emperors: Postumus (Laelianus) Marius Victorinus (Domitianus II) Tetricus I
Tetricus I
with Tetricus II
Tetricus II
as Caesar

Dominate 284–395

Diocletian
Diocletian
(whole empire) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) with Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) with Severus (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Severus (West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Maxentius
Maxentius
(West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Licinius
Licinius
I (West) with Constantine the Great (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Maxentius
Maxentius
(alone) Licinius
Licinius
I (West) and Maximinus II (East) with Constantine the Great (Self-proclaimed Augustus) and Valerius Valens Licinius
Licinius
I (East) and Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) with Licinius
Licinius
II, Constantine II, and Crispus
Crispus
as Caesares (Martinian) Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(whole empire) with son Crispus
Crispus
as Caesar Constantine II Constans
Constans
I Magnentius
Magnentius
with Decentius as Caesar Constantius II
Constantius II
with Vetranio Julian Jovian Valentinian the Great Valens Gratian Valentinian II Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
with Victor Theodosius the Great (Eugenius)

Western Empire 395–480

Honorius Constantine III with son Constans
Constans
II) Constantius III Joannes Valentinian III Petronius Maximus
Petronius Maximus
with Palladius Avitus Majorian Libius Severus Anthemius Olybrius Glycerius Julius Nepos Romulus Augustulus

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 395–1204

Arcadius Theodosius II Pulcheria Marcian Leo I the Thracian Leo II Zeno (first reign) Basiliscus
Basiliscus
with son Marcus as co-emperor Zeno (second reign) Anastasius I Dicorus Justin I Justinian the Great Justin II Tiberius
Tiberius
II Constantine Maurice with son Theodosius as co-emperor Phocas Heraclius Constantine III Heraklonas Constans
Constans
II Constantine IV
Constantine IV
with brothers Heraclius
Heraclius
and Tiberius
Tiberius
and then Justinian II as co-emperors Justinian II
Justinian II
(first reign) Leontios Tiberios III Justinian II
Justinian II
(second reign) with son Tiberius
Tiberius
as co-emperor Philippikos Anastasios II Theodosius III Leo III the Isaurian Constantine V Artabasdos Leo IV the Khazar Constantine VI Irene Nikephoros I Staurakios Michael I Rangabe
Michael I Rangabe
with son Theophylact as co-emperor Leo V the Armenian
Leo V the Armenian
with Symbatios-Constantine as junior emperor Michael II
Michael II
the Amorian Theophilos Michael III Basil I
Basil I
the Macedonian Leo VI the Wise Alexander Constantine VII
Constantine VII
Porphyrogennetos Romanos I Lekapenos
Romanos I Lekapenos
with sons Christopher, Stephen and Constantine as junior co-emperors Romanos II Nikephoros II Phokas John I Tzimiskes Basil II Constantine VIII Zoë (first reign) and Romanos III Argyros Zoë (first reign) and Michael IV the Paphlagonian Michael V Kalaphates Zoë (second reign) with Theodora Zoë (second reign) and Constantine IX Monomachos Constantine IX Monomachos
Constantine IX Monomachos
(sole emperor) Theodora Michael VI Bringas Isaac I Komnenos Constantine X Doukas Romanos IV Diogenes Michael VII Doukas
Michael VII Doukas
with brothers Andronikos and Konstantios and son Constantine Nikephoros III Botaneiates Alexios I Komnenos John II Komnenos
John II Komnenos
with Alexios Komnenos as co-emperor Manuel I Komnenos Alexios II Komnenos Andronikos I Komnenos Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Alexios IV Angelos Nicholas Kanabos (chosen by the Senate) Alexios V Doukas

Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261

Constantine Laskaris Theodore I Laskaris John III Doukas Vatatzes Theodore II Laskaris John IV Laskaris

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 1261–1453

Michael VIII Palaiologos Andronikos II Palaiologos
Andronikos II Palaiologos
with Michael IX Palaiologos
Michael IX Palaiologos
as co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos John V Palaiologos John VI Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos
with John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
and Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperors John V Palaiologos Andronikos IV Palaiologos John VII Palaiologos Andronikos V Palaiologos Manuel II Palaiologos John VIII Palaiologos Constantine XI Palaiologos

Italics indicates a co-emperor, while underlining indicates an usurper.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 88881722 LCCN: n79032202 ISNI: 0000 0001 2096 5924 GND: 11855896X SELIBR: 192056 SUDOC: 027770591 BNF: cb12055108q (data) BIBSYS: 90550472 NDL: 00478361 BNE: XX824

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