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JUSTINIAN I (/dʒʌˈstɪniən/ ; Latin
Latin
: _Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus_; Greek : Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ἰουστινιανός _Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós_) (c. 482 – 14 November 565), traditionally known as JUSTINIAN THE GREAT and also SAINT JUSTINIAN THE GREAT in the Eastern Orthodox Church , was the Byzantine (East Roman) emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire. Justinian's rule constitutes a distinct epoch in the history of the Later Roman empire
Later Roman empire
, and his reign is marked by the ambitious but only partly realized _renovatio imperii_, or "restoration of the Empire".

Because of his restoration activities, Justinian has sometimes been called the "last Roman " in modern historiography . This ambition was expressed by the partial recovery of the territories of the defunct western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. His general, Belisarius , swiftly conquered the Vandal kingdom in North Africa. Subsequently, Belisarius, Narses
Narses
, and other generals conquered the Ostrogothic kingdom
Ostrogothic kingdom
, restoring Dalmatia
Dalmatia
, Sicily
Sicily
, Italy
Italy
, and Rome
Rome
to the empire after more than half a century of rule by the Ostrogoths. The prefect Liberius reclaimed the south of the Iberian peninsula
Iberian peninsula
, establishing the province of Spania . These campaigns re-established Roman control over the western Mediterranean, increasing the Empire's annual revenue by over a million solidi . During his reign Justinian also subdued the _Tzani _, a people on the east coast of the Black Sea
Black Sea
that had never been under Roman rule before.

A still more resonant aspect of his legacy was the uniform rewriting of Roman law, the _ Corpus Juris Civilis _, which is still the basis of civil law in many modern states. His reign also marked a blossoming of Byzantine culture, and his building program yielded such masterpieces as the church of Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
. A devastating outbreak of bubonic plague in the early 540s marked the end of an age of splendour.

CONTENTS

* 1 Life

* 2 Reign

* 2.1 Legislative activities * 2.2 Nika riots

* 2.3 Military activities

* 2.3.1 War with the Sassanid Empire, 527–532 * 2.3.2 Conquest of North Africa, 533–534 * 2.3.3 War in Italy, first phase, 535–540 * 2.3.4 War with the Sassanid Empire, 540–562 * 2.3.5 War in Italy, second phase, 541–554 * 2.3.6 Other campaigns

* 2.4 Results

* 2.5 Religious activities

* 2.5.1 Religious policy * 2.5.2 Religious relations with Rome
Rome
* 2.5.3 Suppression of other religions and philosophies

* 2.6 Architecture, learning, art and literature * 2.7 Economy and administration

* 3 Natural disasters * 4 Cultural depictions * 5 Historical sources * 6 Primary sources * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 Bibliography * 11 External links

LIFE

The ancient town of Tauresium , the birthplace of Justinian I, located in today's Republic of Macedonia

Justinian was born in Tauresium around 482. A native speaker of Latin
Latin
(possibly the last Roman emperor to be one ), he came from a peasant family believed to have been of Illyro-Roman or Thraco-Roman origins. The cognomen _Iustinianus_, which he took later, is indicative of adoption by his uncle Justin . During his reign, he founded Justiniana Prima
Justiniana Prima
not far from his birthplace, which today is in South East Serbia. His mother was Vigilantia, the sister of Justin. Justin, who was in the imperial guard (the Excubitors
Excubitors
) before he became emperor, adopted Justinian, brought him to Constantinople
Constantinople
, and ensured the boy's education. As a result, Justinian was well educated in jurisprudence , theology and Roman history. Justinian served for some time with the Excubitors
Excubitors
but the details of his early career are unknown. Chronicler John Malalas , who lived during the reign of Justinian, tells of his appearance that he was short, fair skinned, curly haired, round faced and handsome. Another contemporary chronicler, Procopius , compares Justinian's appearance to that of tyrannical Emperor Domitian
Domitian
, although this is probably slander.

When Emperor Anastasius died in 518, Justin was proclaimed the new emperor, with significant help from Justinian. During Justin's reign (518–527), Justinian was the emperor's close confidant. Justinian showed much ambition, and it has been thought that he was functioning as virtual regent long before Justin made him associate emperor on 1 April 527, although there is no conclusive evidence for this. As Justin became senile near the end of his reign, Justinian became the _de facto_ ruler. Justinian was appointed consul in 521 and later commander of the army of the east. Upon Justin's death on 1 August 527, Justinian became the sole sovereign.

As a ruler, Justinian showed great energy. He was known as "the emperor who never sleeps" on account of his work habits. Nevertheless, he seems to have been amiable and easy to approach. Around 525, he married his mistress, Theodora , in Constantinople. She was by profession a courtesan and some twenty years his junior. In earlier times, Justinian could not have married her because of her class, but his uncle, Emperor Justin I, had passed a law allowing intermarriage between social classes. Theodora would become very influential in the politics of the Empire, and later emperors would follow Justinian's precedent in marrying outside the aristocratic class. The marriage caused a scandal, but Theodora would prove to be a shrewd judge of character and Justinian's greatest supporter. Other talented individuals included Tribonian , his legal adviser; Peter the Patrician , the diplomat and longtime head of the palace bureaucracy; Justinian's finance ministers John the Cappadocian and Peter Barsymes , who managed to collect taxes more efficiently than any before, thereby funding Justinian's wars; and finally, his prodigiously talented generals, Belisarius and Narses
Narses
.

Justinian's rule was not universally popular; early in his reign he nearly lost his throne during the Nika riots , and a conspiracy against the emperor's life by dissatisfied businessmen was discovered as late as 562. Justinian was struck by the plague in the early 540s but recovered. Theodora died in 548 at a relatively young age, possibly of cancer; Justinian outlived her by nearly twenty years. Justinian, who had always had a keen interest in theological matters and actively participated in debates on Christian doctrine, became even more devoted to religion during the later years of his life. When he died on 14 November 565, he left no children, though his wife Theodora had given birth to a stillborn son several years into his reign. He was succeeded by Justin II , who was the son of his sister Vigilantia and married to Sophia, the niece of Empress Theodora. Justinian's body was entombed in a specially built mausoleum in the Church of the Holy Apostles until it was desecrated and robbed during the pillage of the city in 1204 by the Latin
Latin
States of the Fourth Crusade .

REIGN

LEGISLATIVE ACTIVITIES

Main article: Corpus Juris Civilis The Barberini Ivory , which is thought to portray either Justinian or Anastasius I

Justinian achieved lasting fame through his judicial reforms, particularly through the complete revision of all Roman law
Roman law
, something that had not previously been attempted. The total of Justinian's legislature is known today as the _ Corpus juris civilis _. It consists of the _ Codex Iustinianus _, the _Digesta_ or _Pandectae _, the _Institutiones _, and the _Novellae _.

Early in his reign, Justinian appointed the _quaestor _ Tribonian to oversee this task. The first draft of the _ Codex Iustinianus _, a codification of imperial constitutions from the 2nd century onward, was issued on 7 April 529. (The final version appeared in 534.) It was followed by the _Digesta_ (or _ Pandectae _), a compilation of older legal texts, in 533, and by the _Institutiones _, a textbook explaining the principles of law. The _Novellae _, a collection of new laws issued during Justinian's reign, supplements the _Corpus_. As opposed to the rest of the corpus, the _Novellae_ appeared in Greek , the common language of the Eastern Empire.

The _Corpus_ forms the basis of Latin
Latin
jurisprudence (including ecclesiastical Canon Law ) and, for historians, provides a valuable insight into the concerns and activities of the later Roman Empire. As a collection it gathers together the many sources in which the _leges_ (laws) and the other rules were expressed or published: proper laws, senatorial consults (_senatusconsulta_), imperial decrees, case law , and jurists' opinions and interpretations (_responsa prudentum_). Tribonian's code ensured the survival of Roman law. It formed the basis of later Byzantine law, as expressed in the _ Basilika
Basilika
_ of Basil I and Leo VI the Wise . The only western province where the Justinianic code was introduced was Italy
Italy
(after the conquest by the so-called Pragmatic Sanction of 554), from where it was to pass to Western Europe
Western Europe
in the 12th century and become the basis of much European law code. It eventually passed to Eastern Europe where it appeared in Slavic editions, and it also passed on to Russia
Russia
. It remains influential to this day.

He passed laws to protect prostitutes from exploitation and women from being forced into prostitution. Rapists were treated severely. Further, by his policies: women charged with major crimes should be guarded by other women to prevent sexual abuse; if a woman was widowed, her dowry should be returned; and a husband could not take on a major debt without his wife giving her consent twice.

NIKA RIOTS

Main article: Nika riots

Justinian's habit of choosing efficient, but unpopular advisers nearly cost him his throne early in his reign. In January 532, partisans of the chariot racing factions in Constantinople, normally divided among themselves, united against Justinian in a revolt that has become known as the Nika riots . They forced him to dismiss Tribonian and two of his other ministers, and then attempted to overthrow Justinian himself and replace him with the senator Hypatius , who was a nephew of the late emperor Anastasius . While the crowd was rioting in the streets, Justinian considered fleeing the capital, but eventually decided to stay, apparently on the prompting of Theodora, who refused to leave. In the next two days, he ordered the brutal suppression of the riots by his generals Belisarius and Mundus . Procopius relates that 30,000 unarmed civilians were killed in the Hippodrome. On Theodora's insistence, and apparently against his own judgment, Justinian had Anastasius' nephews executed.

The destruction that had taken place during the revolt provided Justinian with an opportunity to tie his name to a series of splendid new buildings, most notably the architectural innovation of the domed Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
.

MILITARY ACTIVITIES

* v * t * e

Wars of Justinian I
Justinian I

IBERIAN WAR

* Dara * Satala * Callinicum

VANDALIC WAR

* Ad Decimum
Ad Decimum
* Tricamarum

GOTHIC WAR

* 1st Naples
Naples
* 1st Rome
Rome
* Treviso * Verona * Faventia * Mucellium * 2nd Naples
Naples
* 2nd Rome
Rome
* 3rd Rome
Rome
* Sena Gallica * Taginae * Mons Lactarius * Volturnus

CONQUEST OF SPANIA

MOORISH WARS

* Mammes and Bourgaon * Babosis and Zerboule * Cillium * Marta * Fields of Cato

LAZIC WAR

* Phasis

One of the most spectacular features of Justinian's reign was the recovery of large stretches of land around the Western Mediterranean basin that had slipped out of Imperial control in the 5th century. As a Christian Roman emperor, Justinian considered it his divine duty to restore the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
to its ancient boundaries. Although he never personally took part in military campaigns, he boasted of his successes in the prefaces to his laws and had them commemorated in art. The re-conquests were in large part carried out by his general Belisarius .

War With The Sassanid Empire, 527–532

Main article: Iberian War
Iberian War

From his uncle, Justinian inherited ongoing hostilities with the Sassanid Empire . In 530 a Persian army was defeated at Dara , but the next year saw the defeat of Roman forces under Belisarius near Callinicum . When king Kavadh I of Persia died (September 531), Justinian concluded an "Eternal Peace " (which cost him 11,000 pounds of gold) with his successor Khosrau I (532). Having thus secured his eastern frontier, Justinian turned his attention to the West, where Germanic kingdoms had been established in the territories of the former Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
.

Conquest Of North Africa, 533–534

Main article: Vandalic War An older Justinian; mosaic in Basilica
Basilica
of Sant\'Apollinare Nuovo , Ravenna
Ravenna
(possibly a modified portrait of Theodoric )

The first of the western kingdoms Justinian attacked was that of the Vandals
Vandals
in North Africa
North Africa
. King Hilderic
Hilderic
, who had maintained good relations with Justinian and the North African Catholic clergy, had been overthrown by his cousin Gelimer
Gelimer
in 530. Imprisoned, the deposed king appealed to Justinian.

In 533, Belisarius with a fleet of 92 dromons escorting 500 transports, landed at Caput Vada (modern Ras Kaboudia) in modern Tunisia
Tunisia
with an army of about 15,000 men, as well as a number of barbarian troops. They defeated the Vandals, who were caught completely off guard, at Ad Decimum
Ad Decimum
on 14 September 533 and Tricamarum in December; Belisarius took Carthage
Carthage
. King Gelimer
Gelimer
fled to Mount Pappua in Numidia , but surrendered the next spring. He was taken to Constantinople, where he was paraded in a triumph . Sardinia
Sardinia
and Corsica , the Balearic Islands , and the stronghold Septem Fratres near Gibraltar
Gibraltar
were recovered in the same campaign.

An African prefecture , centered in Carthage, was established in April 534, but it would teeter on the brink of collapse during the next 15 years, amidst warfare with the Moors
Moors
and military mutinies. The area was not completely pacified until 548, but remained peaceful thereafter and enjoyed a measure of prosperity. The recovery of Africa cost the empire about 100,000 pounds of gold.

War In Italy, First Phase, 535–540

Main article: Gothic War (535–554)

As in Africa, dynastic struggles in Ostrogothic Italy provided an opportunity for intervention. The young king Athalaric
Athalaric
had died on 2 October 534, and a usurper, Theodahad , had imprisoned queen Amalasuntha , Theodoric 's daughter and mother of Athalaric, on the island of Martana in Lake Bolsena , where he had her assassinated in 535. Thereupon Belisarius with 7,500 men invaded Sicily
Sicily
(535) and advanced into Italy, sacking Naples
Naples
and capturing Rome
Rome
on 9 December 536. By that time Theodahad had been deposed by the Ostrogothic army, who had elected Vitigis as their new king. He gathered a large army and besieged Rome
Rome
from February 537 to March 538 without being able to retake the city.

Justinian sent another general, Narses
Narses
, to Italy, but tensions between Narses
Narses
and Belisarius hampered the progress of the campaign. Milan
Milan
was taken, but was soon recaptured and razed by the Ostrogoths. Justinian recalled Narses
Narses
in 539. By then the military situation had turned in favour of the Romans, and in 540 Belisarius reached the Ostrogothic capital Ravenna
Ravenna
. There he was offered the title of Western Roman Emperor by the Ostrogoths at the same time that envoys of Justinian were arriving to negotiate a peace that would leave the region north of the Po River in Gothic hands. Belisarius feigned to accept the offer, entered the city in May 540, and reclaimed it for the Empire. Then, having been recalled by Justinian, Belisarius returned to Constantinople, taking the captured Vitigis and his wife Matasuntha with him.

War With The Sassanid Empire, 540–562

Modern or early modern drawing of a medallion celebrating the reconquest of Africa
Africa
, c. 535

Belisarius had been recalled in the face of renewed hostilities by the Persians . Following a revolt against the Empire in Armenia in the late 530s and possibly motivated by the pleas of Ostrogothic ambassadors, King Khosrau I broke the "Eternal Peace" and invaded Roman territory in the spring of 540. He first sacked Beroea and then Antioch
Antioch
(allowing the garrison of 6,000 men to leave the city), besieged Daras , and then went on to attack the small but strategically significant satellite kingdom of Lazica near the Black Sea , exacting tribute from the towns he passed along his way. He forced Justinian I
Justinian I
to pay him 5,000 pounds of gold, plus 500 pounds of gold more each year.

Belisarius arrived in the East in 541, but, after some success, was again recalled to Constantinople
Constantinople
in 542. The reasons for his withdrawal are not known, but it may have been instigated by rumours of disloyalty on behalf of the general reaching the court. The outbreak of the plague caused a lull in the fighting during the year 543. The following year Khosrau defeated a Byzantine army of 30,000 men, but unsuccessfully besieged the major city of Edessa . Both parties made little headway, and in 545 a truce was agreed upon for the southern part of the Roman-Persian frontier. After that the Lazic War in the North continued for several years, until a second truce in 557, followed by a Fifty Years\' Peace in 562. Under its terms, the Persians agreed to abandon Lazica in exchange for an annual tribute of 400 or 500 pounds of gold (30,000 _solidi_) to be paid by the Romans.

War In Italy, Second Phase, 541–554

While military efforts were directed to the East, the situation in Italy
Italy
took a turn for the worse. Under their respective kings Ildibad and Eraric
Eraric
(both murdered in 541) and especially Totila , the Ostrogoths made quick gains. After a victory at Faenza in 542, they reconquered the major cities of Southern Italy
Italy
and soon held almost the entire peninsula. Belisarius was sent back to Italy
Italy
late in 544, but lacked sufficient troops. Making no headway, he was relieved of his command in 548. Belisarius succeeded in defeating a Gothic fleet with 200 ships. During this period the city of Rome
Rome
changed hands three more times, first taken and depopulated by the Ostrogoths in December 546, then reconquered by the Byzantines in 547, and then again by the Goths in January 550. Totila also plundered Sicily
Sicily
and attacked the Greek coastlines.

Finally, Justinian dispatched a force of approximately 35,000 men (2,000 men were detached and sent to invade southern Visigothic Hispania
Hispania
) under the command of Narses
Narses
. The army reached Ravenna
Ravenna
in June 552, and defeated the Ostrogoths decisively within a month at the battle of Busta Gallorum in the Apennines , where Totila was slain. After a second battle at Mons Lactarius in October that year, the resistance of the Ostrogoths was finally broken. In 554, a large-scale Frankish invasion was defeated at Casilinum , and Italy
Italy
was secured for the Empire, though it would take Narses
Narses
several years to reduce the remaining Gothic strongholds. At the end of the war, Italy
Italy
was garrisoned with an army of 16,000 men. The recovery of Italy
Italy
cost the empire about 300,000 pounds of gold.

Other Campaigns

Spanish Visigothic
Visigothic
gold tremisses in the name of emperor Justinian I, 7th century. The Christian cross on the breast defines the Visigothic
Visigothic
attribution. British Museum
British Museum
.

In addition to the other conquests, the Empire established a presence in Visigothic
Visigothic
Hispania
Hispania
, when the usurper Athanagild requested assistance in his rebellion against King Agila I . In 552, Justinian dispatched a force of 2,000 men; according to the historian Jordanes , this army was led by the octogenarian Liberius . The Byzantines took Cartagena and other cities on the southeastern coast and founded the new province of Spania before being checked by their former ally Athanagild, who had by now become king. This campaign marked the apogee of Byzantine expansion.

During Justinian's reign, the Balkans
Balkans
suffered from several incursions by the Turkic and Slavic peoples who lived north of the Danube
Danube
. Here, Justinian resorted mainly to a combination of diplomacy and a system of defensive works. In 559 a particularly dangerous invasion of Sklavinoi and Kutrigurs under their khan Zabergan threatened Constantinople, but they were repulsed by the aged general Belisarius.

RESULTS

Emperor Justinian reconquered many former territories of the Western Roman Empire, including Italy
Italy
, Dalmatia
Dalmatia
, Africa, and southern Hispania
Hispania
.

Justinian's ambition to restore the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
to its former glory was only partly realized. In the West, the brilliant early military successes of the 530s were followed by years of stagnation. The dragging war with the Goths was a disaster for Italy, even though its long-lasting effects may have been less severe than is sometimes thought. The heavy taxes that the administration imposed upon its population were deeply resented. The final victory in Italy
Italy
and the conquest of Africa
Africa
and the coast of southern Hispania
Hispania
significantly enlarged the area over which the Empire could project its power and eliminated all naval threats to the empire. Despite losing much of Italy
Italy
soon after Justinian's death, the empire retained several important cities, including Rome, Naples, and Ravenna, leaving the Lombards as a regional threat. The newly founded province of Spania kept the Visigoths as a threat to Hispania
Hispania
alone and not to the western Mediterranean and Africa. Events of the later years of the reign showed that Constantinople
Constantinople
itself was not safe from barbarian incursions from the north, and even the relatively benevolent historian Menander Protector felt the need to attribute the Emperor's failure to protect the capital to the weakness of his body in his old age. In his efforts to renew the Roman Empire, Justinian dangerously stretched its resources while failing to take into account the changed realities of 6th-century Europe.

RELIGIOUS ACTIVITIES

Justinian saw the orthodoxy of his empire threatened by diverging religious currents, especially Monophysitism
Monophysitism
, which had many adherents in the eastern provinces of Syria and Egypt. Monophysite doctrine, which maintains that Jesus Christ had one divine nature or a synthesis of a divine and human nature, had been condemned as a heresy by the Council of Chalcedon in 451, and the tolerant policies towards Monophysitism
Monophysitism
of Zeno and Anastasius I had been a source of tension in the relationship with the bishops of Rome. Justin reversed this trend and confirmed the Chalcedonian doctrine, openly condemning the Monophysites. Justinian, who continued this policy, tried to impose religious unity on his subjects by forcing them to accept doctrinal compromises that might appeal to all parties, a policy that proved unsuccessful as he satisfied none of them.

Near the end of his life, Justinian became ever more inclined towards the Monophysite doctrine, especially in the form of Aphthartodocetism , but he died before being able to issue any legislation. The empress Theodora sympathized with the Monophysites and is said to have been a constant source of pro-Monophysite intrigues at the court in Constantinople
Constantinople
in the earlier years. In the course of his reign, Justinian, who had a genuine interest in matters of theology, authored a small number of theological treatises.

Religious Policy

Justinian I, depicted on an AE Follis coin

As in his secular administration, despotism appeared also in the Emperor's ecclesiastical policy. He regulated everything, both in religion and in law.

At the very beginning of his reign, he deemed it proper to promulgate by law the Church's belief in the Trinity
Trinity
and the Incarnation
Incarnation
; and to threaten all heretics with the appropriate penalties; whereas he subsequently declared that he intended to deprive all disturbers of orthodoxy of the opportunity for such offense by due process of law. He made the Nicaeno-Constantinopolitan creed the sole symbol of the Church, and accorded legal force to the canons of the four ecumenical councils. The bishops in attendance at the Second Council of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 553 recognized that nothing could be done in the Church contrary to the emperor's will and command; while, on his side, the emperor, in the case of the Patriarch Anthimus , reinforced the ban of the Church with temporal proscription. Justinian protected the purity of the church by suppressing heretics. He neglected no opportunity for securing the rights of the Church and clergy , for protecting and extending monasticism . He granted the monks the right to inherit property from private citizens and the right to receive solemnia or annual gifts from the Imperial treasury or from the taxes of certain provinces and he prohibited lay confiscation of monastic estates.

Although the despotic character of his measures is contrary to modern sensibilities, he was indeed a "nursing father" of the Church. Both the _Codex_ and the _Novellae_ contain many enactments regarding donations, foundations, and the administration of ecclesiastical property; election and rights of bishops, priests and abbots; monastic life, residential obligations of the clergy, conduct of divine service, episcopal jurisdiction, et cetera. Justinian also rebuilt the Church of Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
(which cost 20,000 pounds of gold), the original site having been destroyed during the Nika riots. The new Hagia Sophia, with its numerous chapels and shrines, gilded octagonal dome, and mosaics , became the centre and most visible monument of Eastern Orthodoxy in Constantinople.

Religious Relations With Rome

Consular diptych displaying Justinian's full name ( Constantinople
Constantinople
521)

From the middle of the 5th century onward, increasingly arduous tasks confronted the emperors of the East in ecclesiastical matters. Justinian entered the arena of ecclesiastical statecraft shortly after his uncle's accession in 518, and put an end to the Acacian schism . Previous Emperors had tried to alleviate theological conflicts by declarations that deemphasized the Council of Chalcedon , which had condemned Monophysitism
Monophysitism
, which had strongholds in Egypt
Egypt
and Syria, and by tolerating the appointment of Monophysites to church offices. The Popes reacted by severing ties with the Patriarch of Constantinople
Constantinople
who supported these policies. Emperors Justin I
Justin I
(and later Justinian himself) rescinded these policies and reestablished the union between Constantinople
Constantinople
and Rome. After this, Justinian also felt entitled to settle disputes in papal elections, as he did when he favoured Vigilius and had his rival Silverius deported.

This new-found unity between East and West did not, however, solve the ongoing disputes in the east. Justinian's policies switched between attempts to force Monophysites to accept the Chalcedonian creed by persecuting their bishops and monks – thereby embittering their sympathizers in Egypt
Egypt
and other provinces – and attempts at a compromise that would win over the Monophysites without surrendering the Chalcedonian faith. Such an approach was supported by the Empress Theodora, who favoured the Monophysites unreservedly. In the condemnation of the _Three Chapters_ , three theologians that had opposed Monophysitism
Monophysitism
before and after the Council of Chalcedon, Justinian tried to win over the opposition. At the Fifth Ecumenical Council , most of the Eastern church yielded to the Emperor's demands and Pope Vigilius , who was forcibly brought to Constantinople
Constantinople
and besieged at a champel, finally also gave his assent. However, the condemnation was received unfavourably in the west, where it led to new (albeit temporal) schism, and failed to reach its goal in the east, as the Monophysites, remained unsatisfied; all the more bitter for him because during his last years he took an even greater interest in theological matters.

Suppression Of Other Religions And Philosophies

Justinian was one of the first Roman Emperors to be depicted wielding the cross on the obverse of a coin.

Justinian's religious policy reflected the Imperial conviction that the unity of the Empire presupposed unity of faith, and it appeared to him obvious that this faith could only be the orthodox (Nicaean) . Those of a different belief were subjected to persecution, which imperial legislation had effected from the time of Constantius II
Constantius II
and which would now vigorously continue. The _Codex_ contained two statutes that decreed the total destruction of paganism , even in private life; these provisions were zealously enforced. Contemporary sources ( John Malalas , Theophanes , John of Ephesus ) tell of severe persecutions, even of men in high position. In 529, the Neoplatonic Academy of Athens
Athens
was placed under state control as paganism, strangling this training school for this branch of Hellenistic philosophy ..

In Asia Minor
Asia Minor
alone, John of Ephesus reported to have converted 70,000 pagans. Other peoples also accepted Christianity: the Heruli , the Huns
Huns
dwelling near the Don , the Abasgi , and the Tzanni in Caucasia .

The worship of Amun
Amun
at oasis of Awjila in the Libyan desert was abolished; and so were the remnants of the worship of Isis
Isis
on the island of Philae
Philae
, at the first cataract of the Nile
Nile
. The Presbyter Julian and the Bishop Longinus conducted a mission among the Nabataeans , and Justinian attempted to strengthen Christianity
Christianity
in Yemen
Yemen
by despatching a bishop from Egypt
Egypt
.

The civil rights of Jews were restricted and their religious privileges threatened. Justinian also interfered in the internal affairs of the synagogue , and encouraged the Jews to use the Greek Septuagint in their synagogues in Constantinople.

The Emperor faced significant opposition from the Samaritans , who resisted conversion to Christianity
Christianity
and were repeatedly in insurrection. He persecuted them with rigorous edicts, but yet could not prevent reprisals towards Christians from taking place in Samaria toward the close of his reign. The consistency of Justinian's policy meant that the Manicheans
Manicheans
too suffered persecution, experiencing both exile and threat of capital punishment. At Constantinople
Constantinople
, on one occasion, not a few Manicheans, after strict inquisition, were executed in the emperor's very presence: some by burning, others by drowning .

ARCHITECTURE, LEARNING, ART AND LITERATURE

The Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
in 2013

Justinian was a prolific builder; the historian Procopius bears witness to his activities in this area. Under Justinian's patronage the San Vitale in Ravenna, which features two famous mosaics representing Justinian and Theodora, was completed. Most notably, he had the Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
, originally a basilica -style church that had been burnt down during the Nika riots , splendidly rebuilt according to a completely different ground plan, under the architectural supervision of Isidore of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles
Anthemius of Tralles
. According to Procopius, Justinian stated at the completion of this edifice, "Solomon I have outdone thee" (in reference to the 1st Jewish temple). This new cathedral, with its magnificent dome filled with mosaics, remained the centre of eastern Christianity
Christianity
for centuries.

Another prominent church in the capital, the Church of the Holy Apostles , which had been in a very poor state near the end of the 5th century, was likewise rebuilt. Works of embellishment were not confined to churches alone: excavations at the site of the Great Palace of Constantinople
Constantinople
have yielded several high-quality mosaics dating from Justinian's reign, and a column topped by a bronze statue of Justinian on horseback and dressed in a military costume was erected in the Augustaeum in Constantinople
Constantinople
in 543. Rivalry with other, more established patrons from the Constantinopolitan and exiled Roman aristocracy (like Anicia Juliana
Anicia Juliana
) might have enforced Justinian's building activities in the capital as a means of strengthening his dynasty's prestige.

Justinian also strengthened the borders of the Empire from Africa
Africa
to the East through the construction of fortifications, and ensured Constantinople
Constantinople
of its water supply through construction of underground cisterns (see Basilica
Basilica
Cistern ). To prevent floods from damaging the strategically important border town Dara , an advanced arch dam was built. During his reign the large Sangarius Bridge
Sangarius Bridge
was built in Bithynia
Bithynia
, securing a major military supply route to the east. Furthermore, Justinian restored cities damaged by earthquake or war and built a new city near his place of birth called Justiniana Prima
Justiniana Prima
, which was intended to replace Thessalonica
Thessalonica
as the political and religious centre of Illyricum .

In Justinian's reign, and partly under his patronage, Byzantine culture produced noteworthy historians, including Procopius and Agathias
Agathias
, and poets such as Paul the Silentiary and Romanus the Melodist flourished. On the other hand, centres of learning as the Platonic Academy in Athens
Athens
and the famous Law School of Beirut lost their importance during his reign. Despite Justinian's passion for the glorious Roman past, the practice of choosing Roman consul was allowed to lapse after 541.

ECONOMY AND ADMINISTRATION

Further information: Byzantine silk Gold coin of Justinian I (527–565 CE) excavated in India
India
probably in the south, an example of Indo-Roman trade during the period

As was the case under Justinian's predecessors, the Empire's economic health rested primarily on agriculture. In addition, long-distance trade flourished, reaching as far north as Cornwall
Cornwall
where tin was exchanged for Roman wheat. Within the Empire, convoys sailing from Alexandria
Alexandria
provided Constantinople
Constantinople
with wheat and grains. Justinian made the traffic more efficient by building a large granary on the island of Tenedos for storage and further transport to Constantinople. Justinian also tried to find new routes for the eastern trade, which was suffering badly from the wars with the Persians.

One important luxury product was silk , which was imported and then processed in the Empire. In order to protect the manufacture of silk products, Justinian granted a monopoly to the imperial factories in 541. In order to bypass the Persian landroute, Justinian established friendly relations with the Abyssinians , whom he wanted to act as trade mediators by transporting Indian silk to the Empire; the Abyssinians, however, were unable to compete with the Persian merchants in India. Then, in the early 550s, two monks succeeded in smuggling eggs of silk worms from Central Asia
Central Asia
back to Constantinople, and silk became an indigenous product.

Gold and silver were mined in the Balkans, Anatolia, Armenia, Cyprus, Egypt
Egypt
and Nubia. Scene from daily life on a mosaic from the Great Palace of Constantinople
Constantinople
, early 6th century

At the start of Justinian I's reign he had inherited a surplus 28,800,000 _solidi_ (400,000 pounds of gold) in the imperial treasury from Anastasius I and Justin I
Justin I
. Under Justinian's rule, measures were taken to counter corruption in the provinces and to make tax collection more efficient. Greater administrative power was given to both the leaders of the prefectures and of the provinces, while power was taken away from the vicariates of the dioceses , of which a number were abolished. The overall trend was towards a simplification of administrative infrastructure. According to Brown (1971), the increased professionalization of tax collection did much to destroy the traditional structures of provincial life, as it weakened the autonomy of the town councils in the Greek towns. It has been estimated that before Justinian I's reconquests the state had an annual revenue of 5,000,000 _solidi_ in AD 530, but after his reconquests, the annual revenue was increased to 6,000,000 _solidi_ in AD 550.

Throughout Justinian's reign, the cities and villages of the East prospered, although Antioch
Antioch
was struck by two earthquakes (526, 528) and sacked and evacuated by the Persians (540). Justinian had the city rebuilt, but on a slightly smaller scale.

Despite all these measures, the Empire suffered several major setbacks in the course of the 6th century. The first one was the plague , which lasted from 541 to 543 and, by decimating the Empire's population, probably created a scarcity of labor and a rising of wages. The lack of manpower also led to a significant increase in the number of "barbarians" in the Byzantine armies after the early 540s. The protracted war in Italy
Italy
and the wars with the Persians themselves laid a heavy burden on the Empire's resources, and Justinian was criticized for curtailing the government-run post service, which he limited to only one eastern route of military importance.

NATURAL DISASTERS

Main articles: 551 Beirut earthquake , Extreme weather events of 535–536 , and Plague of Justinian

During the decade of the 530s, it seemed to many that God had abandoned the Christian Roman Empire. There were noxious fumes in the air; and the Sun, while still providing day, refused to give much heat. This caused famine unlike anything those of the time had seen before, weakening the people of Europe and the Middle East.

The cause of these disasters aren't precisely known, but the Rabaul caldera , Lake Ilopango and Krakatoa volcanoes or a collision with a swarm of meteors are all suspected. Scientists have spent decades on the mystery.

Seven years later, in 542, a devastating outbreak of Bubonic Plague , known as the Plague of Justinian and second only to that of the 14th century, laid siege to the world, killing tens of millions. As ruler of the Empire, Justinian, and members of his court, were physically unaffected by famine. However, the Imperial Court did prove susceptible to plague, with Justinian himself contracting, but surviving, the pestilence.

In July 551, the eastern Mediterranean was rocked by the 551 Beirut earthquake , which triggered a tsunami. The combined fatalities of both events probably exceeded 30,000, with tremors being felt from Antioch
Antioch
to Alexandria.

CULTURAL DEPICTIONS

In the _Paradiso _ section of the _ Divine Comedy
Divine Comedy
_ by Dante Alighieri , Justinian I
Justinian I
is prominently featured as a spirit residing on the sphere of Mercury , which holds the ambitious souls of Heaven
Heaven
. His legacy is elaborated on, and he is portrayed as a defender of the Christian faith and the restorer of Rome
Rome
to the Empire. However, Justinian confesses that he was partially motivated by fame rather than duty to God, which tainted the justice of his rule in spite of his proud accomplishments. In his introduction, "Cesare fui e son Iustinïano" ("Caesar I was, and am Justinian" ), his mortal title is contrasted with his immortal soul, to emphasize that glory in life is ephemeral, while contributing to God's glory is eternal, according to Dorothy L. Sayers. Dante also uses Justinian to criticize the factious politics of his 14th Century Italy, in contrast to the unified Italy
Italy
of the Roman Empire.

_The Glittering Horn: Secret Memoirs of the Court of Justinian_ was a novel written by Pierson Dixon in 1958 about the court of Justinian.

HISTORICAL SOURCES

Procopius provides the primary source for the history of Justinian's reign. The Syriac chronicle of John of Ephesus , which does not survive, was used as a source for later chronicles, contributing many additional details of value. Both historians became very bitter towards Justinian and his empress, Theodora . Other sources include the histories of Agathias
Agathias
, Menander Protector , John Malalas , the Paschal Chronicle , the chronicles of Marcellinus Comes and Victor of Tunnuna . Justinian is widely regarded as a saint by Orthodox Christians , and is also commemorated by some Lutheran churches on 14 November.

PRIMARY SOURCES

* _Procopii Caesariensis opera omnia_. Edited by J. Haury; revised by G. Wirth. 3 vols. Leipzig: Teubner , 1962–64. Greek text. * _Procopius_. Edited by H. B. Dewing. 7 vols. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press and London, Hutchinson, 1914–40. Greek text and English translation. * Procopius, _The Secret History_, translated by G.A. Williamson. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1966. A readable and accessible English translation of the _Anecdota_. * Elizabeth Jeffreys, Michael Jeffreys, Roger Scott et al. 1986, _The Chronicle of John Malalas: A Translation_, Byzantina Australiensia 4 (Melbourne: Australian Association for Byzantine Studies) ISBN 0-9593626-2-2 * Edward Walford , translator (1846) _The Ecclesiastical History of Evagrius: A History of the Church from AD 431 to AD 594_, Reprinted 2008. Evolution Publishing, ISBN 978-1-889758-88-6 .

SEE ALSO

* Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
portal

* Flavia (gens) * List of Byzantine emperors

NOTES

* ^ _Britannica Concise Encyclopedia_, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2008, ISBN 1593394926 , p. 1007. * ^ _History of the Later Roman Empire
Roman Empire
from Arcadius to Irene_, Volume 2, J. B. Bury, Cosimo, Inc., 2008, ISBN 1605204056 , p. 7. * ^ J. F. Haldon, _Byzantium in the seventh century_ (Cambridge, 2003), 17–19. * ^ For instance by G. P. Baker (_Justinian_, New York 1938), or in the _Outline of Great Books_ series (_Justinian the Great_). * ^ On the western Roman Empire, see now H. Börm, _Westrom_ (Stuttgart 2013). * ^ "History 303: Finances under Justinian". Tulane.edu. Retrieved 2012-11-14. * ^ Evans, J. A. S., _The Age of Justinian: the circumstances of imperial power_. pp. 93–94 * ^ John Henry Merryman and Rogelio Pérez-Perdomo, _The Civil Law Tradition: An Introduction to the Legal Systems of Europe and Latin America_, 3rd ed. (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007), pp. 9–11. * ^ The precise location of this site is disputed; the possible locations include Justiniana Prima
Justiniana Prima
near the modern town of Lebane in southern Serbia
Serbia
and Taor near Skopje
Skopje
, Macedonia * ^ _The Inheritance of Rome_, Chris Wickham, Penguin Books Ltd. 2009, ISBN 978-0-670-02098-0 (page 90). Justinian referred to Latin
Latin
as his native tongue in several of his laws. See Moorhead (1994), p. 18. * ^ Michael Maas (2005-04-18). _The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian_. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139826877 . * ^ Treadgold, Warren T. (1997). A history of the Byzantine state and society. Stanford University Press. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-8047-2630-6 . Retrieved 12 October 2010. * ^ Barker, John W. (1966). _Justinian and the later Roman Empire_. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-299-03944-8 . Retrieved 28 November 2011. * ^ Robert Browning (2003). _Justinian and Theodora_. Gorgias Press. ISBN 9781593330538 . * ^ Shifting Genres in Late Antiquity, Hugh Elton, Geoffrey Greatrex, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2015, ISBN 1472443500 , p. 259. * ^ Pannonia and Upper Moesia: A History of the Middle Danube Provinces of the Roman Empire, András Mócsy, Routledge, 2014, ISBN 1317754255 , p. 350. * ^ The sole source for Justinian's full name_, Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus_ (sometimes called _Flavius Anicius Iustinianus_), are consular diptychs of the year 521 bearing his name. * ^ Sima M. Cirkovic (7 June 2004). _The Serbs_. Wiley. ISBN 9780631204718 . * ^ _ Justiniana Prima
Justiniana Prima
Site of an early Byzantine city located 30 km south-west of Leskovci in Kosovo_. Grove's Dictionaries. 2006. * ^ _Byzantine Constantinople: Monuments, Topography and Everyday Life_. BRILL. 2001. ISBN 9004116257 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ Robert Browning. "Justinian I" in _ Dictionary of the Middle Ages _, volume VII (1986). * ^ _Cambridge Ancient History_ p. 65 * ^ Moorhead (1994), pp. 21–22, with a reference to Procopius, Secret History
Secret History
8.3. * ^ This post seems to have been titular ; there is no evidence that Justinian had any military experience. See A.D. Lee, "The Empire at War", in Michael Maas (ed.), _The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian_ (Cambridge 2005), pp. 113–133 (pp. 113–114). * ^ See Procopius, _Secret history_, ch. 13. * ^ M. Meier, _Justinian_, p. 57. * ^ P. N. Ure, _Justinian and his age_, p. 200. * ^ "DIR Justinian". Roman Emperors. 1998-07-25. Retrieved 2012-11-14. * ^ Robert Browning, _Justinian and Theodora_ (1987), 129; James Allan Evans, _The Empress Theodora: Partner of Justinian_ (2002), 104 * ^ Theological treatises authored by Justinian can be found in Migne's _ Patrologia Graeca _, Vol. 86. * ^ Crowley, Roger (2011). _City of Fortune, How Venice Won and Lost a Naval Empire_. London: Faber & Faber Ltd. p. 109. ISBN 978-0-571-24595-6 . * ^ "S. P. Scott: The Civil Law". Constitution.org. 2002-06-19. Retrieved 2012-11-14. * ^ Kunkel, W. (translated by J. M. Kelly) _An introduction to Roman legal and constitutional history_. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1966; 168 * ^ Darrell P. Hammer. " Russia
Russia
and the Roman Law". JSTOR. JSTOR 3001333 . * ^ Garland (1999), pp. 16–17 * ^ J. Norwich, _Byzantium: The Early Centuries_, 200 * ^ Diehl, Charles. _Theodora, Empress of Byzantium_ ((c) 1972 by Frederick Ungar Publishing, Inc., transl. by S.R. Rosenbaum from the original French _Theodora, Imperatice de Byzance_), 89. * ^ Vasiliev (1958), p. 157. * ^ For an account of Justinian's wars, see Moorhead (1994), pp. 22–24, 63–98, and 101–9. * ^ See A. D. Lee, "The Empire at War", in Michael Maas (ed.), _The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian_ (Cambridge 2005), pp. 113–33 (pp. 113–14). For Justinian's own views, see the texts of _Codex Iustinianus_ 1.27.1 and _Novellae_ 8.10.2 and 30.11.2. * ^ Justinian himself took the field only once, during a campaign against the Huns
Huns
in 559, when he was already an old man. This enterprise was largely symbolic and although no battle was fought, the emperor held a triumphal entry in the capital afterwards. (See Browning, R. _Justinian and Theodora._ London 1971, 193.) * ^ See Geoffrey Greatrex, "Byzantium and the East in the Sixth Century" in Michael Maas (ed.). _Age of Justinian_ (2005), pp. 477–509. * ^ J. Norwich, _Byzantium: The Early Centuries_, p. 195. * ^ Moorhead (1994), p. 68. * ^ Moorhead (1994), p. 70. * ^ Procopius. "II.XXVIII". _De Bello Vandalico_. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Early Medieval and Byzantine Civilization: Constantine to Crusades". Tulane. * ^ J. Norwich, _Byzantium: The Early Centuries_, 215 * ^ Moorhead (1994), pp. 84–86. * ^ See for this section Moorhead (1994), p. 89 ff., Greatrex (2005), p. 488 ff., and especially H. Börm, "Der Perserkönig im Imperium Romanum", in _Chiron_ 36, 2006, p. 299 ff. * ^ _A_ _B_ J. Norwich, _Byzantium: The Early Centuries_, 229 * ^ Procopius mentions this event both in the _Wars_ and in the _Secret History_, but gives two entirely different explanations for it. The evidence is briefly discussed in Moorhead (1994), pp. 97–98. * ^ J. Norwich, _Byzantium: The Early Centuries_, 235 * ^ Moorhead ((1994), p. 164) gives the lower, Greatrex ((2005), p. 489) the higher figure. * ^ J. Norwich, _Byzantium: The Early Centuries_, 251 * ^ J. Norwich, _Byzantium: The Early Centuries_, 233 * ^ _Getica_, 303 * ^ See Lee (2005), p. 125 ff. * ^ W. Pohl, "Justinian and the Barbarian Kingdoms", in Maas (2005), pp. 448–476; 472 * ^ See Haldon (2003), pp. 17–19. * ^ Meyendorff 1989 , pp. 207–250. * ^ Treatises written by Justinian can be found in Migne's _Patrologia Graeca_, Vol. 86. * ^ _Cod._, I., i. 5. * ^ _MPG_, lxxxvi. 1, p. 993. * ^ _Cod._, I., i. 7. * ^ _Novellae_, cxxxi. * ^ Mansi, _Concilia_, viii. 970B. * ^ _Novellae_, xlii. * ^ P. Heather, _The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome
Rome
and the Barbarians_, 283 * ^ cf. _Novellae_, cxxxi. * ^ _Cod._, I., xi. 9 and 10. * ^ François Nau , in _Revue de l'orient chretien_, ii., 1897, 482. * ^ Procopius , _Bellum Gothicum_, ii. 14; Evagrius , _Hist. eccl._, iv. 20 * ^ Procopius, iv. 4; Evagrius, iv. 23. * ^ Procopius, iv. 3; Evagrius, iv. 22. * ^ Procopius, _Bellum Persicum_, i. 15. * ^ Procopius, _De Aedificiis_, vi. 2. * ^ Procopius, _Bellum Persicum_, i. 19. * ^ _DCB_, iii. 482 * ^ John of Ephesus, _Hist. eccl._, iv. 5 sqq. * ^ Procopius, _Bellum Persicum_, i. 20; Malalas, ed. Niebuhr , Bonn
Bonn
, 1831, pp. 433 sqq. * ^ _Cod._, I., v. 12 * ^ Procopius, _Historia Arcana_, 28; * ^ _Nov._, cxlvi., 8 February 553 * ^ Michael Maas (2005), _The Cambridge companion to the Age of Justinian_, Cambridge University Press, pp. 16–, ISBN 978-0-521-81746-2 , retrieved 18 August 2010 * ^ _Cod._, I., v. 12. * ^ F. Nau, in _Revue de l'orient_, ii., 1897, p. 481. * ^ See Procopius, _Buildings_. * ^ Vasiliev (1952), p. 189 * ^ Brian Croke, "Justinian's Constantinople", in Michael Maas (ed.), _The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian_ (Cambridge 2005), pp. 60–86 (p. 66) * ^ See Croke (2005), p. 364 ff., and Moorhead (1994). * ^ Following a terrible earthquake in 551, the school at Beirut was transferred to Sidon and had no further significance after that date. (Vasiliev (1952), p. 147) * ^ Vasiliev (1952), p. I 192. * ^ John F. Haldon, "Economy and Administration", in Michael Maas (ed.), _The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian_ (Cambridge 2005), pp. 28–59 (p. 35) * ^ John Moorhead, _Justinian_ (London/New York 1994), p. 57 * ^ Peter Brown, _The World of Late Antiquity_ (London 1971), pp. 157–158 * ^ Vasiliev (1952), p. 167 * ^ See Moorhead (1994), p. 167; Procopius, _Wars_, 8.17.1–8 * ^ "Justinian\'s Gold Mines – Mining Technology TechnoMine". Technology.infomine.com. 2008-12-03. Retrieved 2012-11-14. * ^ Haldon (2005), p. 50 * ^ Brown (1971), p. 157 * ^ Kenneth G. Holum, "The Classical City in the Sixth Century", in Michael Maas (ed.), _Age of Justinian_ (2005), pp. 99–100 * ^ Moorhead (1994), pp. 100–101 * ^ John L. Teall, "The Barbarians in Justinian's Armies", in _Speculum_, vol. 40, No. 2, 1965, 294–322. The total strength of the Byzantine army under Justinian is estimated at 150,000 men (J. Norwich, _Byzantium: The Early Centuries_, 259). * ^ Brown (1971), p. 158; Moorhead (1994), p. 101 * ^ _Paradiso_, Canto VI verse 10 * ^ Dorothy L. Sayers, Paradiso, notes on Canto VI. * ^ While he glorified Justinian's achievements in his panegyric and his _Wars_, Procopius also wrote a hostile account, _Anekdota_ (the so-called _Secret History_), in which Justinian is depicted as a cruel, venal, and incompetent ruler. * ^ In various Eastern Orthodox Churches, including the Orthodox Church in America , Justinian and his empress Theodora are commemorated on the anniversary of his death, 14 November. Some denominations translate the Julian calendar date to 27 November on the Gregorian calendar . The Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod and the Lutheran Church–Canada also remember Justinian on November 14. * ^ "The Christian Roman Empire
Roman Empire
series". Evolpub.com. Retrieved 2012-11-14.

REFERENCES

* This article incorporates text from the _Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge _.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Ostrogorsky, George (1956). _History of the Byzantine State_. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. * Bury, J. B. (1958). _History of the later Roman Empire_. 2. New York (reprint). * Meyendorff, John (1989). _Imperial unity and Christian divisions: The Church 450–680 A.D._ The Church in history. 2. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. ISBN 978-0-88-141056-3 . * Cameron, Averil et al.(eds.) (2000). "Justinian Era". _The Cambridge Ancient History_ (Second ed.). Cambridge. 14. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Cumberland Jacobsen, Torsten (2009). _The Gothic War_. Westholme. * Dixon, Pierson (1958). _The Glittering Horn: Secret Memoirs of the Court of Justinian_. * Evans, James Allan (2005). _The Emperor Justinian and the Byzantine Empire_. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-32582-0 .

* Garland, Lynda (1999). _Byzantine empresses: women and power in Byzantium, AD 527–1204_. London: Routledge. * Maas, Michael (ed.) (2005). _The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian_. Cambridge. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Meier, Mischa (2003). _Das andere Zeitalter Justinians. Kontingenz Erfahrung und Kontingenzbewältigung im 6. Jahrhundert n. Chr._ (in German). Gottingen. * Meier, Mischa (2004). _Justinian. Herrschaft, Reich, und Religion_ (in German). Munich. * Moorhead, John (1994). _Justinian_. London. * Rosen, William (2007). _Justinian's Flea: Plague, Empire, and the Birth of Europe_. Viking Adult. ISBN 978-0-670-03855-8 . * Rubin, Berthold (1960). _Das Zeitalter Iustinians_. Berlin. – German standard work; partially obsolete, but still useful. * Sarris, Peter (2006). _Economy and society in the age of Justinian_. Cambridge. * Ure, PN (1951). _Justinian and his Age_. Penguin, Harmondsworth. * Vasiliev, A. A. (1952). _History of the Byzantine Empire_ (Second ed.). Madison. * Sidney Dean, Duncan B. Campbell , Ian Hughes, Ross Cowan, Raffaele D'Amato, and Christopher Lillington-Martin, eds. (Jun–Jul 2010). "Justinian's fireman: Belisarius and the Byzantine empire". _Ancient Warfare _. IV (3). CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link )

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