Mercado y Alonso Realonda, widely known as
(Spanish pronunciation: [xoˈse riˈsal]; June 19,
1861 – December 30, 1896), was a Filipino nationalist and polymath
during the tail end of the Spanish colonial period of the Philippines.
An ophthalmologist by profession,
became a writer and a key
member of the Filipino
which advocated political
reforms for the colony under Spain.
He was executed by the Spanish colonial government for the crime of
rebellion after the Philippine Revolution, inspired in part by his
writings, broke out. Though he was not actively involved in its
planning or conduct, he ultimately approved of its goals which
eventually led to Philippine independence.
He is widely considered one of the greatest heroes of the Philippines
and has been recommended to be so honored by an officially empaneled
National Heroes Committee. However, no law, executive order or
proclamation has been enacted or issued officially proclaiming any
Filipino historical figure as a national hero. He was the author of
the novels Noli Me Tángere and El filibusterismo, and a number
of poems and essays.
1 Early life
3 Personal life, relationships and ventures
3.2 Association with Leonor Rivera
3.3 Relationship with Josephine Bracken
Brussels and Spain (1890–92)
5 Return to
Exile in Dapitan
5.2 Arrest and trial
7 Works and writings
7.1 Novels and essays
7.4 Other works
8 Reactions after death
8.1 Retraction controversy
8.2 "Mi último adiós"
8.3 Later life of Bracken
8.4 Polavieja and Blanco
9 Criticism and controversies
9.1 National hero status
9.1.1 Made national hero by colonial Americans
9.1.2 Made national hero by Emilio Aguinaldo
9.2 Critiques of books
9.3 Role in the Philippine revolution
10.1 Species named after Rizal
11 Historical commemoration
Rizal in popular culture
12.1 Adaptation of his works
12.2 Biographical films/TV series
13 See also
14 Notes and references
16 Further reading
17 External links
José Rizal's baptismal register
Rizal was born in 1861 to Francisco Mercado and Teodora Alonso
in the town of Calamba in Laguna province. He had nine sisters and one
brother. His parents were leaseholders of a hacienda and an
accompanying rice farm by the Dominicans. Both their families had
adopted the additional surnames of
Rizal and Realonda in 1849, after
Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa
Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa decreed the adoption of
Spanish surnames among the Filipinos for census purposes (though they
already had Spanish names).
Like many families in the Philippines, the Rizals were of mixed
origin. José's patrilineal lineage could be traced back to
China through his father's ancestor Lam-Co, a Chinese merchant who
immigrated to the
Philippines in the late 17th century.[note
1] Lam-Co traveled to
Manila from Amoy, China, possibly to avoid
the famine or plague in his home district, and more probably to escape
Manchu invasion. He finally decided to stay in the islands as a
farmer. In 1697, to escape the bitter anti-Chinese prejudice that
existed in the Philippines, he converted to Catholicism, changed his
name to Domingo Mercado and married the daughter of Chinese friend
Augustin Chin-co. On his mother's side, Rizal's ancestry included
Chinese, Japanese and Tagalog blood. His mother's lineage can be
traced to the affluent Florentina family of Chinese mestizo families
originating in Baliuag, Bulacan. José
Rizal also had scant
Spanish ancestry. His grandfather was a half Spaniard engineer named
Lorenzo Alberto Alonzo.
Rizal even had Negrito ancestors.
From an early age, José showed a precocious intellect. He learned the
alphabet from his mother at 3, and could read and write at age 5.
Upon enrolling at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila, he dropped the last
three names that made up his full name, on the advice of his brother,
Paciano and the Mercado family, thus rendering his name as "José
Protasio Rizal". Of this, he later wrote: "My family never paid much
attention [to our second surname Rizal], but now I had to use it, thus
giving me the appearance of an illegitimate child!" This was to
enable him to travel freely and disassociate him from his brother, who
had gained notoriety with his earlier links to Filipino priests
Jose Burgos and
Jacinto Zamora (popularly known as
Gomburza) who had been accused and executed for treason.
Rizal's house in Calamba, Laguna.
Despite the name change, José, as "Rizal" soon distinguished himself
in poetry writing contests, impressing his professors with his
facility with Castilian and other foreign languages, and later, in
writing essays that were critical of the Spanish historical accounts
of the pre-colonial Philippine societies. Indeed, by 1891, the year he
finished his El Filibusterismo, this second surname had become so well
known that, as he writes to another friend, "All my family now carry
Rizal instead of Mercado because the name
persecution! Good! I too want to join them and be worthy of this
Rizal, 11 years old, a student at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila
Rizal first studied under Justiniano Aquino Cruz in Biñan, Laguna,
before he was sent to Manila. As to his father's request, he took
the entrance examination in
Colegio de San Juan de Letran
Colegio de San Juan de Letran but he then
enrolled at the Ateneo Municipal de
Manila and graduated as one of the
nine students in his class declared sobresaliente or outstanding. He
continued his education at the Ateneo Municipal de
Manila to obtain a
land surveyor and assessor's degree, and at the same time at the
University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas where he did take up a preparatory course in
law. Upon learning that his mother was going blind, he decided to
switch to medicine at the medical school of Santo Tomas specializing
later in ophthalmology.
Rizal as a student at the University of Santo Tomas
Without his parents' knowledge and consent, but secretly supported by
his brother Paciano, he traveled alone to
Madrid, Spain in May 1882
and studied medicine at the Universidad Central de
Madrid where he
earned the degree, Licentiate in Medicine. He also attended medical
lectures at the
University of Paris
University of Paris and the University of Heidelberg.
In Berlin, he was inducted as a member of the
Society and the
Berlin Anthropological Society under the patronage of
the famous pathologist Rudolf Virchow. Following custom, he delivered
an address in German in April 1887 before the Anthropological Society
on the orthography and structure of the Tagalog language. He left
Heidelberg a poem, "A las flores del Heidelberg", which was both an
evocation and a prayer for the welfare of his native land and the
unification of common values between East and West.
At Heidelberg, the 25-year-old Rizal, completed in 1887 his eye
specialization under the renowned professor, Otto Becker. There he
used the newly invented ophthalmoscope (invented by Hermann von
Helmholtz) to later operate on his own mother's eye. From Heidelberg,
Rizal wrote his parents: "I spend half of the day in the study of
German and the other half, in the diseases of the eye. Twice a week, I
go to the bierbrauerie, or beerhall, to speak German with my student
friends." He lived in a Karlstraße boarding house then moved to
Ludwigsplatz. There, he met Reverend Karl Ullmer and stayed with them
in Wilhelmsfeld, where he wrote the last few chapters of Noli Me
Rizal was a polymath, skilled in both science and the arts. He
painted, sketched, and made sculptures and woodcarving. He was a
prolific poet, essayist, and novelist whose most famous works were his
two novels, Noli Me Tángere and its sequel, El filibusterismo.[note
2] These social commentaries during the Spanish colonization of the
country formed the nucleus of literature that inspired peaceful
reformists and armed revolutionaries alike.
Rizal was also a polyglot,
conversant in twenty-two languages.[note 3][note 4]
Rizal's multifacetedness was described by his German friend, Dr. Adolf
Bernhard Meyer, as "stupendous."[note 5] Documented studies show him
to be a polymath with the ability to master various skills and
subjects. He was an ophthalmologist, sculptor,
painter, educator, farmer, historian, playwright and journalist.
Besides poetry and creative writing, he dabbled, with varying degrees
of expertise, in architecture, cartography, economics, ethnology,
anthropology, sociology, dramatics, martial arts, fencing and pistol
shooting. He was also a Freemason, joining Acacia Lodge No. 9 during
his time in Spain and becoming a
Master Mason in 1884.
Personal life, relationships and ventures
Rednaxela Terrace, where
Rizal lived during his self-imposed exile in
Hong Kong (photo taken in 2011).
José Rizal's life is one of the most documented of 19th century
Filipinos due to the vast and extensive records written by and about
him. Almost everything in his short life is recorded somewhere,
being himself a regular diarist and prolific letter writer, much of
the material having survived. His biographers, however, have faced
difficulty in translating his writings because of Rizal's habit of
switching from one language to another.
They drew largely from his travel diaries with their insights of a
young Asian encountering the West for the first time. They included
his later trips, home and back again to Europe through Japan and the
United States, and, finally, through his self-imposed exile in
Shortly after he graduated from the Ateneo Municipal de
Rizal (who was then 16 years old) and a
friend, Mariano Katigbak, came to visit Rizal's maternal grandmother
in Tondo, Manila. Mariano brought along his sister, Segunda Katigbak,
a 14-year-old Batangueña from Lipa, Batangas. It was the first time
they met and
Rizal described Segunda as "rather short, with eyes that
were eloquent and ardent at times and languid at others,
rosy–cheeked, with an enchanting and provocative smile that revealed
very beautiful teeth, and the air of a sylph; her entire self diffused
a mysterious charm." His grandmother's guests were mostly college
students and they knew that
Rizal had skills in painting. They
Rizal should make a portrait of Segunda. He complied
reluctantly and made a pencil sketch of her. Unfortunately for him,
Katigbak was engaged to Manuel Luz.
Business Card shows Dr. José
Rizal is an
Ophthalmologist in Hong Kong
From December 1891 to June 1892,
Rizal lived with his family in Number
2 of Rednaxela Terrace, Mid-levels,
Hong Kong Island.
Rizal used 5
D'Aguilar Street, Central district,
Hong Kong Island, as his
ophthalmologist clinic from 2 pm to 6 pm. This period of his
life included his recorded affections of which nine were identified.
They were Gertrude Beckett of Chalcot Crescent, London, wealthy and
high-minded Nelly Boustead of the English and Iberian merchant family,
last descendant of a noble Japanese family Seiko Usui (affectionately
called O-Sei-san), his earlier friendship with Segunda Katigbak,
Leonor Valenzuela, and eight-year romantic relationship with a distant
Leonor Rivera (popularly thought to be the inspiration for the
María Clara in Noli me tangere).
In one recorded fall from grace he succumbed to the temptation of a
'lady of the camellias'. The writer, Maximo Viola, a friend of
Rizal's, was alluding to Dumas's 1848 novel, La dame aux camelias,
about a man who fell in love with a courtesan. While the affair was on
record, there was no account in Viola's letter whether it was more
than one-night and if it was more a business transaction than an
amorous affair.[note 6]
Association with Leonor Rivera
See also: Leonor Rivera
A crayon portrait of
Leonor Rivera by José Rizal
Leonor Rivera is thought to be the inspiration for the character of
Maria Clara in Noli Me Tángere and El Filibusterismo. Rivera and
Rizal first met in
Manila when Rivera was only 14 years old. When
Rizal left for Europe on May 3, 1882, Rivera was 16 years of age.
Their correspondence began when
Rizal left a poem for Rivera saying
The correspondence between Rivera and
Rizal focused on his
studies in Europe. They employed codes in their letters because
Rivera's mother did not favor Rizal. A letter from Mariano Katigbak
dated June 27, 1884, referred to Rivera as Rizal's "betrothed".
Katigbak described Rivera as having been greatly affected by Rizal's
departure, frequently sick because of insomnia.
Rizal returned to the
Philippines on August 5, 1887, Rivera and
her family had moved back to Dagupan, Pangasinan.
Rizal was forbidden
by his father Francisco Mercado to see Rivera in order to avoid
putting the Rivera family in danger because at the time
already labeled by the criollo elite as a filibustero or
subversive because of his novel Noli Me Tángere.
Rizal wanted to
marry Rivera while he was still in the
Philippines because of Rivera's
Rizal asked permission from his father one
more time before his second departure from the Philippines. The
meeting never happened. In 1888,
Rizal stopped receiving letters from
Rivera for a year, although
Rizal kept sending letters to Rivera. The
reason for Rivera's year of silence was the connivance between
Rivera's mother and the Englishman named Henry Kipping, a railway
engineer who fell in love with Rivera and was favored by Rivera's
mother. The news of Leonor Rivera's marriage to Kipping
His European friends kept almost everything he gave them, including
doodlings on pieces of paper. In the home of a Spanish liberal, Pedro
Ortiga y Pérez, he left an impression that was to be remembered by
his daughter, Consuelo. In her diary, she wrote of a day
there and regaled them with his wit, social graces, and
sleight-of-hand tricks. In London, during his research on Antonio de
Morga's writings, he became a regular guest in the home of Reinhold
Rost of the
British Museum who referred to him as "a gem of a
man."[note 7] The family of Karl Ullmer, pastor of Wilhelmsfeld,
and the Blumentritts saved even buttonholes and napkins with sketches
and notes. They were ultimately bequeathed to the
Rizal family to form
a treasure trove of memorabilia.
Josephine Bracken was Rizal's common-law wife whom he reportedly
married shortly before his execution
Relationship with Josephine Bracken
Further information: Josephine Bracken
In February 1895, Rizal, 33, met Josephine Bracken, an Irish woman
from Hong Kong, when she accompanied her blind adoptive father, George
Taufer, to have his eyes checked by Rizal. After frequent visits,
Rizal and Bracken fell in love with each other. They applied to marry
but, because of Rizal's reputation from his writings and political
stance, the local priest Father Obach would only hold the ceremony if
Rizal could get permission from the Bishop of Cebu. He was unable to
obtain an ecclesiastical marriage because he would not return to
After accompanying her father to
Manila on her return to Hong Kong,
and before heading back to
Dapitan to live with Rizal, Josephine
introduced herself to members of Rizal's family in Manila. His mother
suggested a civil marriage, which she believed to be a lesser
sacrament but less sinful to Rizal's conscience than making any sort
of political retraction in order to gain permission from the
Rizal and Josephine lived as husband and wife in a
common-law marriage in Talisay in Dapitan. The couple had a son who
lived only for a few hours after Josephine suffered a miscarriage;
Rizal named him after his father Francisco.
Brussels and Spain (1890–92)
In 1890, Rizal, 29, left Paris for
Brussels as he was preparing for
the publication of his annotations of Antonio de Morga's Sucesos de
las Islas Filipinas (1609). He lived in the boarding house of the two
Jacoby sisters, Catherina and Suzanna, who had a niece Suzanna
("Thil"), age 16. Historian
Gregorio F. Zaide states that
"his romance with Suzanne Jacoby, 45, the petite niece of his
landladies." Belgian Pros Slachmuylders, however, believed that Rizal
had a romance with the 17-year-old niece, Suzanna Thil, as his other
liaisons were all with young women. He found records clarifying
their names and ages.
Brussels stay was short-lived; he moved to Madrid, giving the
young Suzanna a box of chocolates. She wrote to him in French: "After
your departure, I did not take the chocolate. The box is still intact
as on the day of your parting. Don’t delay too long writing us
because I wear out the soles of my shoes for running to the mailbox to
see if there is a letter from you. There will never be any home in
which you are so loved as in that in Brussels, so, you little bad boy,
hurry up and come back…" In 2007, Slachmuylders' group arranged
for an historical marker honoring
Rizal to be placed at the house.
The content of Rizal's writings changed considerably in his two most
famous novels, Noli Me Tángere, published in
Berlin in 1887, and El
Filibusterismo, published in Ghent in 1891. For the latter, he used
funds borrowed from his friends. These writings angered both the
Spanish colonial elite and many educated Filipinos due to their
symbolism. They are critical of Spanish friars and the power of the
Church. Rizal's friend Ferdinand Blumentritt, an Austria-Hungary-born
professor and historian, wrote that the novel's characters were drawn
from real life and that every episode can be repeated on any day in
Blumentritt was the grandson of the Imperial Treasurer at
the former Austro-Hungarian Empire and a staunch defender of the
Catholic faith. This did not dissuade him from writing the preface of
El filibusterismo after he had translated Noli Me Tángere into
German. As Blumentritt had warned, these books resulted in Rizal's
being prosecuted as the inciter of revolution. He was eventually tried
by the military, convicted and executed. Teaching the natives where
they stood brought about an adverse reaction, as the Philippine
Revolution of 1896 took off virulently thereafter.
Leaders of the reform movement in Spain: Left to right: Rizal, del
Pilar, and Ponce (c. 1890).
As leader of the reform movement of Filipino students in Spain, Rizal
contributed essays, allegories, poems, and editorials to the Spanish
La Solidaridad in
Barcelona (in this case
Rizal used a pen
name, "Dimasalang", "Laong Laan" and "May Pagasa"). The core of his
writings centers on liberal and progressive ideas of individual rights
and freedom; specifically, rights for the Filipino people. He shared
the same sentiments with members of the movement: that the Philippines
is battling, in Rizal's own words, "a double-faced Goliath"—corrupt
friars and bad government. His commentaries reiterate the following
Philippines be made a province of Spain (The
a province of
New Spain – now Mexico, administered from Mexico city
from 1565 to 1821. From 1821 to 1898 it was administered directly from
Representation in the Cortes
Filipino priests instead of Spanish friars – Augustinians,
Franciscans – in parishes and remote sitios
Freedom of assembly and speech
Equal rights before the law (for both Filipino and Spanish plaintiffs)
The colonial authorities in the
Philippines did not favor these
reforms. Such Spanish intellectuals as Morayta, Unamuno, Pi y Margall,
and others did endorse them.
Wenceslao Retana, a political commentator in Spain, had slighted Rizal
by writing an insulting article in La Epoca, a newspaper in Madrid. He
implied that the family and friends of
Rizal were evicted from their
lands in Calamba for not having paid their due rents. The incident
Rizal was ten) stemmed from an accusation that Rizal's mother,
Teodora, tried to poison the wife of a cousin, but she said she was
trying to help. With the approval of the Church prelates, and without
a hearing, she was ordered to prison in Santa Cruz in 1871. She was
made to walk the ten miles (16 km) from Calamba. She was released
after two-and-a-half years of appeals to the highest court. In
Rizal wrote a petition on behalf of the tenants of Calamba, and
later that year led them to speak out against the friars' attempts to
raise rent. They initiated a litigation which resulted in the
Dominicans' evicting them from their homes, including the Rizal
Valeriano Weyler had the buildings on the farm torn
Upon reading the article,
Rizal sent a representative to challenge
Retana to a duel. Retana published a public apology and later became
one of Rizal's biggest admirers, writing Rizal's most important
biography, Vida y Escritos del José Rizal.[note 9]
Exile in Dapitan
Bust of Padre Guerrico in clay, by Rizal.
Rizal's pencil sketch of Blumentritt.
Upon his return to
Manila in 1892, he formed a civic movement called
La Liga Filipina. The league advocated these moderate social reforms
through legal means, but was disbanded by the governor. At that time,
he had already been declared an enemy of the state by the Spanish
authorities because of the publication of his novel.
Rizal was implicated in the activities of the nascent rebellion and in
July 1892, was deported to
Dapitan in the province of Zamboanga, a
peninsula of Mindanao. There he built a school, a hospital and a
water supply system, and taught and engaged in farming and
horticulture. Abaca, then the vital raw material for
cordage and which
Rizal and his students planted in the thousands, was
a memorial.
The boys' school, which taught in Spanish, and included English as a
foreign language (considered a prescient if unusual option then) was
Rizal and antedated
Gordonstoun with its aims of
inculcating resourcefulness and self-sufficiency in young
men. They would later enjoy successful lives as
farmers and honest government officials. One, a
Muslim, became a datu, and another, José Aseniero, who was with Rizal
throughout the life of the school, became Governor of
In Dapitan, the Jesuits mounted a great effort to secure his return to
the fold led by Fray Francisco de Paula Sánchez, his former
professor, who failed in his mission. The task was resumed by Fray
Pastells, a prominent member of the Order. In a letter to Pastells,
Rizal sails close to the ecumenism familiar to us today.
We are entirely in accord in admitting the existence of God. How can I
doubt His when I am convinced of mine. Who so recognizes the effect
recognizes the cause. To doubt God is to doubt one's own conscience,
and in consequence, it would be to doubt everything; and then what is
life for? Now then, my faith in God, if the result of a ratiocination
may be called faith, is blind, blind in the sense of knowing nothing.
I neither believe nor disbelieve the qualities which many attribute to
Him; before theologians' and philosophers' definitions and
lucubrations of this ineffable and inscrutable being I find myself
smiling. Faced with the conviction of seeing myself confronting the
supreme Problem, which confused voices seek to explain to me, I cannot
but reply: ‘It could be’; but the God that I foreknow is far more
grand, far more good: Plus Supra!...I believe in (revelation); but not
in revelation or revelations which each religion or religions claim to
possess. Examining them impartially, comparing them and scrutinizing
them, one cannot avoid discerning the human 'fingernail' and the stamp
of the time in which they were written... No, let us not make God in
our image, poor inhabitants that we are of a distant planet lost in
infinite space. However, brilliant and sublime our intelligence may
be, it is scarcely more than a small spark which shines and in an
instant is extinguished, and it alone can give us no idea of that
blaze, that conflagration, that ocean of light. I believe in
revelation, but in that living revelation which surrounds us on every
side, in that voice, mighty, eternal, unceasing, incorruptible, clear,
distinct, universal as is the being from whom it proceeds, in that
revelation which speaks to us and penetrates us from the moment we are
born until we die. What books can better reveal to us the goodness of
God, His love, His providence, His eternity, His glory, His wisdom?
‘The heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament showeth his
His best friend, professor Ferdinand Blumentritt, kept him in touch
with European friends and fellow-scientists who wrote a stream of
letters which arrived in Dutch, French, German and English and which
baffled the censors, delaying their transmittal. Those four years of
his exile coincided with the development of the Philippine Revolution
from inception and to its final breakout, which, from the viewpoint of
the court which was to try him, suggested his complicity in it. He
condemned the uprising, although all the members of the
made him their honorary president and had used his name as a cry for
war, unity, and liberty.
He is known to making the resolution of bearing personal sacrifice
instead of the incoming revolution, believing that a peaceful stand is
the best way to avoid further suffering in the country and loss of
Filipino lives. In Rizal's own words, "I consider myself happy for
being able to suffer a little for a cause which I believe to be sacred
[...]. I believe further that in any undertaking, the more one suffers
for it, the surer its success. If this be fanaticism may God pardon
me, but my poor judgment does not see it as such."
Rizal wrote "Haec Est Sibylla Cumana", a parlor-game for
his students, with questions and answers for which a wooden top was
used. In 2004, Jean Paul Verstraeten traced this book and the wooden
top, as well as Rizal's personal watch, spoon and salter.
Arrest and trial
By 1896, the rebellion fomented by the Katipunan, a militant secret
society, had become a full-blown revolution, proving to be a
nationwide uprising.
Rizal had earlier volunteered
his services as a doctor in Cuba and was given leave by
Governor-General Ramón Blanco to serve in Cuba to minister to victims
of yellow fever.
Rizal and Josephine left
Dapitan on August 1, 1896,
with letter of recommendation from Blanco.
Rizal was arrested en route to Cuba via Spain and was imprisoned in
Barcelona on October 6, 1896. He was sent back the same day to Manila
to stand trial as he was implicated in the revolution through his
association with members of the Katipunan. During the entire passage,
he was unchained, no Spaniard laid a hand on him, and had many
opportunities to escape but refused to do so.
While imprisoned in Fort Santiago, he issued a manifesto disavowing
the current revolution in its present state and declaring that the
education of Filipinos and their achievement of a national identity
were prerequisites to freedom.
Rizal was tried before a court-martial for rebellion, sedition, and
conspiracy, was convicted on all three charges, and sentenced to
death. Blanco, who was sympathetic to Rizal, had been forced out of
office. The friars, led by then Archbishop of
Nozaleda, had 'intercalated'
Camilo de Polavieja
Camilo de Polavieja in his stead, as the
Governor-General of the
Philippines after pressuring
Queen-Regent Maria Cristina of Spain, thus sealing Rizal's fate.
A photographic record of Rizal's execution in what was then
Moments before his execution on December 30, 1896, by a squad of
Filipino soldiers of the Spanish Army, a backup force of regular
Spanish Army troops stood ready to shoot the executioners should they
fail to obey orders. The Spanish Army Surgeon General requested to
take his pulse: it was normal. Aware of this the sergeant commanding
the backup force hushed his men to silence when they began raising
"vivas" with the highly partisan crowd of Peninsular and Mestizo
Spaniards. His last words were those of Jesus Christ: "consummatum
est", – it is finished.[note 10]
He was secretly buried in Pacò Cemetery in
Manila with no
identification on his grave. His sister Narcisa toured all possible
gravesites and found freshly turned earth at the cemetery with guards
posted at the gate. Assuming this could be the most likely spot, there
never having any ground burials, she made a gift to the caretaker to
mark the site "RPJ", Rizal's initials in reverse.
His undated poem Mi último adiós, believed to have been written a
few days before his execution, was hidden in an alcohol stove, which
was later handed to his family with his few remaining possessions,
including the final letters and his last bequests.:91 During their
Rizal reminded his sisters in English, "There is something
inside it", referring to the alcohol stove given by the Pardo de
Taveras which was to be returned after his execution, thereby
emphasizing the importance of the poem. This instruction was followed
by another, "Look in my shoes", in which another item was secreted.
Exhumation of his remains in August 1898, under American rule,
revealed he had been uncoffined, his burial not on sanctified ground
granted the 'confessed' faithful, and whatever was in his shoes had
disintegrated. And now he is buried in
Rizal Monument in Manila.
In his letter to his family he wrote: "Treat our aged parents as you
would wish to be treated...Love them greatly in memory of
me...December 30, 1896." He gave his family instructions for his
burial: "Bury me in the ground. Place a stone and a cross over it. My
name, the date of my birth and of my death. Nothing more. If later you
wish to surround my grave with a fence, you can do it. No
In his final letter, to Blumentritt – Tomorrow at 7, I shall be
shot; but I am innocent of the crime of rebellion. I am going to die
with a tranquil conscience.
Rizal is believed to be the first
Filipino revolutionary whose death is attributed entirely to his work
as a writer; and through dissent and civil disobedience enabled him to
successfully destroy Spain's moral primacy to rule. He also bequeathed
a book personally bound by him in
Dapitan to his 'best and dearest
friend.' When Blumentritt received it in his hometown Litoměřice
(Leitmeritz) he broke down and wept.
Works and writings
Rizal wrote mostly in Spanish, the lingua franca of the Spanish
Philippines, though some of his letters (for example Sa Mga
Kababaihang Taga Malolos) were written in Tagalog. His works have
since been translated into a number of languages including Tagalog and
Novels and essays
Noli Me Tángere, novel, 1887 (literally Latin for 'touch me not',
from John 20:17)
El Filibusterismo, (novel, 1891), sequel to Noli Me Tángere
Alin Mang Lahi ("Whate'er the Race"), a
Kundiman attributed to Dr.
The Friars and the Filipinos (Unfinished)
Juan Luna and Felix Hidalgo (Speech, 1884), given at
Restaurante Ingles, Madrid
The Diaries of José Rizal
Rizal's Letters is a compendium of Dr. Jose Rizal's letters to his
family members, Blumentritt, Fr. Pablo Pastells and other reformers
"Come se gobiernan las Filipinas" (Governing the Philippine islands)
Filipinas dentro de cien años essay, 1889–90 (The
La Indolencia de los Filipinos, essay, 1890 (The indolence of
Makamisa unfinished novel
Sa Mga Kababaihang Taga Malolos, essay, 1889, To the Young Women of
Annotations to Antonio de Moragas, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas
(essay, 1889, Events in the Philippine Islands)
The Triumph of Science over Death, by Rizal.
A La Juventud Filipina (To The Philippine Youth)
El Canto Del Viajero
Canto de María Clara
Himno Al Trabajo (Dalit sa Paggawa)
Me Piden Versos
Mi primera inspiracion
Mi Ultimo Adiós
Por La Educación (Recibe Lustre La Patria)
Sa Sanggol na si Jesus
A Mi Musa (To My Muse)
Un Recuerdo A Mi Pueblo
A Man in Dapitan
El Consejo de los Dioses
El Consejo de los Dioses (The council of Gods)
Junto Al Pasig (Along the Pasig):381
San Euistaquio, Mártyr (
Saint Eustache, the martyr)
Rizal also tried his hand at painting and sculpture. His most famous
sculptural work was "The Triumph of Science over Death", a clay
sculpture of a naked young woman with overflowing hair, standing on a
skull while bearing a torch held high. The woman symbolized the
ignorance of humankind during the Dark Ages, while the torch she bore
symbolized the enlightenment science brings over the whole world. He
sent the sculpture as a gift to his dear friend Ferdinand Blumentritt,
together with another one named "The Triumph of Death over Life".
The woman is shown trampling the skull, a symbol of death, to signify
the victory the humankind achieved by conquering the bane of death
through their scientific advancements. The original sculpture is now
displayed at the
Rizal Shrine Museum at
Fort Santiago in Intramuros,
Manila. A large replica, made of concrete, stands in front of Fernando
Calderón Hall, the building which houses the College of Medicine of
the University of the
Manila along Pedro Gil Street in
Reactions after death
An engraving of the execution of Filipino insurgents at Bagumbayan
Historical marker of José Rizal's execution site.
Several historians report that
Rizal retracted his anti-Catholic ideas
through a document which stated: "I retract with all my heart whatever
in my words, writings, publications and conduct have been contrary to
my character as a son of the Catholic Church."[note 11] However, there
are doubts of its authenticity given that there is no certificate of
Rizal's Catholic marriage to Josephine Bracken. Also there is an
allegation that the retraction document was a forgery.
After analyzing six major documents of Rizal, Ricardo Pascual
concluded that the retraction document, said to have been discovered
in 1935, was not in Rizal's handwriting. Senator Rafael Palma, a
former President of the University of the
Philippines and a prominent
Mason, argued that a retraction is not in keeping with Rizal's
character and mature beliefs. He called the retraction story a
"pious fraud." Others who deny the retraction are Frank
Laubach, a Protestant minister; Austin Coates, a British
writer; and Ricardo Manapat, director of the National Archives.
Those who affirm the authenticity of Rizal's retraction are prominent
Philippine historians such as Nick Joaquin,[note 12]
Nicolas Zafra of
UP León María Guerrero III,[note 13] Gregorio Zaide,
Guillermo Gómez Rivera, Ambeth Ocampo, John Schumacher,
Antonio Molina, Paul Dumol and Austin Craig. They take the
retraction document as authentic, having been judged as such by a
foremost expert on the writings of Rizal,
Teodoro Kalaw (a 33rd degree
Mason) and "handwriting experts...known and recognized in our courts
of justice", H. Otley Beyer and Dr. José I. Del Rosario, both of
Historians also refer to 11 eyewitnesses when
Rizal wrote his
retraction, signed a Catholic prayer book, and recited Catholic
prayers, and the multitude who saw him kiss the crucifix before his
execution. A great grand nephew of Rizal, Fr. Marciano Guzman, cites
that Rizal's 4 confessions were certified by 5 eyewitnesses, 10
qualified witnesses, 7 newspapers, and 12 historians and writers
including Aglipayan bishops, Masons and anti-clericals. One
witness was the head of the Spanish Supreme Court at the time of his
notarized declaration and was highly esteemed by
Rizal for his
Because of what he sees as the strength these direct evidence have in
the light of the historical method, in contrast with merely
circumstantial evidence, UP professor emeritus of history Nicolas
Zafra called the retraction "a plain unadorned fact of history."
Guzmán attributes the denial of retraction to "the blatant disbelief
and stubbornness" of some Masons.
Supporters see in the retraction Rizal's "moral courage...to recognize
his mistakes,"[note 14] his reversion to the "true faith", and
thus his "unfading glory," and a return to the "ideals of his
fathers" which "did not diminish his stature as a great patriot; on
the contrary, it increased that stature to greatness." On the
other hand, senator
Jose Diokno stated, "Surely whether
Rizal died as
a Catholic or an apostate adds or detracts nothing from his greatness
as a Filipino... Catholic or Mason,
Rizal is still
Rizal – the hero
who courted death 'to prove to those who deny our patriotism that we
know how to die for our duty and our beliefs'."
"Mi último adiós"
Main article: Mi último adiós
The poem is more aptly titled, "Adiós, Patria Adorada" (literally
"Farewell, Beloved Fatherland"), by virtue of logic and literary
tradition, the words coming from the first line of the poem itself. It
first appeared in print not in
Manila but in
Hong Kong in 1897, when a
copy of the poem and an accompanying photograph came to J. P. Braga
who decided to publish it in a monthly journal he edited. There was a
delay when Braga, who greatly admired Rizal, wanted a good job of the
photograph and sent it to be engraved in London, a process taking well
over two months. It finally appeared under 'Mi último pensamiento,' a
title he supplied and by which it was known for a few years. Thus,
Jesuit Balaguer's anonymous account of the retraction and the
marriage to Josephine was appearing in Barcelona, no word of the
poem's existence reached him in time to revise what he had written.
His account was too elaborate that
Rizal would have had no time to
Six years after his death, when the Philippine Organic Act of 1902 was
being debated in the United States Congress, Representative Henry
Cooper of Wisconsin rendered an English translation of Rizal's
valedictory poem capped by the peroration, "Under what clime or what
skies has tyranny claimed a nobler victim?" Subsequently, the US
Congress passed the bill into law which is now known as the Philippine
Organic Act of 1902.
This was a major breakthrough for a US Congress that had yet to grant
equal rights to African Americans guaranteed to them in the US
Constitution and the
Chinese Exclusion Act
Chinese Exclusion Act was still in effect. It
created the Philippine legislature, appointed two Filipino delegates
to the US Congress, extended the US Bill of Rights to Filipinos, and
laid the foundation for an autonomous government. The colony was on
its way to independence. The Americans, however, would not sign
the bill into law until 1916 and did not recognize Philippine
Independence until the Treaty of
Manila in 1946—fifty years after
Rizal's death.This same poem which has inspired independence activists
across the region and beyond was recited (in its Indonesian
translation by Rosihan Anwar) by Indonesian soldiers of independence
before going into battle.
Later life of Bracken
Josephine Bracken, whom
Rizal addressed as his wife on his last
day, promptly joined the revolutionary forces in
making her way through thicket and mud across enemy lines, and helped
reloading spent cartridges at the arsenal in Imus under the
revolutionary General Pantaleón García. Imus came under threat of
recapture that the operation was moved, with Bracken, to Maragondon,
the mountain redoubt in Cavite.
She witnessed the
Tejeros Convention prior to returning to
was summoned by the Governor-General, but owing to her stepfather's
American citizenship she could not be forcibly deported. She left
voluntarily returning to Hong Kong. She later married another
Filipino, Vicente Abad, a mestizo acting as agent for the Tabacalera
firm in the Philippines. She died of tuberculosis in
Hong Kong in
March 15, 1902, and was buried at the Happy Valley Cemetery. She
was immortalized by
Rizal in the last stanza of Mi Ultimo Adios:
"Farewell, sweet stranger, my friend, my joy...".
Polavieja and Blanco
Polavieja faced condemnation by his countrymen after his return to
Spain. While visiting Girona, in Catalonia, circulars were distributed
among the crowd bearing Rizal's last verses, his portrait, and the
charge that Polavieja was responsible for the loss of the Philippines
to Spain. Ramon Blanco later presented his sash and sword to the
Rizal family as an apology.
Criticism and controversies
Attempts to debunk legends surrounding Rizal, and the tug of war
between free thinker and Catholic, have kept his legacy controversial.
Rizal Shrine in Calamba City, Laguna, the ancestral house and
birthplace of José Rizal, is now a museum housing
José Rizal's original grave at
Paco Park in Manila. Slightly
renovated and date repainted in English.
National hero status
The confusion over Rizal's real stance on the Philippine Revolution
leads to the sometimes bitter question of his ranking as the nation's
premier hero. But then again, according to the National
Historical Commission of the
Philippines (NHCP) Section Chief Teodoro
Atienza, and Filipino historian Ambeth Ocampo, there is no Filipino
historical figure, including Rizal, that was officially declared as
national hero through law or executive order. Although, there
were laws and proclamations honoring Filipino heroes.
Made national hero by colonial Americans
Some[who?] suggest that Jose
Rizal was made a legislated national hero
by the American forces occupying Philippines. In 1901, the American
William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft suggested that the U.S. sponsored
Philippine Commission name
Rizal a national hero for Filipinos. Jose
Rizal was an ideal candidate, favourable to the American occupiers
since he was dead, and non-violent, a favourable quality which, if
emulated by Filipinos, would not threaten the American rule or change
the status quo of the occupiers of Philippine islands.
Rizal did not
advocate independence for
Philippines either. Subsequently, the
US-sponsored commission passed Act No. 346 which set the anniversary
of Rizal’s death as a “day of observance.”
Renato Constantino writes
Rizal is a "United States-sponsored hero"
who was promoted as the greatest Filipino hero during the American
colonial period of the
Philippines – after Aguinaldo lost the
Philippine–American War. The United States promoted Rizal, who
represented peaceful political advocacy (in fact, repudiation of
violent means in general) instead of more radical figures whose ideas
could inspire resistance against American rule.
Rizal was selected
Andrés Bonifacio who was viewed "too radical" and Apolinario
Mabini who was considered "unregenerate."
Made national hero by Emilio Aguinaldo
On the other hand, numerous sources quote that it was General
Emilio Aguinaldo, and not the second Philippine Commission, who first
recognized December 30 as "national day of mourning in memory of Rizal
and other victims of Spanish tyranny. As per them, the first
Rizal Day was held in
Manila on December 30, 1898,
under the sponsorship of the Club Filipino.
The veracity of both claims seems to be justified and hence difficult
to ascertain. However, most historians agree that a majority of
Filipinos were unaware of
Rizal during his lifetime, as he was a
member of the richer elite classes (he was born in an affluent family,
had lived abroad for nearly as long as he had lived in the
Philippines) and wrote primarily in an elite language (at that time,
Tagalog and Cebuano were the languages of the masses) about ideals as
lofty as freedom (the masses were more concerned about day to day
issues like earning money and making a living, something which has not
changed much today).
Teodoro Agoncillo opines that the Philippine national hero, unlike
those of other countries, is not "the leader of its liberation
forces". He gives the opinion that
Andrés Bonifacio not replace Rizal
as national hero, like some have suggested, but that be honored
Constantino's analysis has been criticised for its polemicism and
inaccuracies regarding Rizal. The historian Rafael Palma, contends
that the revolution of
Bonifacio is a consequence wrought by the
Rizal and that although the Bonifacio's revolver produced
an immediate outcome, the pen of
Rizal generated a more lasting
Critiques of books
Others present him as a man of contradictions.
Miguel de Unamuno
Miguel de Unamuno in
"Rizal: the Tagalog Hamlet", said of him, “a soul that dreads the
revolution although deep down desires it. He pivots between fear and
hope, between faith and despair.” His critics assert this
character flaw is translated into his two novels where he opposes
violence in Noli and appears to advocate it in Fili, contrasting
Ibarra's idealism to Simoun's cynicism. His defenders insist this
ambivalence is trounced when Simoun is struck down in the sequel's
final chapters, reaffirming the author's resolute stance, Pure and
spotless must the victim be if the sacrifice is to be acceptable.
Many thinkers tend to find the characters of
María Clara and Ibarra
(Noli Me Tángere) poor role models,
María Clara being too frail, and
young Ibarra being too accepting of circumstances, rather than being
courageous and bold.
In El Filibusterismo,
Rizal had Father Florentino say: “...our
liberty will (not) be secured at the sword's point...we must secure it
by making ourselves worthy of it. And when a people reaches that
height God will provide a weapon, the idols will be shattered, tyranny
will crumble like a house of cards and liberty will shine out like the
first dawn.” Rizal's attitude to the
Philippine Revolution is
also debated, not only based on his own writings, but also due to the
varying eyewitness accounts of Pío Valenzuela, a doctor who in 1895
Dapitan on behalf of
Bonifacio and the
Role in the Philippine revolution
Upon the outbreak of the
Philippine Revolution in 1896, Valenzuela
surrendered to the Spanish authorities and testified in military court
Rizal had strongly condemned an armed struggle for independence
when Valenzuela asked for his support.
Rizal had even refused him
entry to his house. Bonifacio, in turn, had openly denounced him as a
coward for his refusal.[note 15]
But years later, Valenzuela testified that
Rizal had been favorable to
an uprising as long as the Filipinos were well-prepared, and
well-supplied with arms.
Rizal had suggested that the
wealthy and influential Filipino members of society on their side, or
at least ensure they would stay neutral.
Rizal had even suggested his
Antonio Luna to lead the revolutionary forces since he had
studied military science.[note 16] In the event that the
discovered prematurely, they should fight rather than allow themselves
to be killed. Valenzuela said to historian
Teodoro Agoncillo that he
had lied to the Spanish military authorities about Rizal's true stance
toward a revolution in an attempt to exculpate him.
Before his execution,
Rizal wrote a proclamation denouncing the
revolution. But as noted by historian Floro Quibuyen, his final poem
Mi ultimo adios contains a stanza which equates his coming execution
and the rebels then dying in battle as fundamentally the same, as both
are dying for their country.
Rizal was a contemporary of Gandhi,
Sun Yat Sen
Sun Yat Sen who also
advocated liberty through peaceful means rather than by violent
revolution. Coinciding with the appearance of those other leaders,
Rizal from an early age had been enunciating in poems, tracts and
plays, ideas all his own of modern nationhood as a practical
possibility in Asia. In the Noli he stated that if European
civilization had nothing better to offer, colonialism in Asia was
Government poster from the 1950s
Though popularly mentioned, especially on blogs, there is no evidence
to suggest that
Gandhi or Nehru may have corresponded with Rizal,
neither have they mentioned him in any of their memoirs or letters.
But it was documented by Rizal's biographer,
Austin Coates who
interviewed Jawaharlal Nehru and
Rizal was mentioned,
specifically in Nehru's prison letters to his daughter Indira.
As a political figure, José
Rizal was the founder of La Liga
Filipina, a civic organization that subsequently gave birth to the
Katipunan led by Andrés Bonifacio,[note 18], a secret society which
would start the
Philippine Revolution against Spain that eventually
laid the foundation of the
First Philippine Republic
First Philippine Republic under Emilio
Aguinaldo. He was a proponent of achieving Philippine self-government
peacefully through institutional reform rather than through violent
revolution, and would only support "violent means" as a last
Rizal believed that the only justification for national
liberation and self-government was the restoration of the dignity of
the people,[note 19] saying "Why independence, if the slaves of today
will be the tyrants of tomorrow?" However, through careful
examination of his works and statements, including Mi Ultimo Adios,
Rizal reveals himself as a revolutionary. His image as the Tagalog
Christ also intensified early reverence to him.
Rizal, through his reading of Morga and other western historians, knew
of the genial image of Spain's early relations with his people.
In his writings, he showed the disparity between the early
colonialists and those of his day, with the latter's injustices giving
Gomburza and the
Philippine Revolution of 1896. The English
biographer, Austin Coates, and writer, Benedict Anderson, believe that
Rizal gave the Philippine revolution a genuinely national character;
and that Rizal's patriotism and his standing as one of Asia's first
intellectuals have inspired others of the importance of a national
identity to nation-building.[note 20]
The Belgian researcher Jean Paul "JP" Verstraeten authored several
books about Jose Rizal:
Rizal in Belgium and France, Jose Rizal's
Europe, Growing up like
Rizal (published by the National Historical
Institute and in teacher's programs all over the Philippines),
Reminiscences and Travels of Jose
Rizal and Jose
Rizal "Pearl of
Unselfishness". He received an award from the president of the
Philippines "in recognition of his unwavering support and commitment
to promote the health and education of disadvantaged Filipinos, and
his invaluable contribution to engender the teachings and ideals of
Rizal in the
Philippines and in Europe". One of the greatest
Rizal nowadays is Lucien Spittael.
Several titles were bestowed on him: "the First Filipino", "Greatest
Man of the Brown Race", among others. The Order of the Knights of
Rizal, a civic and patriotic organization, boasts of dozens of
chapters all over the globe  . There are some remote-area
religious sects who venerate
Rizal as a
Folk saint collectively known
as the Rizalista religious movements, who claim him as a sublimation
of Christ. In September 1903, he was canonised as a saint in the
Iglesia Filipina Independiente, however it was revoked in the
Species named after Rizal
Rizal was imprisoned at
Fort Santiago and soon after he was
Dapitan where he plunged himself into studying of nature.
He then able to collect a number of species of various classes:
insects, butterflies, amphibians, reptiles, shells, snakes and plants.
Rizal sent many specimens of animals, insects, and plants for
identification to the (Anthropological and Ethnographical Museum of
Dresden), Dresden Museum of Ethnology. It was not in his interest
to receive any monetary payment; all he wanted were scientific books,
magazines and surgical instruments which he needed and used in
During his exile,
Rizal also secretly sent several specimens of flying
dragons to Europe. He believed that they were a new species. The
German zoologist Benno Wandolleck named them
Draco rizali after Rizal.
However, it has since been discovered that the species had already
been described by the Belgian-British zoologist George Albert
Boulenger in 1885 as Draco guentheri.
There are three species named after Rizal:
Draco rizali – a small lizard, known as a flying dragon
Apogania rizali – a very rare kind of beetle with five horns
Rhacophorus rizali – a peculiar frog species. Rhacophorus
Although his field of action lay in politics, Rizal's real interests
lay in the arts and sciences, in literature and in his profession as
an ophthalmologist. Shortly after his death, the Anthropological
Berlin met to honor him with a reading of a German
translation of his farewell poem and Dr.
Rudolf Virchow delivering the
Rizal Monument now stands near the place where he fell at the
Luneta in Bagumbayan, which is now called
Rizal Park, a national park
in Manila. The monument, which also contains his remains, was designed
by the Swiss
Richard Kissling of the William Tell sculpture in
Altdorf, Uri.[note 21] The monument carries the inscription: "I want
to show to those who deprive people the right to love of country, that
when we know how to sacrifice ourselves for our duties and
convictions, death does not matter if one dies for those one loves –
for his country and for others dear to him."
The Taft Commission in June 1901 approved Act 137 renaming the
District of Morong into the Province of Rizal. Today, the wide
Rizal is evidenced by the countless towns, streets, and
numerous parks in the
Philippines named in his honor.
Close-up image of Rizal's statue at the
Rizal Monument in Manila.
Rizal Monument in Manila
Second Tallest José
Rizal statue in the world. Located at Calamba,
Laguna, Rizal's hometown. It was inaugurated on 2011, synchronous on
the 150th Birth Celebration of the hero.
Rizal on the obverse side of a 1970
Philippine peso coin
Rizal Park at the Bulacan State University
The Portrait of Rizal, painted in oil by Juan Luna
Republic Act 1425, known as the
Rizal Law, was passed in 1956 by the
Philippine legislature requiring all high school and colleges to offer
courses about his life, works and writings.
Monuments erected in his honor can be found in Madrid;
Tokyo; Wilhelmsfeld, Germany; Jinjiang, Fujian, China;
Chicago; Jersey City; Cherry Hill Township, New Jersey;
Honolulu; San Diego; Los Angeles including the suburbs
Carson and West Covina (both near Seafood City, Mexico City,
Mexico; Lima, Peru; Litomerice, Czech Republic;
Toronto;Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
A two-sided marker bearing a painting of
Rizal by Fabián de la Rosa
on one side and a bronze bust relief of him by Philippine artist
Guillermo Tolentino stands at the
Asian Civilisations Museum
Asian Civilisations Museum Green
marking his visits to Singapore in 1882, 1887, 1891 and 1896.
Rizal bronze bust was erected at La Molina district, Lima, Peru,
designed by Czech sculptor Hanstroff, mounted atop a pedestal base
with four inaugural plaque markers with the following inscription on
one: "Dr. José P. Rizal, Héroe Nacional de Filipinas, Nacionalista,
Reformador Political, Escritor, Lingüistica y Poeta,
Rizal bust sits in front of the Filipino American Council of
Chicago, celebrating a one-day visit Dr.
Rizal made to Chicago on May
11, 1888, as seen below.
The USS Rizal (DD-174) launched in 1918
The statue of
Rizal at the
Rizal Park in Wilhelmsfeld, Germany
National Historical Institute
National Historical Institute logo for the 150th Birth Anniversary
of José Rizal
Hong Kong Government erected a plaque beside Dr. José Rizal's
residence in Hong Kong
A plaque marks the
Heidelberg building where he trained with Professor
Becker while in Wilhemsfeld. There is a small
Rizal Park in that city
where a bronze statue of
Rizal stands. The street where he lived was
also renamed after him. A sandstone fountain in Pastor Ullmer's house
Rizal lived in Wilhelmsfeld, was given to the Philippine
government and is now located at
Rizal Park in Manila.
Throughout 2011, the
National Historical Institute
National Historical Institute and other
institutions organized several activities commemorating the 150th
birth anniversary of Rizal, which took place on June 19 of that year.
London Borough of Camden placed a Blue Plaque at 37 Chalcot
Rizal lived for some time, with the words: "Dr. José
Rizal, Writer and National Hero of the Philippines".
Rizal in popular culture
Adaptation of his works
The cinematic depiction of Rizal's literary works won two film
industry awards more than a century after his birth. In the 10th FAMAS
Awards, he was honored in the Best Story category for Gerardo de
León's adaptation of his book Noli Me Tángere. The recognition was
repeated the following year with his movie version of El
Filibusterismo, making him the only person to win back-to-back FAMAS
Awards posthumously.
Both novels were translated into opera by the composer-librettist
Felipe Padilla de León: Noli me tangere in 1957 and El filibusterismo
in 1970; and his 1939 overture, Mariang Makiling, was inspired by
Rizal's tale of the same name.
Biographical films/TV series
Eddie del Mar in the 1956 film, Ang Buhay at Pag-ibig ni
Dr. Jose Rizal
Albert Martinez in the 1997 film,
Rizal sa Dapitan.
Portrayed by Dominic Guinto and
Cesar Montano in the 1998 film, José
Joel Torre in the 1999 film, Bayaning 3rd World.
Portrayed by Nasser in the 2013 TV series, Katipunan.
Portrayed by Jhiz Deocareza and
Alden Richards in the 2014 TV series,
Jericho Rosales in the 2014 film, Bonifacio: Ang Unang
Nearly every town and city in
Philippines contains a street named
Rizal street and
At least ten towns / cities in
Philippines are named "Rizal" (for
Rizal – Cagayan)
A road in the
Chanakyapuri area of
New Delhi (India) is named Dr. Jose
Another road in Medan,
Indonesia is named Jalan Jose
Rizal after him
The USS Rizal (DD-174) was a
Wickes-class destroyer named
Rizal by the United States Navy and launched on September 21,
Rizal Bridge and
Rizal Park in the city of
dedicated to Rizal.
Rizal also appeared in the 1999 video game Medal of Honor as a secret
character in multiplayer, alongside other historical figures such as
William Shakespeare and Winston Churchill. He can be unlocked by
completing the single-player mode, or through cheat codes.
Tekken series introduced a character by the name of Josie
acknowledgement of José Rizal.
Part of José Rizal's ancestry
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Inez de la Rosa
Manuel de Quintos
Lorenzo Alberto Alonso
Brígida de Quintos
This does not include all of the ancestor's siblings, only the notable
Ancestors of José Rizal
16. Domingo Lam-co
8. Francisco Mercado
17. Inez de la Rosa
4. Juan Mercado
18. Antonio Monicha
9. Bernarda Monicha
19. Ana Beatriz Vargas
20. Manuel Siong-co
10. Juan Siong-co
21. Maria Guinio
5. Cirila Alejandro
11. Maria Gonio
1. José Rizal
24. Gregorio Alonso
12. Cipriano Alonso
6. Lorenzo Alberto Alonso
26. Mariano Alejandro
13. Maria Alejandro
27. Faustina Florentina
3. Teodora Alonso
28. Manuel de Quintos
14. Manuel de Quintos
29. Rosa Callianco
7. Brígida de Quintos
30. Eugenio Ursua
15. Regina Ursua
31. Benigna Ochoa
José Rizal's Global Fellowship
Rizal Shrine (Calamba City)
Rizal Shrine (Manila)
Rizal Technological University
Rizal Without the Overcoat
José Martí, Cuban national hero also executed by the Spanish in 1895
Dr. José P.
Rizal (sculpture), Houston, Texas
Notes and references
^ When José was baptized, the record showed his parents as Francisco
Rizal Mercado and Teodora Realonda."José Rizal’s Lineage"
^ His novel Noli was one of the first novels in Asia written outside
Japan and China and was one of the first novels of anti-colonial
rebellion. Read Benedict Anderson's commentary: .
^ He was conversant in Spanish, French, Latin, Greek, German,
Portuguese, Italian, English, Dutch, and Japanese.
Rizal also made
translations from Arabic, Swedish, Russian, Chinese, Greek, Hebrew and
Sanskrit. He translated the poetry of Schiller into his native
Tagalog. In addition he had at least some knowledge of Malay,
Chavacano, Cebuano, Ilocano, and Subanun.
^ In his essay, "Reflections of a Filipino", (La Solidaridad, c.1888),
he wrote: "Man is multiplied by the number of languages he possesses
Adolf Bernard Meyer
Adolf Bernard Meyer (1840–1911) was a German ornithologist and
anthropologist, and author of the book Philippinen-typen (Dresden,
^ Rizal's third novel
Makamisa was rescued from oblivion by Ocampo.
Reinhold Rost was the head of the India Office at the British
Museum and a renowned 19th century philologist.
^ In his letter "
Manifesto to Certain Filipinos" (Manila, 1896), he
states: Reforms, if they are to bear fruit, must come from above; for
reforms that come from below are upheavals both violent and
transitory.(Epistolario Rizalino, op cit)
^ According to Laubach, Retana more than any other supporter who
Rizal for posterity'. (Laubach, op.cit., p. 383)
^ Rizal's trial was regarded a travesty even by prominent Spaniards of
his day. Soon after his execution, the philosopher Miguel de Unamuno
in an impassioned utterance recognized
Rizal as a "Spaniard",
"...profoundly and intimately Spanish, far more Spanish than those
wretched men—forgive them, Lord, for they knew not what they
did—those wretched men, who over his still warm body hurled like an
insult heavenward that blasphemous cry, 'Viva Espana!'"Miguel de
Unamuno, epilogue to Wenceslao Retana's Vida y Escritos del Dr. José
Rizal.(Retana, op. cit.)
^ Me retracto de todo corazon de cuanto en mis palabras, escritos,
impresos y conducta ha habido contrario á mi cualidad de hijo de la
Iglesia Católica: Jesus Cavanna, Rizal's Unfading Glory: A
Documentary History of the Conversion of Dr. José
^ Joaquin, Nick,
Rizal in Saga, Philippine National Centennial
Commission, 1996:""It seems clear now that he did retract, that he
went to confession, heard mass, received communion, and was married to
Josephine, on the eve of his death".
^ "That is a matter for handwriting experts, and the weight of expert
opinion is in favor of authenticity. It is nonsense to say that the
retraction does not prove Rizal's conversion; the language of the
document is unmistakable."
^ The retraction, Javier de Pedro contends, is the end of a process
which started with a personal crisis as
Rizal finished the
Bonifacio later mobilized his men to attempt to liberate
in Fort Santiago. (Laubach, op.cit., chap. 15)
Antonio Luna denounced the Katipunan, but became a general under
Emilio Aguinaldo's First Republic and fought in the
^ Also stated in Rizal's essay, "The Philippines: A Century Hence",
The batteries are gradually becoming charged and if the prudence of
the government does not provide an outlet for the currents that are
accumulating, someday the sparks will be generated. (read etext at
Bonifacio was a member of La Liga Filipina. After Rizal's arrest and
exile, it was disbanded and the group splintered into two factions;
the more radical group formed into the Katipunan, the militant arm of
^ Rizal's annotations of Morga's Sucesos de las islas Filipinas
(1609), which he copied word for word from the
British Museum and had
published, called attention to an antiquated book, a testimony to the
well-advanced civilization in the
Philippines during pre-Spanish era.
In his essay "The Indolence of the Filipino"
Rizal stated that three
centuries of Spanish rule did not do much for the advancement of his
countryman; in fact there was a 'retrogression', and the Spanish
colonialists have transformed him into a 'half-way brute.' The absence
of moral stimulus, the lack of material inducement, the
demoralization--'the indio should not be separated from his carabao',
the endless wars, the lack of a national sentiment, the Chinese
piracy—all these factors, according to Rizal, helped the colonial
rulers succeed in placing the indio 'on a level with the beast'. (Read
English translation by
Charles Derbyshire at Project Gutenberg.)
^ According to Anderson,
Rizal is one of the best exemplars of
nationalist thinking. (See also Nitroglycerine in the
Pomegranate, Benedict Anderson, New Left Review 27, May–June 2004
Rizal himself translated Schiller's William Tell into Tagalog in
^ Valdez, Valdez & et al. 2007, p. 57
^ a b Valdez, Valdez & et al. 2007, p. 59
^ a b Valdez, Valdez & et al. 2007, p. 7
^ Nery, John (2011). "Revolutionary Spirit: Jose
Rizal in Southeast
Asia", p. 240. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore.
^ Fadul 2008, p. 31.
^ a b Fadul 2008, p. 21.
^ Biography and Works of the Philippine Hero. Jose
Rizal (June 20,
2014). Retrieved on 2017-07-07.
^ "Selection and Proclamation of National Heroes and Laws Honoring
Filipino Historical Figures" (PDF). Reference and Research Bureau
Legislative Research Service, House of Congress. Archived from the
original (PDF) on April 19, 2016. Retrieved September 8, 2009.
^ a b Noli Me Tángere, translated by Soledad Locsin (Manila: Ateneo
de Manila, 1996) ISBN 971-569-188-9.
^ José Rizal; José
Rizal National Centennial Commission (1961). El
filibusterismo (in Spanish). Linkgua digital. pp. 9.
^ Zaide, Gregorio F.; Zaide, Sonia M. (1999). Jose Rizal: Life, Works
and Writings of a Genius, Writer, Scientist and National Hero. Quezon
City: All-Nations Publishing Co., Inc. ISBN 971-642-070-6.
Archived from the original on September 23, 2013.
Rizal y Alonso, José Protasio, 1861–1896". Virtual International
File (VIAF). Retrieved May 18, 2013.
Rizal Family]". joserizal.ph.
^ a b Kallie Szczepanski. "Jose
Rizal Biography – National Hero of
the Philippines". About.com Education.
Austin Craig (January 8, 2005). The
Project Gutenberg EBook of
Lineage, Life and Labors of Jose Rizal: Philippine Patriot.
www.gutenberg.org. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
^ "The Mercado –
^ a b Vicente L. Rafael On Rizal's El Filibusterismo, University of
Washington, Dept. of History.
^ Maria Stella S. Valdez (2007). Doctor Jose
Rizal and the Writing of
His Story. Rex Bookstore, Inc. p. 77.
^ Parco de Castro; M. E. G. "Jose Rizal: A birthday wish list". The
Varsitarian. Retrieved June 27, 2011.
^ a b c d Frank Laubach, Rizal: Man and Martyr (Manila: Community
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LewRockwell.com. Retrieved on September 29, 2012.
^ a b The Many-Sided Personality. José
Rizal University. Retrieved
January 10, 2007.
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Archive. Retrieved on January 10, 2007.
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letters to and from Rizal". Bureau of Printing, Manila.
^ Antonio T. Tiongson; Edgardo V. Gutierrez; Ricardo Valencia
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Allowed: Building Communities and Discourse. Temple University Press.
p. 17. ISBN 978-1-59213-123-5.
Rizal in America". Jose
Rizal University. 2004. Retrieved December 5,
^ Zaide, Gregorio (1957). Rizal's Life, Works and Writings. Manila,
Philippines: Villanueva Book Store. pp. 43–44.
Ambeth Ocampo (1990). "
Rizal without the Overcoat". Anvil Publishing
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^ Ocampo, Ambeth. "Demythologizing Rizal". Retrieved January 10, 2007.
^ Martinez-Clemente, Jo (200-06-20) Keeping up with legacy of
Rizal’s ‘true love’ Inquirer Central Luzon at inquirer.net.
Retrieved on December 3, 2011.
^ a b c Leonor Rivera, José
Rizal University, joserizal.ph
^ a b c Coates, Austin. "Leonor Rivera", Rizal: Philippine Nationalist
and Martyr, Oxford University Press (Hong Kong), pp. 52–54, 60, 84,
124, 134–136, 143, 169, 185–188, 258.
^ Fadul 2008, p. 17.
^ Craig 1914, p. 215.
^ Fadul 2008, p. 38.
^ a b c Cuizon, Ahmed (June 21, 2008). "Rizal’s affair with 'la
petite Suzanne'", Inquirer/Cebu Daily, Retrieved on September 20,
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the Philippines : The Story of José Rizal's Closest Friend and
Companion. p. 39. ISBN 978-971-13-6024-5.
^ Retana, Wenceslao. Vida y Escritos del José Rizal. Libreria General
de Victoriano Suarez,
^ "Appendix II: Decree Banishing Rizal.
Despujol, Manila, July 7, 1892." In Miscellaneous Correspondence of
Rizal / translated by Encarnacion Alzona. (Manila: National
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Dipolognon. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
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Manila University Press, 1996)
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Teodoro Kalaw (Manila: Bureau of Printing, 1930–38)
^ "Rizalismo (isang sanaysay)". Definitely Filipino™.
^ Rizal, Dapitan, September 1, 1892. In Raul J. Bonoan, The
Rizal-Pastells Correspondence. Manila: Ateneo de
Press, 1994, 86s.
^ Russell, Charles Edward; Rodriguez, Eulogio Balan (1923). The hero
of the Filipinos: the story of José Rizal, poet, patriot and martyr.
The Century co. p. 308.
^ Austin Coates, Rizal: Philippine Nationalist and Martyr (London:
Oxford University Press, 1968) ISBN 0-19-581519-X
^ Alvarez, S.V., 1992, Recalling the Revolution, Madison: Center for
Southeast Asia Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison,
^ "Letters Between
Rizal and his Family, #223". The Life and Writings
of José Rizal. Retrieved on September 29, 2012
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September 3, 2013.
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Geographical, Ethnographical, Social and Commercial History of the
Philippine Archipelago, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons
^ Yoder, Dr. Robert L. "The Life and of Dr. José Rizal". Retrieved
September 3, 2013.
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Rizal Beyond the Grave (Manila: P.
Ayuda & Co., 1962)
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"Retraction" and Josephine's "Autobiography" (Manila: BR Book Col,
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12, No. 2, April, May, June 1965), pages 168–183". Life and Writings
of José Rizal. Retrieved September 9, 2009.
^ Rafael Palma, Pride of the Malay Race (New York: Prentice Hall,
^ a b
Ambeth Ocampo (2008).
Rizal Without the Overcoat. Anvil
^ a b c
Nicolas Zafra (1961). Historicity of Rizal's Retraction.
^ Guerrero, León Maria III (1963). "The First Filipino: A Biography
of José Rizal".
National Historical Institute
National Historical Institute of The Philippines,
^ a b
Gregorio Zaide (2003). Jose Rizal: Life, Works and Writings of a
Genius, Writer, Scientist and National Hero. National Bookstore.
^ Schumacher, John. "The Making of a Nation: Essays on
^ Molina, Antonio M. (1998). "Yo, José Rizal". Ediciones de Cultura
^ "Uncovering Controversial Facts about José Rizal"
^ a b
Marciano Guzman (1988). The Hard Facts About Rizal's Conversion.
^ a b Jesus Cavanna (1983). Rizal's Unfading Glory: A Documentary
History of the Conversion of Dr. Jose Rizal.
^ Javier de Pedro (2005)
Rizal Through a Glass Darkly, University of
Asia and the Pacific
^ "Evolution of Rizal's Religious Thought".
^ (1950-01-06). "Joint Statement of the Catholic Hierarchy of the
Philippines on the Book 'The Pride of the Malay Race'". CBCP (Catholic
Bishop's Conference of the Philippines) Documents. Retrieved on
September 30, 2012.
^ Garcia, Ricardo P. (1964). "The Great Debate: The
– Preface". R.P. Garcia Publishing Co., Quezon City.
^ Esteban de Ocampo, "Why is
Rizal the Greatest Filipino Hero?"
National Historical Institute. ISBN 971-538-053-0
^ a b Pacis, Vicente Albano (December 27, 1952). "RIZAL IN THE
AMERICAN CONGRESS". The
Philippines Free Press Online. Archived from
the original on May 4, 2006.
Mi Ultimo Adios
Mi Ultimo Adios by Jose Rizal". Philippine American Literary House.
Archived from the original on August 28, 2011.
^ Craig 1914, p. 241.
^ a b Fadul 2008, p. 18.
^ Craig 1914, pp. 259–260.
^ Ocampo, Ambeth (1990).
Rizal without the overcoat. Manila: Anvil
Publishing. ISBN 971-27-0920-5.
^ Almario, Manuel (December 31, 2011). "Commentary, Rizal: 'Amboy' or
home-made hero?". The Philippine Inquirer. Retrieved September 3,
^ "Philippine Fast Facts". National Commission for Culture and the
Arts. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. Retrieved March
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Filipino Historical Figures". National Commission for Culture and the
Arts. Retrieved March 10, 2009.
^ Forbes, Cameron (1945). The Philippine Islands. Cambridge: Harvard
^ Constantino, Renato (December 30, 1969). "
Rizal Day Lecture".
Philippine Inquirer. Retrieved September 3, 2013.
^ Constantino, Renato (1980) , "Veneration without
Understanding, Dissent and Counter-consciousness", pp. 125–145.
Malaya Books, Quezon City .
Rizal Day Decree, 1898". Philippine Freemasons.
Retrieved September 3, 2013.
Emilio Aguinaldo decrees December 30, 1898, as a national
day of mourning". El Heraldo dela Revolucion. December 25, 1898.
Retrieved September 3, 2013.
^ Ocampo, Ambeth. "Was Jose
Rizal an American-sponsored Hero?".
Reflections of Jose Rizal. NHCP – National Historical Commission of
The Philippines. Retrieved September 3, 2013.
^ Zaide, Gregorio and Sonia (1999). Jose Rizal: Life, Works, and
Writings of a Genius, Writer, Scientist and National Hero. Quezon
City: All Nations publishing Co. Inc. ISBN 971-642-070-6.
Archived from the original on September 23, 2013.
^ Agoncillo, Teodoro (1990) , "History of the Filipino People
(8th ed.)". Garotech Publishing Inc., Quezon City.
^ Couttie, Bob (2007). "The End of Veneration". Scribd.com. Retrieved
on September 29, 2012.
Rafael Palma (1949). "Pride of the Malay Race", p. 367. Prentice
Hall, New York.
^ Miguel de Unamuno, "The Tagalog Hamlet" in Rizal: Contrary Essays,
edited by D. Feria and P. Daroy (Manila: National Book Store, 1968).
^ a b José Rizal,
El Filibusterismo (Ghent: 1891) chap.39, translated
by Andrea Tablan and Salud Enriquez (Manila: Marian Publishing House,
2001) ISBN 971-686-154-0. (online text at Project Gutenberg)
^ Lua, Shirley (August 22, 2011). "Love, Loss and the Noli". The
Philippine Inquirer. Retrieved September 3, 2013.
^ Agoncillo, Teodoro. The Revolt of the Masses.
^ Quibuyen, A Nation Aborted: Rizal, American Hegemony, And Philippine
^ "The Paper". thecommunitypaper.com.
^ Look, Wing, Kam (1997). Jose
Rizal and Mahatma Gandhi: nationalism
and non- violence (PDF). Hongkong: The University of Hongkong.
^ . Retrieved January 10, 2007.
^ Trillana III, Dr. Pablo S. "2 historical events led to birth of
modern RP". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on
January 20, 2012. Retrieved June 11, 2007.
Rizal (2007). The Reign of Greed. Echo Library. p. 231.
^ José Rizal, "Indolence of the Filipino". Retrieved on January 10,
^ Anderson Benedict (2005). "Under Three Flags: anarchism and the anti
colonial imagination". Verso Publication, London.
^ (2011-08-23). "Spot the Difference: Rizalista as Religious Cult vs
Rizalistas in a Socio-Civic Org'n". Ladies for
Rizal Bonn Chapter.
Retrieved on September 20, 2012.
^ Dennis Villegas (June 30, 2011). "'Saint' Jose Rizal". Philippine
^ "Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden – Museum für Völkerkunde
Dresden". skd.museum. Archived from the original on May 9, 2011.
^ Peter Uetz; Jakob Hallermann; Jiri Hosek. "Draco guentheri
BOULENGER, 1885". The Reptile Database. Retrieved December 23,
Rizal [Trivia]". joserizal.ph.
^ "Dr. Virchow's obituary on Rizal, 1897". Archived from the original
on June 18, 2008. Retrieved November 12, 2006. CS1 maint: BOT:
original-url status unknown (link)
Rizal in Berlin, Germany". José
Rizal University. Retrieved on
January 10, 2007.
^ Monumento a José
Rizal (Madrid) Retrieved January 10, 2007
^ 日比谷公園 見どころ [Hibiya Park Sights].
www.tokyo-park.or.jp (in Japanese). Archived from the original on June
26, 2014. Retrieved March 26, 2015.
^ "Article Index – INQUIRER.net". Archived from the original on May
4, 2008. Retrieved April 28, 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url
status unknown (link) . Web.archive.org (May 4, 2008). Retrieved on
February 19, 2011.
^ Sir Choy Arnaldo, KGOR. Paris in Springtime – Knights and Damas
Rizal Bulletin, March 29, 2010.
Honolulu Star-Advertiser. "Isle Filipinos honor
Honolulu Star-Advertiser – Hawaii Newspaper.
^ "The Star-News – Jan 3, 2003". byronik.com.
^ "El Monumento de Jose Rizal, Ciudad De Mexico".
^ "Philippine president to open park in
Lima during APEC Summit".
Andina.com.pe. Retrieved December 30, 2009.
^ "Traces of Rizal's visit to
www.univie.ac.at. Archived from the original on October 18, 2012.
Retrieved March 26, 2015.
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Information Agency (PIA). June 20, 2008. Retrieved June 24,
^ ログイン – 日刊まにら新聞. Manila-shimbun.com (in
Japanese). Retrieved December 30, 2009.
^ Peru erects monument for Jose Rizal, Michael Lim Ubac, Philippine
Daily Inquirer, November 22, 2008
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Heidelberg". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
^ Mari Arquiza (December 2, 1992). ":: Felipe De Leon ::".
Philmusicregistry.net. Retrieved December 30, 2009.
^ Dr. Jose
Seattle Parks and Recreation Information
^ "Medal of Honor 2 cheats for Playstation PSone PS1 PSX".
^ "Medal of Honor cheats for Playstation PSone PS1 PSX".
Craig, Austin (1914). Lineage, Life and Labors of Jose Rizal,
Philippine Patriot. Yonker-on-Hudson World Book Company.
Fadul, Jose (ed.) (2008). . Morrisville, North Carolina: Lulu
Press. ISBN 978-1-4303-1142-3
Valdez, Maria Stella S.; Valdez; et al. (2007). Doctor Jose
the Writing of His Story. Rex Bookstore, Inc.
Rizal > Quotes". goodreads. Retrieved March 26, 2015.
Hessel, Dr. Eugene A. (1965) Rizal's Retraction: A Note on the Debate.
Mapa, Christian Angelo A.(1993) The Poem Of the Famous Young Elder
Catchillar, Chryzelle P. (1994) The Twilight in the Philippines
Venzon, Jahleel Areli A. (1994) The Doorway to hell, Rizal's Biography
Tomas, Jindřich (1998) José Rizal,
Ferdinand Blumentritt and the
Philippines in the New Age. The City of Litomerice: Czech Republic.
Publishing House Oswald Praha (Prague).
Dapitan Correspondence of Dr.José
Rizal and Dr. Ferdinand
Blumentritt. Compiled by Romeo G. Jalosjos. The City Government
Dapitan City: Philippines, 2007. ISBN 978-971-9355-30-4.
Fadul, Jose (2002/2008). A Workbook for a Course in Rizal. Manila: De
La Salle University Press. ISBN 971-555-426-1 /C&E
Publishing. ISBN 978-971-584-648-6
Guerrero, Leon Ma. (2007) The First Filipino. Manila: National
Historical Institute of The
Philippines (1962); Guerrero Publishing.
Joaquin, Nick (1977). A Question of Heroes: Essays and criticisms on
ten key figures of Philippine History. Manila: Ayala Museum.
Ocampo, Ambeth R.(2008).
Rizal Without the Overcoat. Pasig: Anvil
Ocampo, Ambeth R.(2001).Meaning and history: The
Pasig: Anvil Publishing.
Ocampo, Ambeth R.(1993). Calendar of Rizaliana in the vault of the
National Library.Pasig: Anvil Publishing.
Ocampo, Ambeth R.(1992).Makamisa: The Search for Rizal's Third Novel.
Pasig: Anvil Publishing.
Quirino, Carlos (1997). The Great Malayan. Makati City: Tahanan Books.
Medina, Elizabeth (1998).
Rizal According to Retana: Portrait of a
Hero and a Revolution. Santiago, Chile: Virtual Multimedia.
Rizal, Jose. (1889)."Sa mga Kababayang Dalaga ng Malolos" in Escritos
Politicos y Historicos de José
Rizal (1961). Manila: National
Rizal (1997). Prophecies of Jose
Rizal about the Philippines:
From the Pen of the Visionary National Hero, Phenomenal Revelations
and Coded Messages about Events Past, Present and Future :
Destiny of the
Philippines ... Rex Bookstore, Inc.
Runes, Ildefonso (1962). The Forgery of the
Rizal Retraction'. Manila:
Community Publishing Co.
Thomas, Megan C. Orientalists, Propagandists, and "Ilustrados":
Filipino Scholarship and the End of Spanish Colonialism (University of
Minnesota Press; 2012) 277 pages; Explores Orientalist and racialist
discourse in the writings of José
Rizal and five other ilustrados.
Zaide, Gregorio F. (2003) José Rizal: Life, Works and Writings of a
Genius, Writer, Scientist and National Hero. Manila: National
Bookstore. ISBN 971-08-0520-7
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Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "José Mercado Rizal". Catholic
Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
Works by José
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Noli me tangere
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Vida y Escritos del Dr. José Rizal
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