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José Protasio Rizal
Rizal
Mercado y Alonso Realonda,[7] widely known as José Rizal
Rizal
(Spanish pronunciation: [xoˈse riˈsal]; June 19, 1861 – December 30, 1896), was a Filipino nationalist and polymath during the tail end of the Spanish colonial period of the Philippines. An ophthalmologist by profession, Rizal
Rizal
became a writer and a key member of the Filipino Propaganda Movement
Propaganda Movement
which advocated political reforms for the colony under Spain. He was executed by the Spanish colonial government for the crime of rebellion after the Philippine Revolution, inspired in part by his writings, broke out. Though he was not actively involved in its planning or conduct, he ultimately approved of its goals which eventually led to Philippine independence. He is widely considered one of the greatest heroes of the Philippines and has been recommended to be so honored by an officially empaneled National Heroes Committee. However, no law, executive order or proclamation has been enacted or issued officially proclaiming any Filipino historical figure as a national hero.[8] He was the author of the novels Noli Me Tángere[9] and El filibusterismo,[10] and a number of poems and essays.[11][12]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Education 3 Personal life, relationships and ventures

3.1 Affair 3.2 Association with Leonor Rivera 3.3 Relationship with Josephine Bracken

4 In Brussels
Brussels
and Spain (1890–92) 5 Return to Philippines
Philippines
(1892–96)

5.1 Exile
Exile
in Dapitan 5.2 Arrest and trial

6 Execution 7 Works and writings

7.1 Novels and essays 7.2 Poetry 7.3 Plays 7.4 Other works

8 Reactions after death

8.1 Retraction controversy 8.2 "Mi último adiós" 8.3 Later life of Bracken 8.4 Polavieja and Blanco

9 Criticism and controversies

9.1 National hero status

9.1.1 Made national hero by colonial Americans 9.1.2 Made national hero by Emilio Aguinaldo

9.2 Critiques of books 9.3 Role in the Philippine revolution

10 Legacy

10.1 Species named after Rizal

11 Historical commemoration 12 Rizal
Rizal
in popular culture

12.1 Adaptation of his works 12.2 Biographical films/TV series 12.3 Others

13 See also 14 Notes and references 15 Sources 16 Further reading 17 External links

Early life

José Rizal's baptismal register

Francisco Mercado Rizal
Rizal
(1818–1897)

José Rizal
Rizal
was born in 1861 to Francisco Mercado and Teodora Alonso in the town of Calamba in Laguna province. He had nine sisters and one brother. His parents were leaseholders of a hacienda and an accompanying rice farm by the Dominicans. Both their families had adopted the additional surnames of Rizal
Rizal
and Realonda in 1849, after Governor General Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa
Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa
decreed the adoption of Spanish surnames among the Filipinos for census purposes (though they already had Spanish names). Like many families in the Philippines, the Rizals were of mixed origin. José's patrilineal lineage could be traced back to Fujian
Fujian
in China through his father's ancestor Lam-Co, a Chinese merchant who immigrated to the Philippines
Philippines
in the late 17th century.[13][14][note 1][15] Lam-Co traveled to Manila
Manila
from Amoy, China, possibly to avoid the famine or plague in his home district, and more probably to escape the Manchu
Manchu
invasion. He finally decided to stay in the islands as a farmer. In 1697, to escape the bitter anti-Chinese prejudice that existed in the Philippines, he converted to Catholicism, changed his name to Domingo Mercado and married the daughter of Chinese friend Augustin Chin-co. On his mother's side, Rizal's ancestry included Chinese, Japanese and Tagalog blood. His mother's lineage can be traced to the affluent Florentina family of Chinese mestizo families originating in Baliuag, Bulacan.[16] José Rizal
Rizal
also had scant Spanish ancestry. His grandfather was a half Spaniard engineer named Lorenzo Alberto Alonzo. Rizal
Rizal
even had Negrito ancestors.[17] From an early age, José showed a precocious intellect. He learned the alphabet from his mother at 3, and could read and write at age 5.[14] Upon enrolling at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila, he dropped the last three names that made up his full name, on the advice of his brother, Paciano and the Mercado family, thus rendering his name as "José Protasio Rizal". Of this, he later wrote: "My family never paid much attention [to our second surname Rizal], but now I had to use it, thus giving me the appearance of an illegitimate child!"[18] This was to enable him to travel freely and disassociate him from his brother, who had gained notoriety with his earlier links to Filipino priests Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos
Jose Burgos
and Jacinto Zamora
Jacinto Zamora
(popularly known as Gomburza) who had been accused and executed for treason.

Rizal's house in Calamba, Laguna.

Despite the name change, José, as "Rizal" soon distinguished himself in poetry writing contests, impressing his professors with his facility with Castilian and other foreign languages, and later, in writing essays that were critical of the Spanish historical accounts of the pre-colonial Philippine societies. Indeed, by 1891, the year he finished his El Filibusterismo, this second surname had become so well known that, as he writes to another friend, "All my family now carry the name Rizal
Rizal
instead of Mercado because the name Rizal
Rizal
means persecution! Good! I too want to join them and be worthy of this family name..."[18] Education

Rizal, 11 years old, a student at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila

Rizal
Rizal
first studied under Justiniano Aquino Cruz in Biñan, Laguna, before he was sent to Manila.[19] As to his father's request, he took the entrance examination in Colegio de San Juan de Letran
Colegio de San Juan de Letran
but he then enrolled at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila
Manila
and graduated as one of the nine students in his class declared sobresaliente or outstanding. He continued his education at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila
Manila
to obtain a land surveyor and assessor's degree, and at the same time at the University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas
where he did take up a preparatory course in law.[20] Upon learning that his mother was going blind, he decided to switch to medicine at the medical school of Santo Tomas specializing later in ophthalmology.

Rizal
Rizal
as a student at the University of Santo Tomas

Without his parents' knowledge and consent, but secretly supported by his brother Paciano, he traveled alone to Madrid, Spain
Madrid, Spain
in May 1882 and studied medicine at the Universidad Central de Madrid
Madrid
where he earned the degree, Licentiate in Medicine. He also attended medical lectures at the University of Paris
University of Paris
and the University of Heidelberg. In Berlin, he was inducted as a member of the Berlin
Berlin
Ethnological Society and the Berlin
Berlin
Anthropological Society under the patronage of the famous pathologist Rudolf Virchow. Following custom, he delivered an address in German in April 1887 before the Anthropological Society on the orthography and structure of the Tagalog language. He left Heidelberg
Heidelberg
a poem, "A las flores del Heidelberg", which was both an evocation and a prayer for the welfare of his native land and the unification of common values between East and West. At Heidelberg, the 25-year-old Rizal, completed in 1887 his eye specialization under the renowned professor, Otto Becker. There he used the newly invented ophthalmoscope (invented by Hermann von Helmholtz) to later operate on his own mother's eye. From Heidelberg, Rizal
Rizal
wrote his parents: "I spend half of the day in the study of German and the other half, in the diseases of the eye. Twice a week, I go to the bierbrauerie, or beerhall, to speak German with my student friends." He lived in a Karlstraße boarding house then moved to Ludwigsplatz. There, he met Reverend Karl Ullmer and stayed with them in Wilhelmsfeld, where he wrote the last few chapters of Noli Me Tángere. Rizal
Rizal
was a polymath, skilled in both science and the arts. He painted, sketched, and made sculptures and woodcarving. He was a prolific poet, essayist, and novelist whose most famous works were his two novels, Noli Me Tángere and its sequel, El filibusterismo.[note 2][9] These social commentaries during the Spanish colonization of the country formed the nucleus of literature that inspired peaceful reformists and armed revolutionaries alike. Rizal
Rizal
was also a polyglot, conversant in twenty-two languages.[note 3][note 4][21][22] Rizal's multifacetedness was described by his German friend, Dr. Adolf Bernhard Meyer, as "stupendous."[note 5] Documented studies show him to be a polymath with the ability to master various skills and subjects.[21][23][23][24] He was an ophthalmologist, sculptor, painter, educator, farmer, historian, playwright and journalist. Besides poetry and creative writing, he dabbled, with varying degrees of expertise, in architecture, cartography, economics, ethnology, anthropology, sociology, dramatics, martial arts, fencing and pistol shooting. He was also a Freemason, joining Acacia Lodge No. 9 during his time in Spain and becoming a Master Mason
Master Mason
in 1884. Personal life, relationships and ventures

Rednaxela Terrace, where Rizal
Rizal
lived during his self-imposed exile in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(photo taken in 2011).

José Rizal's life is one of the most documented of 19th century Filipinos due to the vast and extensive records written by and about him.[25] Almost everything in his short life is recorded somewhere, being himself a regular diarist and prolific letter writer, much of the material having survived. His biographers, however, have faced difficulty in translating his writings because of Rizal's habit of switching from one language to another. They drew largely from his travel diaries with their insights of a young Asian encountering the West for the first time. They included his later trips, home and back again to Europe through Japan and the United States,[26] and, finally, through his self-imposed exile in Hong Kong. Shortly after he graduated from the Ateneo Municipal de Manila
Manila
(now Ateneo de Manila
Manila
University), Rizal
Rizal
(who was then 16 years old) and a friend, Mariano Katigbak, came to visit Rizal's maternal grandmother in Tondo, Manila. Mariano brought along his sister, Segunda Katigbak, a 14-year-old Batangueña from Lipa, Batangas. It was the first time they met and Rizal
Rizal
described Segunda as "rather short, with eyes that were eloquent and ardent at times and languid at others, rosy–cheeked, with an enchanting and provocative smile that revealed very beautiful teeth, and the air of a sylph; her entire self diffused a mysterious charm." His grandmother's guests were mostly college students and they knew that Rizal
Rizal
had skills in painting. They suggested that Rizal
Rizal
should make a portrait of Segunda. He complied reluctantly and made a pencil sketch of her. Unfortunately for him, Katigbak was engaged to Manuel Luz.[27]

Business Card shows Dr. José Rizal
Rizal
is an Ophthalmologist
Ophthalmologist
in Hong Kong

From December 1891 to June 1892, Rizal
Rizal
lived with his family in Number 2 of Rednaxela Terrace, Mid-levels, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Island. Rizal
Rizal
used 5 D'Aguilar Street, Central district, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Island, as his ophthalmologist clinic from 2 pm to 6 pm. This period of his life included his recorded affections of which nine were identified. They were Gertrude Beckett of Chalcot Crescent, London, wealthy and high-minded Nelly Boustead of the English and Iberian merchant family, last descendant of a noble Japanese family Seiko Usui (affectionately called O-Sei-san), his earlier friendship with Segunda Katigbak, Leonor Valenzuela, and eight-year romantic relationship with a distant cousin, Leonor Rivera
Leonor Rivera
(popularly thought to be the inspiration for the character of María Clara
María Clara
in Noli me tangere).

Affair In one recorded fall from grace he succumbed to the temptation of a 'lady of the camellias'. The writer, Maximo Viola, a friend of Rizal's, was alluding to Dumas's 1848 novel, La dame aux camelias, about a man who fell in love with a courtesan. While the affair was on record, there was no account in Viola's letter whether it was more than one-night and if it was more a business transaction than an amorous affair.[28][29][note 6] Association with Leonor Rivera See also: Leonor Rivera

A crayon portrait of Leonor Rivera
Leonor Rivera
by José Rizal

Leonor Rivera
Leonor Rivera
is thought to be the inspiration for the character of Maria Clara in Noli Me Tángere and El Filibusterismo.[30] Rivera and Rizal
Rizal
first met in Manila
Manila
when Rivera was only 14 years old. When Rizal
Rizal
left for Europe on May 3, 1882, Rivera was 16 years of age. Their correspondence began when Rizal
Rizal
left a poem for Rivera saying farewell.[31] The correspondence between Rivera and Rizal
Rizal
kept Rizal
Rizal
focused on his studies in Europe. They employed codes in their letters because Rivera's mother did not favor Rizal. A letter from Mariano Katigbak dated June 27, 1884, referred to Rivera as Rizal's "betrothed". Katigbak described Rivera as having been greatly affected by Rizal's departure, frequently sick because of insomnia. When Rizal
Rizal
returned to the Philippines
Philippines
on August 5, 1887, Rivera and her family had moved back to Dagupan, Pangasinan. Rizal
Rizal
was forbidden by his father Francisco Mercado to see Rivera in order to avoid putting the Rivera family in danger because at the time Rizal
Rizal
was already labeled by the criollo elite as a filibustero or subversive[31] because of his novel Noli Me Tángere. Rizal
Rizal
wanted to marry Rivera while he was still in the Philippines
Philippines
because of Rivera's uncomplaining fidelity. Rizal
Rizal
asked permission from his father one more time before his second departure from the Philippines. The meeting never happened. In 1888, Rizal
Rizal
stopped receiving letters from Rivera for a year, although Rizal
Rizal
kept sending letters to Rivera. The reason for Rivera's year of silence was the connivance between Rivera's mother and the Englishman named Henry Kipping, a railway engineer who fell in love with Rivera and was favored by Rivera's mother.[31][32] The news of Leonor Rivera's marriage to Kipping devastated Rizal. His European friends kept almost everything he gave them, including doodlings on pieces of paper. In the home of a Spanish liberal, Pedro Ortiga y Pérez, he left an impression that was to be remembered by his daughter, Consuelo. In her diary, she wrote of a day Rizal
Rizal
spent there and regaled them with his wit, social graces, and sleight-of-hand tricks. In London, during his research on Antonio de Morga's writings, he became a regular guest in the home of Reinhold Rost of the British Museum
British Museum
who referred to him as "a gem of a man."[25][note 7] The family of Karl Ullmer, pastor of Wilhelmsfeld, and the Blumentritts saved even buttonholes and napkins with sketches and notes. They were ultimately bequeathed to the Rizal
Rizal
family to form a treasure trove of memorabilia.

Josephine Bracken
Josephine Bracken
was Rizal's common-law wife whom he reportedly married shortly before his execution

Relationship with Josephine Bracken Further information: Josephine Bracken In February 1895, Rizal, 33, met Josephine Bracken, an Irish woman from Hong Kong, when she accompanied her blind adoptive father, George Taufer, to have his eyes checked by Rizal.[33] After frequent visits, Rizal
Rizal
and Bracken fell in love with each other. They applied to marry but, because of Rizal's reputation from his writings and political stance, the local priest Father Obach would only hold the ceremony if Rizal
Rizal
could get permission from the Bishop of Cebu. He was unable to obtain an ecclesiastical marriage because he would not return to Catholicism.[6] After accompanying her father to Manila
Manila
on her return to Hong Kong, and before heading back to Dapitan
Dapitan
to live with Rizal, Josephine introduced herself to members of Rizal's family in Manila. His mother suggested a civil marriage, which she believed to be a lesser sacrament but less sinful to Rizal's conscience than making any sort of political retraction in order to gain permission from the Bishop.[34] Rizal
Rizal
and Josephine lived as husband and wife in a common-law marriage in Talisay in Dapitan. The couple had a son who lived only for a few hours after Josephine suffered a miscarriage; Rizal
Rizal
named him after his father Francisco.[35] In Brussels
Brussels
and Spain (1890–92) In 1890, Rizal, 29, left Paris for Brussels
Brussels
as he was preparing for the publication of his annotations of Antonio de Morga's Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas (1609). He lived in the boarding house of the two Jacoby sisters, Catherina and Suzanna, who had a niece Suzanna ("Thil"), age 16. Historian Gregorio F. Zaide states that Rizal
Rizal
had "his romance with Suzanne Jacoby, 45, the petite niece of his landladies." Belgian Pros Slachmuylders, however, believed that Rizal had a romance with the 17-year-old niece, Suzanna Thil, as his other liaisons were all with young women.[36] He found records clarifying their names and ages. Rizal's Brussels
Brussels
stay was short-lived; he moved to Madrid, giving the young Suzanna a box of chocolates. She wrote to him in French: "After your departure, I did not take the chocolate. The box is still intact as on the day of your parting. Don’t delay too long writing us because I wear out the soles of my shoes for running to the mailbox to see if there is a letter from you. There will never be any home in which you are so loved as in that in Brussels, so, you little bad boy, hurry up and come back…"[36] In 2007, Slachmuylders' group arranged for an historical marker honoring Rizal
Rizal
to be placed at the house.[36] The content of Rizal's writings changed considerably in his two most famous novels, Noli Me Tángere, published in Berlin
Berlin
in 1887, and El Filibusterismo, published in Ghent in 1891. For the latter, he used funds borrowed from his friends. These writings angered both the Spanish colonial elite and many educated Filipinos due to their symbolism. They are critical of Spanish friars and the power of the Church. Rizal's friend Ferdinand Blumentritt, an Austria-Hungary-born professor and historian, wrote that the novel's characters were drawn from real life and that every episode can be repeated on any day in the Philippines.[37] Blumentritt was the grandson of the Imperial Treasurer at Vienna
Vienna
in the former Austro-Hungarian Empire and a staunch defender of the Catholic faith. This did not dissuade him from writing the preface of El filibusterismo
El filibusterismo
after he had translated Noli Me Tángere into German. As Blumentritt had warned, these books resulted in Rizal's being prosecuted as the inciter of revolution. He was eventually tried by the military, convicted and executed. Teaching the natives where they stood brought about an adverse reaction, as the Philippine Revolution of 1896 took off virulently thereafter.

Leaders of the reform movement in Spain: Left to right: Rizal, del Pilar, and Ponce (c. 1890).

As leader of the reform movement of Filipino students in Spain, Rizal contributed essays, allegories, poems, and editorials to the Spanish newspaper La Solidaridad
La Solidaridad
in Barcelona
Barcelona
(in this case Rizal
Rizal
used a pen name, "Dimasalang", "Laong Laan" and "May Pagasa"). The core of his writings centers on liberal and progressive ideas of individual rights and freedom; specifically, rights for the Filipino people. He shared the same sentiments with members of the movement: that the Philippines is battling, in Rizal's own words, "a double-faced Goliath"—corrupt friars and bad government. His commentaries reiterate the following agenda:[note 8]

That the Philippines
Philippines
be made a province of Spain (The Philippines
Philippines
was a province of New Spain
New Spain
– now Mexico, administered from Mexico city from 1565 to 1821. From 1821 to 1898 it was administered directly from Spain.) Representation in the Cortes Filipino priests instead of Spanish friars – Augustinians, Dominicans, and Franciscans
Franciscans
– in parishes and remote sitios Freedom of assembly and speech Equal rights before the law (for both Filipino and Spanish plaintiffs)

The colonial authorities in the Philippines
Philippines
did not favor these reforms. Such Spanish intellectuals as Morayta, Unamuno, Pi y Margall, and others did endorse them. Wenceslao Retana, a political commentator in Spain, had slighted Rizal by writing an insulting article in La Epoca, a newspaper in Madrid. He implied that the family and friends of Rizal
Rizal
were evicted from their lands in Calamba for not having paid their due rents. The incident (when Rizal
Rizal
was ten) stemmed from an accusation that Rizal's mother, Teodora, tried to poison the wife of a cousin, but she said she was trying to help. With the approval of the Church prelates, and without a hearing, she was ordered to prison in Santa Cruz in 1871. She was made to walk the ten miles (16 km) from Calamba. She was released after two-and-a-half years of appeals to the highest court.[24] In 1887, Rizal
Rizal
wrote a petition on behalf of the tenants of Calamba, and later that year led them to speak out against the friars' attempts to raise rent. They initiated a litigation which resulted in the Dominicans' evicting them from their homes, including the Rizal family. General Valeriano Weyler
Valeriano Weyler
had the buildings on the farm torn down. Upon reading the article, Rizal
Rizal
sent a representative to challenge Retana to a duel. Retana published a public apology and later became one of Rizal's biggest admirers, writing Rizal's most important biography, Vida y Escritos del José Rizal.[38][note 9] Return to Philippines
Philippines
(1892–96) Exile
Exile
in Dapitan

Bust of Padre Guerrico in clay, by Rizal.

Rizal's pencil sketch of Blumentritt.

Upon his return to Manila
Manila
in 1892, he formed a civic movement called La Liga Filipina. The league advocated these moderate social reforms through legal means, but was disbanded by the governor. At that time, he had already been declared an enemy of the state by the Spanish authorities because of the publication of his novel. Rizal
Rizal
was implicated in the activities of the nascent rebellion and in July 1892, was deported to Dapitan
Dapitan
in the province of Zamboanga, a peninsula of Mindanao.[39] There he built a school, a hospital and a water supply system, and taught and engaged in farming and horticulture.[citation needed] Abaca, then the vital raw material for cordage and which Rizal
Rizal
and his students planted in the thousands, was a memorial.[citation needed] The boys' school, which taught in Spanish, and included English as a foreign language (considered a prescient if unusual option then) was conceived by Rizal
Rizal
and antedated Gordonstoun
Gordonstoun
with its aims of inculcating resourcefulness and self-sufficiency in young men.[citation needed] They would later enjoy successful lives as farmers and honest government officials.[citation needed] One, a Muslim, became a datu, and another, José Aseniero, who was with Rizal throughout the life of the school, became Governor of Zamboanga.[40][citation needed] In Dapitan, the Jesuits mounted a great effort to secure his return to the fold led by Fray Francisco de Paula Sánchez, his former professor, who failed in his mission. The task was resumed by Fray Pastells, a prominent member of the Order. In a letter to Pastells, Rizal
Rizal
sails close to the ecumenism familiar to us today.[41]

We are entirely in accord in admitting the existence of God. How can I doubt His when I am convinced of mine. Who so recognizes the effect recognizes the cause. To doubt God is to doubt one's own conscience, and in consequence, it would be to doubt everything; and then what is life for? Now then, my faith in God, if the result of a ratiocination may be called faith, is blind, blind in the sense of knowing nothing. I neither believe nor disbelieve the qualities which many attribute to Him; before theologians' and philosophers' definitions and lucubrations of this ineffable and inscrutable being I find myself smiling. Faced with the conviction of seeing myself confronting the supreme Problem, which confused voices seek to explain to me, I cannot but reply: ‘It could be’; but the God that I foreknow is far more grand, far more good: Plus Supra!...I believe in (revelation); but not in revelation or revelations which each religion or religions claim to possess. Examining them impartially, comparing them and scrutinizing them, one cannot avoid discerning the human 'fingernail' and the stamp of the time in which they were written... No, let us not make God in our image, poor inhabitants that we are of a distant planet lost in infinite space. However, brilliant and sublime our intelligence may be, it is scarcely more than a small spark which shines and in an instant is extinguished, and it alone can give us no idea of that blaze, that conflagration, that ocean of light. I believe in revelation, but in that living revelation which surrounds us on every side, in that voice, mighty, eternal, unceasing, incorruptible, clear, distinct, universal as is the being from whom it proceeds, in that revelation which speaks to us and penetrates us from the moment we are born until we die. What books can better reveal to us the goodness of God, His love, His providence, His eternity, His glory, His wisdom? ‘The heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament showeth his handiwork.[42]

His best friend, professor Ferdinand Blumentritt, kept him in touch with European friends and fellow-scientists who wrote a stream of letters which arrived in Dutch, French, German and English and which baffled the censors, delaying their transmittal. Those four years of his exile coincided with the development of the Philippine Revolution from inception and to its final breakout, which, from the viewpoint of the court which was to try him, suggested his complicity in it.[25] He condemned the uprising, although all the members of the Katipunan
Katipunan
had made him their honorary president and had used his name as a cry for war, unity, and liberty.[43] He is known to making the resolution of bearing personal sacrifice instead of the incoming revolution, believing that a peaceful stand is the best way to avoid further suffering in the country and loss of Filipino lives. In Rizal's own words, "I consider myself happy for being able to suffer a little for a cause which I believe to be sacred [...]. I believe further that in any undertaking, the more one suffers for it, the surer its success. If this be fanaticism may God pardon me, but my poor judgment does not see it as such."[44] In Dapitan, Rizal
Rizal
wrote "Haec Est Sibylla Cumana", a parlor-game for his students, with questions and answers for which a wooden top was used. In 2004, Jean Paul Verstraeten traced this book and the wooden top, as well as Rizal's personal watch, spoon and salter. Arrest and trial By 1896, the rebellion fomented by the Katipunan, a militant secret society, had become a full-blown revolution, proving to be a nationwide uprising.[citation needed] Rizal
Rizal
had earlier volunteered his services as a doctor in Cuba and was given leave by Governor-General
Governor-General
Ramón Blanco to serve in Cuba to minister to victims of yellow fever. Rizal
Rizal
and Josephine left Dapitan
Dapitan
on August 1, 1896, with letter of recommendation from Blanco. Rizal
Rizal
was arrested en route to Cuba via Spain and was imprisoned in Barcelona
Barcelona
on October 6, 1896. He was sent back the same day to Manila to stand trial as he was implicated in the revolution through his association with members of the Katipunan. During the entire passage, he was unchained, no Spaniard laid a hand on him, and had many opportunities to escape but refused to do so. While imprisoned in Fort Santiago, he issued a manifesto disavowing the current revolution in its present state and declaring that the education of Filipinos and their achievement of a national identity were prerequisites to freedom. Rizal
Rizal
was tried before a court-martial for rebellion, sedition, and conspiracy, was convicted on all three charges, and sentenced to death. Blanco, who was sympathetic to Rizal, had been forced out of office. The friars, led by then Archbishop of Manila
Manila
Bernardino Nozaleda, had 'intercalated' Camilo de Polavieja
Camilo de Polavieja
in his stead, as the new Spanish Governor-General
Governor-General
of the Philippines
Philippines
after pressuring Queen-Regent Maria Cristina of Spain, thus sealing Rizal's fate. Execution

A photographic record of Rizal's execution in what was then Bagumbayan.

Moments before his execution on December 30, 1896, by a squad of Filipino soldiers of the Spanish Army, a backup force of regular Spanish Army troops stood ready to shoot the executioners should they fail to obey orders.[45] The Spanish Army Surgeon General requested to take his pulse: it was normal. Aware of this the sergeant commanding the backup force hushed his men to silence when they began raising "vivas" with the highly partisan crowd of Peninsular and Mestizo Spaniards. His last words were those of Jesus Christ: "consummatum est", – it is finished.[21][46][note 10] He was secretly buried in Pacò Cemetery in Manila
Manila
with no identification on his grave. His sister Narcisa toured all possible gravesites and found freshly turned earth at the cemetery with guards posted at the gate. Assuming this could be the most likely spot, there never having any ground burials, she made a gift to the caretaker to mark the site "RPJ", Rizal's initials in reverse. His undated poem Mi último adiós, believed to have been written a few days before his execution, was hidden in an alcohol stove, which was later handed to his family with his few remaining possessions, including the final letters and his last bequests.[47]:91 During their visit, Rizal
Rizal
reminded his sisters in English, "There is something inside it", referring to the alcohol stove given by the Pardo de Taveras which was to be returned after his execution, thereby emphasizing the importance of the poem. This instruction was followed by another, "Look in my shoes", in which another item was secreted. Exhumation of his remains in August 1898, under American rule, revealed he had been uncoffined, his burial not on sanctified ground granted the 'confessed' faithful, and whatever was in his shoes had disintegrated. And now he is buried in Rizal Monument
Rizal Monument
in Manila.[24] In his letter to his family he wrote: "Treat our aged parents as you would wish to be treated...Love them greatly in memory of me...December 30, 1896."[25] He gave his family instructions for his burial: "Bury me in the ground. Place a stone and a cross over it. My name, the date of my birth and of my death. Nothing more. If later you wish to surround my grave with a fence, you can do it. No anniversaries."[48] In his final letter, to Blumentritt – Tomorrow at 7, I shall be shot; but I am innocent of the crime of rebellion. I am going to die with a tranquil conscience.[25] Rizal
Rizal
is believed to be the first Filipino revolutionary whose death is attributed entirely to his work as a writer; and through dissent and civil disobedience enabled him to successfully destroy Spain's moral primacy to rule. He also bequeathed a book personally bound by him in Dapitan
Dapitan
to his 'best and dearest friend.' When Blumentritt received it in his hometown Litoměřice (Leitmeritz) he broke down and wept. Works and writings Rizal
Rizal
wrote mostly in Spanish, the lingua franca of the Spanish Philippines, though some of his letters (for example Sa Mga Kababaihang Taga Malolos) were written in Tagalog. His works have since been translated into a number of languages including Tagalog and English. Novels and essays

Noli Me Tángere, novel, 1887 (literally Latin for 'touch me not', from John 20:17)[49] El Filibusterismo, (novel, 1891), sequel to Noli Me Tángere Alin Mang Lahi ("Whate'er the Race"), a Kundiman attributed to Dr. José Rizal[50] The Friars and the Filipinos (Unfinished) Toast to Juan Luna
Juan Luna
and Felix Hidalgo (Speech, 1884), given at Restaurante Ingles, Madrid The Diaries of José Rizal Rizal's Letters is a compendium of Dr. Jose Rizal's letters to his family members, Blumentritt, Fr. Pablo Pastells and other reformers "Come se gobiernan las Filipinas" (Governing the Philippine islands) Filipinas dentro de cien años essay, 1889–90 (The Philippines
Philippines
a Century Hence) La Indolencia de los Filipinos, essay, 1890 (The indolence of Filipinos)[51] Makamisa unfinished novel Sa Mga Kababaihang Taga Malolos, essay, 1889, To the Young Women of Malolos Annotations to Antonio de Moragas, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas (essay, 1889, Events in the Philippine Islands)

The Triumph of Science over Death, by Rizal.

Poetry

A La Juventud Filipina (To The Philippine Youth) El Canto Del Viajero Briayle Crismarl Canto de María Clara Himno Al Trabajo (Dalit sa Paggawa) Felicitación Kundiman (Tagalog) Me Piden Versos Mi primera inspiracion Mi Retiro Mi Ultimo Adiós Por La Educación (Recibe Lustre La Patria) Sa Sanggol na si Jesus A Mi Musa (To My Muse) Un Recuerdo A Mi Pueblo A Man in Dapitan

Plays

El Consejo de los Dioses
El Consejo de los Dioses
(The council of Gods) Junto Al Pasig (Along the Pasig)[52]:381 San Euistaquio, Mártyr ( Saint
Saint
Eustache, the martyr)[53]

Other works Rizal
Rizal
also tried his hand at painting and sculpture. His most famous sculptural work was "The Triumph of Science over Death", a clay sculpture of a naked young woman with overflowing hair, standing on a skull while bearing a torch held high. The woman symbolized the ignorance of humankind during the Dark Ages, while the torch she bore symbolized the enlightenment science brings over the whole world. He sent the sculpture as a gift to his dear friend Ferdinand Blumentritt, together with another one named "The Triumph of Death over Life". The woman is shown trampling the skull, a symbol of death, to signify the victory the humankind achieved by conquering the bane of death through their scientific advancements. The original sculpture is now displayed at the Rizal
Rizal
Shrine Museum at Fort Santiago
Fort Santiago
in Intramuros, Manila. A large replica, made of concrete, stands in front of Fernando Calderón Hall, the building which houses the College of Medicine of the University of the Philippines
Philippines
Manila
Manila
along Pedro Gil Street in Ermita, Manila. Reactions after death

An engraving of the execution of Filipino insurgents at Bagumbayan (now Luneta).

Historical marker of José Rizal's execution site.

Retraction controversy Several historians report that Rizal
Rizal
retracted his anti-Catholic ideas through a document which stated: "I retract with all my heart whatever in my words, writings, publications and conduct have been contrary to my character as a son of the Catholic Church."[note 11] However, there are doubts of its authenticity given that there is no certificate of Rizal's Catholic marriage to Josephine Bracken.[54] Also there is an allegation that the retraction document was a forgery.[55] After analyzing six major documents of Rizal, Ricardo Pascual concluded that the retraction document, said to have been discovered in 1935, was not in Rizal's handwriting. Senator Rafael Palma, a former President of the University of the Philippines
Philippines
and a prominent Mason, argued that a retraction is not in keeping with Rizal's character and mature beliefs.[56] He called the retraction story a "pious fraud."[57] Others who deny the retraction are Frank Laubach,[21] a Protestant minister; Austin Coates,[32] a British writer; and Ricardo Manapat, director of the National Archives.[58] Those who affirm the authenticity of Rizal's retraction are prominent Philippine historians such as Nick Joaquin,[note 12] Nicolas Zafra
Nicolas Zafra
of UP[59] León María Guerrero III,[note 13] Gregorio Zaide,[61] Guillermo Gómez Rivera, Ambeth Ocampo,[58] John Schumacher,[62] Antonio Molina,[63] Paul Dumol[64] and Austin Craig.[24] They take the retraction document as authentic, having been judged as such by a foremost expert on the writings of Rizal, Teodoro Kalaw
Teodoro Kalaw
(a 33rd degree Mason) and "handwriting experts...known and recognized in our courts of justice", H. Otley Beyer and Dr. José I. Del Rosario, both of UP.[59] Historians also refer to 11 eyewitnesses when Rizal
Rizal
wrote his retraction, signed a Catholic prayer book, and recited Catholic prayers, and the multitude who saw him kiss the crucifix before his execution. A great grand nephew of Rizal, Fr. Marciano Guzman, cites that Rizal's 4 confessions were certified by 5 eyewitnesses, 10 qualified witnesses, 7 newspapers, and 12 historians and writers including Aglipayan bishops, Masons and anti-clericals.[65] One witness was the head of the Spanish Supreme Court at the time of his notarized declaration and was highly esteemed by Rizal
Rizal
for his integrity.[66] Because of what he sees as the strength these direct evidence have in the light of the historical method, in contrast with merely circumstantial evidence, UP professor emeritus of history Nicolas Zafra called the retraction "a plain unadorned fact of history."[59] Guzmán attributes the denial of retraction to "the blatant disbelief and stubbornness" of some Masons.[65] Supporters see in the retraction Rizal's "moral courage...to recognize his mistakes,"[61][note 14] his reversion to the "true faith", and thus his "unfading glory,"[66] and a return to the "ideals of his fathers" which "did not diminish his stature as a great patriot; on the contrary, it increased that stature to greatness."[69] On the other hand, senator Jose Diokno
Jose Diokno
stated, "Surely whether Rizal
Rizal
died as a Catholic or an apostate adds or detracts nothing from his greatness as a Filipino... Catholic or Mason, Rizal
Rizal
is still Rizal
Rizal
– the hero who courted death 'to prove to those who deny our patriotism that we know how to die for our duty and our beliefs'."[70] "Mi último adiós" Main article: Mi último adiós The poem is more aptly titled, "Adiós, Patria Adorada" (literally "Farewell, Beloved Fatherland"), by virtue of logic and literary tradition, the words coming from the first line of the poem itself. It first appeared in print not in Manila
Manila
but in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
in 1897, when a copy of the poem and an accompanying photograph came to J. P. Braga who decided to publish it in a monthly journal he edited. There was a delay when Braga, who greatly admired Rizal, wanted a good job of the photograph and sent it to be engraved in London, a process taking well over two months. It finally appeared under 'Mi último pensamiento,' a title he supplied and by which it was known for a few years. Thus, when the Jesuit
Jesuit
Balaguer's anonymous account of the retraction and the marriage to Josephine was appearing in Barcelona, no word of the poem's existence reached him in time to revise what he had written. His account was too elaborate that Rizal
Rizal
would have had no time to write "Adiós." Six years after his death, when the Philippine Organic Act of 1902 was being debated in the United States Congress, Representative Henry Cooper of Wisconsin rendered an English translation of Rizal's valedictory poem capped by the peroration, "Under what clime or what skies has tyranny claimed a nobler victim?"[71] Subsequently, the US Congress passed the bill into law which is now known as the Philippine Organic Act of 1902.[72] This was a major breakthrough for a US Congress that had yet to grant equal rights to African Americans guaranteed to them in the US Constitution and the Chinese Exclusion Act
Chinese Exclusion Act
was still in effect. It created the Philippine legislature, appointed two Filipino delegates to the US Congress, extended the US Bill of Rights to Filipinos, and laid the foundation for an autonomous government. The colony was on its way to independence.[72] The Americans, however, would not sign the bill into law until 1916 and did not recognize Philippine Independence until the Treaty of Manila
Manila
in 1946—fifty years after Rizal's death.This same poem which has inspired independence activists across the region and beyond was recited (in its Indonesian translation by Rosihan Anwar) by Indonesian soldiers of independence before going into battle.[73] Later life of Bracken Josephine Bracken, whom Rizal
Rizal
addressed as his wife on his last day,[74] promptly joined the revolutionary forces in Cavite
Cavite
province, making her way through thicket and mud across enemy lines, and helped reloading spent cartridges at the arsenal in Imus under the revolutionary General Pantaleón García. Imus came under threat of recapture that the operation was moved, with Bracken, to Maragondon, the mountain redoubt in Cavite.[75] She witnessed the Tejeros Convention
Tejeros Convention
prior to returning to Manila
Manila
and was summoned by the Governor-General, but owing to her stepfather's American citizenship she could not be forcibly deported. She left voluntarily returning to Hong Kong. She later married another Filipino, Vicente Abad, a mestizo acting as agent for the Tabacalera firm in the Philippines. She died of tuberculosis in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
in March 15, 1902, and was buried at the Happy Valley Cemetery.[75] She was immortalized by Rizal
Rizal
in the last stanza of Mi Ultimo Adios: "Farewell, sweet stranger, my friend, my joy...". Polavieja and Blanco Polavieja faced condemnation by his countrymen after his return to Spain. While visiting Girona, in Catalonia, circulars were distributed among the crowd bearing Rizal's last verses, his portrait, and the charge that Polavieja was responsible for the loss of the Philippines to Spain.[76] Ramon Blanco later presented his sash and sword to the Rizal
Rizal
family as an apology.[citation needed] Criticism and controversies Attempts to debunk legends surrounding Rizal, and the tug of war between free thinker and Catholic, have kept his legacy controversial.

Rizal
Rizal
Shrine in Calamba City, Laguna, the ancestral house and birthplace of José Rizal, is now a museum housing Rizal
Rizal
memorabilia.

José Rizal's original grave at Paco Park
Paco Park
in Manila. Slightly renovated and date repainted in English.

National hero status The confusion over Rizal's real stance on the Philippine Revolution leads to the sometimes bitter question of his ranking as the nation's premier hero.[77][78] But then again, according to the National Historical Commission of the Philippines
Philippines
(NHCP) Section Chief Teodoro Atienza, and Filipino historian Ambeth Ocampo, there is no Filipino historical figure, including Rizal, that was officially declared as national hero through law or executive order.[79][80] Although, there were laws and proclamations honoring Filipino heroes. Made national hero by colonial Americans Some[who?] suggest that Jose Rizal
Rizal
was made a legislated national hero by the American forces occupying Philippines. In 1901, the American Governor General William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft
suggested that the U.S. sponsored Philippine Commission
Philippine Commission
name Rizal
Rizal
a national hero for Filipinos. Jose Rizal
Rizal
was an ideal candidate, favourable to the American occupiers since he was dead, and non-violent, a favourable quality which, if emulated by Filipinos, would not threaten the American rule or change the status quo of the occupiers of Philippine islands. Rizal
Rizal
did not advocate independence for Philippines
Philippines
either.[81] Subsequently, the US-sponsored commission passed Act No. 346 which set the anniversary of Rizal’s death as a “day of observance.”[82] Renato Constantino writes Rizal
Rizal
is a "United States-sponsored hero" who was promoted as the greatest Filipino hero during the American colonial period of the Philippines
Philippines
– after Aguinaldo lost the Philippine–American War. The United States promoted Rizal, who represented peaceful political advocacy (in fact, repudiation of violent means in general) instead of more radical figures whose ideas could inspire resistance against American rule. Rizal
Rizal
was selected over Andrés Bonifacio
Andrés Bonifacio
who was viewed "too radical" and Apolinario Mabini who was considered "unregenerate."[83] Made national hero by Emilio Aguinaldo On the other hand, numerous sources[84] quote that it was General Emilio Aguinaldo, and not the second Philippine Commission, who first recognized December 30 as "national day of mourning in memory of Rizal and other victims of Spanish tyranny. As per them, the first celebration of Rizal
Rizal
Day was held in Manila
Manila
on December 30, 1898, under the sponsorship of the Club Filipino.[85] The veracity of both claims seems to be justified and hence difficult to ascertain. However, most historians agree that a majority of Filipinos were unaware of Rizal
Rizal
during his lifetime,[86] as he was a member of the richer elite classes (he was born in an affluent family, had lived abroad for nearly as long as he had lived in the Philippines) and wrote primarily in an elite language (at that time, Tagalog and Cebuano were the languages of the masses) about ideals as lofty as freedom (the masses were more concerned about day to day issues like earning money and making a living, something which has not changed much today).[87] Teodoro Agoncillo
Teodoro Agoncillo
opines that the Philippine national hero, unlike those of other countries, is not "the leader of its liberation forces". He gives the opinion that Andrés Bonifacio
Andrés Bonifacio
not replace Rizal as national hero, like some have suggested, but that be honored alongside him.[88] Constantino's analysis has been criticised for its polemicism and inaccuracies regarding Rizal.[89] The historian Rafael Palma, contends that the revolution of Bonifacio is a consequence wrought by the writings of Rizal
Rizal
and that although the Bonifacio's revolver produced an immediate outcome, the pen of Rizal
Rizal
generated a more lasting achievement.[90] Critiques of books Others present him as a man of contradictions. Miguel de Unamuno
Miguel de Unamuno
in "Rizal: the Tagalog Hamlet", said of him, “a soul that dreads the revolution although deep down desires it. He pivots between fear and hope, between faith and despair.”[91] His critics assert this character flaw is translated into his two novels where he opposes violence in Noli and appears to advocate it in Fili, contrasting Ibarra's idealism to Simoun's cynicism. His defenders insist this ambivalence is trounced when Simoun is struck down in the sequel's final chapters, reaffirming the author's resolute stance, Pure and spotless must the victim be if the sacrifice is to be acceptable.[92] Many thinkers tend to find the characters of María Clara
María Clara
and Ibarra (Noli Me Tángere) poor role models, María Clara
María Clara
being too frail, and young Ibarra being too accepting of circumstances, rather than being courageous and bold.[93] In El Filibusterismo, Rizal
Rizal
had Father Florentino say: “...our liberty will (not) be secured at the sword's point...we must secure it by making ourselves worthy of it. And when a people reaches that height God will provide a weapon, the idols will be shattered, tyranny will crumble like a house of cards and liberty will shine out like the first dawn.”[92] Rizal's attitude to the Philippine Revolution
Philippine Revolution
is also debated, not only based on his own writings, but also due to the varying eyewitness accounts of Pío Valenzuela, a doctor who in 1895 had consulted Rizal
Rizal
in Dapitan
Dapitan
on behalf of Bonifacio and the Katipunan. Role in the Philippine revolution Upon the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution
Philippine Revolution
in 1896, Valenzuela surrendered to the Spanish authorities and testified in military court that Rizal
Rizal
had strongly condemned an armed struggle for independence when Valenzuela asked for his support. Rizal
Rizal
had even refused him entry to his house. Bonifacio, in turn, had openly denounced him as a coward for his refusal.[note 15] But years later, Valenzuela testified that Rizal
Rizal
had been favorable to an uprising as long as the Filipinos were well-prepared, and well-supplied with arms. Rizal
Rizal
had suggested that the Katipunan
Katipunan
get wealthy and influential Filipino members of society on their side, or at least ensure they would stay neutral. Rizal
Rizal
had even suggested his friend Antonio Luna
Antonio Luna
to lead the revolutionary forces since he had studied military science.[note 16] In the event that the Katipunan
Katipunan
was discovered prematurely, they should fight rather than allow themselves to be killed. Valenzuela said to historian Teodoro Agoncillo
Teodoro Agoncillo
that he had lied to the Spanish military authorities about Rizal's true stance toward a revolution in an attempt to exculpate him.[94] Before his execution, Rizal
Rizal
wrote a proclamation denouncing the revolution. But as noted by historian Floro Quibuyen, his final poem Mi ultimo adios contains a stanza which equates his coming execution and the rebels then dying in battle as fundamentally the same, as both are dying for their country.[95] Legacy Rizal
Rizal
was a contemporary of Gandhi, Tagore
Tagore
and Sun Yat Sen
Sun Yat Sen
who also advocated liberty through peaceful means rather than by violent revolution. Coinciding with the appearance of those other leaders, Rizal
Rizal
from an early age had been enunciating in poems, tracts and plays, ideas all his own of modern nationhood as a practical possibility in Asia. In the Noli he stated that if European civilization had nothing better to offer, colonialism in Asia was doomed.[note 17]

Government poster from the 1950s

Though popularly mentioned, especially on blogs, there is no evidence to suggest that Gandhi
Gandhi
or Nehru may have corresponded with Rizal, neither have they mentioned him in any of their memoirs or letters. But it was documented by Rizal's biographer, Austin Coates who interviewed Jawaharlal Nehru and Gandhi
Gandhi
that Rizal
Rizal
was mentioned, specifically in Nehru's prison letters to his daughter Indira.[96][97] As a political figure, José Rizal
Rizal
was the founder of La Liga Filipina, a civic organization that subsequently gave birth to the Katipunan
Katipunan
led by Andrés Bonifacio,[note 18], a secret society which would start the Philippine Revolution
Philippine Revolution
against Spain that eventually laid the foundation of the First Philippine Republic
First Philippine Republic
under Emilio Aguinaldo. He was a proponent of achieving Philippine self-government peacefully through institutional reform rather than through violent revolution, and would only support "violent means" as a last resort.[99] Rizal
Rizal
believed that the only justification for national liberation and self-government was the restoration of the dignity of the people,[note 19] saying "Why independence, if the slaves of today will be the tyrants of tomorrow?"[100] However, through careful examination of his works and statements, including Mi Ultimo Adios, Rizal
Rizal
reveals himself as a revolutionary. His image as the Tagalog Christ also intensified early reverence to him. Rizal, through his reading of Morga and other western historians, knew of the genial image of Spain's early relations with his people.[101] In his writings, he showed the disparity between the early colonialists and those of his day, with the latter's injustices giving rise to Gomburza
Gomburza
and the Philippine Revolution
Philippine Revolution
of 1896. The English biographer, Austin Coates, and writer, Benedict Anderson, believe that Rizal
Rizal
gave the Philippine revolution a genuinely national character; and that Rizal's patriotism and his standing as one of Asia's first intellectuals have inspired others of the importance of a national identity to nation-building.[32][note 20] The Belgian researcher Jean Paul "JP" Verstraeten authored several books about Jose Rizal: Rizal
Rizal
in Belgium and France, Jose Rizal's Europe, Growing up like Rizal
Rizal
(published by the National Historical Institute and in teacher's programs all over the Philippines), Reminiscences and Travels of Jose Rizal
Rizal
and Jose Rizal
Rizal
"Pearl of Unselfishness". He received an award from the president of the Philippines
Philippines
"in recognition of his unwavering support and commitment to promote the health and education of disadvantaged Filipinos, and his invaluable contribution to engender the teachings and ideals of Dr. Jose Rizal
Rizal
in the Philippines
Philippines
and in Europe". One of the greatest researchers about Rizal
Rizal
nowadays is Lucien Spittael. Several titles were bestowed on him: "the First Filipino", "Greatest Man of the Brown Race", among others. The Order of the Knights of Rizal, a civic and patriotic organization, boasts of dozens of chapters all over the globe [3] [4]. There are some remote-area religious sects who venerate Rizal
Rizal
as a Folk saint collectively known as the Rizalista religious movements, who claim him as a sublimation of Christ.[103] In September 1903, he was canonised as a saint in the Iglesia Filipina Independiente, however it was revoked in the 1950s.[104] Species named after Rizal José Rizal
Rizal
was imprisoned at Fort Santiago
Fort Santiago
and soon after he was banished at Dapitan
Dapitan
where he plunged himself into studying of nature. He then able to collect a number of species of various classes: insects, butterflies, amphibians, reptiles, shells, snakes and plants. Rizal
Rizal
sent many specimens of animals, insects, and plants for identification to the (Anthropological and Ethnographical Museum of Dresden[105]), Dresden Museum of Ethnology. It was not in his interest to receive any monetary payment; all he wanted were scientific books, magazines and surgical instruments which he needed and used in Dapitan. During his exile, Rizal
Rizal
also secretly sent several specimens of flying dragons to Europe. He believed that they were a new species. The German zoologist Benno Wandolleck named them Draco rizali
Draco rizali
after Rizal. However, it has since been discovered that the species had already been described by the Belgian-British zoologist George Albert Boulenger in 1885 as Draco guentheri.[106] There are three species named after Rizal:

Draco rizali
Draco rizali
– a small lizard, known as a flying dragon Apogania rizali – a very rare kind of beetle with five horns Rhacophorus rizali
Rhacophorus rizali
– a peculiar frog species. Rhacophorus rizali[107]

Historical commemoration

Although his field of action lay in politics, Rizal's real interests lay in the arts and sciences, in literature and in his profession as an ophthalmologist. Shortly after his death, the Anthropological Society of Berlin
Berlin
met to honor him with a reading of a German translation of his farewell poem and Dr. Rudolf Virchow
Rudolf Virchow
delivering the eulogy.[108] The Rizal Monument
Rizal Monument
now stands near the place where he fell at the Luneta in Bagumbayan, which is now called Rizal
Rizal
Park, a national park in Manila. The monument, which also contains his remains, was designed by the Swiss Richard Kissling
Richard Kissling
of the William Tell sculpture in Altdorf, Uri.[note 21] The monument carries the inscription: "I want to show to those who deprive people the right to love of country, that when we know how to sacrifice ourselves for our duties and convictions, death does not matter if one dies for those one loves – for his country and for others dear to him."[25] The Taft Commission in June 1901 approved Act 137 renaming the District of Morong into the Province of Rizal. Today, the wide acceptance of Rizal
Rizal
is evidenced by the countless towns, streets, and numerous parks in the Philippines
Philippines
named in his honor.

Close-up image of Rizal's statue at the Rizal Monument
Rizal Monument
in Manila.

the whole Rizal Monument
Rizal Monument
in Manila

Second Tallest José Rizal
Rizal
statue in the world. Located at Calamba, Laguna, Rizal's hometown. It was inaugurated on 2011, synchronous on the 150th Birth Celebration of the hero.

Rizal
Rizal
on the obverse side of a 1970 Philippine peso
Philippine peso
coin

The Rizal Park
Rizal Park
at the Bulacan State University

The Portrait of Rizal, painted in oil by Juan Luna

Republic Act 1425, known as the Rizal
Rizal
Law, was passed in 1956 by the Philippine legislature requiring all high school and colleges to offer courses about his life, works and writings. Monuments erected in his honor can be found in Madrid;[110] Tokyo;[111] Wilhelmsfeld, Germany; Jinjiang, Fujian, China;[112] Chicago;[113] Jersey City; Cherry Hill Township, New Jersey; Honolulu;[114] San Diego;[115] Los Angeles including the suburbs Carson and West Covina (both near Seafood City, Mexico City, Mexico;[116] Lima, Peru;[117] Litomerice, Czech Republic;[118] Toronto;[citation needed]Montreal, Quebec, Canada.[citation needed] A two-sided marker bearing a painting of Rizal
Rizal
by Fabián de la Rosa on one side and a bronze bust relief of him by Philippine artist Guillermo Tolentino
Guillermo Tolentino
stands at the Asian Civilisations Museum
Asian Civilisations Museum
Green marking his visits to Singapore in 1882, 1887, 1891 and 1896.[119] A Rizal
Rizal
bronze bust was erected at La Molina district, Lima, Peru, designed by Czech sculptor Hanstroff, mounted atop a pedestal base with four inaugural plaque markers with the following inscription on one: "Dr. José P. Rizal, Héroe Nacional de Filipinas, Nacionalista, Reformador Political, Escritor, Lingüistica y Poeta, 1861–1896."[120][121] A Rizal
Rizal
bust sits in front of the Filipino American Council of Chicago, celebrating a one-day visit Dr. Rizal
Rizal
made to Chicago on May 11, 1888, as seen below.

The USS Rizal (DD-174) launched in 1918

The statue of Rizal
Rizal
at the Rizal Park
Rizal Park
in Wilhelmsfeld, Germany

The National Historical Institute
National Historical Institute
logo for the 150th Birth Anniversary of José Rizal

The Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Government erected a plaque beside Dr. José Rizal's residence in Hong Kong

A plaque marks the Heidelberg
Heidelberg
building where he trained with Professor Becker while in Wilhemsfeld. There is a small Rizal Park
Rizal Park
in that city where a bronze statue of Rizal
Rizal
stands. The street where he lived was also renamed after him. A sandstone fountain in Pastor Ullmer's house garden where Rizal
Rizal
lived in Wilhelmsfeld, was given to the Philippine government and is now located at Rizal Park
Rizal Park
in Manila.[122] Throughout 2011, the National Historical Institute
National Historical Institute
and other institutions organized several activities commemorating the 150th birth anniversary of Rizal, which took place on June 19 of that year. The London
London
Borough of Camden placed a Blue Plaque at 37 Chalcot Crescent, where Rizal
Rizal
lived for some time, with the words: "Dr. José Rizal, Writer and National Hero of the Philippines".

Rizal
Rizal
in popular culture Adaptation of his works The cinematic depiction of Rizal's literary works won two film industry awards more than a century after his birth. In the 10th FAMAS Awards, he was honored in the Best Story category for Gerardo de León's adaptation of his book Noli Me Tángere. The recognition was repeated the following year with his movie version of El Filibusterismo, making him the only person to win back-to-back FAMAS Awards posthumously.[citation needed] Both novels were translated into opera by the composer-librettist Felipe Padilla de León: Noli me tangere in 1957 and El filibusterismo in 1970; and his 1939 overture, Mariang Makiling, was inspired by Rizal's tale of the same name.[123] Biographical films/TV series

Portrayed by Eddie del Mar in the 1956 film, Ang Buhay at Pag-ibig ni Dr. Jose Rizal Portrayed by Albert Martinez in the 1997 film, Rizal
Rizal
sa Dapitan. Portrayed by Dominic Guinto and Cesar Montano
Cesar Montano
in the 1998 film, José Rizal. Portrayed by Joel Torre in the 1999 film, Bayaning 3rd World. Portrayed by Nasser in the 2013 TV series, Katipunan. Portrayed by Jhiz Deocareza and Alden Richards
Alden Richards
in the 2014 TV series, Ilustrado. Portrayed by Jericho Rosales in the 2014 film, Bonifacio: Ang Unang Pangulo.

Others

Nearly every town and city in Philippines
Philippines
contains a street named after Rizal
Rizal
( Rizal
Rizal
street and Rizal
Rizal
Avenue) At least ten towns / cities in Philippines
Philippines
are named "Rizal" (for example: Rizal
Rizal
– Cagayan) A road in the Chanakyapuri
Chanakyapuri
area of New Delhi
New Delhi
(India) is named Dr. Jose P Rizal
Rizal
Marg Another road in Medan, Indonesia
Indonesia
is named Jalan Jose Rizal
Rizal
after him The USS Rizal (DD-174) was a Wickes-class destroyer
Wickes-class destroyer
named after Rizal
Rizal
by the United States Navy and launched on September 21, 1918. The José Rizal
Rizal
Bridge and Rizal Park
Rizal Park
in the city of Seattle
Seattle
are dedicated to Rizal.[124] Rizal
Rizal
also appeared in the 1999 video game Medal of Honor as a secret character in multiplayer, alongside other historical figures such as William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
and Winston Churchill. He can be unlocked by completing the single-player mode, or through cheat codes.[125][126] The Tekken
Tekken
series introduced a character by the name of Josie Rizal
Rizal
in acknowledgement of José Rizal.

v t e

Part of José Rizal's ancestry

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Domingo Lam-co

 

 

 

Inez de la Rosa

 

 

 

 

Eugenio Ursua

 

 

 

Benigna Ochoa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Josefa

 

Francisco Mercado

 

 

 

Bernarda Monicha

 

Manuel de Quintos

 

 

 

Regina Ochoa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Juan Mercado

 

 

 

Cirila Alejandro

 

Clemente Mercado

 

 

Lorenzo Alberto Alonso

 

 

 

Brígida de Quintos

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Francisco Rizal
Rizal
Mercado

 

 

 

 

Manuel Alonso

 

Juan Alonso

 

Gregorio Alonso

 

Teodora Alonso

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saturnina Rizal

 

 

Narcisa Rizal

 

 

Lucia Rizal

 

 

José Rizal

 

 

Josefa Rizal

 

 

Soledad Rizal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paciano Rizal

 

Olympia Rizal

 

María Rizal

 

Concepción Rizal

 

Trinidad Rizal

 

 

 

Notes

This does not include all of the ancestor's siblings, only the notable ones.

Ancestors of José Rizal

16. Domingo Lam-co

8. Francisco Mercado

17. Inez de la Rosa

4. Juan Mercado

18. Antonio Monicha

9. Bernarda Monicha

19. Ana Beatriz Vargas

2. Francisco Rizal
Rizal
Mercado

20. Manuel Siong-co

10. Juan Siong-co

21. Maria Guinio

5. Cirila Alejandro

11. Maria Gonio

1. José Rizal

24. Gregorio Alonso

12. Cipriano Alonso

6. Lorenzo Alberto Alonso

26. Mariano Alejandro

13. Maria Alejandro

27. Faustina Florentina

3. Teodora Alonso

28. Manuel de Quintos

14. Manuel de Quintos

29. Rosa Callianco

7. Brígida de Quintos

30. Eugenio Ursua

15. Regina Ursua

31. Benigna Ochoa

See also

José Rizal
Rizal
University José Rizal's Global Fellowship Rizal
Rizal
Shrine (Calamba City) Rizal
Rizal
Shrine (Manila) Rizal
Rizal
Technological University Makamisa Rizal
Rizal
Without the Overcoat José Martí, Cuban national hero also executed by the Spanish in 1895 Dr. José P. Rizal
Rizal
(sculpture), Houston, Texas

Notes and references Notes

^ When José was baptized, the record showed his parents as Francisco Rizal
Rizal
Mercado and Teodora Realonda."José Rizal’s Lineage" ^ His novel Noli was one of the first novels in Asia written outside Japan and China and was one of the first novels of anti-colonial rebellion. Read Benedict Anderson's commentary: [1]. ^ He was conversant in Spanish, French, Latin, Greek, German, Portuguese, Italian, English, Dutch, and Japanese. Rizal
Rizal
also made translations from Arabic, Swedish, Russian, Chinese, Greek, Hebrew and Sanskrit. He translated the poetry of Schiller into his native Tagalog. In addition he had at least some knowledge of Malay, Chavacano, Cebuano, Ilocano, and Subanun. ^ In his essay, "Reflections of a Filipino", (La Solidaridad, c.1888), he wrote: "Man is multiplied by the number of languages he possesses and speaks." ^ Adolf Bernard Meyer
Adolf Bernard Meyer
(1840–1911) was a German ornithologist and anthropologist, and author of the book Philippinen-typen (Dresden, 1888) ^ Rizal's third novel Makamisa was rescued from oblivion by Ocampo. ^ Dr. Reinhold Rost
Reinhold Rost
was the head of the India Office at the British Museum and a renowned 19th century philologist. ^ In his letter " Manifesto
Manifesto
to Certain Filipinos" (Manila, 1896), he states: Reforms, if they are to bear fruit, must come from above; for reforms that come from below are upheavals both violent and transitory.(Epistolario Rizalino, op cit) ^ According to Laubach, Retana more than any other supporter who 'saved Rizal
Rizal
for posterity'. (Laubach, op.cit., p. 383) ^ Rizal's trial was regarded a travesty even by prominent Spaniards of his day. Soon after his execution, the philosopher Miguel de Unamuno in an impassioned utterance recognized Rizal
Rizal
as a "Spaniard", "...profoundly and intimately Spanish, far more Spanish than those wretched men—forgive them, Lord, for they knew not what they did—those wretched men, who over his still warm body hurled like an insult heavenward that blasphemous cry, 'Viva Espana!'"Miguel de Unamuno, epilogue to Wenceslao Retana's Vida y Escritos del Dr. José Rizal.(Retana, op. cit.) ^ Me retracto de todo corazon de cuanto en mis palabras, escritos, impresos y conducta ha habido contrario á mi cualidad de hijo de la Iglesia Católica: Jesus Cavanna, Rizal's Unfading Glory: A Documentary History of the Conversion of Dr. José Rizal
Rizal
(Manila: 1983) ^ Joaquin, Nick, Rizal
Rizal
in Saga, Philippine National Centennial Commission, 1996:""It seems clear now that he did retract, that he went to confession, heard mass, received communion, and was married to Josephine, on the eve of his death". ^ "That is a matter for handwriting experts, and the weight of expert opinion is in favor of authenticity. It is nonsense to say that the retraction does not prove Rizal's conversion; the language of the document is unmistakable."[60] ^ The retraction, Javier de Pedro contends, is the end of a process which started with a personal crisis as Rizal
Rizal
finished the Fili.[67][68] ^ Bonifacio later mobilized his men to attempt to liberate Rizal
Rizal
while in Fort Santiago. (Laubach, op.cit., chap. 15) ^ Antonio Luna
Antonio Luna
denounced the Katipunan, but became a general under Emilio Aguinaldo's First Republic and fought in the Philippine–American War. ^ Also stated in Rizal's essay, "The Philippines: A Century Hence", The batteries are gradually becoming charged and if the prudence of the government does not provide an outlet for the currents that are accumulating, someday the sparks will be generated. (read etext at Project Gutenberg) ^ Bonifacio was a member of La Liga Filipina. After Rizal's arrest and exile, it was disbanded and the group splintered into two factions; the more radical group formed into the Katipunan, the militant arm of the insurrection.[98] ^ Rizal's annotations of Morga's Sucesos de las islas Filipinas (1609), which he copied word for word from the British Museum
British Museum
and had published, called attention to an antiquated book, a testimony to the well-advanced civilization in the Philippines
Philippines
during pre-Spanish era. In his essay "The Indolence of the Filipino" Rizal
Rizal
stated that three centuries of Spanish rule did not do much for the advancement of his countryman; in fact there was a 'retrogression', and the Spanish colonialists have transformed him into a 'half-way brute.' The absence of moral stimulus, the lack of material inducement, the demoralization--'the indio should not be separated from his carabao', the endless wars, the lack of a national sentiment, the Chinese piracy—all these factors, according to Rizal, helped the colonial rulers succeed in placing the indio 'on a level with the beast'. (Read English translation by Charles Derbyshire at Project Gutenberg.) ^ According to Anderson, Rizal
Rizal
is one of the best exemplars of nationalist thinking.[102] (See also Nitroglycerine in the Pomegranate, Benedict Anderson, New Left Review 27, May–June 2004 (subscription required)) ^ Rizal
Rizal
himself translated Schiller's William Tell into Tagalog in 1886.[109]

References

^ Valdez, Valdez & et al. 2007, p. 57 ^ a b Valdez, Valdez & et al. 2007, p. 59 ^ a b Valdez, Valdez & et al. 2007, p. 7 ^ Nery, John (2011). "Revolutionary Spirit: Jose Rizal
Rizal
in Southeast Asia", p. 240. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore. ISBN 978-981-4345-06-4. ^ Fadul 2008, p. 31. ^ a b Fadul 2008, p. 21. ^ Biography and Works of the Philippine Hero. Jose Rizal
Rizal
(June 20, 2014). Retrieved on 2017-07-07. ^ "Selection and Proclamation of National Heroes and Laws Honoring Filipino Historical Figures" (PDF). Reference and Research Bureau Legislative Research Service, House of Congress. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 19, 2016. Retrieved September 8, 2009.  ^ a b Noli Me Tángere, translated by Soledad Locsin (Manila: Ateneo de Manila, 1996) ISBN 971-569-188-9. ^ José Rizal; José Rizal
Rizal
National Centennial Commission (1961). El filibusterismo (in Spanish). Linkgua digital. pp. 9. ISBN 978-84-9953-093-2.  ^ Zaide, Gregorio F.; Zaide, Sonia M. (1999). Jose Rizal: Life, Works and Writings of a Genius, Writer, Scientist and National Hero. Quezon City: All-Nations Publishing Co., Inc. ISBN 971-642-070-6. Archived from the original on September 23, 2013.  ^ " Rizal
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[ Rizal
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and the Writing of His Story. Rex Bookstore, Inc. p. 77. ISBN 978-971-23-4868-6.  ^ Parco de Castro; M. E. G. "Jose Rizal: A birthday wish list". The Varsitarian. Retrieved June 27, 2011.  ^ a b c d Frank Laubach, Rizal: Man and Martyr (Manila: Community Publishers, 1936). ^ Witmer, Christoper (June 2, 2001). "Noli Me Tangere (Touch Me Not)". LewRockwell.com. Retrieved on September 29, 2012. ^ a b The Many-Sided Personality. José Rizal
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University. Retrieved January 10, 2007. ^ a b c d Austin Craig, Lineage, Life and Labors of Rizal. Internet Archive. Retrieved on January 10, 2007. ^ a b c d e f Kalaw, Teodoro."Epistolario Rizalino: 4 volumes, 1400 letters to and from Rizal". Bureau of Printing, Manila. ^ Antonio T. Tiongson; Edgardo V. Gutierrez; Ricardo Valencia Gutierrez; Ricardo V. Gutierrez (2006). Positively No Filipinos Allowed: Building Communities and Discourse. Temple University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-59213-123-5.  " Rizal
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University, joserizal.ph ^ a b c Coates, Austin. "Leonor Rivera", Rizal: Philippine Nationalist and Martyr, Oxford University Press (Hong Kong), pp. 52–54, 60, 84, 124, 134–136, 143, 169, 185–188, 258. ^ Fadul 2008, p. 17. ^ Craig 1914, p. 215. ^ Fadul 2008, p. 38. ^ a b c Cuizon, Ahmed (June 21, 2008). "Rizal’s affair with 'la petite Suzanne'", Inquirer/Cebu Daily, Retrieved on September 20, 2012. ^ Harry Sichrovsky (1987). Ferdinand Blumentritt: an Austrian life for the Philippines : The Story of José Rizal's Closest Friend and Companion. p. 39. ISBN 978-971-13-6024-5.  ^ Retana, Wenceslao. Vida y Escritos del José Rizal. Libreria General de Victoriano Suarez, Madrid
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Eulogio Despujol, Manila, July 7, 1892." In Miscellaneous Correspondence of Dr. José Rizal
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(Manila: Bureau of Printing, 1930–38) ^ "Rizalismo (isang sanaysay)". Definitely Filipino™.  ^ Rizal, Dapitan, September 1, 1892. In Raul J. Bonoan, The Rizal-Pastells Correspondence. Manila: Ateneo de Manila
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University Press, 1994, 86s. ^ Russell, Charles Edward; Rodriguez, Eulogio Balan (1923). The hero of the Filipinos: the story of José Rizal, poet, patriot and martyr. The Century co. p. 308.  ^ Austin Coates, Rizal: Philippine Nationalist and Martyr (London: Oxford University Press, 1968) ISBN 0-19-581519-X ^ Alvarez, S.V., 1992, Recalling the Revolution, Madison: Center for Southeast Asia Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, ISBN 1-881261-05-0 ^ "Letters Between Rizal
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and his Family, #223". The Life and Writings of José Rizal. Retrieved on September 29, 2012 ^ "The life and works of Jose Rizal". www.joserizal.com. Retrieved September 3, 2013.  ^ "The Life and writings of Dr. Jose Rzal". National Historical Commission of The Philippines. Retrieved September 3, 2013.  ^ "The life and works of Jose Rizal". Retrieved September 3, 2013.  ^ Foreman, J., 1906, The Philippine Islands, A Political, Geographical, Ethnographical, Social and Commercial History of the Philippine Archipelago, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons ^ Yoder, Dr. Robert L. "The Life and of Dr. José Rizal". Retrieved September 3, 2013.  ^ Ricardo Roque Pascual, José Rizal
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Beyond the Grave (Manila: P. Ayuda & Co., 1962) ^ Ildefonso T. Runes and Mameto R. Buenafe, The Forgery of the Rizal "Retraction" and Josephine's "Autobiography" (Manila: BR Book Col, 1962). ^ "Rizal's Retraction: A Note on the Debate, Silliman Journal (Vol. 12, No. 2, April, May, June 1965), pages 168–183". Life and Writings of José Rizal. Retrieved September 9, 2009.  ^ Rafael Palma, Pride of the Malay Race (New York: Prentice Hall, 1949) ^ a b Ambeth Ocampo
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of The Philippines, Manila. ^ a b Gregorio Zaide (2003). Jose Rizal: Life, Works and Writings of a Genius, Writer, Scientist and National Hero. National Bookstore.  ^ Schumacher, John. "The Making of a Nation: Essays on Nineteenth-Century Nationalism". ^ Molina, Antonio M. (1998). "Yo, José Rizal". Ediciones de Cultura Hispánica, Madrid. ^ "Uncovering Controversial Facts about José Rizal" (mariaronabeltran.com) ^ a b Marciano Guzman
Marciano Guzman
(1988). The Hard Facts About Rizal's Conversion. Sinagtala Publishers.  ^ a b Jesus Cavanna (1983). Rizal's Unfading Glory: A Documentary History of the Conversion of Dr. Jose Rizal.  ^ Javier de Pedro (2005) Rizal
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Through a Glass Darkly, University of Asia and the Pacific ^ "Evolution of Rizal's Religious Thought". ^ (1950-01-06). "Joint Statement of the Catholic Hierarchy of the Philippines
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on the Book 'The Pride of the Malay Race'". CBCP (Catholic Bishop's Conference of the Philippines) Documents. Retrieved on September 30, 2012. ^ Garcia, Ricardo P. (1964). "The Great Debate: The Rizal
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Retraction – Preface". R.P. Garcia Publishing Co., Quezon City. ^ Esteban de Ocampo, "Why is Rizal
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the Greatest Filipino Hero?" National Historical Institute. ISBN 971-538-053-0 ^ a b Pacis, Vicente Albano (December 27, 1952). "RIZAL IN THE AMERICAN CONGRESS". The Philippines
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Free Press Online. Archived from the original on May 4, 2006.  ^ " Mi Ultimo Adios
Mi Ultimo Adios
by Jose Rizal". Philippine American Literary House. Archived from the original on August 28, 2011.  ^ Craig 1914, p. 241. ^ a b Fadul 2008, p. 18. ^ Craig 1914, pp. 259–260. ^ Ocampo, Ambeth (1990). Rizal
Rizal
without the overcoat. Manila: Anvil Publishing. ISBN 971-27-0920-5.  ^ Almario, Manuel (December 31, 2011). "Commentary, Rizal: 'Amboy' or home-made hero?". The Philippine Inquirer. Retrieved September 3, 2013.  ^ "Philippine Fast Facts". National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. Retrieved March 10, 2009.  ^ "Selection and Proclamation of National Heroes and Laws Honoring Filipino Historical Figures". National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Retrieved March 10, 2009.  ^ Forbes, Cameron (1945). The Philippine Islands. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.  ^ Constantino, Renato (December 30, 1969). " Rizal
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Day Lecture". Philippine Inquirer. Retrieved September 3, 2013.  ^ Constantino, Renato (1980) [1970], "Veneration without Understanding, Dissent and Counter-consciousness", pp. 125–145. Malaya Books, Quezon City . ^ "Aguinaldo's Rizal
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decrees December 30, 1898, as a national day of mourning". El Heraldo dela Revolucion. December 25, 1898. Retrieved September 3, 2013.  ^ Ocampo, Ambeth. "Was Jose Rizal
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an American-sponsored Hero?". Reflections of Jose Rizal. NHCP – National Historical Commission of The Philippines. Retrieved September 3, 2013.  ^ Zaide, Gregorio and Sonia (1999). Jose Rizal: Life, Works, and Writings of a Genius, Writer, Scientist and National Hero. Quezon City: All Nations publishing Co. Inc. ISBN 971-642-070-6. Archived from the original on September 23, 2013.  ^ Agoncillo, Teodoro (1990) [1960], "History of the Filipino People (8th ed.)". Garotech Publishing Inc., Quezon City. ISBN 971-8711-06-6 ^ Couttie, Bob (2007). "The End of Veneration". Scribd.com. Retrieved on September 29, 2012. ^ Rafael Palma
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(1949). "Pride of the Malay Race", p. 367. Prentice Hall, New York. ^ Miguel de Unamuno, "The Tagalog Hamlet" in Rizal: Contrary Essays, edited by D. Feria and P. Daroy (Manila: National Book Store, 1968). ^ a b José Rizal, El Filibusterismo
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(Ghent: 1891) chap.39, translated by Andrea Tablan and Salud Enriquez (Manila: Marian Publishing House, 2001) ISBN 971-686-154-0. (online text at Project Gutenberg) ^ Lua, Shirley (August 22, 2011). "Love, Loss and the Noli". The Philippine Inquirer. Retrieved September 3, 2013.  ^ Agoncillo, Teodoro. The Revolt of the Masses. ^ Quibuyen, A Nation Aborted: Rizal, American Hegemony, And Philippine Nationalism ^ "The Paper". thecommunitypaper.com.  ^ Look, Wing, Kam (1997). Jose Rizal
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and Mahatma Gandhi: nationalism and non- violence (PDF). Hongkong: The University of Hongkong.  ^ [2]. Retrieved January 10, 2007. ^ Trillana III, Dr. Pablo S. "2 historical events led to birth of modern RP". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on January 20, 2012. Retrieved June 11, 2007.  ^ José Rizal
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(2007). The Reign of Greed. Echo Library. p. 231. ISBN 978-1-4068-3936-4.  ^ José Rizal, "Indolence of the Filipino". Retrieved on January 10, 2007. ^ Anderson Benedict (2005). "Under Three Flags: anarchism and the anti colonial imagination". Verso Publication, London. ISBN 1-84467-037-6. ^ (2011-08-23). "Spot the Difference: Rizalista as Religious Cult vs Rizalistas in a Socio-Civic Org'n". Ladies for Rizal
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Bonn Chapter. Retrieved on September 20, 2012. ^ Dennis Villegas (June 30, 2011). "'Saint' Jose Rizal". Philippine Online Chronicles.  ^ "Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden – Museum für Völkerkunde Dresden". skd.museum. Archived from the original on May 9, 2011.  ^ Peter Uetz; Jakob Hallermann; Jiri Hosek. "Draco guentheri BOULENGER, 1885". The Reptile Database. Retrieved December 23, 2013.  ^ "Jose Rizal
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[Trivia]". joserizal.ph.  ^ "Dr. Virchow's obituary on Rizal, 1897". Archived from the original on June 18, 2008. Retrieved November 12, 2006. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ " Rizal
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in Berlin, Germany". José Rizal
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University. Retrieved on January 10, 2007. ^ Monumento a José Rizal
Rizal
(Madrid) Retrieved January 10, 2007 ^ 日比谷公園 見どころ [Hibiya Park Sights]. www.tokyo-park.or.jp (in Japanese). Archived from the original on June 26, 2014. Retrieved March 26, 2015.  ^ "Article Index – INQUIRER.net". Archived from the original on May 4, 2008. Retrieved April 28, 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) . Web.archive.org (May 4, 2008). Retrieved on February 19, 2011. ^ Sir Choy Arnaldo, KGOR. Paris in Springtime – Knights and Damas blossom!, Rizal
Rizal
Bulletin, March 29, 2010. ^ Honolulu
Honolulu
Star-Advertiser. "Isle Filipinos honor Philippines
Philippines
hero". Honolulu
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Star-Advertiser – Hawaii Newspaper.  ^ "The Star-News – Jan 3, 2003". byronik.com.  ^ "El Monumento de Jose Rizal, Ciudad De Mexico".  ^ "Philippine president to open park in Lima
Lima
during APEC Summit". Andina.com.pe. Retrieved December 30, 2009.  ^ "Traces of Rizal's visit to Litomerice
Litomerice
(Leitmeritz)". www.univie.ac.at. Archived from the original on October 18, 2012. Retrieved March 26, 2015.  ^ "Feature: Rizal
Rizal
returns to Singapore" (Press release). Philippine Information Agency (PIA). June 20, 2008. Retrieved June 24, 2008.  ^ ログイン – 日刊まにら新聞. Manila-shimbun.com (in Japanese). Retrieved December 30, 2009.  ^ Peru erects monument for Jose Rizal, Michael Lim Ubac, Philippine Daily Inquirer, November 22, 2008 ^ Castillo, Rafael MD. (June 20, 2008). "Dr. Jose Rizal
Rizal
in Heidelberg". Philippine Daily Inquirer. ^ Mari Arquiza (December 2, 1992). ":: Felipe De Leon ::". Philmusicregistry.net. Retrieved December 30, 2009.  ^ Dr. Jose Rizal
Rizal
Park, Seattle
Seattle
Parks and Recreation Information ^ "Medal of Honor 2 cheats for Playstation PSone PS1 PSX". absolute-playstation.com.  ^ "Medal of Honor cheats for Playstation PSone PS1 PSX". absolute-playstation.com. 

Sources

Craig, Austin (1914). Lineage, Life and Labors of Jose Rizal, Philippine Patriot. Yonker-on-Hudson World Book Company. Fadul, Jose (ed.) (2008). [5]. Morrisville, North Carolina: Lulu Press. ISBN 978-1-4303-1142-3 Valdez, Maria Stella S.; Valdez; et al. (2007). Doctor Jose Rizal
Rizal
and the Writing of His Story. Rex Bookstore, Inc. ISBN 978-971-23-4868-6.  "José Rizal
Rizal
> Quotes". goodreads. Retrieved March 26, 2015. 

Further reading

Hessel, Dr. Eugene A. (1965) Rizal's Retraction: A Note on the Debate. Silliman University Mapa, Christian Angelo A.(1993) The Poem Of the Famous Young Elder José Rizal Catchillar, Chryzelle P. (1994) The Twilight in the Philippines Venzon, Jahleel Areli A. (1994) The Doorway to hell, Rizal's Biography Tomas, Jindřich (1998) José Rizal, Ferdinand Blumentritt and the Philippines
Philippines
in the New Age. The City of Litomerice: Czech Republic. Publishing House Oswald Praha (Prague). The Dapitan
Dapitan
Correspondence of Dr.José Rizal
Rizal
and Dr. Ferdinand Blumentritt. Compiled by Romeo G. Jalosjos. The City Government Dapitan
Dapitan
City: Philippines, 2007. ISBN 978-971-9355-30-4. Fadul, Jose (2002/2008). A Workbook for a Course in Rizal. Manila: De La Salle University Press. ISBN 971-555-426-1 /C&E Publishing. ISBN 978-971-584-648-6 Guerrero, Leon Ma. (2007) The First Filipino. Manila: National Historical Institute of The Philippines
Philippines
(1962); Guerrero Publishing. ISBN 971-9341-82-3 Joaquin, Nick (1977). A Question of Heroes: Essays and criticisms on ten key figures of Philippine History. Manila: Ayala Museum. Ocampo, Ambeth R.(2008). Rizal
Rizal
Without the Overcoat. Pasig: Anvil Publishing. Ocampo, Ambeth R.(2001).Meaning and history: The Rizal
Rizal
Lectures. Pasig: Anvil Publishing. Ocampo, Ambeth R.(1993). Calendar of Rizaliana in the vault of the National Library.Pasig: Anvil Publishing. Ocampo, Ambeth R.(1992).Makamisa: The Search for Rizal's Third Novel. Pasig: Anvil Publishing. Quirino, Carlos (1997). The Great Malayan. Makati City: Tahanan Books. ISBN 971-630-085-9 Medina, Elizabeth (1998). Rizal
Rizal
According to Retana: Portrait of a Hero and a Revolution. Santiago, Chile: Virtual Multimedia. ISBN 956-7483-09-4 Rizal, Jose. (1889)."Sa mga Kababayang Dalaga ng Malolos" in Escritos Politicos y Historicos de José Rizal
Rizal
(1961). Manila: National Centennial Commission. José Rizal
Rizal
(1997). Prophecies of Jose Rizal
Rizal
about the Philippines: From the Pen of the Visionary National Hero, Phenomenal Revelations and Coded Messages about Events Past, Present and Future : Destiny of the Philippines
Philippines
... Rex Bookstore, Inc. ISBN 978-971-23-2240-2.  Runes, Ildefonso (1962). The Forgery of the Rizal
Rizal
Retraction'. Manila: Community Publishing Co. Thomas, Megan C. Orientalists, Propagandists, and "Ilustrados": Filipino Scholarship and the End of Spanish Colonialism (University of Minnesota Press; 2012) 277 pages; Explores Orientalist and racialist discourse in the writings of José Rizal
Rizal
and five other ilustrados. Zaide, Gregorio F. (2003) José Rizal: Life, Works and Writings of a Genius, Writer, Scientist and National Hero. Manila: National Bookstore. ISBN 971-08-0520-7

External links

Find more aboutJosé Rizalat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Data from Wikidata

Interesting Facts About Dr. Jose P. Rizal The Complete Jose Rizal
Rizal
at Filipiniana.net Talambuhay ni Jose Rizal The Life and Writings of Jose Rizal  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "José Mercado Rizal". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  Works by José Rizal
Rizal
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about José Rizal
Rizal
at Internet Archive Works by José Rizal
Rizal
at Open Library Works by José Rizal
Rizal
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) Jose Rizal
Rizal
Website Rizal's Little Odyssey Review of Dimasalang: The Masonic Life Of Dr. Jose P. Rizal Comparison between Jose Rizal
Rizal
and Jose Marti (Spanish) Extensive annotated list of Rizaliana materials on the Internet Chevaliers de Rizal
Rizal
(in French) Poems written by Dr. José Rizal Philippine Literature and José Rizal, articles by José Tlatelpas, Edmundo Farolán and others. Published in Spanish by La Guirnalda Polar, webzine, Canada, 1997. Songs written by Dr. José Rizal

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José Rizal

Family

Paciano Rizal
Paciano Rizal
(older brother) Saturnina Hidalgo
Saturnina Hidalgo
(eldest sister) Josephine Bracken
Josephine Bracken
(wife) Delfina Herbosa de Natividad (niece)

Education

Ateneo Municipal de Manila
Manila
(high school) University of Santo Tomas Universidad Central de Madrid University of Paris University of Heidelberg

Works

Novels

Noli me tangere El filibusterismo Makamisa

Poems

A la juventud filipina Sa Aking Mga Kabata
Sa Aking Mga Kabata
(disputed)

Others

El Consejo de los Dioses Filipinas dentro de cien años Mi último adiós The Triumph of Science over Death Sobre la indolencia de los filipinos

Organizations

International Association of Filipinologists La Liga Filipina La Solidaridad

In media

Films

Bayaning 3rd World José Rizal
Rizal
(1998) Rizal
Rizal
sa Dapitan La vida de Jose Rizal

Books

Encyclopedia Rizaliana Rizal
Rizal
Without the Overcoat Rizal: Philippine Nationalist and Martyr Vida y Escritos del Dr. José Rizal

Related

Global Fellowship Knights of Rizal Rizal
Rizal
Law Rizal
Rizal
Day Rizalista religious movements

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National symbols of the Philippines

Official

Arnis Coat of arms Filipino language Flag "Lupang Hinirang" "Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa" Narra Philippine eagle Philippine pearl Sampaguita

Unofficial

Adobo Anahaw Bakya Balangay Barong and Baro't saya "Bayan Ko" Carabao Cariñosa Jeepney Juan de la Cruz Lechon Malacañang Palace Mango Manila Milkfish National Seal Nipa hut Tinikling Sinigang Sipa Waling-waling

National heroes

Emilio Aguinaldo Melchora Aquino Andrés Bonifacio Marcelo H. del Pilar Sultan Dipatuan Kudarat Juan Luna Apolinario Mabini José Rizal Gabriela Silang

v t e

Filipino painters

Pacita Abad Martino Abellana Federico Aguilar Alcuaz Wilfredo Alicdan Fernando Amorsolo Pablo Amorsolo Isidro Ancheta Marcel Antonio Elmer Borlongan Benedicto Cabrera Fabián de la Rosa Damián Domingo Victorio C. Edades Botong Francisco Paco Gorospe Félix Resurrección Hidalgo José T. Joya Ang Kiukok Cesar Legaspi Nestor Leynes Juan Luna Arturo R. Luz Malang Joy Mallari Vicente Manansala Jao Mapa Maningning Miclat Hernando R. Ocampo Onib Olmedo Alfonso A. Ossorio Mario Parial José Rizal Fernando Sena Danny Sillada Romeo Villalva Tabuena Fernando Zóbel de Ayala y Montojo

Category:Filipino painters

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 41845763 LCCN: n80051794 ISNI: 0000 0000 8120 1592 GND: 118601407 SELIBR: 197695 SUDOC: 027102572 BNF: cb11922137c (data) NLA: 35454499 NDL: 00454313 NKC: jn20000701512 BNE: XX870212 SN

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