Jersey ( , ; nrf|label=Jèrriais
|Jèrri ), now officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (french: Bailliage de Jersey|links=no; Jèrriais: ''Bailliage dé Jèrri''), is an island and British Crown Dependency
near the coast of Normandy
. It is the second-closest of the Channel Islands
to France, after Alderney
. Jersey was part of the Duchy of Normandy
, whose dukes went on to become kings of England
from 1066. After Normandy was lost by the kings of England in the 13th century, and the ducal title surrendered to France, Jersey and the other Channel Islands
remained attached to the English Crown
. Jersey and the Jèrriais people has been described as a nation
consists of the Island of Jersey, the largest of the Channel Islands
, along with surrounding uninhabited islands and rocks collectively named Les Dirouilles
, Les Pierres de Lecq
and other reefs. Although the Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey
are often referred to collectively as the Channel Islands, the "Channel Islands" are not a constitutional unit though the islands have sometimes cooperated politically, for example running shared overseas offices. Jersey has a separate relationship to the Crown from the other Crown dependencies of Guernsey and the Isle of Man
, although all are held by the monarch of the United Kingdom
Jersey is a self-governing parliamentary democracy
under a constitutional monarchy
, with its own financial
and the power of self-determination
The Lieutenant Governor
on the island is the personal representative of the Queen
. Jersey is not part of the United Kingdom
, and has an international identity separate from that of the UK,
but the UK is constitutionally responsible for the defence of Jersey. Unlike the UK, Jersey was never part of the European Union
, however Brexit
still had an impact on Jersey's relationship with Europe.
British cultural influence
on the island is evident in its use of English
as the main language and Pound sterling
as its primary currency, even if some people still speak or understand Jèrriais
, the local form of the Norman language
, and place names with French
or Norman origins abound. Additional British cultural commonalities include driving on the left, access to the BBC
regions, a school curriculum
following that of England, and the popularity of British sports
, including cricket
Origin of the name
The Channel Islands
are mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary
as the following: ''Sarnia'', ''Caesarea'', ''Barsa'', ''Silia'' and ''Andium'', but Jersey cannot be identified specifically because none corresponds directly to the present names. The name ''Caesarea'' has been used as the Latin name for Jersey (also in its French version ''Césarée'') since William Camden
and is used in titles of associations and institutions today. The Latin name ''Caesarea'' was also applied to the colony of New Jersey
as ''Nova Caesarea''.
''Andium'', ''Agna'' and ''Augia'' were used in antiquity.
Scholars variously surmise that ''Jersey'' and ''Jèrri'' derive from ''jarð'' (Old Norse for "earth") or ''jarl
'' (earl), or perhaps a personal name, ''Geirr'' ("Geirr's Island"). The ending ''-ey
'' denotes an island
(as in Guernsey
Jersey history is influenced by its strategic location between the northern coast of France and the southern coast of England; the island's recorded history extends over a thousand years.
La Cotte de St Brelade
is a Palaeolithic site inhabited before rising sea levels
transformed Jersey into an island. Jersey was a centre of Neolithic activity, as demonstrated by the concentration of dolmens
. Evidence of Bronze Age
and early Iron Age
settlements can be found in many locations around the island.
evidence of Roman
influence has been found, in particular at Les Landes
, the coastal headland site at Le Pinacle
, where remains of a primitive structure are attributed to Gallo-Roman temple worship (''fanum
Jersey was part of Neustria
with the same Gallo-Frankish population as the continental mainland. Jersey, the whole Channel Islands and the Cotentin peninsula
(probably with the Avranchin
) came formally under the control of the Duke of Brittany
during the Viking
invasions, because the king of the Franks
was unable to defend them, however they remained in the archbishopric of Rouen
. Jersey was invaded by Vikings in the 9th century. In 933 it was annexed to the future Duchy of Normandy
, together with the other Channel Islands, Cotentin and Avranchin, by William Longsword
, count of Rouen
and it became one of the Norman Islands. When William's descendant, William the Conqueror
, conquered England
in 1066, the Duchy of Normandy and the kingdom of England were governed under one monarch. The Dukes of Normandy owned considerable estates in the island, and Norman families living on their estates established many of the historical Norman-French Jersey family names. King John
lost all his territories in mainland Normandy in 1204 to King Philip II Augustus
, but retained possession of Jersey and the other Channel Islands.
In the Treaty of Paris (1259)
, the English king formally surrendered his claim to the duchy of Normandy and ducal title, and since then the islands have been internally self-governing territories of the English crown and latterly the British crown.
On 7 October 1406, 1,000 French men at arms led by Pero Niño
invaded Jersey, landing at St Aubin's Bay and defeated the 3,000 defenders but failed to capture the island.
In the late 16th century, islanders travelled across the North Atlantic to participate in the Newfoundland fisheries
. In recognition for help given to him during his exile in Jersey in the 1640s, King Charles II of England
gave Vice Admiral Sir George Carteret
, bailiff and governor, a large grant of land in the American colonies
in between the Hudson
rivers, which he promptly named New Jersey
. It is now a state in the United States.
Aware of the military importance of Jersey, the British government had ordered that the bailiwick be heavily fortified. On 6 January 1781, a French invasion force of 2,000 men set out to take over the island, but only half of the force arrived and landed. The Battle of Jersey
lasted about half an hour, with the British successfully defending the island. There were about thirty casualties on each side, and the British took 600 French prisoners who were subsequently sent to Great Britain. Both of the army commanders were slain.
Trade laid the foundations of prosperity, aided by neutrality between England and France. The Jersey way of life involved agriculture, milling
, fishing, shipbuilding
and production of woollen goods. 19th-century improvements in transport links brought tourism to the island.
During the Second World War
, some citizens were evacuated to the UK but most remained. Jersey was occupied by Germany
from 1 July 1940 until 9 May 1945, when Germany surrendered. During this time the Germans constructed many fortifications using Soviet
slave labour. After 1944, supplies from mainland France were interrupted by the D-Day landings
, and food on the island became scarce. The SS ''Vega
'' was sent to the island carrying Red Cross
supplies and news of the success of the Allied advance in Europe. During the Nazi occupation, a resistance cell was created by communist activist Norman Le Brocq
and the Jersey Communist Party
, whose communist ideology of forming a 'United Front' led to the creation of the Jersey Democratic Movement. The Channel Islands were one of the last places in Europe to be liberated. 9 May is celebrated as the island's Liberation Day
, where there are celebrations iLiberation Square
Throughout 2020 and the beginning of 2021, Jersey suffered from the global COVID-19 pandemic
. The island was placed into a lockdown
, with significant restrictions on freedom of movement for residents on 30 March.
Jersey is a British Crown dependency
and is not part of the United Kingdom
- it is officially part of the British Islands
. As one of the Crown dependencies, Jersey is autonomous and self-governing, with its own independent legal, administrative and fiscal systems. Jersey's government has described Jersey as a "self-governing, democratic
country with the power of self-determination
Because Jersey is a dependency of the British Crown
, Queen Elizabeth II
reigns in Jersey. "The Crown
" is defined by the Law Officers of the Crown as the "Crown in right of Jersey". The Queen's representative and adviser in the island is the Lieutenant Governor of Jersey
- Sir Stephen Dalton
since 13 March 2017. He is a point of contact between Jersey ministers and the UK Government and carries out some functions in relation to immigration control, deportation
and the issue of passports.
In 1973, the Royal Commission on the Constitution
set out the duties of the Crown as including: ultimate responsibility for the 'good government' of the Crown dependencies; ratification of island legislation
by Order-in-Council (royal assent
); international representation, subject to consultation with the island authorities before concluding any agreement which would apply to them; ensuring the islands meet their international obligations; and defence.
Legislature and government
legislature is the States Assembly
. It includes 49 elected
members: 8 senators (elected on an island-wide basis), 12 Connétable
s (often called 'constables', heads of parishes
) and 29 deputies (representing constituencies), all elected for four-year terms as from the October 2011 elections
. There are also five non-voting members appointed by the Crown: the Bailiff
, the Lieutenant Governor of Jersey
, the Dean of Jersey
, the Attorney General and Solicitor General. Jersey has one of the lowest voter turnouts internationally, with just 33% of the electorate voting in 2005, putting it well below the 77% European average for that year.
[Shaxson, N. (2011). Treasure islands: Tax havens and the men who stole the world. London: The Bodley Head.]
The Council of Ministers
, consisting of a Chief Minister
and nine ministers, makes up part of the Government of Jersey
. Each minister may appoint up to two assistant ministers. A Chief Executive is head of the civil service. Some government functions are carried out in the island's parishes
The Bailiff is President (presiding officer) of the States Assembly, head of the judiciary
and as civic head of the island carries out various ceremonial roles.
Jersey is a distinct jurisdiction
for the purposes of conflict of laws
, separate from the other Channel Islands, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.
Jersey law has been influenced by several different legal traditions, in particular Norman customary law
, English common law
and modern French civil law
[See generally and ]
Jersey's legal system
is therefore described as 'mixed' or 'pluralistic
', and sources of law are in French and English languages, although since the 1950s the main working language
of the legal system is English.
The principal court is the Royal Court
, with appeals to the Jersey Court of Appeal
and, ultimately, to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council
. The Bailiff
is head of the judiciary; the Bailiff and the Deputy Bailiff are appointed
by the Crown. Other members of the island's judiciary
by the Bailiff.
Jersey is divided into twelve parishes (which have civil and religious functions). They are all named after their parish church. The Connétable is the head of the parish. They are elected at island general elections and sit ''ex oficio'' in the States Assembly.
The parishes have various civil administrative functions, such as roads (managed by the Road Committee) and policing (through the Honorary Police
). Each parish is governed through direct democracy at Parish Assemblies, consisting of all eligible voters resident in the parish. The ''Procureurs du Bien Public''
are the legal and financial representatives of these parishes.
The parishes of Jersey are further divided into ''vingtaine
s'' (or, in St. Ouen, ''cueillettes''), divisions that are historic. Today they are used chiefly for purposes of local administration and electoral constituency.
The external relations of Jersey are overseen by the External Relations Minister of the Government of Jersey. In 2007, the Chief Minister
and the UK Lord Chancellor
signed an agreement
that established a framework for the development of the international identity of Jersey.
representation is reserved to the Crown. Jersey has been developing its own international identity over recent years. It negotiates directly with foreign governments on various matters, for example Tax information exchange agreements
(TIEAs) have been signed directly by the island with several countries. The Government maintains offices (some in partnership with Guernsey) in Caen
Jersey is a member of the British-Irish Council
, the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association
and the Assemblée parlementaire de la Francophonie
has in the past been discussed in the States Assembly. Former External Relations Minister Sir Philip Bailhache
has at various times warned that the island may need to go independent. It is not Jersey Government policy to seek independence, but the island is prepared if it needed to do so.
Relationship with the European Union
Jersey is a third-party European country to the EU
. Its relationship with the EU operates under the free-trade agreement
negotiated by the UK. Since 1 January 2021, Jersey has been part of the UK-EU Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement
for the purposes of goods and fishing. Goods exported from the island into Europe are not subject to tariff
s and Jersey is solely responsible for management of its territorial waters
. Although there is no provision for services, the External Relations Minister Ian Gorst
is confident it is compatible with pre-existing relationship. The deal was unanimously approved by the States Assembly
Before the end of the transition period after the UK withdrew from the EU in 2020, Jersey had a special relationship with the EU. Jersey was within the Union as a European Territory for whose external relationships the UK is responsible. It was part of the EU customs union
and the common external tariff applied. There was free movement of goods
between Jersey and the EU but free movement of people
did not apply to Jersey. Jersey was not part of the single market in financial services
. It was not required to implement EU Directives on such matters as the movement of capital, company law or money laundering.
Under the EU trade deal, regarding fishing
, Jersey takes control of all fishing boats in its waters through a licensing process, however EU boats with a history of fishing in Jersey waters will be granted a permit. Similarly, Jersey boats that have traditionally fished in French waters will be given a permit to continue by the French authorities. The change means that Jersey will control fishing activities for EU boats in Jersey waters which is of concern especially to French fishermen. Jersey boats registered with NEAFC
can land crustaceans and fin fish they have caught at the ports of Carteret
, as these species are exempt from the EU sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) requirements for an Export Health Certificate, however specific French permission is required before each landing. Scallops, clams and whelks cannot be landed into the EU without a health certificate.
Jersey has been and continues to be affected by the ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic
since 10 March 2020. The strategy combatting the pandemic is to "suppress, contain and shield",
involving suppressing outbreaks of the virus and protecting vulnerable islanders. There are no plans to aim for elimination of the virus. At first, the strategy simply involved increased health and hygiene guidance, but the rising number of cases led to Jersey going into a lockdown
on 30 March 2020. Restrictions were eased according to the "Safe Exit" framework from May. From November, the island underwent a 'second wave' of infections, so the Government introduced a number of new restrictions such as a mask mandate and business closures.
As of April 2021, Jersey is undergoing a phased exit from all Covid-19 restrictions which have been in place since March 2020. By 14 June, all restrictions, including social distancing but not travel restrictions, will be lifted. At present the island is in the interim stage between Stages 4 and 5 of reconnection. Schools and most businesses are open. All sport has also resumed and gatherings of up to 10 people are allowed indoors and outdoors.
There are severe travel restrictions
into the Bailiwick for all travellers. The island operates a border testing
programme, which normally organises countries and regions according to a 'traffic light' system and all arrivals undergo three swab tests in the first 10 days from their arrival.
Since 30 January 2021 and until 26 April, all countries have been classed as 'red', requiring a minimum 10 days self-isolation for all arrivals. All arrivals therefore became obligated to go into a ten-day self-isolation period, with the option to swab test on the day of arrival, the 5th day after arriving, and the 10th day.
Jersey is an island measuring (or 66,436 vergée
land and intertidal zone. It lies in the English Channel
, about from the Cotentin Peninsula
, France, and about south of Great Britain
. It is the largest and southernmost of the Channel Islands and part of the British Isles, with a maximum land elevation of 143 m (469 ft) above sea level.
About 24% of the island is built-up. 52% of the land area is dedicated to cultivation and around 18% is the natural environment.
It lies within longitude -2° W
and latitude 49° N
. It has a coastline that is 70 km long and a total area of 119 square kilometres. It measures roughly 9 miles from west to east and 5 miles north to south, which gives it the affectionate name among locals of "nine-by-five".
The island is divided into twelve parishes, the largest of which is St Ouen and the smallest of which is St Clement. The island is characterised by a number of valleys which generally run north-to-south, such as Waterworks Valley, Grands Vaux, Mont les Vaux, although a few run in other directions, such as Le Mourier Valley. The highest point on the island is Les Platons at 136 m.
There are several smaller island groups that are part of the Bailiwick of Jersey, such as Les Minquiers and Les Écrehous, however unlike the smaller islands of the Bailiwick of Guernsey, none of these are permanently inhabited.
The largest settlement is the town of St Helier
, including the built-up area of southern St Helier and neighbouring areas such as Georgetown, which also plays host to the island's seat of government. The town is the central business district, hosting a large proportion of the island's retail and employment, such as the finance industry.
Outside of the town, many islanders live in suburban and rural settlements, especially along main roads leading out of town and even the more rural areas of the island have considerable amounts of development (St Ouen, the least densely populated parish still has 270 persons per square kilometre
). The south and east coasts from St Aubin
are largely urbanised. The most notable exurban development is the Les Quennevais area, which is home to a small precinct of shops, schools, a park and a leisure centre.
Most people across Jersey regularly travel from the rural settlements to St Helier and from the town to the rural areas for work and leisure purposes.
Housing costs in Jersey are very high. The Jersey House Price Index has at least doubled between 2002 and 2020. The mix-adjusted house price for Jersey is £567,000, higher than any UK region (UK average: £249,000) including London (average: £497,000; highest of any UK region).
The climate is an oceanic climate with mild winters and mild to warm summers.
The Atlantic Ocean
has a moderating effect on temperature in Jersey, as water has a much greater specific heat capacity than air and tends to heat and cool slowly throughout the year. This has a warming influence on coastal areas in winter and a cooling influence in summer. The highest temperature recorded was 36.0 °C (96.8 °F) on 9 August 2003 and again on 23 July 2019, and the lowest temperature recorded was −10.3 °C (13.5 °F) on 5 January 1894. By comparison, higher temperatures are found in mainland United Kingdom, which achieved 38.5 °C (101.3 °F) in Faversham
on 10 August 2003. The impact of the Atlantic Ocean and coastal winds ensure that Jersey is slightly cooler than the southern and central parts of England
during the summer months.
Snow falls rarely in Jersey; some years will pass with no snow fall at all.
The terrain consists of a plateau
sloping from long sandy bays in the south to rugged cliffs in the north. The plateau is cut by valleys running generally north–south.
The following table contains the official Jersey Airport averages for 1981-2010 for Jersey, being located from St. Helier.
Jersey's economy is highly developed and services-focused, with a GDP per capita
in 2019. It is a mixed market economy
, with free market
principles and an advanced social security
infrastructure. It is based on financial services
(40% of GVA
in 2012), tourism and hospitality (hotels, restaurants, bars, transport and communications totalling 8.4% of GVA in 2012), retail and wholesale (7% of GVA in 2012), construction (6.2% of GVA in 2012) and agriculture (1.3% of GVA in 2012).
53,460 people were employed in Jersey : 24% in financial and legal services; 16% in wholesale and retail trades; 16% in the public sector; 10% in education, health and other private sector services; 10% in construction and quarrying; 9% in hotels, restaurants and bars.
Thanks to specialisation in a few high-return sectors, at purchasing power parity
Jersey has high economic output per capita, substantially ahead of all of the world's large developed economies. Gross national income
in 2009 was £3.7 billion (approximately £40,000 per head of population).
However, this is not indicative of each individual resident's purchasing power and the actual standard of living in Jersey is comparable to that in the United Kingdom outside central London.
Jersey is most notable for being one of the world's largest offshore finance centres. The United Kingdom acts as a conduit for financial services between European countries and the island. The growth of this sector however has not been without its controversies as Jersey has been characterised by critics and detractors as a place in which the "leadership has essentially been captured by global finance, and whose members will threaten and intimidate anyone who dissents."
In June 2005 the States introduced the Competition (Jersey) Law 2005, a competition law
based on those of other jurisdictions, to regulate competition and stimulate economic growth.
Tourism is an important economic sector for the island. Hospitality (hotels, restaurants and bars) made up 4.2% of Jersey's GVA in 2019. It is estimated that the wider contribution of tourism in particular is 8.3% (2017). Travel to Jersey is very seasonal. Accommodation occupancy is much higher in the summer months, especially August, than in the winter months (with a low in November). The majority of visitors to the island arrive by air
from the UK.
In 2017, 52% of the Island's area was agricultural land (a decrease since 2009).
Major agricultural products are potato
es and dairy produce; agriculture's share of GVA increased 5% in 2009, a fifth successive year of growth.
are a small breed of cow widely known for its rich milk and cream; the quality of its meat is also appreciated on a small scale. The herd total in 2009 was 5,090 animals.
Fisheries and aquaculture make use of Jersey's marine resources to a total value of over £6 million in 2009.
Farmers and growers often sell surplus food and flowers in boxes on the roadside, relying on the honesty of customers to drop the correct change into the money box and take what they want. In the 21st century, diversification of agriculture and amendments in planning strategy have led to farm shops replacing many of the roadside stalls.
Jersey along with Guernsey
has its own lottery called the Channel Islands Lottery
that was launched in 1975.
On 18 February 2005, Jersey was granted Fairtrade Island
Jersey is not a tax-free jurisdiction. Taxes are levied on properties (known as 'rates') and a Personal Income Tax
, Corporate Income Tax
and goods and services tax
Before 2008, Jersey had no value-added tax. Many companies, such as Amazon and Play.com, took advantage of this and a loophole in European law, known as low-value consignment relief
, to establish a tax-free fulfilment industry from Jersey.
This loophole was closed by UK authorities in 2012, leading to the closure of most of industry.
There is a 20% standard rate for Income Tax and a 5% standard rate for GST. The island has a 0% default tax rate for corporations, however higher rates apply to financial services, utility companies and large corporate retailers.
Jersey is considered to be a tax haven
by some organisations - for example the Financial Secrecy Index
ranks Jersey as 18th . Jersey does not feature, however, in the March 2019 revised EU list of non-cooperative jurisdictions for tax purposes.
The primary mode of transport on the island is the motor vehicle
. Jersey has a road network consisting of 557 km of roads and there are a total of 124,737 motor vehicles registered on the island as of 2016.
There are no longer any railways on the island, however there used to be two main railway lines, the Jersey Western Railway and the Jersey Eastern Railway. The Western Railway track has been converted to a cycle track. Public transport in Jersey consists of a bus network. There is also a taxi network.
Jersey has a large network of lanes, some of which are classified as green lanes, which have a 15 mph speed limit and where priority is afforded to pedestrians, cyclists and horse riders.
Jersey has an airport
and a number of ports, which are operated by Ports of Jersey.
thumb|right|Jersey stamps commemorating the 150th anniversary of the birth of General William Mesny
Jersey's monetary policy is linked to the Bank of England
. The official currency of Jersey is the pound sterling
. Jersey issues its own postage stamps
, banknotes (including a £1 note which is not issued in the UK) and coins that circulate alongside all other sterling coinage. Jersey currency is not legal tender
outside Jersey; however it is ''acceptable tender'' in the UK and can be surrendered at banks in exchange for UK currency. Due to French tourism, many places accept the euro.
In July 2014, the Jersey Financial Services Commission approved the establishment of the world's first regulated Bitcoin
fund, at a time when the digital currency
was being accepted by some local businesses.
Censuses have been undertaken in Jersey since 1821. In the 2011 census, the total resident population was estimated to be 97,857, of whom 34% live in Saint Helier
, the island's only town. Approximately half the island's population was born in Jersey; 31% of the population were born elsewhere in the British Isles, 7% in continental Portugal or Madeira, 8% in other European countries and 4% elsewhere.
The people of Jersey are often called Islanders or, in individual terms, Jerseyman or Jerseywoman. Some Jersey-born people identify as British.
Immigration and nationality
Jersey employs a number of population controls on people moving to and from the island. Jersey is part of the Common Travel Area
(CTA), a border control
-free zone which encompasses the Crown Dependencies, the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. This means a passport is not required to travel from Jersey from any of these territories (or vice versa) though the Government recommends all travellers bring photo ID since it may need to be checked by customs or police officers and is generally required by commercial transport providers into the island. Due to the CTA, Jersey-born British citizens in the rest of the CTA and British and Irish citizens in Jersey have the right to access social benefits, access healthcare, access social housing support and to vote in general elections. For non-CTA travel, Jersey maintains its own immigration and border controls (although most travel into the Bailiwick is from the rest of the CTA), however United Kingdom immigration legislation may be extended to Jersey (subject to exceptions and adaptations) following consultation with Jersey and with Jersey's consent.
The definition of "United Kingdom" in the British Nationality Act 1981
is interpreted as including the UK and the Islands together.
This means that for immigration and nationality purposes, the United Kingdom generally treats Jersey as though it were part of the UK. As such, there is no such thing as a 'Jersey passport'. British passports issued in Jersey
are full British passports with the same design of and their holders enjoy the same rights as other British citizens. However, they will only be issued to British Jersey residents or Jersey-born British citizens and say "BRITISH PASSPORT BAILIWICK OF JERSEY".
Jersey is constitutionally entitled to restrict immigration by non-Jersey residents, but control of immigration at the point of entry cannot be introduced for British, certain Commonwealth and EEA nationals without change to existing international law.
To control population, Jersey operates a system of registration which restricts the right to live and work in the island according to certain requirements. In order to move to Jersey or work in Jersey, everyone (including Jersey-born people) must be registered and have a registration card. There are a number of statuses:
History of immigration
Historical large-scale immigration was facilitated by the introduction of steamships (from 1823). By 1840, up to 5,000 English people
, mostly half-pay
officers and their families, had settled in Jersey.
In the aftermath of 1848, Polish, Russian, Hungarian
, Italian and French political refugees came to Jersey. Following Louis Napoléon
's coup of 1851, more French ''proscrit
s'' arrived. By the end of the 19th century, well-to-do British families, attracted by the lack of income tax, were settling in Jersey in increasing numbers, establishing St Helier as a predominantly English-speaking town.
Seasonal work in agriculture had depended mostly on Bretons
and mainland Normans from the 19th century. The growth of tourism attracted staff from the United Kingdom. Following liberation
in 1945, agricultural workers were mostly recruited from the United Kingdom – the demands of reconstruction in mainland Normandy
employed domestic labour.
Until the 1960s, the population had been relatively stable for decades at around 60,000 (excluding the Occupation years). Economic growth spurred immigration and a rise in population, which is, by 2013, about 100,000. From the 1960s Portuguese
workers arrived, mostly working initially in seasonal industries in agriculture and tourism.
Immigration has helped give aspects of Jersey a distinct urban character, particularly in and around the parish of St Helier, which contributes much to ongoing debates between development and sustainability throughout the island.
Religion in Jersey has a complex history, drawn largely from different Christian denominations. In 2015, Jersey's first ever national survey of religion found that two fifths of Jersey people have no religion
, with only small handfuls of Jersey people belonging to the non-Christian religions. In total, 54% said they had some form of religion, and 7% were not sure. Of those that specified a denomination of Christianity, equal proportions were 'Catholic' or 'Roman Catholic' (43%) as were 'Anglican' or 'Church of England' (44%). The remaining eighth (13%) gave another Christian denomination.
The established church
is the Church of England
, from 2015 under the See of Canterbury (previously under the Winchester diocese). In the countryside, Methodism
found its traditional stronghold. A substantial minority of Roman Catholics
can also be found in Jersey. There are two Catholic private combined primary and secondary schools: De La Salle College
in Saint Saviour
is an all-boys school, and Beaulieu Convent School in Saint Saviour is an all-girls school; and FCJ
primary school in St. Saviour. A Catholic order of Sisters has a presence in school life.
Until the 19th century, indigenous Jèrriais
– a variety
– was the language of the island though French was used for official business. During the 20th century, British cultural influence
saw an intense language shift
take place and Jersey today is predominantly English-speaking
Jèrriais nonetheless survives; around 2,600 islanders (three percent) are reckoned to be habitual speakers, and some 10,000 (12 percent) in all claim some knowledge of the language, particularly amongst the elderly in rural parishes. There have been efforts to revive Jèrriais in schools, and the highest number of declared Jèrriais speakers is in the capital.
s of Jèrriais differ in phonology
and, to a lesser extent, lexis
between parishes, with the most marked differences to be heard between those of the west and east. Many place names are in Jèrriais, and French and English place names are also to be found. Anglicisation
of the place names
increased apace with the migration of English people to the island.
carvings are the earliest works of artistic character to be found in Jersey. Only fragmentary wall-paintings remain from the rich mediaeval artistic heritage, after the wholesale iconoclasm
of the Calvinist Reformation
of the 16th century.
The island is particularly famous for the Battle of Flowers
, a carnival held annually since 1902. Other festivals include ''La Fête dé Noué'' (Christmas festival), ''La Faîs'sie d'Cidre'' (cidermaking festival), the Battle of Britain
air display, Jersey Live Music Festival, Branchage Film Festival, food festivals, and parish events.
The island's patron saint
is Saint Helier
BBC Radio Jersey
provides a radio service, and BBC Channel Islands News
with headquarters in Jersey provides a joint television news service with Guernsey. ITV Channel Television
is a regional ITV
franchise shared with the Bailiwick of Guernsey but with its headquarters in Jersey.
is a commercial radio station. Bailiwick Radio broadcasts two music services, Classics and Hits, online abailiwickradio.com
Apple & Android apps and oTuneIn
Radio Youth FM is an internet radio station run by young people.
Bailiwick Express is one of Jersey's digital online news sources.
Jersey has only one newspaper, the ''Jersey Evening Post
'', which is printed six days a week, and has been in publication since 1890.
The traditional folk music
of Jersey was common in country areas until the mid-20th century. It cannot be separated from the musical traditions of continental Europe, and the majority of songs and tunes that have been documented have close parallels or variants, particularly in France. Most of the surviving traditional songs are in French, with a minority in Jèrriais.
In contemporary music, Guru Josh
was most notable for his internationally successful debut hit Infinity
and its re-releases, reaching number one in numerous European countries. Furthermore, Nerina Pallot
has enjoyed international success. Music festivals in Jersey include Jersey Live
, Weekender, Rock in the Park, Avanchi presents Jazz in July, the music section of the Jersey Eisteddfod
and the Liberation Jersey Music Festival.
In 1909, T. J. West established the first cinema in the Royal Hall in St. Helier, which became known as West's Cinema in 1923 (demolished 1977). The first talking picture
, ''The Perfect Alibi'', was shown on 30 December 1929 at the Picture House in St. Helier. The Jersey Film Society was founded on 11 December 1947 at the Café Bleu, West's Cinema. The large Art Deco Forum Cinema was opened in 1935 – during the German occupation this was used for German propaganda
The Odeon Cinema
was opened 2 June 1952 and, was later rebranded in the early 21st century as the Forum cinema. Its owners, however, struggled to meet tough competition from the Cineworld Cinemas group, which opened a 10 screen multiplex on the waterfront centre in St. Helier on reclaimed land in December 2002 and the Odeon closed its doors in late 2008. The Odeon is now a listed building
Since 1997, Kevin Lewis
(formerly of the Cine Centre and the New Forum) has arranged the Jersey Film Festival, a charity event showing the latest and also classic films outdoors in 35 mm
on a big screen. The festival is regularly held in Howard Davis Park
, St Saviour.
First held in 2008, the Branchage Jersey International Film Festival
attracts filmmakers from all over the world.
The 2001 movie The Others
was set on the island in 1945 shortly after liberation.
Food and drink
Seafood has traditionally been important to the cuisine of Jersey: mussel
s (called ''moules'' in the island), oyster
and crabs – especially spider crabs
Jersey milk being very rich, cream
and butter have played a large part in insular cooking. ''(See Channel Island milk
)'' However, there is no indigenous tradition of cheese making, contrary to the custom of mainland Normandy, but some cheese is produced commercially. Jersey fudge
, mostly imported and made with milk from overseas Jersey cattle herds, is a popular food product with tourists.
Jersey Royal potatoes
are the local variety of new potato
, and the island is famous for its early crop of Chats (small potatoes) from the south-facing côtils (steeply sloping fields). They were originally grown using vraic
as a natural fertiliser giving them their own individual taste, only a small portion of those grown in the island still use this method. They are eaten in a variety of ways, often simply boiled and served with butter or when not as fresh fried in butter.
Apples historically were an important crop. ''Bourdélots'' are apple dumplings, but the most typical speciality is black butter (''lé nièr beurre
''), a dark spicy spread prepared from apples, cider and spices. Cider
used to be an important export. After decline and near-disappearance in the late 20th century, apple production is being increased and promoted. Besides cider, apple brandy
is produced. Other production of alcohol drinks includes wine, and in 2013 the first commercial vodka
s made from Jersey Royal potatoes were marketed.
Among other traditional dishes are cabbage loaf, Jersey wonders (''les mèrvelles''), fliottes, bean crock (''les pais au fou''), nettle
(''ortchie'') soup, vraic buns.
In its own right Jersey participates in the Commonwealth Games
and in the biennial Island Games
, which it first hosted in 1997
and more recently in 2015
In sporting events in which Jersey does not have international representation, when the British Home Nations
are competing separately, islanders that do have high athletic skill may choose to compete for any of the Home Nations – there are, however, restrictions on subsequent transfers to represent another Home Nation.
Jersey is an associate member of the International Cricket Council
(ICC). The Jersey cricket team
plays in the Inter-insular match
among others. The Jersey cricket team competed in the World Division 4, held in Tanzania
in October 2008, after recently finishing as runners-up and therefore being promoted from the World Division 5 held in Jersey. They also competed in the European Division 2, held in Guernsey during August 2008. The youth cricket teams have been promoted to play in the European Division 1 alongside Ireland, Scotland, Denmark, the Netherlands and Guernsey
. In two tournaments at this level Jersey have finished 6th.
For Horse racing, Les Landes Racecourse can be found at Les Landes in St. Ouen next to the ruins of Grosnez Castle
The Jersey Football Association
supervises football in Jersey. The Jersey Football Combination has nine teams in its top division. Jersey national football team
plays in the annual Muratti
competition among others.
Rugby union in Jersey
comes under the auspices of the Jersey Rugby Association (JRA), which is a member of the Rugby Football Union
of England. Jersey Reds
compete in the English rugby union system
; after four promotions in five seasons, the last three of which were consecutive, they competed in the second-level RFU Championship
Jersey has two public indoor swimming pools. Swimming in the sea, windsurfing and other marine sports are practised. Jersey Swimming Club have organised an annual swim from Elizabeth Castle to Saint Helier Harbour for over 50 years. A round-island swim is a major challenge that a select number of swimmers have achieved. The Royal Channel Island Yacht Club is based in Jersey.
There is one facility for extreme sports
and some facilities for youth sports. Jersey has one un-roofed skateboarding park. Coastal cliffs provide opportunities for rock climbing
Two professional golf
ers from Jersey have won the Open Championship
seven times between them; Harry Vardon
won six times and Ted Ray
won once. Vardon and Ray also won the U.S. Open
once each. Harry Vardon's brother, Tom Vardon
, had wins on various European tours.
An independent body that promotes sports in Jersey and support clubs, 'Jersey Sport' was launched in 2017
, a Norman poet of the 12th century, is Jersey's earliest known author. Printing
arrived in Jersey only in the 1780s, but the island supported a multitude of regular publications in French (and Jèrriais) and English throughout the 19th century, in which poetry, most usually topical and satirical, flourished (see Jèrriais literature
). The first Jèrriais book to be published was ''Rimes et Poésies Jersiaises de divers auteurs réunies et mises en ordre'', edited by Abraham Mourant in 1865. Writers born in Jersey include Elinor Glyn
, John Lemprière
, Philippe Le Sueur Mourant
, Robert Pipon Marett
and Augustus Asplet Le Gros
. Frederick Tennyson
and Gerald Durrell
were among authors who made Jersey their home. Contemporary authors based in Jersey include Jack Higgins
The Government of Jersey provides education through state schools (including a fee-paying option at secondary level) and also supports private schools. The Jersey curriculum follows that of England.
It follows the National Curriculum
although there are a few differences to adapt for the island, for example all Year 4 students study a six-week Jersey Studies course.
Further and higher education
Jersey has a college of further education and university centre, Highlands College
. As well as offering part-time and evening courses, Highlands is also a sixth form
provider, working alongside Hautlieu School
which offers the only non-fee-paying sixth form, and works collaboratively with a range of organisations including the Open University
, University of Plymouth
and London South Bank University
. In particular students can study at Highlands for the two-year foundation degree in financial services and for a BSc in social sciences, both validated by the University of Plymouth
The Institute of Law is Jersey's law school
, providing a course for students seeking to qualify as Jersey advocates and solicitors. It also provides teaching for students enrolled on the University of London LLB degree programme, via the International Programmes
. The Institute of Law also runs a 'double degree' course: students can obtain the LLB from the University of London and a ''Licence en droit M1'' from Toulouse 1 Capitol University; the two combine 4 years of studies in both English and French. The Open University supports students in Jersey, but they pay higher fees than UK students. Private sector higher education providers include the Jersey International Business School.
Three areas of land are protected for their ecological or geological interest as Sites of Special Interest (SSI). Jersey has four designated Ramsar sites
: Les Pierres de Lecq, Les Minquiers, Les Écréhous and Les Dirouilles and the south east coast of Jersey (a large area of intertidal zone).
Jersey is the home of the Jersey Zoo
(formerly known as the Durrell Wildlife Park) founded by the naturalist, zookeeper and author Gerald Durrell
Four species of small mammal are considered native: the wood mouse (''Apodemus sylvaticus
''), the Jersey bank vole (''Myodes glareolus
caesarius''), the Lesser white-toothed shrew (''Crocidura suaveolens
'') and the French shrew (''Sorex coronatus
''). Three wild mammals are well-established introductions: the rabbit (introduced in the mediaeval period), the red squirrel
and the hedgehog
(both introduced in the 19th century). The stoat (''Mustela erminea
'') became extinct in Jersey between 1976 and 2000. The Green lizard (Lacerta bilineata
) is a protected species of reptile; Jersey is its only native habitat in the British Isles.
The red-billed chough
''Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax'' became extinct in Jersey around 1900, when changes in farming and grazing practices led to a decline in the coastal slope habitat required by this species. Birds on the Edge, a project between the Government of Jersey, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust
and Jersey National Trust, is working to restore Jersey's coastal habitats and reinstate the red-billed chough (and other bird species) to the island
Jersey is the only place in the British Isles where the agile frog ''Rana dalmatina'' is found. The remaining population of agile frogs on Jersey is very small and is restricted to the south west of the island. The species is the subject of an ongoing programme to save it from extinction in Jersey via a collaboration between the Government of Jersey, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust
and Jersey Amphibian and Reptile Group (JARG), with support and sponsorship from several other organisations. The programme includes captive breeding and release, public awareness and habitat restoration activities.
Trees generally considered native are the alder (''Alnus glutinosa
''), silver birch (''Betula pendula
''), sweet chestnut (''Castanea sativa
''), hazel (''Corylus avellana
''), hawthorn (''Crataegus monogyna
''), beech (''Fagus sylvatica
''), ash (''Fraxinus excelsior
''), aspen (''Populus tremula
''), wild cherry (''Prunus avium
''), blackthorn (''Prunus spinosa
''), holm oak (''Quercus ilex
''), oak (''Quercus robur
''), sallow (''Salix cinerea
''), elder (''Sambucus nigra
''), elm (''Ulmus
'' spp.) and medlar (''Mespilus germanica
''). Among notable introduced species, the cabbage palm (''Cordyline australis
'') has been planted in coastal areas and may be seen in many gardens.
Notable marine species include the ormer
, bass, undulate ray
, grey mullet
, ballan wrasse
. Marine mammals include the bottlenosed dolphin
and grey seal
Historically the island has given its name to a variety of overly-large cabbage, the Jersey cabbage
, also known as Jersey kale or cow cabbage.
Japanese Knotweed ''Fallopia japonica'' is an invasive species
that threatens Jersey's biodiversity.
It is easily recognisable and has hollow stems with small white flowers that are produced in late summer. Other non-native species on the island include the Colorado beetle
, burnet rose and oak processionary
Health services on the island are overseen by the Department for Health and Social Care. Jersey does not have a nationalised health service and the service is not part of the National Health Service. Many healthcare treatments are not free at the point of use, however treatment in the Emergency Department is free. For residents, prescriptions and some hospital treatments are free, however GP services cost money.
Emergency services are provided by the States of Jersey Police with the support of the Honorary Police as necessary, States of Jersey Ambulance Service, Jersey Fire and Rescue Service and the Jersey Coastguard. The Jersey Fire and Rescue Service and the Royal National Lifeboat Institution operate an inshore rescue and lifeboat service; Channel Islands Air Search provides rapid response airborne search of the surrounding waters.
The States of Jersey Fire Service was formed in 1938 when the States took over the Saint Helier Fire Brigade, which had been formed in 1901. The first lifeboat was equipped, funded by the States, in 1830. The RNLI established a lifeboat station in 1884. Border security and customs controls are undertaken by the States of Jersey Customs and Immigration Service. Jersey has adopted the 112 emergency number alongside its existing 999 emergency number.
Water supplies in Jersey are managed by Jersey Water. Jersey Water supply water from two water treatment works, around 7.2 billion litres in 2018. Water in Jersey is almost exclusively from rainfall-dependent surface water. The water is collected and stored in six reservoirs and there is also a desalination plant that produces up to 10.8 million litres per day (around half of the Island's average daily usage). In 2017, 101 water pollution incidents were reported, an increase of 5% on 2016. Another estimated 515,700 m3 of water is abstracted for domestic purposes from private sources (around 9% of the population).
Electricity in Jersey is provided by a sole supplier, Jersey Electricity, of which the States of Jersey is the majority shareholder. Jersey imports a large amount of its power. Jersey Electricity claims the carbon intensity of its electricity supply is 35g CO2 e / kWh compared to 352g CO2 e / kWh in the UK. 35% of Jersey's imported power comes from hydro-electric sources and 65% from nuclear sources.
Footnotes and references
*Balleine's History of Jersey, Marguerite Syvret and Joan Stevens (1998)
*Jersey Through the Centuries, Leslie Sinel, Jersey 1984,
*A Biographical Dictionary of Jersey, G.R. Balleine
*The Archaeology of the Channel Islands. Vol. 2: The Bailiwick of Jersey by Jacquetta Hawkes (1939)
*The Prehistoric Foundations of Europe to the Mycenean Age, 1940, C. F. C. Hawkes
*Jersey in Prehistory, Mark Patton, 1987
*The Archaeology and Early History of the Channel Islands, Heather Sebire, 2005.
*Dolmens of Jersey: A Guide, James Hibbs (1988).
*A Guide to The Dolmens of Jersey, Peter Hunt, Société Jersiaise, 1998.
*Statements in Stone: Monuments and Society in Neolithic Brittany, Mark Patton, 1993
*Hougue Bie, Mark Patton, Warwick Rodwell, Olga Finch, 1999
*The Channel Islands, An Archaeological Guide, David Johnston, 1981
*The Archaeology of the Channel Islands, Peter Johnston, 1986
*One Hundred Years of the Royal Jersey Agricultural and Horticultural Society 1833–1933. Compiled from the Society's Records, by H.G. Shepard, Secretary. Eric J. Boston. Jersey Cattle, 1954
*The Channel Islands under Tudor Government, A.J. Eagleston
*Reformation and Society in Guernsey, D.M. Ogier
*International Politics and the Establishment of Presbyterianism in the Channel Islands: The Coutances Connection, C.S.L. Davies
*Religion, History and G.R. Balleine: The Reformation in Jersey, by J. St John Nicolle, The Pilot Magazine
*The Reformation in Jersey: The Process of Change over Two centuries, J. St John Nicolle
*The Chroniques de Jersey in the light of contemporary documents, BSJ, AJ Eagleston
*The Portrait of Richard Mabon, BSJ, Joan Stevens
Official Government of Jersey website
Government owned tourism website
Online history and family history encyclopedia
Elections in Jersey
''The World Factbook''. Central Intelligence Agency.
from the BBC News
Jersey Evening Post
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