JAVANESE /dʒɑːvəˈniːz/ (ꦧꦱꦗꦮ, basa Jawa; Javanese
pronunciation: ) (colloquially known as ꦕꦫꦗꦮ, cara Jawa;
Javanese pronunciation: ) is the language of the
Javanese people from
the central and eastern parts of the island of
Javanese is one of the Austronesian languages , but it is not particularly close to other languages and is difficult to classify. Its closest relatives are the neighbouring languages such as Sundanese , Madurese and Balinese . Most speakers of Javanese also speak Indonesian , the standardized form of Malay spoken in Indonesia, for official and commercial purposes as well as a means to communicate with non-Javanese-speaking Indonesians .
There are speakers of Javanese in
* 1 Speakers
* 2 Phonology
* 2.1 Vowels * 2.2 Consonants
* 3 Morphology * 4 Syntax * 5 Vocabulary * 6 Registers
* 7 Dialects of modern Javanese
* 7.1 Phonetic differences * 7.2 Vocabulary differences * 7.3 Classification
* 8 History
* 8.1 Old Javanese * 8.2 Middle Javanese * 8.3 New Javanese * 8.4 Modern Javanese
* 9 Javanese script * 10 Demographic distribution of Javanese speakers * 11 Javanese today * 12 Basic vocabulary * 13 Numbers * 14 See also * 15 Notes * 16 Sources * 17 Further reading * 18 External links
The language is spoken in
Javanese is written with the Latin script ,
Javanese script , and
Arabic script . In the present day, the Latin script dominates
writings, although the
Javanese script is still taught as part of the
Javanese is the tenth largest language by native speakers and the
largest language without official status . It is spoken or understood
by approximately 100 million people. At least 45% of the total
There are three main dialects of the modern language: Central
Javanese, Eastern Javanese, and Western Javanese. These three dialects
form a dialect continuum from northern
The phonemes of Modern Standard Javanese as shown below.
FRONT CENTRAL BACK
HALF CLOSED e ə o
HALF OPEN (ɛ)
In closed syllables the vowels /i u e o/ are pronounced respectively. In open syllables, /e o/ are also when the following vowel is /i u/ in an open syllable; otherwise they are /ə/, or identical (/e...e/, /o...o/). In the standard dialect of Surakarta, /a/ is pronounced in word-final open syllables, and in any open penultimate syllable before such an .
LABIAL Dental / Alveolar RETROFLEX PALATAL VELAR GLOTTAL
STOP /AFFRICATE p b̥ t̪ d̪ ʈ ɖ̥ tʃ dʒ̊ k ɡ̊ ʔ
Approximant (Lateral )
The Javanese "voiced" phonemes are not in fact voiced but voiceless, with breathy voice on the following vowel. The relevant distinction in phonation of the plosives is described as stiff voice versus slack voice .
A Javanese syllable can have the following form : CSVC, where C = consonant , S = sonorant (/j/, /r/, /l/, /w/, or any nasal consonant ), and V = vowel . As with other Austronesian languages, native Javanese roots consist of two syllables; words consisting of more than three syllables are broken up into groups of disyllabic words for pronunciation. In Modern Javanese, a disyllabic root is of the following type: nCsvVnCsvVC.
Apart from Madurese , Javanese is the only language of Western
Javanese, like other Austronesian languages, is an agglutinative language, where base words are modified through extensive use of affixes .
Modern Javanese usually employs SVO word order. However, Old Javanese sometimes had VSO and sometimes VOS word order. Even in Modern Javanese, archaic sentences using VSO structure can still be made.
* Modern Javanese: "Dhèwèké (S) teka (V) ing (pp.) karaton (O)". * Old Javanese: "Teka (V) ta (part.) sira (S) ri (pp.) -ng (def. art.) kadhatwan (O)".
Both sentences mean: "He (S) comes (V) into (pp.) the (def. art.) palace (O)". In the Old Javanese sentence, the verb is placed at the beginning and is separated by the particle ta from the rest of the sentence. In Modern Javanese the definite article is lost, and definiteness is expressed by other means if necessary.
Verbs are not inflected for person or number. There is no grammatical tense ; time is expressed by auxiliary words meaning "yesterday", "already", etc. There is a complex system of verb affixes to express differences of status in subject and object. However, in general the structure of Javanese sentences both Old and Modern can be described using the topic–comment model , without having to refer to conventional grammatical categories. The topic is the head of the sentence; the comment is the modifier. So the example sentence has a simpler description: Dhèwèké = topic; teka = comment; ing karaton = setting.
Javanese has a rich and varied vocabulary, with many loanwords
supplementing those from the native Austronesian base.
There are far fewer
Dutch loanwords usually have the same form and meaning as in Indonesian, with a few exceptions:
JAVANESE INDONESIAN DUTCH ENGLISH
pit sepeda fiets bicycle
pit montor sepeda motor motorfiets motorcycle
sepur kereta api spoor, i.e. (rail) track train
The word sepur also exists in Indonesian, but there it has preserved the literal Dutch meaning of "railway tracks", while the Javanese word follows Dutch figurative use, and "spoor" (lit. "rail") is used as metonymy for "trein" (lit. "train"). (Compare a similar metonymic use in English: "to travel by rail" may be used for "to travel by train".)
Malay was the lingua franca of the Indonesian archipelago before the proclamation of Indonesian independence in 1945; and Indonesian, which was based on Malay, is now the official language of Indonesia. As a consequence, there has been an influx of Malay and Indonesian vocabulary into Javanese. Many of these words are concerned with bureaucracy or politics.
A Javanese noble lady (left) would address her servant with one
vocabulary, and be answered with another. (Studio portrait of painter
In common with other Austronesian languages, Javanese is spoken differently depending on the social context. In Austronesian there are often three distinct styles or registers . Each employs its own vocabulary, grammatical rules, and even prosody . In Javanese these styles are called:
* Ngoko (ꦔꦺꦴꦏꦺꦴ). Informal speech, used between friends
and close relatives. It is also used by persons of higher status (such
as elders, or bosses) addressing those of lower status (young people,
or subordinates in the workplace).
* Madya (ꦩꦢꦾ). Intermediate between ngoko and krama. Strangers
on the street would use it, where status differences may be unknown
and one wants to be neither too formal nor too informal. The term is
There are also "meta-style" honorific words, and their converse "humilifics". Speakers use "humble" words concerning themselves, but honorific words concerning anyone of greater age of higher social status. The humilific words are called krama andhap, while the honorifics are called krama inggil. Children typically use the ngoko style, but in talking to the parents they must be competent with both krama inggil and krama andhap. Some examples:
* Ngoko: Aku arep mangan. ("I want to eat.") * Madya: Kula ajeng nedha.
* (Neutral) Kula badhé nadhi. * (Humble) Dalem badhé nedhi.
The most polite word meaning "eat" is dhahar. But it is forbidden to use these most polite words for oneself, except when talking with someone of lower status; and in this case, ngoko style is used. Such most polite words are reserved for addressing people of higher status:
* Mixed usages
* (honorific – addressing someone of high status) Bapak kersa dhahar? ("Do you want to eat?"; literally "Does father want to eat?") * (reply to a person of lower status, expressing speaker's superiority) Iya, aku kersa dhahar. ("Yes, I want to eat.") * (reply to a person of lower status, but without expressing superiority) Iya, aku arep mangan. * (reply to a person of equal status) Inggih, kula badhé nedha.
The use of these different styles is complicated and requires thorough knowledge of Javanese culture, which adds to the difficulty of Javanese for foreigners. The full system is not usually mastered by most Javanese themselves, who might use only the ngoko and a rudimentary form of the krama. People who can correctly use the different styles are held in high esteem.
DIALECTS OF MODERN JAVANESE
There are three main groups of Javanese dialects , based on sub-regions: Western Javanese, Central Javanese, and Eastern Javanese. The differences are primarily in pronunciation, but with vocabulary differences also. Javanese dialects are all mutually intelligible.
CENTRAL JAVANESE (Jawa Tengahan) is founded on the speech of
Surakarta and to a lesser extent of
Central Javanese is also used in the western part of East Java
province. For example, Javanese spoken in the
Madiun region (along
with Javanese spoken in
* MATARAMAN DIALECT / STANDARD DIALECT is spoken commonly in
WESTERN JAVANESE (Jawa Kulonan), spoken in the western part of the
* NORTH BANTEN DIALECT (Jawa Serang) is spoken in Serang ,
Some Western Javanese dialects such as Banyumasan dialects and Tegal dialect are sometimes referred to as basa ngapak by other Javanese.
EASTERN JAVANESE (Jawa Wétanan) speakers range from the eastern
The most outlying Eastern Javanese dialect is spoken in Balambangan (or Banyuwangi ). It is generally known as Basa Using . Osing, a local negation word, is a cognate of tusing in Balinese .
* AREKAN DIALECT is commonly spoken in
SURINAMESE-JAVANESE is mainly based on Central Javanese, especially
Kedu residency . The number of speakers of Suriname-Javanese
Not all immigrants from
Surinamese Javanese is somewhat different from Indonesian Javanese.
In Surinamese-Javanese there is a difference between formal and
informal speech. Surinamese-Javanese took many loanwords from
languages like Dutch,
Sarnami and Bahasa Indonesia. The
influence of the latter language, which is not spoken in Suriname, can
be attributed to the Indonesian embassy and
SURINAMESE-JAVANESE SRANANTONGO DUTCH ENGLISH
ngabrah abra over across
bakrah bakra blanke white man
blangkeman blakaman neger black man
pernangsi pernasi plantage plantation
sekaut skowtu schout (politieagent) policeman
In 1986, the Surinamese government adopted an official spelling for Surinamese-Javanese. It is seldom used as a written language, however.
In the 2012 survey, pupils who indicated Surinamese-Javanese as a language spoken at home, reported Dutch (97.9 percent) and Sranantongo (76.9 percent) also being spoken in the household.
Surinamese-Javanese speaking pupils report high proficiency in speaking and understanding, but very low literacy in the language. They report a low preference for the language in interaction with family members, including their parents, with the exception of their grandparents. Pupils where Surinamese-Javanese is spoken at tend at home to speak Dutch (77 percent) rather than Surinamese-Javanese (12 percent).
Phoneme /i/ at closed ultima is pronounced as in Central Javanese
Phoneme /u/ at closed ultima is pronounced as in Central Javanese, as in Western Javanese, and as in Eastern Javanese.
Phoneme /a/ at closed ultima in Central Javanese is pronounced as and at open ultima as . Regardless of position, it tends toward in Western Javanese and as in Eastern Javanese.
Western Javanese tend to glottalize every last vowel of a word as euphony , e.g.: Ana apa? "What happened?", Aja kaya kuwè! "Don't be like that!".
Dialectal Phonetics PHONEME ORTHOGRAPHY CENTRAL JAVANESE (STANDARD) WESTERN JAVANESE EASTERN JAVANESE ENGLISH
/a/ kancamu/kancané kowé
Final consonant devoicing occurs in the standard Central Javanese dialect, but not in Banyumasan. For example, egg is pronounced in standard Central Javanese, but in Banyumasan. The latter is closer to Old Javanese .
The vocabulary of standard Javanese is enriched by dialectal words. For example, to get the meaning of "you", Western Javanese speakers say rika /rikaʔ/, Eastern Javanese use kon /kɔn/ or koen /kɔən/, and Central Javanese speakers say kowé /kowe/. Another example is the expression of "how": the Tegal dialect of Western Javanese uses kepribèn /kəpriben/, the Banyumasan dialect of Western Javanese employs kepriwé /kəpriwe/ or kepriwèn /kəpriwen/, Eastern Javanese speakers say ya' apa /jɔʔ ɔpɔ/ – originally meaning "like what" (kaya apa in standard Javanese) or kepiyé /kəpije/ – and Central Javanese speakers say piye /pije/ or kepriyé /kəprije/.
SURAKARTA-YOGYAKARTA (STANDARD) NORTHERN BANTEN CIREBON-INDRAMAYU TEGAL-BREBES BANYUMAS SURABAYA ENGLISH
aku kite kita, isun inyong inyong aku I, me
kowé sire sira koen rika, kowè kon you
tenan pisan pisan temen temen temen truly
kepiyé keprimèn kepribèn, kepriwè kepribèn kepriwè yok apa how
ora ore ora, beli ora, belih ora ogak not
mlebu manjing manjing manjing, mlebu mlebu mlebu to enter
arep arep arep, pan pan arep apé will
saka sake sing sing sekang teka from
The Madiun–Kediri dialect has some idiosyncratic vocabulary, such as panggah 'still' (standard Javanese: pancet), lagèk 'progressive modal' (standard Javanese: lagi), and emphatic particles nda, pèh, and lé.
A preliminary general classification of Javanese dialects given by
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology 's Department
of Linguistics is as follows. Pesisir (Pemalang) and Tengger are
considered to be among the most conservative dialects. The
* WEST JAVANESE:
* CENTRAL JAVANESE:
* Pesisir Lor dialects
* EAST JAVANESE:
* Ngadas * Ranu Pane
* OUTER JAVANESE
* Papuan Javanese
While evidence of writing in
The 8th and 9th centuries are marked by the emergence of the Javanese
literary tradition – with Sang Hyang Kamahayanikan, a Buddhist
treatise; and the
Kakawin Rāmâyaṇa , a Javanese rendering in
Indian metres of the Vaishnavist
Although Javanese as a written language appeared considerably later than Malay (extant in the 7th century), the Javanese literary tradition has been continuous from its inception. The oldest works – such as the Kakawin Rāmâyaṇa and a Javanese rendering of the Indian Mahābhārata epic – are studied assiduously today.
The expansion of Javanese culture, including
Javanese script and
language, began in 1293 with the eastward push of the Hindu
In the 16th century a new era in Javanese history began with the rise
Javanese culture spread westward as Mataram conquered many previously Sundanese areas in western parts of Java; and Javanese became the dominant language in more than a third of this area. As with Balinese, the Sundanese language ceased to be written until the 19th century. In the meantime it was heavily influenced by Javanese, and some 40% of Sundanese vocabulary is believed to have been derived from Javanese.
In addition to the rise of Islam, the 16th century saw the emergence
of the New Javanese language. The first
Later, intensive contacts with the Dutch and with other Indonesians gave rise to a simplified form of Javanese and an influx of foreign loanwords.
Some scholars dub the spoken form of Javanese in the 20th century Modern Javanese, although it is essentially still the same language as New Javanese.
A modern bilingual text in Portuguese and Javanese in Yogyakarta . Main article: Javanese script
Javanese has been traditionally written with
Javanese script .
Javanese and the related
Balinese script are modern variants of the
The Javanese script is an abugida . Each of the twenty letter represents a syllable with a consonant (or a "zero consonant") and the inherent vowel 'a' that is pronounced as /ɔ/ in open position. Various diacritics placed around the letter indicate a different vowel than , a final consonant, or a foreign pronunciation.
Letters have subscript forms used to transcribe consonant clusters, though the shape are relatively straightforward, and not as distinct as conjunct forms of Devanagari . Some letters are only present in old Javanese and became obsolete in modern Javanese. Some of these letter became "capital" forms used in proper names. Punctuation includes a comma; period; a mark that covers the colon, quotations, and indicates numerals; and marks to introduce a chapter, poem, song, or letter.
However, Javanese can also be written with the Arabic script and today generally uses Latin script instead of Javanese script for practical purposes. A Latin orthography based on Dutch was introduced in 1926, revised in 1972–1973; it has largely supplanted the carakan. The current Latin-based forms:
MAJUSCULE FORMS (UPPERCASE)
MINUSCULE FORMS (LOWERCASE)
a b c d dh e é è f g h i j k l m n ng ny o p q r s t th u v w x y z
The italic letters are used in loanwords from European languages and Arabic.
BASE CONSONANT LETTERS
ꦲ ꦤ ꦕ ꦫ ꦏ ꦢ ꦠ ꦱ ꦮ ꦭ ꦥ ꦝ ꦗ ꦪ ꦚ ꦩ ꦒ ꦧ ꦛ ꦔ
ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la pa dha ja ya nya ma ga ba tha nga
DEMOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF JAVANESE SPEAKERS
See also: Javanese people
Javanese is spoken throughout Indonesia, neighboring Southeast Asian
countries, the Netherlands,
A table showing the number of native speakers in 1980, for the 22 Indonesian provinces (from the total of 27) in which more than 1% of the population spoke Javanese:
INDONESIAN PROVINCE % OF PROVINCIAL POPULATION JAVANESE SPEAKERS (1980)
2. North Sumatra 21.0% 1,757,000
3. West Sumatra 1.0% 56,000
5. South Sumatra 12.4% 573,000
6. Bengkulu 15.4% 118,000
7. Lampung 62.4% 2,886,000
13. East Java 74.5% 21,720,000
15. West Kalimantan 1.7% 41,000
16. Central Kalimantan 4.0% 38,000
17. South Kalimantan 4.7% 97,000
19. North Sulawesi 1.0% 20,000
21. Southeast Sulawesi 3.6% 34,000
22. Maluku 1.1% 16,000
According to the 1980 census, Javanese was used daily in approximately 43% of Indonesian households. By this reckoning there were well over 60 million Javanese speakers, from a national population of 147,490,298. Madurese in Javanese script.
In Banten, the descendants of the Central Javanese conquerors who
At least one third of the population of
Almost a quarter of the population of
East Java province are Madurese
(mostly on the Isle of
The original inhabitants of Lampung , the Lampungese, make up only 15% of the provincial population. The rest are the so-called "transmigrants", settlers from other parts of Indonesia, many as a result of past government transmigration programs . Most of these transmigrants are Javanese who have settled there since the 19th century.
Although Javanese is not a national language, it has recognized status as a regional language in the three Indonesian provinces with the biggest concentrations of Javanese people: Central Java, Yogyakarta, and East Java. Javanese is taught at schools and is used in some mass media , both electronically and in print. There is, however, no longer a daily newspaper in Javanese. Javanese language magazines include Panjebar Semangat, Jaka Lodhang, Jaya Baya, Damar Jati, and Mekar Sari.
Since 2003, an East Java local television station (JTV ) has broadcast some of its programmes in Surabayan dialect, including Pojok kampung (news), Kuis RT/RW, and Pojok Perkoro (a crime programme). In later broadcasts, JTV offers programmes in Central Javanese dialect (that they call basa kulonan, "the western language") and Madurese.
In 2005 a new
ENGLISH NGOKO KRAMA
yes iya inggih
no ora boten
what apa menapa
who sapa sinten
how kapriyé or kepiyé kados pundi or pripun
why nangapa or ngapa kènging menapa
eat mangan nedha
sleep turu saré
here ing kéné ing riki
there ing kana ing rika
there is (there are) ana wonten
there is no (there are no) ora ana boten wonten
no! or I don't want it! emoh wegah
make a visit for pleasure dolan amèng-amèng
Main article: Javanese numerals
NUMERAL JAVANESE SCRIPT NGOKO KRAMA NOTES
0 ꧇꧐꧇ nol nol derived from Dutch
1 ꧇꧑꧇ siji satunggal
2 ꧇꧒꧇ loro kalih
3 ꧇꧓꧇ telu tiga
4 ꧇꧔꧇ papat sakawan
5 ꧇꧕꧇ lima gangsal
6 ꧇꧖꧇ enem enem
7 ꧇꧗꧇ pitu pitu
8 ꧇꧘꧇ wolu wolu
9 ꧇꧙꧇ sanga sanga
10 ꧇꧑꧐꧇ sapuluh sadasa
11 ꧇꧑꧑꧇ sawelas satunggal welas
20 ꧇꧒꧐꧇ rong puluh kalih dasa
21 ꧇꧒꧑꧇ salikur satunggal likur
22 ꧇꧒꧒꧇ ro likur kalih likur
23 ꧇꧒꧓꧇ telu likur tiga likur
24 ꧇꧒꧔꧇ pat likur sakawan likur
25 ꧇꧒꧕꧇ salawé salangkung
26 ꧇꧒꧖꧇ enem likur enem likur
27 ꧇꧒꧗꧇ pitu likur pitu likur
28 ꧇꧒꧘꧇ wolu likur wolu likur
29 ꧇꧒꧙꧇ sanga likur sanga likur
30 ꧇꧓꧐꧇ telung puluh tigang dasa
31 ꧇꧓꧑꧇ telung puluh siji tigang dasa satunggal
40 ꧇꧔꧐꧇ patang puluh sakawan dasa
41 ꧇꧔꧑꧇ patang puluh siji sakawan dasa satunggal
50 ꧇꧕꧐꧇ sèket sèket
51 ꧇꧕꧑꧇ sèket siji sèket satunggal
60 ꧇꧖꧐꧇ sawidak sawidak
61 ꧇꧖꧑꧇ sawidak siji sawidak satunggal
70 ꧇꧗꧐꧇ pitung puluh pitung dasa
80 ꧇꧘꧐꧇ wolung puluh wolung dasa
90 ꧇꧙꧐꧇ sangang puluh sangang dasa
100 ꧇꧑꧐꧐꧇ satus satunggal atus
HUNDREDS atusan atusan
1000 ꧇꧑꧐꧐꧐꧇ sèwu satunggal èwu
THOUSANDS éwon éwon
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JAVANESE EDITION of , the free encyclopedia
Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for JAVANESE .
* International Symposium On The Languages Of Java
* Javanese in
* v * t * e
* Language * History * Romanization * Influence on other languages