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Javanese (/dʒɑːvəˈniːz/;[3] ꦧꦱꦗꦮ, basa Jawa; Javanese pronunciation: [bɔsɔ dʒɔwɔ]; colloquially known as ꦕꦫꦗꦮ, cara Jawa; Javanese pronunciation: [t͡ʃɔrɔ dʒɔwɔ]) is the language of the Javanese people
Javanese people
from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia. There are also pockets of Javanese speakers on the northern coast of western Java. It is the native language of more than 98 million people[4] (more than 42% of the total population of Indonesia). Javanese is one of the Austronesian languages, but it is not particularly close to other languages and is difficult to classify. Its closest relatives are the neighbouring languages such as Sundanese, Madurese and Balinese. Most speakers of Javanese also speak Indonesian, the standardized form of Malay spoken in Indonesia, for official and commercial purposes as well as a means to communicate with non-Javanese-speaking Indonesians. There are speakers of Javanese in Malaysia
Malaysia
(concentrated in the states of Selangor
Selangor
and Johor) and Singapore. Some people of Javanese descent in Suriname
Suriname
(the Dutch colony of Surinam until 1975) speak a creole descendant of the language.[citation needed]

Contents

1 Speakers 2 Phonology

2.1 Vowels 2.2 Consonants

3 Morphology 4 Syntax 5 Vocabulary 6 Registers 7 Dialects of modern Javanese

7.1 Phonetic differences 7.2 Vocabulary differences 7.3 Classification 7.4 Standard Javanese

8 History

8.1 Old Javanese 8.2 Middle Javanese 8.3 New Javanese

9 Javanese script 10 Demographic distribution of Javanese speakers 11 Javanese today 12 Basic vocabulary 13 Numbers 14 See also 15 Notes 16 Sources 17 Further reading 18 External links

Speakers[edit] The word Jawa (Java) written in Javanese script. The language is spoken in Yogyakarta, Central and East Java, as well as on the north coast of West Java. It is also spoken elsewhere by the Javanese people
Javanese people
in other provinces of Indonesia, which are numerous due to the government-sanctioned transmigration program in the late 20th century, including Lampung, Jambi, and North Sumatra
North Sumatra
provinces. In Suriname, creolized Javanese is spoken among descendants of plantation migrants brought by the Dutch during the 19th century. In Madura, Bali, Lombok, and the Sunda region of West Java, it is also used as a literary language. It was the court language in Palembang, South Sumatra, until the palace was sacked by the Dutch in the late 18th century. Javanese is written with the Latin script, Javanese script, and Arabic script.[5] In the present day, the Latin script dominates writings, although the Javanese script
Javanese script
is still taught as part of the compulsory Javanese language
Javanese language
subject in elementary up to high school levels in Yogyakarta, Central and East Java. Javanese is the tenth largest language by native speakers and the largest language without official status. It is spoken or understood by approximately 100 million people. At least 45% of the total population of Indonesia
Indonesia
are of Javanese descent or live in an area where Javanese is the dominant language. All seven Indonesian presidents since 1945 have been of Javanese descent.[6] It is therefore not surprising that Javanese has had a deep influence on the development of Indonesian, the national language of Indonesia. There are three main dialects of the modern language: Central Javanese, Eastern Javanese, and Western Javanese. These three dialects form a dialect continuum from northern Banten
Banten
in the extreme west of Java
Java
to Banyuwangi Regency
Banyuwangi Regency
in the eastern corner of the island. All Javanese dialects are more or less mutually intelligible.

Phonology[edit] The phonemes of Modern Standard Javanese as shown below.[7]

Vowels[edit]

Front

Central

Back

Closed

i

   

u

Half closed

e

ə

o

Half open

(ɛ)

 

(ɔ)

Open

 

a

 

In closed syllables the vowels /i u e o/ are pronounced [ɪ ʊ ɛ ɔ] respectively.[7] In open syllables, /e o/ are also [ɛ ɔ] when the following vowel is /i u/ in an open syllable; otherwise they are /ə/, or identical (/e...e/, /o...o/). In the standard dialect of Surakarta, /a/ is pronounced [ɔ] in word-final open syllables, and in any open penultimate syllable before such an [ɔ].

Consonants[edit]

Labial

Dental/Alveolar

Retroflex

Palatal

Velar

Glottal

Nasal

m

n

ɲ

ŋ

Stop/Affricate

p b̥

t̪ d̪̥

ʈ ɖ̥

tʃ dʒ̊

k ɡ̊

ʔ

Fricative

s

h

Approximant(Lateral)

j

w

l

Rhotic

r

The Javanese "voiced" phonemes are not in fact voiced but voiceless, with breathy voice on the following vowel.[7] The relevant distinction in phonation of the plosives is described as stiff voice versus slack voice.[8][9] A Javanese syllable can have the following form: CSVC, where C = consonant, S = sonorant (/j/, /r/, /l/, /w/, or any nasal consonant), and V = vowel. As with other Austronesian languages, native Javanese roots consist of two syllables; words consisting of more than three syllables are broken up into groups of disyllabic words for pronunciation. In Modern Javanese, a disyllabic root is of the following type: nCsvVnCsvVC. Apart from Madurese, Javanese is the only language of Western Indonesia
Indonesia
to possess a distinction between dental and retroflex phonemes.[7] The latter sounds are transcribed as "th" and "dh" in the modern Roman script, but previously by the use of an underdot: "ṭ" and "ḍ".

Morphology[edit] Javanese, like many other Austronesian languages, is an agglutinative language, where base words are modified through extensive use of affixes.

Syntax[edit] Modern Javanese usually employs SVO word order. However, Old Javanese sometimes had VSO and sometimes VOS word order. Even in Modern Javanese, archaic sentences using VSO structure can still be made. Examples:

Modern Javanese: "Dhèwèké (S) teka (V) ing (pp.) karaton (O)".[10] Old Javanese: "Teka (V) ta (part.) sira (S) ri (pp.) -ng (def. art.) kadhatwan (O)".[11] Both sentences mean: "He (S) comes (V) into (pp.) the (def. art.) palace (O)". In the Old Javanese sentence, the verb is placed at the beginning and is separated by the particle ta from the rest of the sentence. In Modern Javanese the definite article is lost, and definiteness is expressed by other means if necessary. Verbs are not inflected for person or number. There is no grammatical tense; time is expressed by auxiliary words meaning "yesterday", "already", etc. There is a complex system of verb affixes to express differences of status in subject and object. However, in general the structure of Javanese sentences both Old and Modern can be described using the topic–comment model, without having to refer to conventional grammatical categories. The topic is the head of the sentence; the comment is the modifier. So the example sentence has a simpler description: Dhèwèké = topic; teka = comment; ing karaton = setting.

Vocabulary[edit] Javanese has a rich and varied vocabulary, with many loanwords supplementing those from the native Austronesian base. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
has had a deep and lasting impact. The Old Javanese–English Dictionary contains approximately 25,500 entries, over 12,600 of which are borrowings from Sanskrit.[12] Such a high number is no measure of usage, but it does suggest the extent to which the language adopted Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words for formal purposes. In a typical Old Javanese literary work about 25% of the vocabulary is from Sanskrit. Many Javanese personal names also have clearly recognisable Sanskrit
Sanskrit
roots. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words are still very much in use. Modern speakers may describe Old Javanese and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words as kawi (roughly meaning "literary"); but kawi words may also be from Arabic. Dutch and Malay are influential as well; but none of these rivals the position of Sanskrit. There are far fewer Arabic
Arabic
loanwords in Javanese than in Malay, and they are usually concerned with Islamic
Islamic
religion. Nevertheless, some words have entered the basic vocabulary, such as pikir ("to think", from the Arabic
Arabic
fikr), badan ("body"), mripat ("eye", thought to be derived from the Arabic
Arabic
ma'rifah, meaning "knowledge" or "vision"). However, these Arabic
Arabic
words typically have native Austronesian or Sanskrit
Sanskrit
alternatives: pikir = galih, idhep (Austronesian) and manah, cipta, or cita (from Sanskrit); badan = awak (Austronesian) and slira, sarira, or angga (from Sanskrit); and mripat = mata (Austronesian) and soca or nétra (from Sanskrit). Dutch loanwords usually have the same form and meaning as in Indonesian, with a few exceptions such as:

Javanese

Indonesian

Dutch

English

pit

sepeda

fiets

bicycle

pit montor

sepeda motor

motorfiets

motorcycle

sepur

kereta api

spoor, i.e. (rail) track

train

The word sepur also exists in Indonesian, but there it has preserved the literal Dutch meaning of "railway tracks", while the Javanese word follows Dutch figurative use, and "spoor" (lit. "rail") is used as metonymy for "trein" (lit. "train"). (Compare a similar metonymic use in English: "to travel by rail" may be used for "to travel by train".) Malay was the lingua franca of the Indonesian archipelago before the proclamation of Indonesian independence in 1945; and Indonesian, which was based on Malay, is now the official language of Indonesia. As a consequence, there has been an influx of Malay and Indonesian vocabulary into Javanese. Many of these words are concerned with bureaucracy or politics.

Registers [edit] A Javanese noble lady (left) would address her servant with one vocabulary, and be answered with another. (Studio portrait of painter Raden Saleh's wife and a servant, colonial Batavia, 1860–1872.) In common with other Austronesian languages, Javanese is spoken differently depending on the social context. In Austronesian there are often three distinct styles or registers.[13] Each employs its own vocabulary, grammatical rules, and even prosody. In Javanese these styles are called:

Ngoko (ꦔꦺꦴꦏꦺꦴ). Informal speech, used between friends and close relatives. It is also used by persons of higher status (such as elders, or bosses) addressing those of lower status (young people, or subordinates in the workplace). Madya (ꦩꦢꦾ). Intermediate between ngoko and krama. Strangers on the street would use it, where status differences may be unknown and one wants to be neither too formal nor too informal. The term is from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
madhya ("middle").[14] Krama (ꦏꦿꦩ). The polite and formal style. It is used between those of the same status when they do not wish to be informal. It is used by persons of lower status to persons of higher status, such as young people to their elders, or subordinates to bosses; and it is the official style for public speeches, announcements, etc. The term is from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
krama ("in order").[14] There are also "meta-style" honorific words, and their converse "humilifics". Speakers use "humble" words concerning themselves, but honorific words concerning anyone of greater age of higher social status. The humilific words are called krama andhap, while the honorifics are called krama inggil. Children typically use the ngoko style, but in talking to the parents they must be competent with both krama inggil and krama andhap. The most polite word meaning "eat" is dhahar. But it is forbidden to use these most polite words for oneself, except when talking with someone of lower status; and in this case, ngoko style is used. Such most polite words are reserved for addressing people of higher status:

Mixed usages (honorific – addressing someone of high status) Bapak kersa dhahar? ("Do you want to eat?"; literally "Does father want to eat?") (reply to a person of lower status, expressing speaker's superiority) Iya, aku kersa dhahar. ("Yes, I want to eat.") (reply to a person of lower status, but without expressing superiority) Iya, aku arep mangan. (reply to a person of equal status) Inggih, kula badhé nedha. The use of these different styles is complicated and requires thorough knowledge of Javanese culture, which adds to the difficulty of Javanese for foreigners. The full system is not usually mastered by most Javanese themselves, who might use only the ngoko and a rudimentary form of the krama. People who can correctly use the different styles are held in high esteem.

Dialects of modern Javanese[edit] Susuhunan Pakubuwono X
Pakubuwono X
of Surakarta. Surakarta
Surakarta
has been a center of Javanese culture, and its dialect is regarded as the most "refined". There are three main groups of Javanese dialects, based on sub-regions: Western Javanese, Central Javanese, and Eastern Javanese. The differences are primarily in pronunciation, but with vocabulary differences also. Javanese dialects are all mutually intelligible. Central Javanese (Jawa Tengahan) is founded on the speech of Surakarta[15] and to a lesser extent of Yogyakarta. It is considered the most "refined" of the regional variants, and serves as a model for the standard language. Those two cities are the seats of four Javanese principalities (heirs to the Mataram Sultanate) that once dominated the whole of Java
Java
and beyond. This variant is used throughout Central Java
Java
and Special
Special
Region of Yogyakarta, and there are many lower-level dialects such as Muria and Semarangan, as well as Surakarta
Surakarta
and Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
themselves. The variations in Central Java are said to be so plentiful that almost every administrative region (or kabupatèn) has its own local slang; but those minor dialects are not seen as distinct by most Javanese speakers. Central Javanese is also used in the western part of East Java province. For example, Javanese spoken in the Madiun
Madiun
region (along with Javanese spoken in Blitar, Ponorogo, Pacitan, and Tulungagung, and central parts of Kediri) bears a strong influence of Surakarta Javanese.

Mataraman dialect / Standard dialect is spoken commonly in Yogyakarta, Surakarta, Klaten, Karanganyar, Wonogiri, Sukoharjo, Sragen, and Boyolali. Pekalongan
Pekalongan
dialect is spoken in Pekalongan
Pekalongan
and Pekalongan
Pekalongan
regency, and also in Pemalang. Kedu dialect is spoken in the former Kedu residency, including: Temanggung, Kebumen, Magelang, and Wonosobo. Bagelen dialect is spoken in Purworejo. Semarang
Semarang
dialect is spoken in Semarang, Semarang
Semarang
regency, and also Salatiga, Demak and Kendal. Eastern North-Coast dialect, or dhialèk Muria, is spoken in Jepara, Rembang, Kudus, Pati, and also in Tuban and Bojonegoro. Blora dialect is spoken in Blora, the eastern part of Grobogan, and the western part of Ngawi. Madiunan dialect is spoken mainly in western part of East Java province, including Madiun, Blitar, Ngawi, Pacitan, Ponorogo, and Magetan. Western Javanese (Jawa Kulonan), spoken in the western part of the Central Java
Java
province and throughout the West Java
Java
province (particularly on the north coast), includes dialects that are distinct for their Sundanese influences. It retains many archaic words.

North Banten
Banten
dialect (Jawa Sérang) is spoken in Serang, Cilegon, and the western part of Tangerang regency. Cirebon
Cirebon
dialect (Cirebonan or Basa Cerbon) is spoken in Cirebon, Indramayu and Losari. Tegal dialect, known as Tegalan or Dhialèk Pantura (North-Coast dialect), is spoken in Tegal, Brebes, and the western part of Pemalang regency. Banyumas
Banyumas
dialect, known as Banyumasan, is spoken in Banyumas, Cilacap, Purbalingga, Banjarnegara, and Bumiayu. Some Western Javanese dialects such as Banyumasan dialects and Tegal dialect are sometimes referred to as basa ngapak by other Javanese. Eastern Javanese (Jawa Wétanan) speakers range from the eastern banks of Brantas River
Brantas River
in Kertosono, and from Nganjuk
Nganjuk
to Banyuwangi, comprising the majority of the East Java
Java
province excluding Madura island. However, the variant has been influenced by Madurese. The most outlying Eastern Javanese dialect is spoken in Balambangan (or Banyuwangi). It is generally known as Basa Using. Using, a local negation word, is a cognate of tusing in Balinese.

Arekan dialect is commonly spoken in Surabaya, Malang, Gresik, Mojokerto, Pasuruan, Lumajang, Lamongan and Sidoarjo. Many Madurese people also use this dialect as their second language. Jombang dialect Tengger dialect used by Tengger people, which is centered in thirty villages in the isolated Tengger mountains (Mount Bromo) within the Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park
Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park
in East-Central Java. Osing dialect spoken in Banyuwangi. Surinamese-Javanese is mainly based on Central Javanese, especially from Kedu residency. The number of speakers of Suriname-Javanese in Suriname
Suriname
was estimated at 60,000 as of 2012.[16] Most Surinamese-Javanese are bi- or trilingual. According to the 2004 census, Surinamese-Javanese was the first or second language in 11 percent of households. In a 2012 study of multilingualism in Surinamese education by the Dutch Language Union,[16] 3,497 out of 22,643 pupils (15 percent) in primary education indicated Surinamese-Javanese as a language spoken at home. Most of them were living in Wanica
Wanica
and Paramaribo districts. Not all immigrants from Indonesia
Indonesia
to Suriname
Suriname
were speakers of Javanese. Immigration records show that 90 percent of immigrants were Javanese, with 5 percent Sundanese, 0.5 percent Madurese and 2.5 percent from Batavia. The ethnic composition of this last group was not determinable. Probably Sundanese, Madurese or Malay speaking immigrants were forced to learn Javanese during their stay in Suriname to adapt. In view of the language policies in Netherlands Indies at the time of immigration, it is unlikely the immigrants had knowledge of the Dutch language
Dutch language
prior to immigration to Suriname. Dutch today is the official language of Suriname. Surinamese Javanese is somewhat different from Indonesian Javanese.[17] In Surinamese-Javanese there is a difference between formal and informal speech. Surinamese-Javanese took many loanwords from languages like Dutch, Sranantongo, Sarnami and Indonesian. The influence of the latter language, which is not spoken in Suriname, can be attributed to the Indonesian embassy and Islamic teachers from Indonesia. Indonesian movies are popular, and usually shown without subtitles on Surinamese-Javanese television channels.

Surinamese-Javanese[17]

Sranantongo

Dutch

English

ngabrah

abra

over

across

bakrah

bakra

blanke

white man

blangkeman

blakaman

neger

black man

pernangsi

pernasi

plantage

plantation

sekaut

skowtu

schout (politieagent)

policeman

In 1986, the Surinamese government adopted an official spelling for Surinamese-Javanese. It is seldom used as a written language, however. In the 2012 survey, pupils who indicated Surinamese-Javanese as a language spoken at home, reported Dutch (97.9 percent) and Sranantongo (76.9 percent) also being spoken in the household. Surinamese-Javanese speaking pupils report high proficiency in speaking and understanding, but very low literacy in the language. They report a low preference for the language in interaction with family members, including their parents, with the exception of their grandparents. Pupils where Surinamese-Javanese is spoken at tend at home to speak Dutch (77 percent) rather than Surinamese-Javanese (12 percent).

Phonetic differences[edit] Phoneme /i/ at closed ultima is pronounced as [ɪ] in Central Javanese (Surakarta– Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
dialect), as [i] in Western Javanese (Banyumasan dialect), and as [ɛ] in Eastern Javanese. Phoneme /u/ at closed ultima is pronounced as [ʊ] in Central Javanese, as [u] in Western Javanese, and as [ɔ] in Eastern Javanese. Phoneme /a/ at closed ultima in Central Javanese is pronounced as [a] and at open ultima as [ɔ]. Regardless of position, it tends toward [a] in Western Javanese and as [ɔ] in Eastern Javanese. Western Javanese tend to glottalize every last vowel of a word as euphony[clarification needed], e.g.: Ana apa? [ana apaʔ] "What happened?", Aja kaya kuwè! [adʒak kajak kuɛʔ] "Don't be like that!".

Dialectal Phonetics

Phoneme

Orthography

Central Javanese (standard)

Western Javanese

Eastern Javanese

English

/i/

getih

[ɡətɪh]

[ɡətih]

[ɡətɛh]

blood

/u/

abuh

[aβʊh]

[aβuh]

[aβɔh]

swollen

/a/

lenga

[ləŋɔ]

[ləŋa]

[ləŋɔ]

oil

/a/

kancamu/kancané kowé

[kancamu]

[kancanɛ kowɛ]

[kɔncɔmu]

your friend

Final consonant devoicing occurs in the standard Central Javanese dialect, but not in Banyumasan. For example, egg is pronounced [ɛnɖɔʔ] in standard Central Javanese, but [ɛnɖɔg] in Banyumasan. The latter is closer to Old Javanese.[18]

Vocabulary differences[edit] The vocabulary of standard Javanese is enriched by dialectal words. For example, to get the meaning of "you", Western Javanese speakers say rika /rikaʔ/, Eastern Javanese use kon /kɔn/ or koen /kɔən/, and Central Javanese speakers say kowé /kowe/. Another example is the expression of "how": the Tegal dialect of Western Javanese uses kepribèn /kəpriben/, the Banyumasan dialect of Western Javanese employs kepriwé /kəpriwe/ or kepriwèn /kəpriwen/, Eastern Javanese speakers say ya' apa /jɔʔ ɔpɔ/ – originally meaning "like what" (kaya apa in standard Javanese) or kepiyé /kəpije/ – and Central Javanese speakers say piye /pije/ or kepriyé /kəprije/.

Surakarta- Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
(standard)

Northern Banten

Cirebon-Indramayu

Tegal-Brebes

Banyumas

Surabaya

English

aku

kite

kita, isun

enyong

inyong

aku, awakku

I, me

kowé

sire

sira

koen

rika, kowè

koen, awakmu

you

tenan

pisan

pisan

temen

temen

temenan, temen

truly

kepiyé, piyé

keprimèn

kepribèn, kepriwè

kepribèn

kepriwè

yok apa

how

ora

ore

ora, beli

ora, belih

ora

gak, ora

not

mlebu

manjing

manjing

manjing, mlebu

mlebu

melbu, menjero

to enter

arep

arep

arep, pan

pan

arep

apé, até

will

saka

sake

sing

sing

sekang

teka

from

The Madiun–Kediri dialect has some idiosyncratic vocabulary, such as panggah 'still' (standard Javanese: pancet), lagèk 'progressive modal' (standard Javanese: lagi), and emphatic particles nda, pèh, and lé.[19]

Classification[edit] A preliminary general classification of Javanese dialects given by the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology's Department of Linguistics is as follows.[20] Pesisir (Pemalang) and Tengger are considered to be among the most conservative dialects.[21][22] The Banten, Pesisir Lor, Banyumas, Tengger, and Osing dialects do not have the vowel raising and vowel harmony features that are innovations of the "standard" Solo and Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
dialects.

West Javanese: Banten Cirebon Central Javanese: Pesisir Lor dialects[21] Tegal Pemalang Pekalongan Yogyakarta Surakarta/Solo Semarang Banyumas[18] Cilacap Purwokerto Kebumen East Javanese: Surabaya Malang Madiun-Kediri-Nganjuk[19] Lumajang Osing[23] Banyuwangi Tengger Ngadas Ranu Pane Outer Javanese Papuan Javanese Standard Javanese[edit] Standard Javanese is the variety of the Javanese language
Javanese language
that was developed at the Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
and Surakarta
Surakarta
courts, based on the Central Javanese dialect, and becomes the basis for the Javanese modern writings. It is marked with the strict usage of two speech levels for politeness, i.e. low speech level called ngoko and high speech level called krama. Other dialects do not contrast the usage of the speech levels.[24]

History[edit] Old Javanese[edit] Main article: Old Javanese language Palm leaf manuscript of Kakawin Sutasoma, a 14th-century Javanese poem. While evidence of writing in Java
Java
dates to the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
"Tarumanegara inscription" of 450 AD, the oldest example written entirely in Javanese, called the "Sukabumi inscription", is dated 25 March 804. This inscription, located in the district of Pare in the Kediri regency of East Java, is actually a copy of an original that is about 120 years older; only this copy has been preserved. Its contents concern the construction of a dam for an irrigation canal near the river Śrī Hariñjing (present-day Srinjing). This inscription is the last known of its kind to be written using Pallava script; all extant subsequent examples are written using Javanese script. The 8th and 9th centuries are marked by the emergence of the Javanese literary tradition – with Sang Hyang Kamahayanikan, a Buddhist treatise; and the Kakawin Rāmâyaṇa, a Javanese rendering in Indian metres of the Vaishnavist Sanskrit
Sanskrit
epic Rāmāyaṇa. Although Javanese as a written language appeared considerably later than Malay (extant in the 7th century), the Javanese literary tradition has been continuous from its inception. The oldest works – such as the Kakawin Rāmâyaṇa
Kakawin Rāmâyaṇa
and a Javanese rendering of the Indian Mahābhārata
Mahābhārata
epic – are studied assiduously today. The expansion of Javanese culture, including Javanese script
Javanese script
and language, began in 1293 with the eastward push of the Hindu–Buddhist East-Javanese Empire Majapahit, toward Madura
Madura
and Bali. The Javanese campaign in Bali
Bali
in 1363 had a deep and lasting impact, and Javanese replaced Balinese as the language of administration and literature. Though the Balinese people preserved much of the older literature of Java
Java
and even created their own in Javanese idioms, Balinese ceased to be written until a 19th-century restoration.

See also: Kawi language Middle Javanese[edit] The Majapahit
Majapahit
Empire saw the rise of Middle Javanese as effectively a new language, intermediate between Old and New Javanese, though Middle Javanese is similar enough to New Javanese to be understood by anyone who is well acquainted with current literary Javanese.

A New Javanese inscription in Sholihin Mosque, Surakarta. The Majapahit
Majapahit
Empire fell due to internal disturbances in the Paregreg civil war, thought to have occurred in 1405 and 1406, and attacks by Islamic
Islamic
forces of the Sultanate of Demak
Sultanate of Demak
on the north coast of Java. There is a Javanese chronogram concerning the fall that reads "sirna ilang krĕtaning bumi" ("vanished and gone was the prosperity of the World"), indicating the date 1478 AD, giving rise to a popular belief that Majapahit
Majapahit
collapsed in 1478, though it may have lasted into the 16th century. This was the last Hindu
Hindu
Javanese empire.

New Javanese[edit] In the 16th century a new era in Javanese history began with the rise of the Islamic
Islamic
Central Javanese Mataram Sultanate, originally a vassal state of Majapahit. Ironically, the Mataram Empire rose as an Islamic kingdom that sought revenge for the demise of the Hindu
Hindu
Majapahit Empire by first crushing Demak, the first Javanese Islamic
Islamic
kingdom. Javanese culture spread westward as Mataram conquered many previously Sundanese areas in western parts of Java; and Javanese became the dominant language in more than a third of this area. As with Balinese, the Sundanese language
Sundanese language
ceased to be written until the 19th century. In the meantime it was heavily influenced by Javanese, and some 40% of Sundanese vocabulary is believed to have been derived from Javanese. Though Islamic
Islamic
in name, the Mataram II empire preserved many elements of the older culture, incorporating them into the newly adopted religion. This is why Javanese script
Javanese script
is still in use, as opposed to the writing of Old Malay for example. After the Malays were converted, they dropped their form of indigenous writing and changed to a form of the "script of the Divine", the Arabic
Arabic
script. In addition to the rise of Islam, the 16th century saw the emergence of the New Javanese language. The first Islamic
Islamic
documents in Javanese were already written in New Javanese, although still in antiquated idioms and with numerous Arabic
Arabic
loanwords. This is to be expected: these early New Javanese documents are Islamic
Islamic
treatises. Later, intensive contacts with the Dutch and with other Indonesians gave rise to a simplified form of Javanese and an influx of foreign loanwords.

Javanese script[edit] A modern bilingual text in Portuguese and Javanese in Yogyakarta. Main article: Javanese script Javanese has been traditionally written with Javanese script. Javanese and the related Balinese script
Balinese script
are modern variants of the old Kawi script, a Brahmic script
Brahmic script
introduced to Java
Java
along with Hinduism and Buddhism. Kawi is first attested in a legal document from 804 AD. It was widely used in literature and translations from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
from the 10th century; by the 17th, the script is identified as carakan. The Javanese script
Javanese script
is an abugida. Each of the twenty letter represents a syllable with a consonant (or a "zero consonant") and the inherent vowel 'a' that is pronounced as /ɔ/ in open position. Various diacritics placed around the letter indicate a different vowel than [ɔ], a final consonant, or a foreign pronunciation. Letters have subscript forms used to transcribe consonant clusters, though the shape are relatively straightforward, and not as distinct as conjunct forms of Devanagari. Some letters are only present in old Javanese and became obsolete in modern Javanese. Some of these letters became "capital" forms used in proper names. Punctuation includes a comma; period; a mark that covers the colon, quotations, and indicates numerals; and marks to introduce a chapter, poem, song, or letter. However, Javanese can also be written with the Arabic script
Arabic script
(known as the Pegon script) and today generally uses Latin script instead of Javanese script
Javanese script
for practical purposes. A Latin orthography based on Dutch was introduced in 1926, revised in 1972–1973; it has largely supplanted the carakan. The current Latin-based forms:

Majuscule forms (uppercase)

A B C D

Dh E É È F G H I J K L M N

Ng

Ny O P Q R S T

Th U V W X Y Z

Minuscule forms (lowercase)

a b c d

dh e é è f g h i j k l m n

ng

ny o p q r s t

th u v w x y z

The italic letters are used in loanwords from European languages and Arabic. Javanese script:

Base consonant letters

ꦲ ꦤ ꦕ ꦫ ꦏ ꦢ ꦠ ꦱ ꦮ ꦭ ꦥ ꦝ ꦗ ꦪ ꦚ ꦩ ꦒ ꦧ ꦛ ꦔ

ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la pa dha ja ya nya ma ga ba tha nga

Demographic distribution of Javanese speakers[edit] See also: Javanese people Javanese is spoken throughout Indonesia, neighboring Southeast Asian countries, the Netherlands, Suriname, New Caledonia, and other countries. The largest populations of speakers are found in the six provinces of Java
Java
itself, and in the neighboring Sumatran province of Lampung. A table showing the number of native speakers in 1980, for the 22 Indonesian provinces (from the total of 27) in which more than 1% of the population spoke Javanese:[25]

Indonesian province % of provincial population Javanese speakers (1980)

1.

Aceh
Aceh
province

6.7%

175,000

2.

North Sumatra

21.0%

1,757,000

3.

West Sumatra

1.0%

56,000

4.

Jambi

17.0%

245,000

5.

South Sumatra

12.4%

573,000

6.

Bengkulu

15.4%

118,000

7.

Lampung

62.4%

2,886,000

8.

Riau

8.5%

184,000

9.

Jakarta

3.6%

236,000

10.

West Java[26]

13.3%

3,652,000

11.

Central Java

96.9%

24,579,000

12.

Yogyakarta

97.6%

2,683,000

13.

East Java

74.5%

21,720,000

14.

Bali

1.1%

28,000

15.

West Kalimantan

1.7%

41,000

16.

Central Kalimantan

4.0%

38,000

17.

South Kalimantan

4.7%

97,000

18.

East Kalimantan

10.1%

123,000

19.

North Sulawesi

1.0%

20,000

20.

Central Sulawesi

2.9%

37,000

21.

Southeast Sulawesi

3.6%

34,000

22.

Maluku

1.1%

16,000

According to the 1980 census, Javanese was used daily in approximately 43% of Indonesian households. By this reckoning there were well over 60 million Javanese speakers,[27] from a national population of 147,490,298.[28][29]

Madurese in Javanese script. In Banten, the descendants of the Central Javanese conquerors who founded the Islamic
Islamic
Sultanate there in the 16th century still speak an archaic form of Javanese.[30] The rest of the population mainly speaks Sundanese and Indonesian, since this province borders directly on Jakarta.[31] At least one third of the population of Jakarta
Jakarta
are of Javanese descent, so they speak Javanese or have knowledge of it. In the province of West Java, many people speak Javanese, especially those living in the areas bordering Central Java, the cultural homeland of the Javanese. Almost a quarter of the population of East Java
Java
province are Madurese (mostly on the Isle of Madura); many Madurese have some knowledge of colloquial Javanese. Since the 19th century, Madurese was also written in the Javanese script.[32] The original inhabitants of Lampung, the Lampungese, make up only 15% of the provincial population. The rest are the so-called "transmigrants", settlers from other parts of Indonesia, many as a result of past government transmigration programs. Most of these transmigrants are Javanese who have settled there since the 19th century. In Suriname
Suriname
(the former Dutch colony of Surinam), South America, approximately 15% of the population of some 500,000 are of Javanese descent, among whom 75,000 speak Javanese. A local variant evolved: the Tyoro Jowo- Suriname
Suriname
or Suriname
Suriname
Javanese.[33]

Javanese today[edit] Distribution map of languages spoken in Java, Madura, and Bali. Although Javanese is not a national language, it has recognized status as a regional language in the three Indonesian provinces with the biggest concentrations of Javanese people: Central Java, Yogyakarta, and East Java.[citation needed] Javanese is taught at schools and is used in some mass media, both electronically and in print. There is, however, no longer a daily newspaper in Javanese. Javanese-language magazines include Panjebar Semangat, Jaka Lodhang, Jaya Baya, Damar Jati, and Mekar Sari. Since 2003, an East Java
Java
local television station (JTV) has broadcast some of its programmes in the Surabayan dialect, including Pojok kampung (news), Kuis RT/RW, and Pojok Perkoro (a crime programme). In later broadcasts, JTV offers programmes in the Central Javanese dialect (called by them basa kulonan, "the western language") and Madurese. In 2005 a new Javanese language
Javanese language
magazine, Damar Jati, appeared. It is not published in the Javanese heartlands, but in Jakarta.

Basic vocabulary[edit]

English Ngoko Krama

yes iya inggih or nggih[34]

no ora boten

what apa punapa

who sapa sinten

how kapriyé or kepiyé kados pundi or pripun

why nangapa or ngapa kènging punapa

eat mangan nedha

sleep turu saré

here ing kéné

ing riki or mriki

there ing kana

ing rika or mrika

there is (there are) ana wonten

there is no (there are no) ora ana boten wonten

no! or I don't want it! emoh wegah

make a visit for pleasure dolan amèng-amèng

Numbers[edit] Main article: Javanese numerals [Javanese Ngoko is on the left, and Javanese Krama is on the right.]

Numeral Javanese script Ngoko Krama Notes

0 ꧇꧐꧇

nul nul derived from Dutch

1 ꧇꧑꧇ siji satunggal

2 ꧇꧒꧇ loro kalih

3 ꧇꧓꧇ telu tiga

4 ꧇꧔꧇ papat sakawan

5 ꧇꧕꧇ lima gangsal

6 ꧇꧖꧇ enem enem

7 ꧇꧗꧇ pitu pitu

8 ꧇꧘꧇ wolu wolu

9 ꧇꧙꧇ sanga sanga

10 ꧇꧑꧐꧇ sapuluh sadasa

11 ꧇꧑꧑꧇

sawelas satunggal welas

20 ꧇꧒꧐꧇

rong puluh kalih dasa

21 ꧇꧒꧑꧇

salikur satunggal likur

22 ꧇꧒꧒꧇

ro likur kalih likur

23 ꧇꧒꧓꧇

telu likur tiga likur

24 ꧇꧒꧔꧇

pat likur sakawan likur

25 ꧇꧒꧕꧇

salawé salangkung

26 ꧇꧒꧖꧇

enem likur enem likur

27 ꧇꧒꧗꧇

pitu likur pitu likur

28 ꧇꧒꧘꧇

wolu likur wolu likur

29 ꧇꧒꧙꧇

sanga likur sanga likur

30 ꧇꧓꧐꧇

telung puluh tigang dasa

31 ꧇꧓꧑꧇

telung puluh siji tigang dasa satunggal

40 ꧇꧔꧐꧇

patang puluh sakawan dasa

41 ꧇꧔꧑꧇

patang puluh siji sakawan dasa satunggal

50 ꧇꧕꧐꧇ sèket sèket

51 ꧇꧕꧑꧇

sèket siji sèket satunggal

60 ꧇꧖꧐꧇

sawidak sawidak

61 ꧇꧖꧑꧇

sawidak siji sawidak satunggal

70 ꧇꧗꧐꧇

pitung puluh pitung dasa

80 ꧇꧘꧐꧇

wolung puluh wolung dasa

90 ꧇꧙꧐꧇

sangang puluh sangang dasa

100 ꧇꧑꧐꧐꧇ satus satunggal atus

hundreds

atusan atusan

1000 ꧇꧑꧐꧐꧐꧇ sèwu satunggal èwu

thousands

éwon éwon

See also[edit]

Indonesia
Indonesia
portal Banyumasan language Hans Ras List of languages without official status Java Javanese alphabet Javanese literature Johan Hendrik Caspar Kern Notes[edit]

^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin

^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Javanesic". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh

^ Kewarganegaraan, Suku Bangsa, Agama dan Bahasa Sehari-hari Penduduk Indonesia
Indonesia
- Hasil Sensus Penduduk 2010. Badan Pusat Statistik. 2011. ISBN 978-979-064-417-5.

^ Van der Molen (1983:VII-VIII).

^ Sukarno
Sukarno
has a Javanese father and a Balinese mother, Habibie has a father of Gorontalo
Gorontalo
descent and a Javanese mother, while Megawati is Sukarno's daughter through his wife, who is from Bengkulu.

^ a b c d Brown, Keith; Ogilvie, Sarah (2008). Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world. Elsevier. p. 560. ISBN 9780080877747. Retrieved 2010-05-24. Madurese also possesses aspirated phonemes, including at least one aspirated retroflex phoneme.

^ Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.

^ Suharno, Ignatius (1982). A Descriptive Study of Javanese. ANU Asia-Pacific Linguistics / Pacific Linguistics Press. pp. 4–6.

^ Piwulang Basa Jawa Pepak, S.B. Pramono, hal 148, Babad Hanacaraka, 2013

^ The Old Javanese spelling is modified to suit Modern Javanese spelling.

^ Zoetmulder (1982:IX).

^ Uhlenbeck (1964:57).

^ a b Wolff, John U.; Soepomo Poedjosoedarmo (1982). Communicative Codes in Central Java. Cornell Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
Program. p. 4. ISBN 0-87727-116-X.

^ For example Pigeaud's dictionary in 1939 is almost exclusively based on Surakarta
Surakarta
speech (1939:viii–xiii).

^ a b Kroon, Sjaak; Yağmur, Kutlay (2012), Meertaligheid in het onderwijs in Suriname
Suriname
[Multilingualism in education in Suriname] (PDF) (in Dutch), Den Haag: Nederlandse Taalunie, ISBN 978-90-70593-19-3

^ a b Gobardhan-Rambocus, Lila; Sarmo, Johan (1993). "Het Surinaams Javaans" [The Javanese Surinamese] (PDF). In Gobardhan-Rambocus, Lila; Hassankhan, Maurits S. (eds.). Immigratie en ontwikkeling : emancipatieproces van contractanten [Immigration and development: emancipation of contractors] (in Dutch). Paramaribo: Anton de Kom Universiteit. pp. 184–201.

^ a b https://web.archive.org/web/20110513144247/http://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/jakarta/banyumas.php

^ a b https://web.archive.org/web/20110514131153/http://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/jakarta/madiun.php

^ https://web.archive.org/web/20110513144247/http://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/jakarta/javanese_dialectology.php

^ a b https://web.archive.org/web/20110514131142/http://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/jakarta/pemalangan.php

^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-05-14. Retrieved 2013-11-23.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)

^ https://web.archive.org/web/20110514131202/http://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/jakarta/osing.php

^ Adelaar, Alexander (2011). "Javanese -aké and -akən: A Short History". Oceanic Linguistics. 50 (2): 338–350. doi:10.1353/ol.2011.0024. ISSN 1527-9421.

^ The data are taken from the census of 1980 as provided by James J. Fox and Peter Gardiner and published by S. A. Wurm and Shiro Hattori, eds. 1983. Language Atlas of the Pacific Area, Part II: (Insular South-East Asia), Canberra.

^ In 1980 this included the now separate Banten
Banten
province.

^ According to James J. Fox and Peter Gardiner (Wurm and Hattori, 1983).

^ Collins Concise Dictionary Plus (1989).

^ The distribution of persons living in Javanese-speaking households in East Java
Java
and Lampung
Lampung
requires clarification. For East Java, daily-language percentages are as follows: 74.5 Javanese, 23.0 Madurese, and 2.2 Indonesian. For Lampung, the official percentages are 62.4 Javanese, 16.4 Lampungese and other languages, 10.5 Sundanese, and 9.4 Indonesian. The figures are somewhat outdated for some regions, especially Jakarta; but they remain more or less stable for the rest of Java. In Jakarta
Jakarta
the number of Javanese has increased tenfold in the last 25 years. On the other hand, because of the conflict the number of Javanese in Aceh
Aceh
might have decreased. It is also relevant that Banten
Banten
has separated from West Java
Java
province in 2000.

^ Pigeaud (1967:10-11).

^ Many commuters to Jakarta
Jakarta
live in the suburbs in Banten, among them also Javanese speakers. Their exact number is unknown.

^ Unfortunately, the aspirated phonemes of Madurese are not reproduced in writing. The 19th-century scribes apparently overlooked the fact that Javanese script
Javanese script
does possess the required characters.

^ Bartje S. Setrowidjojo and Ruben T. Setrowidjojo Het Surinaams-Javaans = Tyoro Jowo-Suriname, Den Haag: Suara Jawa, 1994, ISBN 90-802125-1-2.

^ Piwulang Basa Jawa Pepak, S.B. Pramono, hal 148, 2013

Sources[edit] Elinor C. Horne. 1961. Beginning Javanese. New Haven: Yale University Press. W. van der Molen. 1993. Javaans schrift. Leiden: Vakgroep Talen en Culturen van Zuidoost-Azië en Oceanië. ISBN 90-73084-09-1 S. A. Wurm and Shiro Hattori, eds. 1983. Language Atlas of the Pacific Area, Part II: (Insular South-east Asia), Canberra. P. J. Zoetmulder. 1982. Old Javanese–English Dictionary. 's-Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff. ISBN 90-247-6178-6 Further reading[edit] Errington, James Joseph (1991), Language and social change in Java : linguistic reflexes of modernization in a traditional royal polity, Ohio University, Center for International Studies, retrieved 18 February 2013 Errington, James Joseph (1998), Shifting languages : interaction and identity in Javanese Indonesia, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-63448-9 Horne, Elinor Clark (1963), Intermediate Javanese, Yale University Press, retrieved 18 February 2013 Horne, Elinor Clark (1974), Javanese-English dictionary, Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-01689-5 Keeler, Ward (1984), Javanese, a cultural approach, Ohio University Center for International Studies, ISBN 978-0-89680-121-9 Robson, S. O. (Stuart Owen); Wibisono, Singgih (2002), Javanese English dictionary, Periplus Editions (HK) ; North Clarendon, VT : Tuttle Pub, ISBN 978-0-7946-0000-6 Robson, S. O. (Stuart Owen); Monash University. Monash Asia Institute (2002), Javanese grammar for students (Rev. ed.), Monash Asia Institute, Monash University, ISBN 978-1-876924-12-6 Robson, S. O. (Stuart Owen); Monash University. Centre of Southeast Asian Studies (1991), Patterns of variation in colloquial Javanese, Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University, ISBN 978-0-7326-0263-5 Siegel, James T (1986), Solo in the new order : language and hierarchy in an Indonesian city, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-00085-5 Uhlenbeck, E. M; Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde (Netherlands) (1964), A critical survey of studies on the languages of Java
Java
and Madura, Martinus Nijhoff, retrieved 18 February 2013 Uhlenbeck, E. M; Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde (Netherlands) (1978), Studies in Javanese morphology, Martinus Nijhoff, ISBN 978-90-247-2162-7 External links[edit]

Javanese edition of, the free encyclopedia

Look up Appendix:Javanese Swadesh list in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for Javanese.

International Symposium On The Languages Of Java Javanese in Suriname
Suriname
strive to preserve origins Jakarta
Jakarta
Post article Javanese Writing System The Javanese alphabet
Javanese alphabet
( Unicode
Unicode
A980—A9DF) Javanese Phonation
Phonation
Types, Consonants Old Javanese inscriptions vteJavanese languageOverviews Language History Script Development Old Javanese Middle Javanese New Javanese Modern Javanese Scripts Pegon Aksara Latin Notable variantStandardized Mataraman Modern Javanese Regional dialects Suriname Banyumasan Arekan Pekalongan Banten Blora Cirebon Kedu Madiunan Semarangan Pesisir-Lor Kulon Osing Tenggerese Related Literature Names Numerals Javanese Language Congress Javanese historical texts Javanese poetry Letters of the Aksara JawaNglegenaconsonants Ha (ꦲ) Na (ꦤ) Ca (ꦕ) Ra (ꦫ) Ka (ꦏ) Da (ꦢ) Ta (ꦠ) Sa (ꦱ) Wa (ꦮ) La (ꦭ) Pa (ꦥ) Dha (ꦢ) Ja (ꦗ) Ya (ꦪ) Nya (ꦚ) Ma (ꦩ) Ga (ꦒ) Ba (ꦧ) Tha (ꦛ) Nga (ꦔ) Murdaconsonants Ka murda (ꦑ) Ga murda (ꦓ) Na murda (ꦟ) Ta murda (ꦡ) Pa murda (ꦦ) Ba murda (ꦨ) Sa murda (ꦯ) Seldom used: Ca murda (ꦖ) Nya murda (ꦘ) Extendedconsonants Often used: Pa cerek (ꦉ) Nga lelet (ꦊ) Seldom used: Nga lelet Raswadi (ꦋ) Ra agung (ꦬ) Ka sasak (ꦐ) Ja mahaprana (ꦙ) Tha mahaprana (ꦜ) Dha mahaprana (ꦞ) Da mahaprana (ꦣ) Sa mahaprana (ꦰ) Final and MedialConsonants Cecak (ꦁ) Layar (ꦂ) Wignyan/visarga (ꦃ) Cakra (ꦿ) Cakra keret (ꦽ) Pengkal (ꦾ) Pangkon/virama (꧀) Vowels Wulu (ꦶ) Suku (ꦸ) Pepet (ꦼ) Taling
Taling
(ꦺ) Tarung
Tarung
(ꦴ) Tolong (ꦵ) Dirga mure (ꦻ) Wulu melik (ꦷ) Suku mendut (ꦹ) Foreign: A (ꦄ) I (ꦆ) U (ꦈ) E (ꦌ) Ai (ꦍ) O (ꦎ) Numbers 0 (꧐) 1 (꧑) 2 (꧒) 3 (꧓) 4 (꧔) 5 (꧕) 6 (꧖) 7 (꧗) 8 (꧘) 9 (꧙) Pada pangkat (꧇) Punctuations Pada lingsa (꧈) Pada lungsi (꧉) Pada adeg (꧊) Pada adeg-adeg (꧋) Pada piseleh (꧌ and ꧍) Pada luhur (꧅) Pada madya (꧄) Pada andhap (꧃) Pada tirta tumetes (꧞) Pada isen-isen (꧟) Pada windu (꧆) Pangrangkep (ꧏ) Cecak telu (꦳) Panyangga (ꦀ) Rerenggan (꧁ and ꧂)

vte Languages of IndonesiaWestern languagesMalayo-Sumbawan Indonesian Bahasa Binan Slang Acehnese Balinese Bamayo Duano' Haji Iban Kangean Kendayan Keninjal Kubu Lubu Loncong Madurese Malay Bangka Banjar Bengkulu Berau Col/Lembak Jambi Kaur Jaring Halus Kerinci Kutai Larantuka Minangkabau Palembang Pekal Pontianak Mualang Sasak Seberuang Sumbawan Sundanese Baduy Bantenese Javanese Javanese Banyumasan Osing Tenggerese Celebic Andio Bada Bahonsuai Balaesang Balantak Banggai Batui Behoa Boano Bobongko Bonerate Bungku Busoa Cia-Cia Dampelas Dondo Kalao Kaili Kaimbulawa Kamaru Kodeoha Kulisusu Kumbewaha Lasalimu Laiyolo Lauje Liabuku Mbelala Moronene Mori Bawah Mori Atas Moma Muna Napu Padoe Pancana Pendau Rahambuu Rampi Saluan Sarudu Sedoa Pamona Taje Tajio Tukang Besi Tolaki Tomadino Topoiyo Tomini Totoli Uma Waru Wawonii Wolio Wotu Lampungic Komering Lampung Northwest Sumatra–Barrier Islands Batak Alas Batak Angkola Batak Dairi Batak Karo Batak Mandailing Batak Simalungun Batak Toba Enggano Gayo Mentawai Nias Simeulue Sikule South Sulawesi Aralle-Tabulahan Bambam Bentong Budong-Budong Buginese Campalagian Coastal Konjo Dakka Duri Embaloh Enrekang Highland Konjo Kalumpang Lemolang Maiwa Makassarese Malimpung Mamasa Mamuju Mandar Panasuan Pannei Selayar Seko Padang Seko Tengah Tae’ Talondo’ Taman Toraja-Sa’dan Ulumanda’ Barito Ampanang Bajaw Bakumpai Deyah Kohin Lawangan Ma'anyan Malang Ngaju Ot Danum Ot Siang Tunjung Witu Pakau Kayan–Murik Aoheng Aput Bahau Hovongan Kayan Krio Modang Punan Merah Segai Land Dayak Bakati’ Biatah Bukar Sadong Jangkang Kembayan Laraʼ Nyadu’ Rejangese Ribun Sanggau Sara Semandang Tringgus North Bornean Bah-Biau Basap Bukat Bukitan Kelabit Kenyah Mainstream Lengilu Lun Bawang Murut Okolod Selungai Sembakung Tagol Punan Merap Punan Tubu Sa'ban Sajau Tidung Burusu Kalabakan Nonukan Philippine languagesCentral Philippine Tausug Gorontalo-Mongondow Bintauna Bolango Buol Gorontaloan Kaidipang Lolak Mongondow Ponosakan Suwawa Minahasan Tombulu Tondano Tonsawang Tonsea Tontemboan Sangiric Bantik Ratahan Sangirese Talaud Central-Eastern languagesAru Barakai Batuley Dobel Karey Koba Kola-Kompane Lola Lorang Manombai Mariri Tarangan Ujir Central Maluku Alune Amahai Ambelau Asilulu Banda Bati Benggoi Boano Bobot Buru Geser Haruku Hitu Hoti Huaulu Hulung Kaibobo Kamarian Laha Larike-Wakasihu Latu Liana-Seti Lisabata-Nuniali Lisela Loun Luhu Mangole Manipa Manusela Masiwang Naka'ela Nuaulu Nusa Laut Paulohi Salas Saleman Saparua Seit-Kaitetu Sepa-Teluti Sula Taliabo Teor-Kur Tulehu Watubela Wemale Yalahatan Flores–Lembata Adonara Alorese Ile Ape Kedang Lamaholot Lamalera Lamatuka Levuka Lewo Eleng Lewotobi Sika South Lembata West Lembata Halmahera-Cenderawasih Ambai Ansus Arguni Bedoanas Biak Busami Dusner Erokwanas Irarutu Iresim Kuri Kurudu Munggui Marau Meoswar Mor Pom Papuma Roon Serui-Laut Tandia Wabo Waropen Wandamen Woi Yaur Yeretuar Kei-Tanimbar Fordata Kei Onin Sekar Uruangnirin Yamdena Selaru Selaru Seluwasan Sumba–Flores Anakalangu Baliledo Bima Dhao Ende-Li'o-Ke'o-Nage Gaura Hawu Kambera Kodi Komodo Lamboya Mamboru Manggarai Ngadha Palu'e Pondok Rajong Rembong Riung Rongga So'a Kepo' Wae Rana Wanukaka Wejewa Timor–Babar Tetum Uab Meto Amarasi Baikeno Bekais Bilba Dai Dawera-Daweloor Dela-Oenale Dengka East Damar Emplawas Helong Imroing Kisar Leti Lole Luang Masela Nila North Babar Ringgou Romang Serili Serua Southeast Babar Tela'a Termanu Te'un Tii West Damar Wetar Western Oceanic Anus Bonggo Kayupulau Liki Masimasi Ormu Podena Kaptiau Sobei Tarpia Tobati Wakde Yamna Other Kowiai Papuan languages Abui Abun Adang Aghu Airoran Asmat Auye Bagusa Baham Baropasi Bauzi Bayono-Awbono Berik Betaf Bimin Blagar Bonerif Bunak Burate Burmeso Burumakok Buruwai Citak Dabe Dao Demisa Demta Dineor Ekari Faiwol Galela Gamkonora Grand Valley Dani Hattam Hupla Iha Isirawa Itik Iwur Jofotek-Bromnya Kaera Kafoa Kalabra Kamang Kamberau Kamoro Kanum Karas Kauwera Kehu Keijar Klon Kofei Kombai Kombai–Wanggom Komyandaret Koneraw Kopka Kopkaka Korowai Kui Kula Kuwani Kwerba Mamberamo Kwerba Kwesten Kwinsu Loloda Maklew Mander Mandobo Mawes Maybrat Meax Meninggo Mian Modole Moi Mombum Momina Momuna Moni Moraid Mpur Muyu Nafri Nakai Nduga Nedebang Ngalum Nggem Ninggerum Nisa-Anasi Oksapmin Orya Pagu Pisa Retta Sahu Samarokena Saponi Sauri Sause Saweru Sawi Sawila Seget Sempan Sentani Setaman Shiaxa Silimo Skou Sougb Suganga Tabaru Tabla Tangko Tause Tefaro Tehit Teiwa Telefol Ternate Tidore Tifal Tobelo Trimuris Tsaukambo Tunggare Urapmin Vitou Waioli Walak Wambon Wano Wares Wersing West Makian Western Dani Western Pantar Wolani Woria Yali Yawa Yelmek Yonggom Other languagesCreoles and PidginsMalay-based creoles Ambonese Malay Baba Malay Bandanese Malay Bacanese Malay Balinese Malay Betawi Gorap Kupang Malay Manado Malay Makassar Malay North Moluccan Malay Papuan Malay

Other creoles and pidgins Javindo Petjo Mardijker Pidgin Iha Pidgin Onin Portugis Bidau Creole Portuguese Sinitic languages Cantonese Fuzhounese Hainanese Hakka Hokkien Medan Riau Mandarin Pu-Xian Min Teochew Afro-Asiatic languages Modern Standard Arabic Dravidian languages Tamil Germanic languages English Dutch (historical) Romance languages French Portuguese Spanish Sign languages Indonesian Sign Language Kata Kolok

vte Languages of MalaysiaMainOfficial Malaysian Recognised English (comparison with British English) SignificantminorityChinese Sino-Tibetan Cantonese Malaysian Cantonese Eastern Min Fuqing Fuzhou Hokkien Mandarin Chinese Malaysian Mandarin Pu-Xian Min Penang Hokkien Southern Peninsular Malaysian Hokkien Yue Chinese Indian Dravidian Malayalam Tamil Malaysian Tamil Telugu Indo-European Gujarati Hindi Punjabi Urdu Families Austroasiatic Aslian Austronesian North Bornean Land Dayak Malayic Philippine Sama–Bajaw Tai-Kadai Tai Creoles Chavacano Kristang Manglish Other Malay trade and creole languages Natives &IndigenousNationwide Banjar Buginese Javanese Malay (Malayan) PeninsularMalaysia Baba Malay Batek Baweanese Cheq Wong Chetty Malay Duano’ Jah Hut Jahai Jakun Jedek Kedah Malay Kelantan-Pattani Malay Kenaboi1 Kensiu Kintaq Kristang Lanoh Mah Meri Minriq Mintil Mos Negeri Sembilan Malay Orang Kanaq Orang Seletar Pahang Malay Perak Malay Rawa Malay Sabüm1 Semai Semaq Beri Semelai Semnam Southern Thai Temiar Temoq2 Temuan Terengganu Malay Wila'1 EastMalaysia Abai Bahau Bajaw Balau Belait Berawan Biatah Bintulu Bonggi Bookan Bruneian/Kedayan Malay Brunei Bisaya Bukar Sadong Bukitan Coastal Kadazan Cocos Malay Daro-Matu Dumpas Dusun Eastern Kadazan Gana’ Iban Ida'an Iranun Jagoi Jangkang Kajaman Kalabakan Kanowit Kayan Kelabit Kendayan Keningau Murut Kinabatangan Kiput Klias River Kadazan Kota Marudu Talantang Kuijau Lahanan Lelak1 Lengilu1 Lotud Lun Bawang Mainstream Kenyah Maranao Melanau Molbog Momogun Murik Kayan Narom Nonukan Tidong Okolod Paluan Papar Punan Batu2 Penan Remun Sa'ban Sabah Bisaya Sabah Malay Sama Sarawak Malay Sebop Sebuyau Sekapan Selungai Murut Sembakung Seru1 Serudung Sian Suluk Sungai Tagol Timugon Tombonuwo Tring Tringgus Tutoh Ukit2 Uma’ Lasan Mixed & Others Rojak Tanglish Esperanto Immigrants African Arab Bangladeshi Burmese Cambodian East Timorese Filipino Indonesian comparison with Malaysian Iranian Japanese Korean Laotian Nepalese Pakistani Sri Lankan Thai Vietnamese SignsMain Malaysian Sign Language (Manually Coded Malay) By states Penang Sign Language Selangor
Selangor
Sign Language 1 Extinct languages. 2 Nearly extinct languages. vte Languages of SurinameOfficial language Dutch Regional languages Aukan Caribbean Hindustani Chinese English Javanese Kwinti Saramaccan Sranan Tongo Indigenous languages Akurio Arawak Carib Mawayana Sikiana Trió Waiwai Warao Wayana

vteAustronesian languagesFormosanRukaic Rukai Tsouic Tsou Kanakanabu Saaroa Northern FormosanAtayalic Atayal Seediq Northwest Formosan Saisiyat Pazeh † Kulon † Thao Babuza Favorlang † East Formosan Ketagalan † Basay † Kavalan Amis Siraya † Southern Puyuma Paiwan Bunun Malayo-PolynesianWestern branches of Malayo-PolynesianPhilippineNorthernPhilippineBatanic (Bashiic) ? Itbayat Ivatan Yami Northern Luzon Ilokano Pangasinan Ibanag Arta Isnag Atta Itawis Yogad Cagayan Aeta Gaddang Ga'dang Northern Alta Southern Alta Isinai Itneg Kalinga Ifugao Tuwali ? Balangao Bontok-Finallig Kankanaey Ilongot Ibaloi Iwaak Kalanguya Karao Dicamay Agta † Central Luzon Kapampangan Abellen Ambala Bolinao Botolan Mag-antsi Mag-indi Mariveleño Sambali Remontado Agta (Sinauna) Northern Mindoro Alangan Iraya Tadyawan GreaterCentralPhilippineSouthern Mindoro Buhid Hanuno'o Tawbuid CentralPhilippine Tagalog Visayan Cebuano Hiligaynon Waray Tausug Kinaray-a Aklanon Capiznon Asi Ati Bantayanon Baybayanon Boholano Butuanon Caluyanon Cuyunon Kinabalian Onhan Porohanon Ratagnon Romblomanon Surigaonon Masbatenyo South Sorsogon (Gubat) Central Sorsogon (Masbate) Bikol Central Bikol Albay Bikol Isarog Agta Mount Iraya Agta Mount Iriga Agta Pandan Bikol Rinconada UnclassifiedSulodMansakan Davawenyo Kalagan Kamayo Mamanwa Mandaya Mansaka Palawan Aborlan Tagbanwa Palawan Batak Palawano Mindanao Maguindanao Maranao Agusan Ata Manobo Binukid Cotabato Manobo Higaonon Ilianen Iranun Kagayanen Kinamigin Matigsalug Obo Sarangani Subanen Tagabawa Western Bukidnon Gorontalo-Mongondow Bolango Buol Bintauna Gorontalo Kaidipang Lolak Suwawa Mongondow Ponosakan Kalamian Agutaynen Calamian Tagbanwa Bilic B'laan Giangan T'boli Tiruray Sangiric Sangirese Talaud Bantik Ratahan Minahasan Tonsawang Tontemboan Tombulu Tondano Tonsea Unclassified Umiray Dumaget Manide-Inagta Inagta Alabat Manide Other western branchesNorth BorneanSabahan Ida'an Bonggi Brunei Bisaya Tatana (Sabah Bisaya) Lotud Dusun Kuijau Eastern Kadazan Gana' Kota Marudu Talantang Kinamaragang (Momogun) Klias River Kadazan Coastal Kadazan Yakan Tombonuwo Kinabatangan Sungai Keningau Murut Okolod Tagol Paluan Selungai Murut Timugon Bookan Abai Papar Kalabakan Sembakung Serudung Nonukan Tidong Unclassified Dumpas Molbog North Sarawakan Kenyah (Bakung) Sebob Tutoh Uma' Lasan Wahau Kenyah Penan ? Kelabit Lengilu Lundayeh Sa'ban Tring Berawan Belait Kiput Narom Tutong Unclassified Bintulu Melanau-Kajang Kajaman Lahanan Sekapan Daro-Matu Kanowit-Tanjong Melanau Bukitan Punan Batu Sian Ukit Basap Burusu Bah-Biau Punan Sajau Punan Merap Bukat Seru † Lelak † Kayan-Murik Kayan Bahau Modang Segai Hovongan Aoheng Aput Punan Krio Dayak Murik Land Dayak Bekati' Sara Lara' Bukar Sadong Rejang Biatah Tringgus Jagoi Jangkang Kembayan Semandang Ribun Benyadu' Sanggau Barito Malagasy Bushi Deyah Malang Witu Ma'anyan Paku Lawangan Kohin Dihoi Siang Bakumpai Ngaju Ampanang Tunjung Sama-Bajaw ? Abaknon Bajaw Sama Pangutaran Sama

Malayo-SumbawanSundanese Baduy Sundanese Madurese Kangean Madurese Malayo-ChamicAceh–Chamic Acehnese Cham dialects Chru Haroi Jarai Rade Roglai Tsat (Utsat) Malayic Bamayo Banjar Brunei/Kedayan Malay Berau Malay Bangka Malay Balau Bengkulu Col Duano' Haji Iban Jambi
Jambi
Malay Jakun Kedah Malay Kutai Malay Kaur Kerinci Kelantan-Pattani Malay (Yawi) Kendayan Keninjal Kubu Orang Laut Lubu Johore- Riau
Riau
Malay (Malaysian & Indonesian) Minangkabau Musi Mualang Orang Kanaq Orang Seletar Pahang Malay Pekal Perak Malay Pontianak Malay Remun Sarawak Malay Seberuang Sebuyau Temuan Terengganu Malay Urak Lawoi' Bali–Sasak Balinese Sasak Sumbawa Northwest Sumatra–Barrier Islands Enggano Gayo Mentawai Nias Sikule Simeulue Batak Alas Batak Angkola Batak Dairi Batak Karo Batak Simalungun Batak Toba Mandailing Lampungic Lampung
Lampung
Nyo Lampung
Lampung
Api Komering Celebic Andio Badaic Bahonsuai Balaesang Balantak Banggai Batui Boano Bobongko Bonerate Bungku Busoa Cia-Cia Dampelas Dondo Kalao Kaili Kaimbulawa Kamaru Kodeoha Kulisusu Kumbewaha Lasalimu Laiyolo Lauje Liabuku Mbelala Moronene Mori Bawah Mori Atas Moma Muna Padoe Pancana Pendau Rahambuu Rampi Saluan Sarudu Sedoa Pamona Taje Tajio Tukang Besi Tolaki Tomadino Topoiyo Tomini Totoli Uma Waru Wawonii Wolio Wotu South Sulawesi Aralle-Tabulahan Bambam Bentong Budong-Budong Buginese Campalagian Coastal Konjo Dakka Duri Embaloh Enrekang Highland Konjo Kalumpang Lawa Lemolang Maiwa (Sulawesi) Makassarese Malimpung Mamasa Mamuju Mandar Panasuan Pannei Selayar Seko Tae' Talondo' Taman Toraja-Sa'dan Ulumanda' Moken Moken dialects Javanese Arekan Banyumasan Mataraman Kawi (Old Javanese) Kedu Osing Tenggerese Unclassified Chamorro Hukumina † Palauan Central-Eastern Malayo-PolynesianCentral Malayo-PolynesianSumba–Flores Bima Sumba-ManggaraiSumba Hawu ? Dhao ? Kambera Mamboru Anakalangu Wanukaka Pondok Baliledo Wejewa Lamboya Kodi Gaura Ende-Manggarai Komodo Manggarai Riung Rembong Rajong Kepo' Wae Rana Palu'e Ende-Li'o Nage Ke'o Ngad'a Rongga So'a Flores-Lembata Kedang Sika-Lamaholot Sika Lamaholotic Lamatuka Lewo Eleng Levuka South Lembata Lamaholot Alorese Lamalera Lewotobi Adonara Ile Ape Mingar Selaru Selaru Seluwasan Kei-Tanimbar Kei Fordata Yamdena Onin Sekar Uruangnirin Aru Barakai Batuley Dobel Karey Koba Kola Lola Lorang Manombai Mariri Tarangan Ujir Timor-BabarTimoric ? Kemak Tukudede Mambai Idalaka Dawan Amarasi Helong Bilba Dengka Lole Ringgou Dela-Oenale Termanu Tii Tetum Bekais Wetar Galoli Luang Makuva Babar West Damar ? Dawera-Daweloor North Babar Dai Masela Serili Southeast Babar Emplawas Imroing Tela'a Unclassified Naueti Kairui Waimoa Midiki Kowiai Kowiai Central Maluku ? Teor-Kur West Central Maluku Ambelau Buru Lisela Moksela † Sula Mangole Taliabo East Central Maluku Navbox Banda Bati Geser Watubela Bobot Masiwang Hoti † Benggoi Salas Liana Nunusaku Kayeli † Nuaulu Huaulu Manusela Wemale Yalahatan Piru Bay ? Asilulu Luhu Manipa Wakasihu Boano (Moluccas) Sepa-Teluti Paulohi Kaibobo Hitu Tulehu Laha Seit-Kaitetu Kamarian † Haruku Amahai Nusa Laut Saparua Latu Eastern Malayo-Polynesian South Halmahera–West New Guinea Oceanic languages Bold indicates languages with more than 1 million speakers? indicates classification dispute† indicates extinct status Authority control GND: 4120210

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