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Hizb ut-Tahrir Iranian Revolution Jamaat-e-Islami Millî Görüş Muslim Brotherhood List of Islamic political parties

Militant

Militant Islamism
Islamism
based in

MENA region South Asia Southeast Asia Sub-Saharan Africa

Key texts

Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (Iqbal 1930s)

Principles of State and Government (Asad 1961)

Ma'alim fi al-Tariq
Ma'alim fi al-Tariq
("Milestones") (Qutb 1965)

Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist ("Velayat-e faqih") (Khomeini 1970)

Heads of state

Ali Khamenei Omar al-Bashir Muammar Gaddafi Ruhollah Khomeini Mohamed Morsi Mohammad Omar House of Saud House of Thani Zia-ul-Haq

Key ideologues

Muhammad Abduh Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī Qazi Hussain Ahmad Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani Muhammad Asad Hassan al-Banna Necmettin Erbakan Rached Ghannouchi Safwat Hegazi Muhammad Iqbal Ali Khamenei Ruhollah Khomeini Abul A'la Maududi Taqi al-Din al-Nabhani Yusuf al-Qaradawi Sayyid Qutb Tariq Ramadan Ata Abu Rashta Rashid Rida Navvab Safavi Ali Shariati Haji Shariatullah Hassan Al-Turabi Ahmed Yassin

Related topics

Criticism of Islamism Islam
Islam
and other religions Islamophobia Reform movements Modernity (Modernism)

Islam
Islam
portal Politics portal

v t e

Islamic fundamentalism
Islamic fundamentalism
has been defined as a movement of Muslims who think back to earlier times and seek to return to the fundamentals of the religion[1] and live similarly to how the prophet Muhammad and his companions lived. Islamic fundamentalists favor "a literal and originalist interpretation" of the primary sources of Islam
Islam
(the Quran and Sunnah),[2] seek to eliminate (what they perceive to be) "corrupting" non-Islamic influences from every part of their lives[3] and see "Islamic fundamentalism" as a pejorative term used by outsiders for Islamic revivalism
Islamic revivalism
and Islamic activism.[4]

Contents

1 Definitions and descriptions

1.1 Controversy

1.1.1 Criticism of the term 1.1.2 Defense

1.2 Study

2 Origins 3 Interpretation of texts 4 Social and political goals 5 Conflicts with the secular state 6 Islamic fundamentalist states 7 Islamic fundamentalist groups

7.1 The Islamic State 7.2 Caucasus Emirate 7.3 Al-Shabaab 7.4 Boko Haram 7.5 Ansar Dine 7.6 Ansar al-Sharia

8 Human rights
Human rights
controversy 9 Opinion polling 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Definitions and descriptions[edit]

Part of a series on: Salafi
Salafi
movement

Sab'u Masajid, Saudi Arabia

Ideology and influences

Ahl al-Hadith Ibn Taymiyyah Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya Al-Sindhi Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab

Founders and key figures

Muhammad Abduh Rashid Rida Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz Ibn al Uthaymeen Nasiruddin Albani Muqbil bin Hadi al-Wadi'i List of Salafi
Salafi
scholars

Notable universities

Umm al-Qura University Islamic University of Madinah

Related ideologies

Islamism Islamic fundamentalism Madkhalism Qutbism Sahwa movement Salafi
Salafi
jihadism Wahhabism

Associated organizations

Al-Nour Party Authenticity Party People Party Takfir
Takfir
wal-Hijra ISIS al-Qaida

Politics portal Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

Definitions vary of what Islamic fundamentalism
Islamic fundamentalism
is and how, if at all, it differs from Islamism
Islamism
(or political Islam) or Islamic revivalism. The term has been deemed "misleading" by those who suggest all mainstream Muslims believe in the literal divine origin and perfection of the Quran
Quran
and so are "fundamentalists",[5] and by others as a term used by outsiders to describe perceived trends within Islam.[6] Exemplary figures of Islamic fundamentalism
Islamic fundamentalism
are Sayyid Qutb, Abul Ala Mawdudi,[7] and Israr Ahmed.[8] The Wahhabi movement
Wahhabi movement
and its funding by Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
is often described as being responsible for the popularity of contemporary Islamic fundamentalism.[9]

Form of Islamism
Islamism
Graham Fuller describes Islamic fundamentalism not as distinct from Islamism, but as a subset, "the most conservative element among Islamists." Its "strictest form" includes "Wahhabism, sometimes also referred to as salafiyya. ... For fundamentalists the law is the most essential component of Islam, leading to an overwhelming emphasis upon jurisprudence, usually narrowly conceived."[10] Author Olivier Roy takes a similar line, describing "neo-fundamentalists", (i.e. contemporary fundamentalists) as more passionate than earlier Islamists in their opposition to the perceived "corrupting influence of Western culture," avoiding Western dress, "neckties, laughter, the use of Western forms of salutation, handshakes, applause," discouraging but not forbidding other activities such as sports, ideally limiting the Muslim public space to "the family and the mosque."[11] In this fundamentalists have "drifted" away from the stand of the Islamists of the 1970s and 80s, such as [Abul A'la Maududi] who

…didn't hesitate to attend Hindu ceremonies. Khomeini never proposed the status of dhimmi (protected) for Iranian Christians or Jews, as provided for in the sharia: the Armenians in Iran have remained Iranian citizens, are required to perform military service and to pay the same taxes as Muslims, and have the right to vote (with separate electoral colleges). Similarly, the Afghan Jamaat, in its statutes, has declared it legal in the eyes of Islam
Islam
to employ non-Muslims as experts.[3]

Umbrella term – Another American observer, Robert Pelletreau, Jr., Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs, believes it the other way around, Islamism
Islamism
being the subset of Muslims "with political goals ... within" the "broader fundamentalist revival".[12] American historian Ira Lapidus sees Islamic fundamentalism
Islamic fundamentalism
as "an umbrella designation for a very wide variety of movements, some intolerant and exclusivist, some pluralistic; some favourable to science, some anti-scientific; some primarily devotional and some primarily political; some democratic, some authoritarian; some pacific, some violent."[13] Synonym – Still another, Martin Kramer, sees little difference between the two terms: "To all intents and purposes, Islamic fundamentalism and Islamism
Islamism
have become synonyms in contemporary American usage."[14] Scriptural literalism – According to another academic, Natana J. Delong-Bas, the contemporary use of the term Islamic fundamentalism applies to Muslims who not seek not just "to return to the primary sources", but who use "a literal interpretation of those sources."[2] Use of ijtihad in Islamic law – According to academic John Esposito, one of the most defining features of Islamic fundamentalism
Islamic fundamentalism
is belief in the "reopening" of the gates of ijtihad ("independent reasoning" used in reaching a legal decision in Sunni
Sunni
law).[15] Disorder – Dr. Kathleen Taylor, speaking at the Hay Literary Festival, said Islamic fundamentalism
Islamic fundamentalism
may one day be seen in the same way as mental illness and be “curable.”[16]

Differences with Islamism

Distinctions between Fundamentalism and Islamism
Islamism
(or at least pre-1990 Islamism) according to Roy are in the fields of:

Politics and economics. Islamists often talk of "revolution" and believe "that the society will be Islamized only through social and political action: it is necessary to leave the mosque ..." Fundamentalists are primarily interested in revolution, less interested in "modernity or by Western models in politics or economics," and less willing to associate with non-Muslims.[17] Sharia. While both Islamists and fundamentalists are committed to implementing Sharia
Sharia
law, Islamists "tend to consider it more a project than a corpus."[18] Issue of women. "Islamists generally tend to favour the education of women and their participation in social and political life: the Islamist woman militates, studies, and has the right to work, but in a chador. Islamist groups include women's associations." While the fundamentalist preaches for women to return to the home, Islamism believes it is sufficient that "the sexes be separated in public." [19]

Types

Islamic fundamentalism
Islamic fundamentalism
(at least among Sunni
Sunni
Muslims) traditionally tends to fall into "traditionalist" and "reformist" tendencies:

Traditionalists accept "the continuity" between the founding Islamic "texts"—the Quran
Quran
and the Sunnah—and their commentaries. Traditionalists take "imitation" (taqlid), accepting what was said before and refusing to innovate (bidah), as a "basic principle, They follow one of the great schools of religious jurisprudence (Shafi'i, Maliki, Hanafi, Hanbali). Their vision of the sharia is essentially legalistic and used to determine what is religiously right or wrong for Enjoining good and forbidding wrong. Traditionalists are sometimes connected to the popular forms of Sufism
Sufism
such as the Barelvi
Barelvi
school in Pakistan)."[20] "reformist" fundamentalism, in contrast, "criticizes the tradition, the commentaries, popular religious practices" (Maraboutism, the cult of saints), "deviations, and superstitions"; it aims to purify Islam by returning to the Quran
Quran
and the Sunnah. 18th-century examples are Shah Waliullah Dehlawi
Shah Waliullah Dehlawi
in India and Abdul Wahhab in the Arabian Peninsula. This reformism is often "developed in response to an external threat" such as "the influence of Hinduism
Hinduism
on Islam". In the late 19th century salafiyya was developed in the Arab countries, "marking a phase between Fundamentalism and Islamism."[20]

Controversy[edit] Criticism of the term[edit] The term "Islamic fundamentalism" has been criticized by Bernard Lewis, Khaled Abou El Fadl, Eli Berman, John Esposito, among others. Many have proposed substituting another term, such as "puritanical", "Islamic revivalism" or "activism", and "Radical Islam". Lewis, a leading historian of Islam, believes that although "the use of this term is established and must be accepted":

It remains unfortunate and can be misleading. "Fundamentalist" is a Christian term. It seems to have come into use in the early years of last century, and denotes certain Protestant churches and organizations, more particularly those that maintain the literal divine origin and inerrancy of the Bible. In this they oppose the liberal and modernist theologians, who tend to a more critical, historical view of Scripture. Among Muslim theologians there is as yet no such liberal or modernist approach to the Qur'an, and all Muslims, in their attitude to the text of the Qur'an, are in principle at least fundamentalists. Where the so-called Muslim fundamentalists differ from other Muslims and indeed from Christian fundamentalists is in their scholasticism and their legalism. They base themselves not only on the Qur'an, but also on the Traditions of the Prophet, and on the corpus of transmitted theological and legal learning.[21]

John Esposito
John Esposito
has attacked the term for its association "with political activism, extremism, fanaticism, terrorism, and anti-Americanism," saying "I prefer to speak of Islamic revivalism
Islamic revivalism
and Islamic activism."[4] Khaled Abou El Fadl of UCLA, a critic of those called Islamic Fundamentalists, also finds fault with the term because:

[M]any liberal, progressive, or moderate Muslims would describe themselves as usulis, or fundamentalist, without thinking that this carries a negative connotation. In the Islamic context, it makes much more sense to describe the fanatical reductionism and narrow-minded literalism of some groups as puritanical (a term that in the West invokes a particular historical experience)[22]

Eli Berman argues that "Radical Islam" is a better term for many post-1920s movements starting with the Muslim Brotherhood, because these movements are seen to practice "unprecedented extremism", thus not qualifying as return to historic fundamentals.[23] Defense[edit] In contrast, American author Anthony J. Dennis accepts the widespread usage and relevance of the term and calls Islamic fundamentalism
Islamic fundamentalism
"more than a religion today, it is a worldwide revolutionary movement." He notes the intertwining of social, religious and political goals found within the movement and states that Islamic fundamentalism
Islamic fundamentalism
"deserves to be seriously studied and debated from a secular perspective as a revolutionary ideology."[24] At least two Muslim academics, Syrian philosopher Sadiq Jalal al-Azm and Egyptian philosopher Hassan Hanafi, have defended the use of the phrase. Surveying the doctrines of the new Islamic movements, Al-Azm found them to consist of "an immediate return to Islamic 'basics' and 'fundamentals'. ... It seems to me quite reasonable that calling these Islamic movements ‘Fundamentalist' (and in the strong sense of the term) is adequate, accurate, and correct."[25] Hassan Hanafi
Hanafi
reached the same conclusion: "It is difficult to find a more appropriate term than the one recently used in the West, 'fundamentalism,' to cover the meaning of what we name Islamic awakening or revival."[26] Study[edit] In 1988, the University of Chicago, backed by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, launched The Fundamentalism Project, devoted to researching fundamentalism in the worlds major religions, Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism
Buddhism
and Confucianism. It defined fundamentalism as "approach, or set of strategies, by which beleaguered believers attempt to preserve their distinctive identity as a people or group ... by a selective retrieval of doctrines, beliefs, and practices from a sacred past."[27] A 2013 study by Wissenschaftszentrums Berlin für Sozialforschung finds that Islamic fundamentalism is widespread among European Muslims with the majority saying religious rules are more important than civil laws and three quarters rejecting religious pluralism within Islam.[28] Origins[edit] The modern Islamic fundamentalist movements have their origins in the late 19th century.[29] The Wahhabi
Wahhabi
movement, an Arabian fundamentalist movement that began in the 18th century, gained traction and spread during the 19th and 20th centuries.[30] During the Cold War
Cold War
following World War II, some NATO
NATO
governments, particularly those of the United States and the United Kingdom, launched covert and overt campaigns to encourage and strengthen fundamentalist groups in the Middle East and southern Asia. These groups were seen as a hedge against potential expansion by the Soviet Union, and as a means to prevent the growth of nationalistic movements that were not necessarily favorable toward the interests of the Western nations.[31] By the 1970s, the Islamists had become important allies in supporting governments, such as Egypt, which were friendly to U.S. interests. By the late 1970s, however, some fundamentalist groups had become militaristic leading to threats and changes to existing regimes. The overthrow of the Shah in Iran and rise of the Ayatollah Khomeini
Ayatollah Khomeini
was one of the most significant signs of this shift.[32] Subsequently, fundamentalist forces in Algeria caused a civil war, caused a near-civil war in Egypt, and caused the downfall of the Soviet occupation in Afghanistan.[33] In many cases the military wings of these groups were supplied with money and arms by the U.S. and U.K. Muslim critics of Islamic fundamentalism
Islamic fundamentalism
often draw a parallel between the modern fundamentalist movement and the 7th century Khawarij
Khawarij
sect. From their essentially political position, the Kharijites developed extreme doctrines that set them apart from both mainstream Sunni
Sunni
and Shia Muslims. The Kharijites were particularly noted for adopting a radical approach to Takfir, whereby they declared other Muslims to be unbelievers and therefore deemed them worthy of death.[34][35][36] Interpretation of texts[edit] Islamic fundamentalists, or at least "reformist" fundamentalists, believe that Islam
Islam
is based on the Qur'an, Hadith
Hadith
and Sunnah
Sunnah
and "criticize the tradition, the commentaries, popular religious practices (maraboutism, the cult of saints), deviations, and superstitions. They aim to return to the founding texts."[20] Examples of individuals who adhere to this tendency are the 18th-century Shah Waliullah in India and Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab
Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab
in the Arabian Peninsula.[20] This view is commonly associated with Salafism
Salafism
today. Social and political goals[edit] As with adherents of other fundamentalist movements,[37] Islamic fundamentalists hold that the problems of the world stem from secular influences. Some scholars of Islam, such as Bassam Tibi, believe that, contrary to their own message, Islamic fundamentalists are not actually traditionalists. He refers to fatwahs issued by fundamentalists such as "every Muslim who pleads for the suspension of the shari‘a is an apostate and can be killed. The killing of those apostates cannot be prosecuted under Islamic law because this killing is justified” as going beyond, and unsupported by, the Qur'an. Tibi asserts, “The command to slay reasoning Muslims is un-Islamic, an invention of Islamic fundamentalists”.[38][39] Conflicts with the secular state[edit] Islamic fundamentalism's push for sharia and an Islamic State has come into conflict with conceptions of the secular, democratic state, such as the internationally supported Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Anthony J. Dennis notes that "Western and Islamic visions of the state, the individual and society are not only divergent, they are often totally at odds."[40] Among human rights[41] disputed by fundamentalist Muslims are:

Freedom from religious police Equality issues between men and women[42] Separation of religion and state[43] Freedom of speech[44] Freedom of religion[45][46][47][48][49][50][51]

Islamic fundamentalist states[edit] The 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran is seen by some scholars[who?] as a success of Islamic fundamentalism.[52][53][54] Some scholars[who?] argue that Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
is also largely governed by fundamentalist principles, see Wahhabi
Wahhabi
movement,[55] but Johannes J.G. Jansen disagrees, arguing that it is more akin to a traditional Muslim state, where a power separation exists between "princes" (umarā) and "scholars" (ulama).[56] In contrast, Jansen argues Khomeini came to power advocating a system of Islamic government where the highest authority is the hands of the ulamā (see Wilayat al Faqih).[57] Islamic fundamentalist groups[edit] Islamic fundamentalist groups include All india majlis e ittihad muslmeen (AIMIM) Al-Qaeda, Abu Sayyaf, Ansar al-Islam, Armed Islamic Group of Algeria, Army of Islam, Boko Haram, Taliban, Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Lashkar-e-Taiba, Jaish-e-Mohammed, Jemaah Islamiyah, Hamas, Harkat-ul- Jihad
Jihad
al-Islami, Harkat-ul-Mujahideen, Indian Mujahideen, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Tehrik-i- Taliban
Taliban
Pakistan among many others. The Islamic State[edit] Further information: Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Caucasus Emirate[edit] Main article: Caucasus Emirate Caucasus Emirate
Caucasus Emirate
is a fundamentalist Islamic terrorist group residing primarily in the North Caucasus
North Caucasus
of Russia. Created from the remnants of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria
Chechen Republic of Ichkeria
(ChRI) in October 2007, it adheres to an ideology of Salafist-takfiri jihad [58] that seeks to establish an Islamic caliphate within the North Caucasus
North Caucasus
and Volga region (primarily the republics of Tatarstan
Tatarstan
and Bashkortostan). Many of their fighters are also present in jihadist battlegrounds such as Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq, and throughout Central Asia. Many plots involving Chechen and other indigenous ethnic groups of the North Caucasus have also been thwarted in Europe over the recent years. Al-Shabaab[edit] Main article: Al-Shabaab (militant group) Al-Shabaab, meaning "the Youth", is a Somalia-based cell of the militant Islamist group al-Qaeda, formally recognized in 2012.[59] Al-Shabaab is designated as a terrorist group by countries including Australia, Canada, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom,[60] and the United States. Boko Haram[edit] Main article: Boko Haram

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Congregation of the People of Tradition for Proselytism and Jihad (Arabic: جماعة اهل السنة للدعوة والجهاد Jamā'a Ahl al-sunnah li-da'wa wa al-jihād), better known by its Hausa name Boko Haram
Boko Haram
(pronounced [bōːkòː hàrâm], "Western education is sinful"), is a jihadist militant organization based in the northeast of Nigeria. It is an Islamist movement which strongly opposes man-made laws and westernization. Founded by Mohammed Yusuf in 2001, the organization seeks to establish sharia law in the country. The group is also known for attacking Christians and bombing Mosques and churches. The movement is divided into three factions. In 2011, Boko Haram
Boko Haram
was responsible for at least 450 killings in Nigeria. It was also reported that they had been responsible for over 620 deaths over the first 6 months of 2012. Since its founding in 2001, the jihadists have been responsible for between 3,000 and 10,000 deaths. The group became known internationally following sectarian violence in Nigeria in July 2009, which left over 1000 people dead. They do not have a clear structure or evident chain of command. Moreover, it is still a matter of debate whether Boko Haram
Boko Haram
has links to terror outfits outside Nigeria and its fighters have frequently clashed with Nigeria's central government. A US commander stated that Boko Haram
Boko Haram
is likely linked to Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), although professor Paul Lubeck points out that no evidence is presented for any claims of material international support. Ansar Dine[edit] Main article: Ansar Dine Ansar Dine
Ansar Dine
is an Islamist militant group in the country of Mali that wants Shariah law in Mali.[61][62] It opposes Sufi shrines.[63] Its main support comes from the Ifora tribe of Tuaregs.[64] The group is connected to Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
in the Islamic Maghreb.[62] It took part in the 2012 Tuareg Rebellion.[65] They destroyed the tomb of a Sufi saint which was a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[66] It managed to take control of Northern Mali,[67] and they formed a pact with the MNLA forming the Islamic Republic of Azawad.[68] It is designated a terrorist group by the United States Department of State[69] and the United Nations Security Council.[70] Ansar al-Sharia[edit]

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Human rights
Human rights
controversy[edit] Further information: Sharia
Sharia
§ Contemporary issues Fundamentalist Islamic states and movements have been criticized for their human rights record by international organizations. The acceptance of international law on human rights has been somewhat limited even in Muslim countries that are not seen as fundamentalist. Ann Elizabeth Mayer writes that states with a predominantly Muslim population, even when they adopt laws along European lines, are influenced by Islamic rules and precepts of sharia, which cause conflict with international law on human rights. According to Mayer, features found in conflict include severe deficiencies in criminal procedure, harsh criminal penalties causing great suffering, discrimination against women and non-Muslims, and prohibition against abandoning the Islam
Islam
religion. In 1990, under Saudi leadership, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, a group representing all Muslim majority nations, adopted the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, which substantially diverges from the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). The Cairo declaration lacks provisions for democratic principles, protection for religious freedom, freedom of association and freedom of the press, as well as equality in rights and equal protection under the law. Further it stipulates that "all the rights and freedoms stipulated in this Declaration are subject to the Islamic shari'a".[71] The Cairo declaration followed years of limited acceptance of the Universal declaration by predominantly Muslim states. As an example, in 1984, Iran's UN representative, Said Raja'i Khorasani, said the following amid allegations of human rights violations, "[Iran] recognized no authority ... apart from Islamic law.... Conventions, declarations and resolutions or decisions of international organizations, which were contrary to Islam, had no validity in the Islamic Republic of Iran.... The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which represented secular understanding of the Judaeo-Christian tradition, could not be implemented by Muslims and did not accord with the system of values recognized by the Islamic Republic of Iran; this country would therefore not hesitate to violate its provisions."[71] These departures, both theoretical and practical, have resulted in a multitude of practices and cases criticized by international human rights groups. See human rights in Iran, human rights in Saudi Arabia, and Taliban
Taliban
treatment of women for specific examples. Opinion polling[edit] Main article: Opinion polling and analysis about Islamic fundamentalism In a 2005 Lowy Institute for International Policy Poll 57% of Australians indicated they are worried about the rise of Islamic fundamentalism.[72][73][74] Amos N. Guiora
Amos N. Guiora
noted that this is equivalent to the number of Australians who perceived American Foreign Policy as a threat, he further noted that not just Muslim countries have an unfavourable opinion of the United States but a large number of western countries such as: France, Germany, Great Britain and Spain and concluded that Australia was not an outlier on this regard.[75] The Lowly Institute claimed that the result "raised eyebrows."

A New York Times
New York Times
poll found that 33% of Americans think that Muslim Americans were more "sympathetic to terrorists than other Citizens" Rik Coolsaet analysed this as indicating a high level of distrust directed at the American Muslim community.[76] The Times did this survey during the Park51
Park51
Ground Zero Mosque incident. The Times called the findings "appalling" and also analysed the data as showing a very high level of distrust of Muslim Americans and robust disapproval of the Park51
Park51
Mosque proposal.[77] The New Republic
The New Republic
stated that it does not trust the poll carried out by the New York Times
New York Times
and that the figures would be higher than 33%. They further claimed that New York residents are tolerant and if the figures were 33% in New York then "non-New Yorker fellow citizens are far more deeply biased and warped than the Gotham locals".[78]

See also[edit]

Book: Islamic terrorism

Islam
Islam
portal

2009 Diyala Province Bombing Ahlus Sunnah
Sunnah
wal Jamaah (organisation) Anwar al-Awlaki Forced conversion in Islam Fundamentalist Christianity Hindu fundamentalism Islamic extremism Islamic terrorism Jewish fundamentalism Mona Mahmudnizhad Mohammad-Taqi Mesbah-Yazdi Mormon fundamentalism Muslim Patrol Salafi

Notes[edit]

^ Guidère, Mathieu (2012). Historical Dictionary of Islamic Fundamentalism. Scarecrow Press. pp. ix. Retrieved 22 December 2015.  ^ a b DeLong-Bas, Natana J. (2004). Wahhabi
Wahhabi
Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad
Jihad
(First ed.). New York: Oxford University Press, USA. p. 228. ISBN 0-19-516991-3.  ^ a b Roy, Failure of Political Islam, 1994: p. 215 ^ a b John L. Esposito, The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality? (NewYork: Oxford University Press, 1992), p. 8. ^ Bernard, Lewis, Islam
Islam
and the West, New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. ^ " 'The Green Peril': Creating the Islamic Fundamentalist Threat," Leon T. Hadar, Policy Analysis, Cato Institute, August 27, 1992. ^ "Islamic fundamentalism". Muslimphilosophy.com. Retrieved 2013-05-16.  ^ Esposito, Voices of Resurgent Islam
Islam
ISBN 0-19-503340-X ^ Islamic Radicalism: Its Wahhabi
Wahhabi
Roots and Current Representation islamicsupremecouncil.org ^ Fuller, Graham E., The Future of Political Islam, Palgrave MacMillan, (2003), p. 48 ^ Roy, Failure of Political Islam, 1994: p. 83 ^ Remarks by Robert H. Pelletreau, Jr., Middle East Policy Council, May 26, 1994, "Symposium: Resurgent Islam
Islam
in the Middle East," Middle East Policy, Fall 1994, p. 2. ^ Lapidus, Ira M. (2002). A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 823. Retrieved 23 December 2015.  ^ Coming to Terms, Fundamentalists or Islamists? Martin Kramer originally in Middle East Quarterly (Spring 2003), pp. 65–77. ^ Esposito, John, Voices of Resurgent Islam
Islam
ISBN 0-19-503340-X ^ Bruxelles, Simon de (2013-05-30). "Science 'may one day cure Islamic radicals'". The Times (London). London. Retrieved 2013-05-31.  ^ Roy, Failure of Political Islam, 1994: pp. 82–3, 215 ^ Roy, Failure of Political Islam, 1994: p. 59 ^ Roy, Failure of Political Islam, 1994: pp. 38, 59 ^ a b c d Roy, Failure of Political Islam, 1994: pp. 30–31 ^ Bernard Lewis, The Political Language of Islam
Islam
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988), p. 117, n. 3. ^ abou el Fadl, The Great Theft: Wrestling Islam
Islam
from the Extremists, Harper San Francisco, 2005, p. 19 ^ Eli Berman, Hamas, Taliban
Taliban
and the Jewish Underground: An Economist's View of Radical Religious Militias, UC San Diego National Bureau of Economic Research. August 2003, p. 4 ^ Dennis, Anthony J. The Rise of the Islamic Empire and the Threat to the West (Ohio: Wyndham Hall Press, 1996), p. i. ^ Sadik J. al-Azm, "Islamic Fundamentalism Reconsidered: A Critical Outline of Problems, Ideas and Approaches", South Asia Bulletin, Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 1 and 2 (1993), pp. 95–7. ^ Quoted by Bassam Tibi, "The Worldview of Sunni
Sunni
Arab Fundamentalists: Attitudes toward Modern Science and Technology," in Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby, eds., Fundamentalisms and Society (Chicago: University of Chicago
University of Chicago
Press, 1993), p. 85. ^ Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby, "Introduction," in Martin and Appleby, eds., Fundamentalisms and the State (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), p. 3. ^ " Islamic fundamentalism
Islamic fundamentalism
is widely spread". Wissenschaftszentrums Berlin für Sozialforschung. December 9, 2013.  ^ Dreyfuss (2006), p. 2 Cooper (2008), p. 272 ^ Cooper (2008), p. 272 ^ Dreyfuss (2006), pp. 1–4 ^ Dreyfuss (2006), p. 4 ^ Dreyfuss (2006), p. 5 ^ "Another battle with Islam's 'true believers'". The Globe and Mail.  ^ Mohamad Jebara More Mohamad Jebara. "Imam Mohamad Jebara: Fruits of the tree of extremism". Ottawa Citizen.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-08-02. Retrieved 2015-11-17.  ^ Matthews, Terry L. "Fundamentalism". Lectures for Religion 166: Religious Life in the United States. Wake Forest University. Archived from the original on October 6, 2009. Retrieved August 29, 2009.  ^ Bassam Tibi, The Challenge of Fundamentalism: Political Islam
Islam
and the New World Disorder. Updated Edition. Los Angeles, University of California Press: 2002. Excerpt available online as The Islamic Fundamentalist Ideology: Context and the Textual Sources Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine. at Middle East Information Center. ^ Douglas Pratt, "Terrorism and Religious Fundamentalism: Prospects for a Predictive Paradigm", Marburg Journal of Religion, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Volume 11, No. 1 (June 2006) ^ Dennis, Anthony J. The Rise of the Islamic Empire and the Threat to the West (Ohio: Wyndham Hall Press, 1996) p. 26 ^ See Dennis, Anthony J. " Fundamentalist Islam
Islam
and Human Rights" pp. 36–56 in The Rise of the Islamic Empire and the Threat of the West (Ohio: Wyndham Hall Press, 1996). ^ See Dennis, Anthony J. "The Attack on Women's Rights" pp. 40–44 in The Rise of the Islamic Empire and the Threat to the West (Ohio: Wyndham Hall Press, 1996). ^ See Dennis, Anthony J. "Strange Bedfellows: Fundamentalist Islam
Islam
and Democracy" pp. 31–33 in The Rise of the Islamic Empire and the Threat to the West (Ohio: Wyndham Hall Press, 1996). ^ See Dennis, Anthony J. "The Attack on Freedom of Expression" pp. 47–56 in The Rise of the Islamic Empire and the Threat of the West (Ohio: Wyndham Hall Press, 1996). ^ See Dennis, Anthony J. "The Attack on Other Religions" pp. 44–47 in The Rise of the Islamic Empire and the Threat to the West (Ohio: Wyndham Hall Press, 1996) ^ "Murtad", Encyclopedia of Islam ^ Grand Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri: "Not Every Conversion is Apostasy", by Mahdi Jami, In Persian, BBC Persian, February 2, 2005. Retrieved April 25, 2006. ^ What Islam
Islam
says on religious freedom, by Magdi Abdelhadi, March 27, 2006. Retrieved April 25, 2006. ^ Fatwa
Fatwa
on Intellectual Apostasy Archived 2009-04-25 at the Wayback Machine., Text of the fatwa by Sheikh Yusuf Al-Qaradawi ^ S. A. Rahman in "Punishment of Apostasy in Islam", Institute of Islamic Culture, Lahore, 1972, pp. 10–13 ^ The punishment of apostasy in Islam, View of Dr. Ahmad Shafaat on apostasy. ^ Appleby (1993) p. 342 ^ Ahmed (1993), p. 94 ^ Gary Ferraro (2007). Cultural Anthropology: An Applied Perspective. Cengage Learning. p. 362. Retrieved November 14, 2010.  ^ Challenges Of The Muslim World: Present, Future and Past. Emerald Group Publishing. 2008. p. 272. Retrieved November 14, 2010.  ^ Johannes J. G. Jansen (1997). The Dual Nature of Islamic Fundamentalism. Cornell University Press. Retrieved November 14, 2010.  ^ Jansen, The Dual Nature of Islamic Fundamentalism, p. 69 ^ Darion Rhodes, Salafist-Takfiri Jihadism: the Ideology of the Caucasus Emirate
Caucasus Emirate
Archived 2014-04-21 at the Wayback Machine., International Institute for Counter-Terrorism, March 2014 ^ "Al-Shabaab joining al Qaeda, monitor group says – CNN.com". CNN. February 10, 2012.  ^ "Somali group to be banned in UK". BBC News. March 1, 2010.  ^ Armed Islamist group claims control in northeast Mali, AFP ^ a b "Islamist fighters call for Sharia
Sharia
law in Mali". Agence France-Presse. 13 March 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2012.  ^ Mali crisis: 'Timbuktu joy after life of fear' retrieved 17 January 2013 ^ Ian Black (January 16, 2013). "Mali militants: who's who among Islamist rebels". The Guardian.  ^ Couamba Sylla (4 April 2012). "Tuareg-jihadists alliance: Qaeda conquers more than half of Mali". middle-east-online.com. Archived from the original on 23 November 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2012.  ^ "Rebels burn Timbuktu tomb listed as U.N. World Heritage site". CNN. 6 May 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2012.  ^ Tiemoko Diallo; Adama Diarra (28 June 2012). "Islamists declare full control of Mali's north". Reuters. Retrieved 29 June 2012.  ^ "Mali Tuareg and Islamist rebels agree on Sharia
Sharia
state". BBC News. 26 May 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2012.  ^ "Terrorist Designations of Ansar al-Dine". United States Department of State. 21 March 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013.  ^ "Security Council Committee pursuant to resolutions 1267 (1999) and 1989 (2011) concerning Al-Qaida
Al-Qaida
and associated individuals and entities QE.A.135.13. ANSAR EDDINE". United Nations. 21 March 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013.  ^ a b Ann Elizabeth Mayer, Islamic Law and Human Rights: Conundrums and Equivocations, chapter 14 in Carrie Gustafson, Peter H. Juviler (eds.), Religion and human rights: competing claims?, Columbia University seminar series, M.E. Sharpe, 1999, ISBN 0-7656-0261-X ^ Guiora, Amos N. Top Ten Global Justice Law Review Articles 2007. p. 406.  ^ The Economist, Volume 375, Issues 8420-8428. p. 58.  ^ The Lowy Institute Poll Australians Speak 2005 ^ Guiora, Amos N. Top Ten Global Justice Law Review Articles 2007. p. 406.  ^ Coolsaet, Professor Dr Rik. Jihadi Terrorism and the Radicalisation Challenge: European and American ... p. 113.  ^ Mistrust and the Mosque ^ The New York Times
New York Times
Laments "A Sadly Wary Misunderstanding of Muslim-Americans." But Really Is It "Sadly Wary" Or A "Misunderstanding" At All?

References[edit]

Ahmed, Akbar S.; Donnan, Hastings (1994). Islam, globalization, and postmodernity – Google Books. Psychology Press.  Appleby, R. Scott (1993). Fundamentalisms and Society: Reclaiming the Sciences, the Family, and Education. University of Chicago Press.  Cooper, William Wager; Yue, Piyu (2008). Challenges of the Muslim World: Present, Future and Past. Emerald Group Publishing.  Dreyfuss, Robert (2006). Devil's Game: How the United States Helped Unleash Fundamentalist Islam. Macmillan.  Roy, Olivier (1994). The Failure of Political Islam. Harvard University Press.  Ariel Francais, Islam
Islam
radical et nouvel ordre impérial, L'Harmattan, 2007. Roy, Olivier (1994). The Failure of Political Islam. Harvard University Press. Retrieved 2 April 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

Sikand, Yoginder Origins and Development of the Tablighi-Jama'at (1920–2000): A Cross-Country Comparative Study, ISBN 81-250-2298-8 Shepard, William. "What is 'Islamic Fundamentalism'?" Studies in Religion. Winter 1988. Malik, S. K. (1986). The Quranic Concept of War (PDF). Himalayan Books. ISBN 81-7002-020-4.  Swarup, Ram (1982). Understanding Islam
Islam
through Hadis. Voice of Dharma. ISBN 0-682-49948-X.  Trifkovic, Serge (2006). Defeating Jihad. Regina Orthodox Press, USA. ISBN 1-928653-26-X.  Phillips, Melanie (2006). Londonistan: How Britain is Creating a Terror State Within. Encounter books. ISBN 1-59403-144-4. 

External links[edit]

Look up Islamic, fundamental, fundamentalism, or Islamic fundamentalism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Look up islamic fundamentalism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Islamic fundamentalism

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Islamic fundamentalism.

Fundamentalist Islam
Islam
at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived October 27, 2009) Islamic Fundamentalism: A Brief Survey

v t e

Islamism

Outline

Islamism Qutbism Salafism

Salafi
Salafi
jihadism

Shia Islamism

Concepts

Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists Islamic democracy Islamic socialism Islamic state

Islamic monarchy Islamic republic

Islamistan Islamization

of knowledge

Pan-Islamism Post-Islamism Sharia Shura Turkish model Two-nation theory Ummah

Movements

Socio- political

Deobandi Hizb ut-Tahrir

in Britain in Central Asia

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in Egypt in Syria

Political Party

Freedom and Justice Party Green Algeria
Algeria
Alliance Hadas Hezbollah Islamic Salvation Front Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
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Ennahda Movement Gülen movement Islamic Modernism Justice and Development Party (Turkey)

Theorists and political leaders

Muhammad Abduh Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī Qazi Hussain Ahmad Muhammad Asad Hasan al-Banna Necmettin Erbakan Muammar Gaddafi Rached Ghannouchi Safwat Hegazi Muhammad Iqbal Alija Izetbegović Ali Khamenei Ruhollah Khomeini Abul Ala Maududi Taqi al-Din al-Nabhani Yusuf al-Qaradawi Sayyid Qutb Tariq Ramadan Ata Abu Rashta Rashid Rida Navvab Safavi Ali Shariati Haji Shariatullah Hassan al-Turabi Ahmad Yassin Zia-ul-Haq

Salafi
Salafi
movement

Movements

Scholastic

Ahl-i Hadith Madkhalism Sahwa movement Wahhabism

Political

Al Asalah Authenticity Party Al-Islah Al-Nour Party

Islamist Bloc

People Party Young Kashgar Party

Major figures

Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab Nasiruddin Albani Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz Muqbil bin Hadi al-Wadi'i Safar al-Hawali Rabee al-Madkhali Muhammad Al-Munajjid Zakir Naik Salman al-Ouda Ali al-Tamimi Ibn al Uthaymeen

Related

International propagation of Salafism
Salafism
and Wahhabism Islamic religious police Petro-Islam Sufi- Salafi
Salafi
relations

Militant Islamism/Jihadism

Ideology

Qutbism Salafi
Salafi
jihadism

Movements

Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan Militant Islamism
Islamism
based in

MENA region

Egyptian Islamic Jihad Fatah al-Islam Hamas Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

South Asia

Lashkar-e-Taiba Taliban

Southeast Asia

Abu Sayyaf

Sub-Saharan Africa

Boko Haram al-Shabaab

al-Qaeda

in the Arabian Peninsula in Iraq in North Africa

Major figures

Anwar al-Awlaki Abdullah Yusuf Azzam Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi Osama bin Laden Mohammed Omar Juhayman al-Otaybi Omar Abdel-Rahman Ayman al-Zawahiri

Related

Islamic extremism Islamic terrorism Jihad Slavery Talibanization Worldwide Caliphate

Texts

Reconstruction (Iqbal, 1930s) Forty Hadith
Hadith
(Khomeini, 1940) Principles (Asad, 1961) Milestones (Qutb, 1964) Islamic Government (Khomeini, 1970) Islamic Declaration (Izetbegović, 1969-1970) The Green Book
Book
(Gaddafi, 1975)

Historical events

Zia-ul-Haq's Islamization Iranian Revolution Grand Mosque seizure Soviet invasion of Afghanistan Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam Popular Arab and Islamic Congress Algerian Civil War September 11 attacks War on Terror Arab Spring Arab Winter

Influences

Anti-imperialism Anti-Zionism Islamic response to modernity Islamic revival Modern Islamic philosophy

by region

Balkans Gaza Strip United Kingdom

Related topics

Criticism

Ed Husain

Political aspects of Islam Political Islam

Islamism
Islamism
in

South

.