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The Islamic Emirate
Emirate
of Afghanistan[10] (Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي امارات‬‎, Da Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Islami Amarat) was an Islamic state
Islamic state
established in September 1996 when the Taliban
Taliban
began their rule of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
after the fall of Kabul. At its peak, the Taliban
Taliban
established control over approximately 90% of the country, whereas remaining parts of the country in the northeast were held by the Northern Alliance, which became the widely recognised government of Afghanistan.[11] The Taliban
Taliban
provided a safe haven for Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda officials, allowing them to plot major terrorist attacks such as the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
(9/11). After 9/11, international opposition to the regime increased, with diplomatic recognition from the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
and Pakistan
Pakistan
being rescinded. The emirate ceased to exist on December 17, 2001, after being overthrown by the Northern Alliance, which had been bolstered by a US-led invasion of the country.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Ethnic conflict 1.2 Governance

2 International relations

2.1 Bamyan Buddhas

3 Sanctions 4 Military under the Taliban

4.1 Conscription

5 Economy 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

History[edit] The Taliban
Taliban
and its rule arose from the chaos after the Soviet–Afghan War. It began as an Islamic and Pashtun politico-religious movement composed of madrasa students in southern Afghanistan. Overwhelmingly ethnic Pashtuns, the Taliban
Taliban
blended Pashtunwali
Pashtunwali
tribal code with elements of Sunni
Sunni
Islamic teaching to form an anti-Western and anti-modern Islamic ideology with which it ruled.[12] It began to receive support from neighboring Pakistan
Pakistan
as well as from Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
(UAE). In the meantime, countries like the United States
United States
and others were watching from a distance and hoping that this new movement would encourage the Afghan civil war. Ethnic conflict[edit] The Taliban
Taliban
considered many of Afghanistan's other ethnic communities as foreign. Pashtun people
Pashtun people
are the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan and comprised the vast majority of the Taliban
Taliban
movement. As the Taliban
Taliban
expanded from their southern and south-eastern strongholds, they encountered more resistance; their brand of Deobandi
Deobandi
Islam, incorporated with the Pashtun tribal code of Pashtunwali, was viewed as foreign by the other ethnic groups of Afghanistan.[13][14][15][16] The Battles of Mazar-i-Sharif (1997–98)
Battles of Mazar-i-Sharif (1997–98)
illustrated this ethnic tension.[17][18] Governance[edit]

The political status of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in fall of 1996, just after the Taliban
Taliban
conquered Kabul

Spreading from Kandahar, the Taliban
Taliban
eventually ruled Kabul
Kabul
in 1996. By the end of 2000, the Taliban
Taliban
were able to rule 90% of the country, aside from the opposition (Northern Alliance) strongholds primarily found in the northeast corner of Badakhshan Province. Areas under the Taliban's direct control were mainly Afghanistan's major cities and highways. Tribal khans and warlords had de facto direct control over various small towns, villages, and rural areas.[19] The Taliban
Taliban
sought to impose a strict interpretation of Islamic Sharia law
Sharia law
upon the entire country of Afghanistan. During the five-year history of the Islamic Emirate, women were banned from working, and girls were forbidden to attend schools or universities and were requested to observe purdah and to abstain from obscenities. Those who resisted were punished. Communists were systematically executed and thieves were punished by amputating one of their hands or feet. Meanwhile, the Taliban
Taliban
succeeded in nearly eradicating the majority of the opium production by 2001.[20] Cabinet ministers and deputies were mullahs with a "madrasah education." Several of them, such as the Minister of Health and Governor of the State bank, were primarily military commanders who left their administrative posts to fight when needed. Military reverses that trapped them behind lines or led to their deaths increased the chaos in the national administration.[21] At the national level, "all senior Tajik, Uzbek and Hazara bureaucrats" were replaced "with Pashtuns, whether qualified or not." Consequently, the ministries "by and large ceased to function."[22] Rashid described the Taliban
Taliban
government as "a secret society run by Kandaharis ... mysterious, secretive, and dictatorial."[23] They did not hold elections, as their spokesman explained:

The Sharia
Sharia
does not allow politics or political parties. That is why we give no salaries to officials or soldiers, just food, clothes, shoes, and weapons. We want to live a life like the Prophet lived 1400 years ago, and jihad is our right. We want to recreate the time of the Prophet, and we are only carrying out what the Afghan people have wanted for the past 14 years.[24]

They modeled their decision-making process on the Pashtun tribal council (jirga), together with what they believed to be the early Islamic model. Discussion was followed by a building of a consensus by the "believers".[25] Before capturing Kabul, there was talk of stepping aside once a government of "good Muslims" took power, and law and order were restored. As the Taliban's power grew, decisions were made by Mullah
Mullah
Omar without consulting the jirga and without consulting other parts of the country. He visited the capital, Kabul, only twice while in power. Instead of an election, their leader's legitimacy came from an oath of allegiance ("Bay'ah"), in imitation of the Prophet and the first four Caliphs. On 4 April 1996, Mullah
Mullah
Omar had "the Cloak of the Prophet Mohammed" taken from its shrine for the first time in 60 years. Wrapping himself in the relic, he appeared on the roof of a building in the center of Kandahar
Kandahar
while hundreds of Pashtun mullahs below shouted "Amir al-Mu'minin!" (Commander of the Faithful), in a pledge of support. Taliban
Taliban
spokesman Mullah
Mullah
Wakil explained:

Decisions are based on the advice of the Amir-ul Momineen. For us consultation is not necessary. We believe that this is in line with the Sharia. We abide by the Amir's view even if he alone takes this view. There will not be a head of state. Instead there will be an Amir al-Mu'minin. Mullah
Mullah
Omar will be the highest authority, and the government will not be able to implement any decision to which he does not agree. General elections are incompatible with Sharia
Sharia
and therefore we reject them.[26]

The Taliban
Taliban
were very reluctant to share power, and since their ranks were overwhelmingly Pashtun they ruled as overlords over the 60% of Afghans from other ethnic groups. In local government, such as Kabul city council[23] or Herat,[27] Taliban
Taliban
loyalists, not locals, dominated, even when the Pashto-speaking Taliban
Taliban
could not communicate with the roughly half of the population who spoke Dari or other non-Pashtun tongues.[27] Critics complained that this "lack of local representation in urban administration made the Taliban
Taliban
appear as an occupying force."[22] International relations[edit] Only Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
(UAE) recognized the Taliban
Taliban
government.[28] The state was not recognised by the UN. Relations between the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
Emirate of Afghanistan
and Iran deteriorated in 1998 after Taliban
Taliban
forces seized the Iranian consulate in Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
and executed Iranian diplomats. Following this incident, Iran threatened to invade Afghanistan
Afghanistan
by massing up military forces near the Afghan border but intervention by the United Nations Security Council
Security Council
and the United States
United States
prevented the war. One reason for lack of international recognition was the Taliban's disregard for human rights and the rule of law as demonstrated by their actions on taking power. One of the first acts of the Taliban upon seizing power was the execution of the former Communist
Communist
President of Afghanistan, Mohammad Najibullah. Before the Taliban
Taliban
had even taken control of Afghanistan's capital they sent out a squad to arrest Najibullah. As Najibullah was staying in the United Nations
United Nations
compound in Kabul, this was a violation of international law. As a further example, the Taliban
Taliban
regime was also heavily criticised for the murder of Iranian diplomats in Afghanistan[29] in 1998. The Taliban
Taliban
supported the Islamic militants operating in Chechnya
Chechnya
and Xinjiang, thus antagonizing Russia
Russia
and the People's Republic of China
China
simultaneously. In 2013, the Taliban
Taliban
opened an office in Qatar[30] with the goal of beginning talks between themselves, the United States
United States
and the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.[31] There was a conflict after the office raised the white flag of the former Islamic Emirate
Emirate
of Afghanistan, with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry
John Kerry
saying that the office could be closed if there was not a "move forward" in peace negotiations.[32][33] Bamyan Buddhas[edit]

Destruction of Buddhas 21 March 2001

In 1999, Mullah
Mullah
Omar issued a decree protecting the Buddha
Buddha
statues at Bamyan, two 6th-century monumental statues of standing buddhas carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamyan valley in the Hazarajat
Hazarajat
region of central Afghanistan. He did this because Afghanistan
Afghanistan
had no Buddhists, so idolatry would not be a problem. But in March 2001, the statues were destroyed by the Taliban
Taliban
of Mullah Omar following a decree issued by him. The Taliban
Taliban
supreme leader Mullah
Mullah
Omar explained why he ordered the statues to be destroyed in an interview:

I did not want to destroy the Bamiyan Buddha. In fact, some foreigners came to me and said they would like to conduct the repair work of the Bamiyan Buddha
Buddha
that had been slightly damaged due to rains. This shocked me. I thought, these callous people have no regard for thousands of living human beings – the Afghans who are dying of hunger, but they are so concerned about non-living objects like the Buddha. This was extremely deplorable. That is why I ordered its destruction. Had they come for humanitarian work, I would have never ordered the Buddha's destruction.[34]

Then Taliban
Taliban
ambassador-at-large Sayed Rahmatullah Hashemi also said that the destruction of the statues was carried out by the Head Council of Scholars after a Swedish monuments expert proposed to restore the statues' heads. Hashimi is reported as saying: "When the Afghan head council asked them to provide the money to feed the children instead of fixing the statues, they refused and said, 'No, the money is just for the statues, not for the children'. Herein, they made the decision to destroy the statues"[35] This prompted an international outcry from nations such as Japan, India, Sri Lanka, South Korea, Nepal, Iran, Qatar, and Russia. Even Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and the UAE, both of which were among only three nations to recognize the Islamic Emirate
Emirate
of Afghanistan, voiced their opposition. The Arab branch of UNESCO, a cultural and educational agency of the United Nations, labelled the destruction as "savage".[36][37] Sanctions[edit] Main article: UN Security Council
Security Council
Resolution 1267 On 15 October 1999, the UN Security Council
Security Council
established a sanctions regime to cover individuals and entities associated with Al-Qaeda, Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
and/or the Taliban.[38] Since the U.S. Invasion of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 2001, the sanctions were applied to individuals and organizations in all parts of the world; also targeting former members of the Taliban
Taliban
government. On 27 January 2010, a United Nations
United Nations
sanctions committee removed five former senior Taliban
Taliban
officials from this list, in a move favoured by Afghan President Karzai. The decision means the five will no longer be subject to an international travel ban, assets freeze and arms embargo. The five men, all high-ranking members of the Taliban government:

Wakil Ahmad Muttawakil, former foreign minister. Fazal Mohammad, former deputy minister of commerce. Shams-us-Safa Aminzai, former Taliban
Taliban
foreign affairs press officer. Mohammad Musa Hottak, former deputy minister of planning. Abdul Hakim, former deputy minister of frontier affairs.

All had been added to the list in January or February 2001.[39][40] Military under the Taliban[edit]

Taliban
Taliban
fighters patrolling the streets of Herat, 15 July 2001

The Taliban
Taliban
maintained a military during their period of control. The Taliban
Taliban
army possessed over 400 T-54/55
T-54/55
and T-62
T-62
tanks and more than 200 armoured personnel carriers.[41] The Afghan Air Force
Afghan Air Force
under the Taliban
Taliban
maintained five supersonic MIG-21MFs and 10 Sukhoi-22 fighter-bombers.[42] In 1995, during the 1995 Airstan incident, a Taliban
Taliban
fighter plane captured a Russian transport. They also held six Mil Mi-8
Mil Mi-8
helicopters, five Mi-35s, five L-39Cs, six An-12s, 25 An-26s, a dozen An-24/32s, an IL-18, and a Yakovlev.[43] Their civil air service contained two Boeing 727A/Bs, a Tu-154, five An-24s, and a DHC-6.[43] Conscription[edit] Main article: Taliban
Taliban
conscription According to the testimony of Guantanamo captives before their Combatant Status Review Tribunals, the Taliban, in addition to conscripting men to serve as soldiers, also conscripted men to staff its civil service.[44] Economy[edit] See also: Economy of Afghanistan

Afghanistan
Afghanistan
opium poppy cultivation, 1994–2016 (hectares). Before the invasion of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 2001, opium production was down 99%.[45]

The Kabul
Kabul
money markets responded positively during the first weeks of the Taliban
Taliban
occupation. But the Afghani soon fell in value.[46] They imposed a 50% tax on any company operating in the country, and those who failed to pay were attacked.[47] They also imposed a 6% import tax on anything brought into the country,[48] and by 1998 had control of the major airports and border crossings which allowed them to establish a monopoly on all trade.[49] By 2001 the per capita income of the 25 million population was under $200,[50] and the country was close to total economic collapse.[51] As of 2007 the economy had begun to recover, with estimated foreign reserves of three billion dollars and a 13% increase in economic growth.[52] Under the Transit treaty between Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan
Pakistan
a massive network for smuggling developed. It had an estimated turnover of 2.5 billion dollars with the Taliban
Taliban
receiving between $100 and $130 million per year.[53] These operations along with the trade from the Golden Crescent
Golden Crescent
financed the war in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and also had the side effect of destroying start up industries in Pakistan.[54] Ahmed Rashid also explained that the Afghan Transit Trade agreed on by Pakistan
Pakistan
was "the largest official source of revenue for the Taliban."[55] Between 1996 and 1999 Mullah
Mullah
Omar reversed his opinions on the drug trade, apparently as it only harmed kafirs. The Taliban
Taliban
controlled 96% of Afghanistan's poppy fields and made opium its largest source of taxation.[55] Taxes on opium exports became one of the mainstays of Taliban
Taliban
income and their war economy.[55] According to Rashid, "drug money funded the weapons, ammunition and fuel for the war."[55] In The New York Times, the Finance Minister of the United Front, Wahidullah Sabawoon, declared the Taliban
Taliban
had no annual budget but that they "appeared to spend US$300 million a year, nearly all of it on war." He added that the Taliban
Taliban
had come to increasingly rely on three sources of money: "poppy, the Pakistanis and bin Laden."[55] In an economic sense it seems however he had little choice, as due to the war of attrition continued with the Northern Alliance
Northern Alliance
the income from continued opium production was all that prevented the country from starvation.[56] By 2000 Afghanistan
Afghanistan
accounted for an estimated 75% of the world's supply and in 2000 grew an estimated 3276 tonnes of opium from poppy cultivation on 82,171 hectares.[57] At this juncture Omar passed a decree banning the cultivation of opium, and production dropped to an estimated 74 metric tonnes from poppy cultivation on 1,685 hectares.[58] Many observers say the ban – which came in a bid for international recognition at the United Nations
United Nations
– was only issued in order to raise opium prices and increase profit from the sale of large existing stockpiles.[55] The year 1999 had yielded a record crop and had been followed by a lower but still large 2000 harvest.[55] The trafficking of accumulated stocks by the Taliban continued in 2000 and 2001.[55] In 2002, the UN mentioned the "existence of significant stocks of opiates accumulated during previous years of bumper harvests."[55] In September 2001 – before 11 September attacks against the United States
United States
– the Taliban allegedly authorized Afghan peasants to sow opium again.[55] There was also an environmental toll to the country, heavy deforestation from the illegal trade in timber with hundreds of acres of pine and cedar forests in Kunar Province
Kunar Province
and Paktya being cleared.[59][60] Throughout the country millions of acres were denuded to supply timber to the Pakistani markets, with no attempt made at reforestation,[61] which has led to significant environmental damage.[62] By 2001, when the Afghan Interim Administration took power the country's infrastructure was in ruins, Telecommunications had failed, the road network was destroyed and Ministry of Finance buildings were in such a state of disrepair some were on the verge of collapse.[63] On 6 July 1999 former president Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
signed into effect executive order 13129. This order implemented a complete ban on any trade between America and the Taliban
Taliban
regime and on 10 August they froze £5,000,000 in Ariana assets.[64] On 19 December 2000 UN resolution 1333 was passed. It called for all assets to be frozen and for all states to close any offices belonging to the Taliban. This included the offices of Ariana Afghan Airlines.[65] In 1999 the UN had passed resolution 1267 which had banned all international flights by Ariana apart from pre approved humanitarian missions.[66] See also[edit]

Quetta Shura War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–present) Islamic Emirate
Emirate
of Waziristan History of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(1992–present) Taliban
Taliban
Provincial Governors Taliban
Taliban
insurgency

References[edit]

^ Marcin, Gary (1998). "The Taliban". King's College. Retrieved 26 September 2011.  ^ "FACTBOX: Five Facts on Taliban
Taliban
Leader Mullah
Mullah
Mohammad Omar". 17 November 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2014.  ^ "Role of the Taliban's religious police". 27 April 2013. Retrieved 29 September 2014.  ^ Carlotta Gall (30 July 2015). " Mullah
Mullah
Muhammad Omar, Enigmatic Leader of Afghan Taliban, Is Dead". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 February 2016.  ^ "Mohammad Omar". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 15 February 2016. Emir of Afghanistan  ^ "Profile: Mullah
Mullah
Mohammed Omar". BBC. 29 July 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2016.  ^ " Mullah
Mullah
Mohammed Omar". The Independent. 31 July 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2016.  ^ "Where Will the New Taliban
Taliban
Leader Lead His People?". Moscow Carnegie Center. 11 August 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2016.  ^ " Mullah
Mullah
Omar: Life chapter of Taliban's supreme leader comes to end". CNN. 29 July 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2016.  ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2001). "CIA – The World Factbook – Afghanistan" (mirror). Retrieved 7 March 2008. note – the self-proclaimed Taliban
Taliban
government refers to the country as Islamic Emirate
Emirate
of Afghanistan  ^ Map of areas controlled in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
'96 ^ Rashid, Taliban
Taliban
(2000) ^ "Why are Customary Pashtun Laws and Ethics Causes for Concern?". Archived from the original on 21 October 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2015.  ^ Administrator. "CF2R". Archived from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2015.  ^ http://www.theage.com.au/news/world/wandering-kuchis-pay-for-their-taliban-links/2005/08/26/1124563029556.html"Most recently, they had the protection of their fellow ethnic Pashtuns, the Taliban, who looted and torched Tajik, Uzbek and Hazara communities" ^ http://lhvnews.com/en/news/2579/role-of-the-taliban%E2%80%99s-religious-police "They described the Hazara, Tajiks, Uzbeks
Uzbeks
and the Kizilbash (Turkmens) as non-Afghan people and believed that those people had immigrated to the country from Tajikistan,(Turkmenistan), Uzbekistan and Iran." ^ http://www.hazara.net/2013/04/massacre-in-mazar-sharif-2/"During the first day they indiscriminately killed any one they saw, from Tajik Uzbek and Hazara ethnic groups but after that they started killing specifically Hazaras" ^ Genocide, Ethnonationalism, and the United Nations: Exploring the Causes of Mass Killing Since 1945 by Hannibal Travis, pg.115 "The massacres in Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
alone in 1998 claimed 8,000–10,000 lives " ^ Griffiths 226. ^ "Afghanistan, Opium and the Taliban". Retrieved 15 February 2015.  ^ Rashid 2000, p. 100. ^ a b Rashid 2000, pp. 101–102. ^ a b Rashid 2000, p. 98. ^ Rashid 2000, p. 43 Interview with Mullah
Mullah
Wakil, March 1996 ^ Rashid 2000, p. 95. ^ Interview with Taliban
Taliban
spokesman Mullah
Mullah
Wakil in Arabic magazine Al-Majallah, 1996-10-23. ^ a b Rashid 2000, pp. 39–40. ^ Terrorism and Global Disorder – Adrian Guelke – Google Libros. Books.google.com. Retrieved 15 August 2012.  ^ [15 Sep 1998] SC/6573: SECURITY COUNCIL STRONGLY CONDEMNS MURDER OF IRANIAN DIPLOMATS IN AFGHANISTAN ^ Michael Semple. "The Taliban's Qatar
Qatar
office is a positive step, but not a prologue to peace". the Guardian. Retrieved 15 February 2015.  ^ "U.S. Will Negotiate With Taliban, Helping It Return To Power - Investors.com". Investor's Business Daily. Retrieved 15 February 2015.  ^ <https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/afghanistan/10131286/Fury-from-Hamid-Karzai-plunges-US-talks-with-Taliban-into-disarray.html ^ "Kerry: Taliban's Qatar
Qatar
Office Could be Closed if no 'Move Forward'". VOA. Retrieved 15 February 2015.  ^ Mohammad Shehzad (3 March 2001). "The Rediff Interview/ Mullah
Mullah
Omar". The Rediff. Kabul. Retrieved 27 October 2010.  ^ Kassaimah, Sahar (12 January 2001). "Afghani Ambassador Speaks At USC". IslamOnline. Archived from the original on 3 April 2008. Retrieved 6 January 2008.  ^ "Over World Protests, Taliban
Taliban
Are Destroying Ancient Buddhas". 4 March 2001. Retrieved 23 December 2016.  ^ "Bamiyan statues: World reaction". 5 March 2001. Retrieved 23 December 2016.  ^ "Bangor Daily News – Google News Archive Search". Retrieved 15 February 2015.  ^ "U.N. Reconciles itself to Five Members of Mulla Omar's Cabinet". America At War. 27 January 2010. Archived from the original on 20 May 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2015.  ^ "UN lifts sanctions on 5 former Taliban". CBC News. 27 January 2010. Archived from the original on 8 November 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2017.  ^ The Guardian, Taliban
Taliban
lose grip on Mazar i Sharif, 7 November 2001 ^ York, Geoffrey. Globe and Mail, "Military Targets Are Elusive. Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Army Called a Haphazard Operation", 19 September 2001 ^ a b Jane's Sentinel Security Assessment, 2001 ^ Dixon, Robyn (13 October 2001). "Afghans in Kabul
Kabul
Flee Taliban, Not U.S. Raids". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 11 December 2012.  ^ Where have all the flowers gone?: evaluation of the Taliban crackdown against opium poppy cultivation in Afghanistan ^ Marsden, Peter (1998). The Taliban: war, religion and the new order in Afghanistan. Zed Books. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-85649-522-6.  ^ Lansford, Tom (2011). 9/11 and the Wars in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Iraq: A Chronology and Reference Guide. ABC-CLIO. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-59884-419-1.  ^ Pugh, Michael C.; Neil Cooper Jonathan Goodhand (2004). War Economies in a Regional Context: Challenges of Transformation. Lynne Rienner. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-58826-211-0.  ^ Pugh, Michael C.; Neil Cooper Jonathan Goodhand (2004). War Economies in a Regional Context: Challenges of Transformation. Lynne Rienner. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-58826-211-0.  ^ Castillo, Graciana del (2008). Rebuilding War-Torn States: The Challenge of Post-Conflict Economic Reconstruction. Oxford University Press. p. 167. ISBN 978-0-19-923773-9.  ^ Skaine, Rosemarie (2009). Women of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the Post-Taliban Era: How Lives Have Changed and Where They Stand Today. McFarland. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-7864-3792-4.  ^ Skaine, Rosemarie (2009). Women of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the Post-Taliban Era: How Lives Have Changed and Where They Stand Today. McFarland. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-7864-3792-4.  ^ Nojum, Neamatollah (2002). The Rise of the Taliban
Taliban
in Afghanistan: Mass Mobilization, Civil War and the Future of the Region. St Martin's Press. p. 178. ISBN 978-0-312-29584-4.  ^ Nojum, Neamatollah (2002). The Rise of the Taliban
Taliban
in Afghanistan: Mass Mobilization, Civil War and the Future of the Region. St Martin's Press. p. 186. ISBN 978-0-312-29584-4.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Chouvy, Pierre-Arnaud (2010). Opium: uncovering the politics of the poppy. Harvard University Press. pp. 52ff.  ^ Shaffer, Brenda (2006). The limits of culture: Islam
Islam
and foreign policy. MIT Press. p. 283. ISBN 978-0-262-69321-9.  ^ Thourni, Francisco E. (2006). Frank Bovenkerk, ed. The Organized Crime Community: Essays in Honor of Alan A. Block. Springer. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-387-39019-2.  ^ Lyman, Michael D. (2010). Drugs in Society: Causes, Concepts and Control. Elsevier. p. 309. ISBN 978-1-4377-4450-7.  ^ Griffin, Michael (2000). Reaping the whirlwind: the Taliban
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Afghanistan
(illustrated ed.). International Monetary Fund. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-58906-324-2.  ^ Farah, Douglas; Stephen Braun (2008). Merchant of Death: Money, Guns, Planes, and the Man Who Makes War Possible. Wiley. p. 146. ISBN 978-0-470-26196-5.  ^ Askari, Hossein (2003). Economic sanctions: examining their philosophy and efficacy. Potomac. p. 56. ISBN 978-1-56720-542-8.  ^ Pillar, Paul R. (2003). Terrorism and U.S. foreign policy. Brookings Institution. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-8157-7077-0. 

External links[edit]

(new) Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
Emirate of Afghanistan
website (old) Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
Emirate of Afghanistan
website Interview with official representatives of Islamic Emirate
Emirate
of Afghanistan

Preceded by Islamic State of Afghanistan Islamic Emirate
Emirate
of Afghanistan 1996 – 2001 Succeeded by Afghan Interim Administration

v t e

Taliban

Leadership

Amir al-Mu'minin

Mohammed Omar Akhtar Mansour Hibatullah Akhundzada

Heads of the Supreme Council

Mohammad Rabbani Abdul Kabir

Abdul Ghani Baradar Wakil Ahmed Muttawakil Obaidullah Akhund Qari Ahmadullah Sirajuddin Haqqani

Government

Rise to Power Destruction of the Buddhas of Bamyan Treatment of Women Religious Police Propaganda Jirga Flag Emblem Motto

Commanders

Mullah
Mullah
Shahzada Mullah
Mullah
Dadullah Akhund Mullah
Mullah
Zakir

Military

Insurgency 55th Arab Brigade Conscription

Conflicts

Civil War (1996–2001) Fall of Kabul
Kabul
(2001) War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–present) War in North-West Pakistan
Pakistan
(2004–present)

Related topics

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History

Timeline Pre-Islamic period Indus Valley Civilisation Maurya Empire Greater Khorasan Islamic conquest Arabs in Afghanistan Mongol invasion Hotak dynasty Durrani Empire Third Battle of Panipat Battle of Jamrud Afghan–Sikh wars First Anglo-Afghan War Second Anglo-Afghan War Third Anglo-Afghan War European influence Reforms of Amānullāh Khān and civil war European influence in Afghanistan
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Demographics

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Islamism

Outline

Islamism Qutbism Salafism

Salafi jihadism

Shia Islamism

Concepts

Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists Islamic democracy Islamic socialism Islamic state

Islamic monarchy Islamic republic

Islamistan Islamization

of knowledge

Pan-Islamism Post-Islamism Sharia Shura Turkish model Two-nation theory Ummah

Movements

Socio- political

Deobandi Hizb ut-Tahrir

in Britain in Central Asia

Islamic Defenders Front Jamaat-e-Islami Millî Görüş Muslim Brotherhood

in Egypt in Syria

Political Party

Freedom and Justice Party Green Algeria Alliance Hadas Hezbollah Islamic Salvation Front Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
Pakistan Jamiat-e Islami Justice and Construction Party Justice and Development Party (Morocco) National Congress National Iraqi Alliance Malaysian Islamic Party Prosperous Justice Party Al Wefaq Welfare Party

Related

Ennahda Movement Gülen movement Islamic Modernism Justice and Development Party (Turkey)

Theorists and political leaders

Muhammad Abduh Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī Qazi Hussain Ahmad Muhammad Asad Hasan al-Banna Necmettin Erbakan Muammar Gaddafi Rached Ghannouchi Safwat Hegazi Muhammad Iqbal Alija Izetbegović Ali Khamenei Ruhollah Khomeini Abul Ala Maududi Taqi al-Din al-Nabhani Yusuf al-Qaradawi Sayyid Qutb Tariq Ramadan Ata Abu Rashta Rashid Rida Navvab Safavi Ali Shariati Haji Shariatullah Hassan al-Turabi Ahmad Yassin Zia-ul-Haq

Salafi movement

Movements

Scholastic

Ahl-i Hadith Madkhalism Sahwa movement Wahhabism

Political

Al Asalah Authenticity Party Al-Islah Al-Nour Party

Islamist Bloc

People Party Young Kashgar Party

Major figures

Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab Nasiruddin Albani Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz Muqbil bin Hadi al-Wadi'i Safar al-Hawali Rabee al-Madkhali Muhammad Al-Munajjid Zakir Naik Salman al-Ouda Ali al-Tamimi Ibn al Uthaymeen

Related

International propagation of Salafism and Wahhabism Islamic religious police Petro-Islam Sufi-Salafi relations

Militant Islamism/Jihadism

Ideology

Qutbism Salafi jihadism

Movements

Islamic Emirate
Emirate
of Afghanistan Militant Islamism
Islamism
based in

MENA region

Egyptian Islamic Jihad Fatah al-Islam Hamas Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

South Asia

Lashkar-e-Taiba Taliban

Southeast Asia

Abu Sayyaf

Sub-Saharan Africa

Boko Haram al-Shabaab

al-Qaeda

in the Arabian Peninsula in Iraq in North Africa

Major figures

Anwar al-Awlaki Abdullah Yusuf Azzam Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi Osama bin Laden Mohammed Omar Juhayman al-Otaybi Omar Abdel-Rahman Ayman al-Zawahiri

Related

Islamic extremism Islamic terrorism Jihad Slavery Talibanization Worldwide Caliphate

Texts

Reconstruction (Iqbal, 1930s) Forty Hadith (Khomeini, 1940) Principles (Asad, 1961) Milestones (Qutb, 1964) Islamic Government (Khomeini, 1970) Islamic Declaration (Izetbegović, 1969-1970) The Green Book
Book
(Gaddafi, 1975)

Historical events

Zia-ul-Haq's Islamization Iranian Revolution Grand Mosque seizure Soviet invasion of Afghanistan Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam Popular Arab and Islamic Congress Algerian Civil War September 11 attacks War on Terror Arab Spring Arab Winter

Influences

Anti-imperialism Anti-Zionism Islamic response to modernity Islamic revival Modern Islamic philosophy

by region

Balkans Gaza Strip United Kingdom

Related topics

Criticism

Ed Husain

Political aspects of Islam Political Islam

Islamism
Islamism
in

South Asia North Africa

Coordinates: 33°56′N 66°11′E / 33.933°N 66.183°E / 33

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